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ANOVA Exercises 1) The tensile strength of a synthetic fiber used to make cloth for mens shirts is of interest to a manufacturer.

It is suspected that the strength is affected by the percentage of cotton in the fiber. Five levels of cotton percentage are considered and five observations are taken at each level: Percentage of cotton 1! $% $! (% (! Tensile strength psi) " 1$ 1' 1# " " 1" 1& $! 1% 1! 1$ 1& $$ 11 11 1& 1# 1# 1! # 1& 1# $( 11

a) )re there differences in the breaking strengths due to the percentages of cotton used* +ake comparative dot diagrams and construct the ),-.) table. b) Plot the treatment averages against percentage of cotton and interpret your findings. c) /iscuss 0hether you think a fi1ed effects model or a random effects model is most appropriate for this analysis. 2hat difference does it make* d) The assumption of the above analyses is that the measurements are normally distributed. 3alculate the residuals and plot them i) as a histogram and ii) as a function of the mean values for each cotton level. Ideally one should also plot them against time and run order4 but this information is unavailable here. $) 2e are interested in the effect of no55le type on the rate of fluid flo0. Three specific no55le types are under study. Five runs through each of the three no55le types led to the follo0ing results: ,o55le type ) : 3 6ate of flo0 m78s) #9.9 #".$ #".! #9.' #" #9 #9.' #" #!.9 #".' #9.$ #!.& #".& #9.& #"

a) Test 0hether the no55le type has a significant effect on fluid flo0 use graphs and ),-.) table). b) 3heck that the data are normally distributed. c) Perform an ),-+. () 3onsider the follo0ing table of mean results from an unspecified study. Factor ) 1 1 $ $ ' ! ! $ 9 " Factor : ( 9 # '

3alculate the ro04 column and interaction effects. 2hat do they mean*

') )n engineer in a te1tile mill studies the effects of temperature and time in a process involving dye on the brightness of a synthetic fabric. ;everal small randomly selected fabric specimens 0ere dyed under each temperature and time combination. The brightness of the dyed fabric 0as measured on a !%<point scale. Time cycles) '% !% a) b) c) (!% (&4($4(% '%4'!4(9 Temperature ("! ("4(!4'% (#4'$4'9 '%% (94(#4'( (#4'&4'"

=stimate the time and temperature effects as 0ell as the interaction bet0een the t0o variables. 3onstruct the ),-.) table and test 0ith the effects are significant. 3heck the ade>uacy of your model.

!) The plant manager 0ants to investigate the productivity of three groups of 0orkers: those 0ith little4 average and considerable e1perience. ;ince the productivity depends to some degree on the day<to<day variability of the available ra0 materials4 0hich affects all groups in a similar fashion4 the manager suspects that the comparison should be blocked 0ith respect to day. The results from five production days are as follo0s: =1perience level ) : 3 1 !( !! 9% !& !" 9$ $ '# !( !! /ay ( !$ !" 9' ' 9% 9' 9# !

a) )re there any significant differences in productivity among the three groups* Investigate ho0 they differ. b) ?as the blocking made a difference* c) 3heck to ensure that the data is normally distributed.