al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X

hnP-b-Ip-am¿ ªmØq¿

s_≥l¿
bp Fkv F/ Cw•ojv / I f ¿ / 70 mm/212 an\p´v
kwhn[m\w : hneyw sshe¿

eq hmte-kns‚ {]i-kvX-t\mh-emb "s_≥l¿ ˛ {InkvXp-hn-s‚-IY'
{]kn-≤o-I-cn-®Xv 1880¬ BWv. 1907epw
1926epw Cu t\mh-ens\ Ah-ew_n®v
kn\n-a-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-´p. 1926se
kn\na AXp- h - s c- b p≈ kn\nam
\n¿ΩmW Nne-hn¬ dn°m¿Uv Abncp-∂p. \ni_vZ kn\n-a-I-fpsS Ncn-{XØnse G‰hpw Nne-th-dnb Nn{Xw.
1959¬ hneyw sshe¿ kwhn[m\w sNbvXv tlmfn-hp-Un¬ ho≠pw
Hcp " s_≥l¿' IqSn ]nd-∂p. AXv

temI-kn-\n-a-bnse Hcp \mgn-I-°√mbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. kn\n-abpsS ssk‰p-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ k¶ev]sØ Xs∂ am‰n adn-®-Xm-bn-cp∂p
s_≥l-dns‚ ÃpUntbm ^vtfmdpIƒ. e£-°-W-°n\p tUmf¿ Nneh-gn®v \n¿Ωn® Cu kn\na hmcn°q-´n-bXv ]Xn-s\m∂v A°m-Uan
Ahm¿Up-I-fm-Wv. (Cu dn°m¿Uns\m-∏-sa-Øn-bXv 1997¬ "ssS‰m-\nIv'
, 2003¬ " tem¿Uv Hm^v Z dnMvkv; "
Zn dnt´¨ Hm^v Zn InwKv' F∂nh
am{X-am-Wv).G‰hpw anI® Nn{Xw,

kwhn-[m-b-I≥, \S≥, kl-\-S≥, sk‰v
U°-td-j≥ Ombm-{K-l-Ww, hkv{Xm-e¶m-cw, kvs]j¬ F^-IvSvkv, FUn-‰nwKv, kwKo-Xw, i_vZw, F∂n-h-bv°p≈
HmkvIm¿ Ahm¿Up-I-fmWv Cu kn\na
t\Sn-b-Xv. kn\n-a-sb∂ am[y-a-Øns‚
km≤y-X-Isf ]c-am-h[n D]-tbm-Kn®
Hcp kn\n-a-bmbn s_≥l¿ sIm≠mSs]´p.
t_Xve-tl-anse Imen-sØm-gpØn¬ ]nd∂ DÆn-tb-ip-hns\ tXSn
Znhy-\-£-{XtØ ]n≥Xp-S¿∂v ⁄m\n-

Pq¨ 2009

31

Iƒ FØn- t ®cp-∂-Xns\
kqNn-∏n-®p-sIm≠mWv kn\n- a bpsS Bcw- ` w. IY
Bcw-`n-°p-∂Xv tbip-hns‚ ]nd-hn°p
tijw 26 h¿j-߃ Ign-™m-Wv.
sPdp- k - t e- a nse PqZn- b - b nse
[\n-I-\mb I®-h-S-{]-ap-J-\mWv PqZm
s_≥l¿. tdmam-km-{am-Py-Øns‚ ASn®-a¿Ø-ep-Iƒs°-Xnsc P\-ß-fn¬
{]Xn-tj[w ]pI-bp-∂p-≠v. ]pXp-Xmbn
\nb-an-X-\mb Kh¿Æ¿s°m∏w ]´m-f{Sn-_yq-W-emb sa m-ebpw PqZn-b-bn¬
FØp-∂p. sa m-e-bpsS _mey-Imew
PqZn- b - b n- e m- b n- c p- ∂ p. A°m- e sØ
G‰hpw ASpØ kplr-Øm-bn-cp∂p
PqZm s_≥l¿. PqZm-bpsS IpSpw-_hpw
sa m-e-tbmSv hfsc kvt\l-Øn-em-bncp-∂p. h¿j-߃ \o≠ ]´m-f-Po-hn-XØn-\n-S-bn¬ sa me hfsc amdn-t∏mbn-cn-°p-∂p. tdmam N{I-h¿Øn-bpsS
aXn∏v t\Sp-∂-Xn-\mbn Abmƒ F¥p
sNøm\pw Xøm-dm-bn-cp-∂p.
Xs‚ ]gb kvt\ln-X≥ D∂-X]- Z - h n- b n¬ Xncn- s ®- Ø n- b - X n¬
s_≥l¿ hfsc kt¥m-j-hm-\m-bn-cp∂p. Dujva-f-amb kamKaw . ]t£
kulrZ kw`m-j-W - ß ƒ ]Xps°
hgn-amdn cmjv{Sob N¿®-If- n-se-Øp-∂p.
tdmam-°m¿s°-Xnsc Iem-]-ap-b¿Øp∂-hsc Ipdn®v s_≥l-dn\v Adn-bmsa∂v sa m-e°v a\-kn-em-Ip-∂p. Ahsc-Ip-dn®v hnhcw \¬Im≥ s_≥l¿
k∂- ≤ - \ √. Xs‚ P\- X sb H‰ns°mSp°n-s√∂v s_≥l¿ {]Jym-]n°p-∂p. F¶n¬ i{Xp-hmtb C\n ]cnK-Wn°q F∂v Ip]n-X-\mbn ]d-™psIm≠v sa me Cd-ßn-t∏m-Ip-∂p.
CXn- \ n- S - b n¬ PqZm IpSpw- _ -

32 imkv{X-tI-cfw

Ønse ASn-a-bmb kntam-\nUvkpw
Abm-fpsS aIƒ FÃdpw At¥m-Jybn¬ \n∂p≈ km¿∞-hm-l-I-kw-LtØm-sSm∏w Xncn-s®-Øp-∂p. bP-

am\kv t \ln- b mb kntam- \ nUv k v
Xs‚ aI-fpsS hnhm-l-\n-›b hnhcw
bP-am-\\
- mb s_≥l-dns\ Adn-bn-°p∂p. kpμ-cnbpw kXvkz-`m-hn-bp-amb
FÃ-dn-t\mSv s_≥l-dn\v am\-kn-Iamb BI¿j-W-ap-≠v. ]t£ AhfpsS hnhmlw \n›-bn-®-X-dn-™-Xn\m¬ Abmƒ hnhm-l-k-Ωm-\-ambn
Ahƒ°v ASn- a - Ø - Ø n¬ \n∂v
kzmX{¥yw \¬Ip∂p.
]pXnb Kh¿W-dp-tSbpw ]´m-f°m- c p- t Sbpw sXcp- h n- e q- t S- b p≈
tLmj-bm{X Xß-fpsS _w•m-hns‚
_m¬°-Wn-bn¬ \n∂v I≠p-\n¬°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p s_≥ldpw ktlm-Zcn
Sn¿km- e bpw. Ccp- h - t cbpw kwLØnse sa me ImWp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
(F-¥n-\mWv sa me ]nW-ßn-t∏m-bsX∂v Sn¿km-e°v a\- n-em-bn-cp-∂n-√.
sa me Ah-fpsS sNdp-∏-Ønte Ifn°q-´p-Im-c-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p) CXn-\n-S-bn¬
Sn¿km-e-bpsS ssI A_-≤-Øn¬ X´n
HmSn-fIn Xmsg tdmUnse tLmj-bm-

{X-bn-te°v hogp-∂p. Kh¿W-dpsS IpXnc-bpsS taemWv AXv hoW-Xv. hnd-fn]n- S n® IpXn- c - ∏ p- d - Ø p- \ n∂v hoWv
Kh¿W¿°v Kpcp-X-c-ambn ]cn-°p-]‰p- ∂ p. a\- ∏ q¿Δw Kh¿Wsd
A]m- b s∏-SpØ m \ p ≈
A´n- a - d nb m sW∂mtcm] n ® v
s_≥ld n s \
sa me XShn-em-°p-∂p.
\nc- ] - c m- [ nbm- s W- ∂ - d n™n´pw sa me Xs‚ ]I-aqew PqZm
IpSpw- _ sØ in£n- ° p- ∂ p. AΩtbbpw ktlm-Z-cn-tbbpw Ccp≠ XShp-ap-dn-If- n-eS-°p-∂p. PqZmsb ASn-a∏
- mf- b - Ø n- t e- ° pw. ]ncnbpw apºv
s_≥l¿ Xm≥ Xncn-®p-h-cp-sa∂pw
{]Xn-Imcw sNøp-sa∂pw sa m-e-tbmSv
]d-bp-∂p-≠v.
acp-`q-an-bn-eqsS Nß-e-°n´v a‰v
ASn-a-Iƒs°m∏w Xpd-ap-J-Øn-te°v
s_≥l-dn-t\bpw \S-Øn-s°m-≠p-t]mIp- I - b m- W v . {Iqc- c mb ]S- b m- f n- I ƒ
s_≥l-dn\v sh≈w t]mepw sImSp-°p∂n-√. \kvtd-Øn¬ sh®v Zmln®p
Xf¿∂v Ipg-™p-hoW s_≥l-dn\v
A⁄m-X-\mb Hcmƒ sh≈w \¬Ip∂p≠v . Abm- f psS IÆp- I - f n- t e°v
t\m°nb s_≥l¿ Pohn-°m-\p≈
{]Xymi e`n- ® - h - \ m- I p∂p. sh≈w
sImSp-°p-∂Xp XS-bp∂ ]S-bm-fnbpw
B a\p-jys‚ t\m´-Øn¬ ]X-dn-t]mIp-∂p.

al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X
I∏¬ X´p-I-fn¬ Nß-e-°p≈n¬ \o≠ aq∂p h¿j-߃ ASn-abmbn Xpg-bp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p s_≥l¿.
amkn-tUm-Wn-b≥ IS¬s°m-≈°
- msc
Xpc-Øm≥ tdmam-N-{I-h¿Øn \ntbmKn® I∏¬]-S-bnse Izn‚kv Adn-bkns‚ I∏-ense Xpg-®n-¬Im¿s°m∏amWn- t ∏mƒ. Xf- c msX F{Xtbm
t\cw Xpg-bp∂ B ASn-asb Adnbkv {i≤n-®p. Abm-fpsS Icp-Øn¬
aXn-∏p-tXm∂n •mUn-tb-‰-dmtbm cYtbm-´-°m-c-\mtbm ]cn-io-en-∏n-°msa∂v hmKvZm\w sNøp-∂p. ]t£
PqZm \nc-kn-°p-∂p. PqZm-bpsS IÆp-

I- f n¬ {]Xn- I m- c - Ø ns‚ A·n
sISmsX Xnf-ßp-∂Xv Adnbkv Xncn®-dn-bp-∂p. AXmWv PqZmsb Pohn-∏n°p-∂-sX-∂pw. ssZhw X\n°v th≠
am¿§w sXfn®p Xcp- s a- ∂ mWv
s_≥l¿ adp- ] Sn ]d- b p- ∂ - X v .
IS¬s°m-≈-°m¿ Ah-km\w tdma≥
I∏¬ hyqlsØ B{I-an-°p-Ibpw
Adn-b-kns‚ I∏¬ XI¿°p-Ibpw
sNøp-∂p. ]S-bm-fn-I-tfmSv s_≥ldns‚ Nß-e-am{Xw ]q´m-Xn-cn-°m≥
Adn-bkv apt∂ \n¿t±iw sImSp-Øncp-∂p. apßp∂ I∏-en¬ \n∂pw AXpsIm≠v s_≥l¿ c£- s ∏- S p- ∂ p.
Abmƒ apßn-Øm-gp-I-bm-bn-cp∂ Adn-

b-kn-t\bpw c£n-°p-∂p. Xs‚ ]S
]q¿Æ- a mbpw tXm‰p- X - I ¿∂p- s h∂p
IcpXnb Adn- b kv Bfl- l - X y
sNøm≥ {ian-°p∂Xpw s_≥l¿ XSbp-∂p. ac-∏m-fn-bn¬ ]nSn®p InS∂ Ccph-tcbpw tdma≥ I∏¬ c£-s]-Sp-Øp∂p. At∏m-gmWv Adn-bkv Adn-bp-∂Xv
I∏¬sIm-≈-°m¿ apgp-h≥ \in-∏n°s∏-s´∂pw ZuXyw hnP-b-I-c-am-bn-cp∂p- s h- ∂ pw. hnP- b - Ø ns‚ ]¶v
s_≥l-dn\pw ]IpØv \¬Im≥ Adnbkv Hcp-°-am-bn-cp-∂p. hnP-b-k-Ωm-\ambn Xs‚ Poh≥ c£n® ASn-a-bpsS
t]cn- e p≈ Ip‰- ß ƒ am∏m°n
Abmƒ°v kzmX{¥yw \¬IWsa-∂v
kok- d n- t \mSv At]- £ n- ° p- I bpw
kok¿ kΩ-Xn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.
Xs‚ k¿Δkº-Øns‚ Ah-Im-inbmbn {]Jym-]n-°p-Ibpw PqZmsb
]p{X-\mbn ZsØ-Sp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
tdmam-°m-cpsS PohnX coXn-Iƒ ]cn-Nb- s ∏´ s_≥l¿ hnZ- K v Z - \ mb cY
Hm´°m-c-\mbn t]sc-Sp-Øp.
Xs‚ Pohn-X-e£yw \nd-th-‰m\mbn PqZn-bm-bn-te°v aS-ßp-I-bmWv
PqZm. FÃ-dns‚ hnhmlw \S-∂ns√∂pw Ahƒ Ct∏mgpw Xt∂m-Sp≈
{]Wbw sIm≠p-\-S-°p-∂p-s≠∂pw
Abmƒ Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂p.-A-dn-b- ns‚
hf¿Øp- a - I - \ mbn Xncn- s ®- Ø nb

hneyw sshe¿

s_≥l¿ sa m- e sb ImWp- ∂ p.
Xs‚ AΩ-tbbpw ktlm-Z-cn-tbbpw
tamNn- ∏ n°m≥ Bh- i y- s ∏- S p- ∂ p.
hrØn-sI´ Ccp-´p-ap-dn-I-fnse \o≠
At\z-j-W-Øn-s\m-Sp-hn¬ sa m-ebpsS klmbn IpjvT-tcmKw ]nSn-°s∏´ Ccp-h-tcbpw Is≠Øn Ahsc
IpjvT-tcm-Kn-I-I-fpsS Xmgvhc-bn-te°v
\mSp- I - S - Ø p- ∂ p. Hcp- \ mƒ Chsc
Fÿ ImWp-∂p-≠v. ]t£ Hcn-°epw
Cu clkyw s_≥l-dns\ Adn-bn°n-s√∂v FÃ-dns\ sIm≠v Ah¿
kXyw sNøn- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ p. AXn- \ m¬
Fÿ s_≥l- d n- t \mSv AΩbpw
ktlm-Z-cnbpw XS-h-d-bn¬ acn-®p-t]msb∂v \pW-]-d-bp-∂p.

C∂v,-{]-Xn-h¿jw 8 e£w Ip´n-I-fpsS hoXw
ac-W-Øn\v Imc-W-am-Ip∂ ate-dn-b-bp-tSbpw AXpt]m-se-bp-≈, XS-bm≥ Ign-bp∂ a‰v tcmK-ßf- p-tSbpw
hym]-\w, A¥-co£ Xm]-\n-e-tbmSpw ag-tbm-Spsams° _‘s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p. Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm\w, Ch IqSp-X¬ hym]-I-am-°n-tb-°mw.
Unicef UK-Climate Change Report 2008

Pq¨ 2009

33

al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X
CXn\n-S-bn¬
s _ ≥ l ¿
sjbv°v C¬sUdnw
F∂ Ad-_nsb ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.
\mep kpμ-c≥ sh≈-°p-XncIfp≠bmƒ°v. IpXn-csb sI´nb
cY- ß ƒ HmSn- ° p- ∂ - X n¬
hnZ-Kv[-\m-sW∂p a\ n- e m- ° nb Abmƒ
PqZmsb sIm≠v
\n¿_- ‘ n®v Xs‚
IpXn-c-Isf ]cn-io-en∏n-°p-∂p. ASpØv \S°p∂ a’- c - Ø n¬
Xs‚ IdpØ IpXn-cI-fp-ambn sa m-ebpw ]s¶Sp-°p-∂p-s≠-∂-dn™ PqZm ]It]m-°m-\p≈ Ah-k-c-ambn a’c-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ k∂-≤-\mIp∂p.
\mep IpXn-c-Isf ]q´nb
HºXv cY-ß-fmWv a’-c-Øn-\p≈-Xv. aq¿®-tb-dnb Ip¥-ap-\-Iƒ
LSn-∏n® N{I-ß-fp≈ {Ko°v cYamWv sa m-e-bp-tS-Xv. Acn-In-seØp∂ a‰p cY-ß-fpsS N{I-ßfpsS Bc-°m-ep-Iƒ XI¿°m≥
AXn- \ m- I p- s a∂pw {i≤n- ° - W sa∂v PqZmsb C≥sUdnw Hm¿Ωn∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. a’-c-Øn-\n-S-bn¬
]e cY-ßfpw sa me XI¿Øp.
PqZmsb A]-I-S-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ IgnhXpw {ian-®p. ]t£ PqZm Xs‚
sshZKvZyw sIm≠v Hgn-™p-amdn
c£-s∏-´p. Ah-km\w sa m-ebpsS cYw XI¿∂v a‰p IpXn-cIfm¬ sa me Nhn´n Ipg-°-s∏Sp-∂p. hnP-b-In-co-S-a-Wn™ PqZm
sa m- e sb ac- W - ° n- S - ° - b n¬

34 imkv{X-tI-cfw

kμ¿in- ° p- ∂ p- ≠ v . acn°pw ap\v ] v
PqZmsb sR´n- ® p- s Im≠v sa me
Ahs‚ AΩ-tbbpw s]ß-tfbpw Ipdn®p≈ cl-kyw shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p˛a’cw

\¬In- b ˛ Pohn- ° m- \ p≈ B{Klw
\¬Inb a\p-jy≥ CXm-sW∂v PqZm
Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂p. Xf¿∂p hogp∂ tbiphn\v PqZm sh≈w \¬Im≥ {ian-°p-∂p≠v. tbip-hns‚ A\p-{K-l-Øm¬ IpjvTtcmKw amdnb AΩ-tbmSpw A\n-b-ØntbmSpw IqSn FÃ-dn-s\m∏w ]pXnb
PohnXw Bcw-`n-°p∂ PqZm-bn¬
kn\na Ah-km-\n-°p-∂p.
aq∂caWn-°q-dn-e-[nIw
Zo¿L- a mb Cu kn\n- a - b n¬
Gsd {][m-\-s∏´ ko≥ cY-tbm´- a - ’ - c - a m- W v . kmt¶- X n- I - Ø nIhpw sk‰ns‚ hen- ∏ hpw
hkv{Xm-e-¶m-chpw FUn-‰nwKv coXnbpw
Iyma-d-bpsS D]-tbm-K-hp-sams° sIm≠v
20 an\p-t´mfw ssZ¿Ly-ap≈ B ko≥
kn\n-am-]-T-\-Øn-\p≈ Hcp ]mT-]p-kvXI-ambmWv IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.

Ah-km-\n®n´ns√-∂pw.
CXn-\n-S-bn¬ tbip-hns\ Ipdn®v
tI´-dn™ Fÿ At±-l-Øns‚ hm°pIƒ tIƒ°m-\mbn PqZmsb \n¿_-‘n°p-∂p-≠v. ]I a\- n¬ \n∂v AI-‰m-\pw.
]t£ PqZm sNhn sImSp-°p-∂n-√.
IpjvT-tcm-Kn-I-fpsS Xmgvhc-bn¬
\n∂v AΩ- t bbpw A\p- P - Ø n- t bbpw
Is≠SpØv PqZm tbip-hn-t\-tXSn bm{Xbm-Ip-∂p. ]t£ sshInt∏m-bn-cp-∂p.
Ipcn-ip-ta¥n Im¬h-cn-bn-te°v \S-Øns°m-≠p-t]m-Ip∂ tbip-hn-s\-bm-W-h¿
ImWp- ∂ - X v . ]≠v X\n°v Zml- P ew

PqZmbpw sa m-ebpw XΩn-ep≈
kam-K-ahpw XpS¿∂p≈ hmKzm-Zhpw A`n\-b-Øn-Ihp sIm≠v jm¿´¨ slÃWpw, Ão^≥ t_mbvUpw tN¿∂v Ahnkv a - c - W o- b - a m°n am‰n. jm¿´¨
slÃWv anI® \S-\p≈ A°m-Uan
Ahm¿Up e`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. tbiphns‚ IY-sb∂v ssS‰n-en¬ ImWn-°ps∂-¶nepw tbip-hns‚ apJw Hcn-°epw
t{]£-Isc ImWn-°p-∂n√. hntZz-j-Øns‚bpw ]I-bp-tSbpw IY tbip-hns‚
]›m- Ø - e - Ø n¬ Ah- X - c n- ∏ n- ° p∂p
F∂p am{Xw.
ß