photos 104-109: S.

Zukowski

MAN-MADE HABITAT

104

MAN-MADE HABITAT

106

Built Mass & Land Use

MAN-MADE HABITAT

108

Parks & Public Lands

Resources & Consumption

Resources & Consumption: Water

Resources & Consumption: Energy

Resources & Consumption: Food

Resources & Consumption: Waste

Air Travel

Rail Travel

Road Travel

Air Quality

MAN-MADE HABITAT

110

There are at least a dozen streets in Los Angeles named Central. From an urban-planning standpoint, this defeats the very idea of the plaza, the city square, the convergence of far-flung neighborhoods into a single place. Naming more than one street Central is like calling all of your children Fred.
Bernard Cooper, Guess Again (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 185.

Our blocks, which were like small, self-contained towns, were now territories to be defended as though the avenues and streets had natural resources or religious significance. Notions of self defense, of preemptive strikes, the need to never be caught slipping, became a way of life. It was inevitable, or so it seemed, that sooner or later we all were going to die some stupid, embarrassing death.
Jervey Tervalon, Living for the City (San Diego: Incommunicado Press, 1998), 21.

J. Rocholl

J. Rocholl

J. Rocholl

K. Müller

Built Mass & Land Use

MAN-MADE HABITAT

112

J. Rocholl

J. Rocholl

B. Moss

J. Rocholl

J. Rocholl

The tinted halogen streetlamps of Anaheim cast the world before Eastman in the eerie, filtered light of a perpetual sunset—everything was easier to see yet harder to tell apart. A haphazard collection of motels and low-rise hotels, gas stations and coffee shops, had long ago superseded the horizon; in fact, their garish signs were so numerous, no one of them made any sense—they had run together into a huge, illumined billboard that shamelessly promoted chaos. The whole scene made Eastman wonder where in this landscape the permanent residents lived—there really wasn’t much space left for them to occupy, he thought— and when he craned his head upward, to the sky, he saw it was empty, even of stars, there was so much light being reflected back off its surface.
Jay Gummerman, Chez Chance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 31–32.

photos: B. Kalpin

Built Mass & Land Use

MAN-MADE HABITAT

114

The light around here is quite remarkable, isn’t it? In fact, I gave the matter some thought on my walk home this evening. And it seems to me, actually, that there are four—or, anyway, at least four—lights in L.A. To begin with, there’s the cruel, actinic light of late July. Its glare cuts piteously through the general shabbiness of Los Angeles. Second comes the nostalgic, golden light of late October. It turns Los Angeles into El Dorado, a city of fool’s gold. It’s the light William Faulkner—in his story “Golden Land”—called “treacherous unbrightness.” It’s the light the tourists come for— the light, to be more specific, of unearned nostalgia. Third, there’s the gunmetal-gray light of the months between December and July. Summer in Los Angeles doesn’t begin until mid-July. In the months before, the light can be as monotonous as Seattle’s. Finally comes the light, clear as stone-dry champagne, after a full day of rain. Everything in this light is somehow simultaneously particularized and idealized: each perfect, specific, ideal little tract house, one beside the next. And that’s the light that breaks hearts in L.A.
Don Waldie, quoted in Lawrence Weschler, “L.A. Glows,” The New Yorker (23 February & 3 March 1998): 96–97.

residential recreational commercial industrial

map sources: San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District (www.sbvmwd.com) Southern California Association of Governments (www.scag.ca.gov) Michael W. Donley, Atlas of California (Culver City, Ca.: Pacific Book Center, 1979)

urbanized land developable land slope greater than 15% public lands parks farmlands biologically sensitive areas wetlands

Rick had been searching for the Pillings’ address for over twenty minutes, and the hungrier he became, the harder it was to concentrate on the dimly lit street signs, the six-digit numbers stenciled on curbs. Westgate Village was a planned community an hour away from the downtown loft where Rick lived, its street names a variation on the same bucolic phrase: Valley Vista Circle, Village Road, Valley View Court. Each one-story ranch house looked nearly the same except for the color of its garage door, and Rick, who’d skipped lunch, began to wonder if the entire suburb was a hunger-induced hallucination.
Bernard Cooper, Guess Again (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 93.

K. Lubas

MAN-MADE HABITAT

116

Parks & Public Lands

photos: J. Fleischmann

Angeles National Forest

San Bernardino National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreational Area

city parkland public land

Chino Hills State Park

Cleveland National Forest

Acreage of urban parkland in Los Angeles
13,100 acres, or 21 square miles, or 570,600,000 square feet, or 44 square feet per person

Acreage of state and national forest land in direct vicinity of Los Angeles
2,040,780 acres, or 3,189 square miles, or 88,900,000,000 square feet, or 6,800 square feet per person
source: National Park Service

When it comes to parkland, Los Angeles is like a man who squandered an inherited fortune and must now scrounge for coins to maintain a semblance of respectability. The greed that drove the city’s development devoured so much of an uncommonly beautiful landscape that the city today has less than one-fourth the national average of four acres of parkland per 1,000 residents. It is dead last among major cities.
James Ricci, “Metropolis: All We Need Is a Little Space to Breathe,” Los Angeles Times Magazine Magazine, 1 April 2001, 5.

M. Lipson

MAN-MADE HABITAT

118

K. Müller

Resources & Consumption

Amid the tumult of California’s electricity ordeal, an important fact often is lost: Energy is far from the worst of the state’s long-term infrastructure problems. Policy experts from all over the political spectrum agree that there are greater threats to California’s economy and quality of life over the next 20 years. Strained water supplies, overcrowded airports, jammed freeways, poor schools and costly housing could prove much more complicated to tackle than keeping the lights on. The challenge will be enormous considering that, by an important federal measure, the state ranks last nationally in infrastructure spending per capita. Though California may be able to import electricity from other states or countries to ease its power squeeze, it can’t send its kids to classrooms in Oregon or divert flights to Arizona airports.…How did California, home of concrete-pouring visionaries such as William Mulholland and Pat Brown, become the poster child for infrastructure neglect? Observers point to a variety of nuts-and-bolts factors, starting with the way projects are funded. With the exception of gasoline taxes for highways, there is no dedicated revenue stream for infrastructure flowing into state coffers. The anti-tax revolution sparked by Proposition 13 in 1978 still makes bond issues problematic. Some say term limits haven’t helped matters, encouraging legislators to think short-term. What’s more, public officials sometimes simply guessed wrong about the future. Gov. Gray Davis’ own infrastructure committee—the Commission on Building for the 21st Century—neglected to single out electricity as a major trouble spot when it began meeting in 1999. But the biggest change in the last quarter-century, historians and policymakers say, is the entire zeitgeist surrounding California’s spectacular growth. After pouring vast sums into public works well into the 1970s—starting with Mulholland’s aqueducts and then Gov. Brown’s freeways—Californians saw their state being overrun and became ambivalent about the path it was on. Officials scaled back spending on huge new projects. Postwar optimism that spending on world-class universities and highways would benefit the economy and society gave way to concerns about the population explosion that accompanied it. Now, amid ever-present worries about overcrowding, some see little to gain by promoting costly improvements that will only bring more development…. But as a strategy to put the brakes on growth, scaling back on infrastructure has been a bust. Investment in infrastructure, as a percentage of state spending, has shrunk from nearly 20% in the late 1960s to around 3%. By one estimate, the state’s highway capacity grew by only 7% between 1978 and 1998, yet the state’s population jumped more than 40% during the same period. Translation: a lower quality of life…. Apart from the coming population pressures, maintaining existing infrastructure is proving to be an enormous challenge. Spending of inflation-adjusted dollars to operate state facilities has climbed from $100 per capita in 1930 to around $550 by 1996, according to analysis by the Public Policy Institute…. The Texas Transportation Institute estimates that traffic jams cost L.A. drivers more than $12.4 billion annually in wasted time, fuel and other costs. That’s nearly $1,400 for every person of driving age. The region’s airports, whose cargo handling is crucial to the economy, face a crunch of their own. Barring expansions, Southern California’s commercial air hubs could be pushed beyond their capacity sometime between 2010 and 2015, based on current projections for growth in passenger and cargo traffic. If you combined the seven major commercial airports in the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, they would cover just over 8,000 acres—one-quarter the expanse of Denver International Airport. What’s more, Southern California’s historic bugaboo, the water supply, is dwindling. Estimates show that if rainfall follows its normal pattern over the next two decades, the reserves of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California— a cooperative supplying 26 water districts in the region—will sink from 35% of current demand now to a perilous 5%.
Marla Dickerson and Stuart Silverstein, “New Crises Loom in State’s Aging Infrastructure,” Los Angeles Times 18 February 2001, A1, A26. Times,

K. Hirt

J. Rocholl

Rate of water consumption
B. Kalpin

2,584,300 acre-feet per year, or 1,800,000,000 gallons a day, or 11,432 Olympic-sized swimming pools a day

Sources for consumption
MAN-MADE HABITAT
Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct 444 miles long Colorado River Aqueduct 242 miles long Los Angeles Aqueduct 226 miles long Second Los Angeles Aqueduct 137 miles long

120

Water

2

Silverwood Lake

5

ngele s R

3 1
Lake Mathews Lake Perris

#
S. Smith

filtration plant location aqueduct watershed boundaries rivers/creeks groundwater basin/sub-basin lakes

Los A

i ve r

California Aqueduct
Colorado River Aqueduct Lake Elsinore

S an

ta A

na R

Groundwater basins and filtration plants
1. Diemer Plant 2. Jensen Plant 3. Mills Plant 4. Skinner Plant 5. Weymouth Plant

Of all of these commodities, none is so precious and valuable as water. Like most of the American West, Southern California is a desert. Not a true desert, climatologically speaking, but a semi-arid region that suffers from an annual six-month summer drought and volatile winter rainfall. In a wet year, the region might see twenty to twentyfive inches of rain; in a dry year only six or seven. On average, Los Angeles gets about fifteen inches of rain per year. That’s a quarter of Miami’s rainfall, a third of New York’s, and less than half of Chicago’s. Despite an extensive system of natural underground water basins, it cannot support a fast-growing metropolitan area of fifteen million people or more.
William Fulton, The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles (Point Area, Ca.: Solano Press Books, 1997), 104.

ive r

4
Skinner Reservoir

sources: Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (www.mwd.dst.ca.us.com) San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District (www.sbvmwd.com) Municipal Water District of Orange County (www.mwdoc.com) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (www.ladwp.com)

S. Smith

MAN-MADE HABITAT

122

Energy

J. Rocholl

Energy
Los Angeles consumes per year
3% of total U.S. consumption, or 8% of total world consumption, or 100% of total consumption of Michigan, or the power of 8,221,000 tons of TNT

Energy consumption by sector per year
Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation 18% 16% 30% 36%

Energy sources consumed per year
Coal Natural Gas 1,067 thousand short tons 974 billion cubic feet or 25 trillion Btu or 991 trillion Btu or the reserves of Hungary or 1/2 the reserves of New Zealand 1,641 trillion Btu or the reserves of Thailand or 3 times the reserves of The Netherlands 352 trillion Btu or 171,920,635 60-watt light bulbs 87 trillion Btu 164 trillion Btu 3,260 trillion Btu per year

Petroleum 299,011 thousand barrels or

Electricity Biomass Other Total

10,315,238,115 kWh or

sources: Energy Information Administration (www.eia.doe.gov) California Energy Commission (www.energy.ca.gov) The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2001 (New York, World Almanac Education Group, Inc., 2001)

K. Hirt

Even though government and the business community are beginning to recognize the impressive technological advances made in renewable energy as well as its bright (long-term) financial prospects, the technologies remain vastly underutilized, and their installed capacity is growing far too slowly to substantially reduce global warming.
John Berger, Charging Ahead: The Business of Renewable Energy and What It Means for America (Berkeley; University of California Press, 1998).

Watts and what they can power
1 watt 100 watts 1,000 watts 100,000 watts 1,000,000 watts 100,000,000 watts 1,000,000,000 watts 10,000,000,000 watts 1 Christmas-tree light 1 standard lightbulb, 1 computer without printer, or 5 plug-in vibrators 2 refrigerators, or 100 electric toothbrushes 25 homes with air conditioner at peak demand, or 1 McDonald’s restaurant 1 ten-story office building, or 1/6 of the National Gallery of Art 10 server farms of 100,000 to 200,000 square-feet each 100 factories, or 1 Seattle 35 Nicaraguas, or 1 Los Angeles
source: Wired Magazine (July 2001): 125

MAN-MADE HABITAT

124

Energy

C. Chung

Power plants that feed Los Angeles
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Big Creek Hydroelectric System Castaic Power Plant Oregon Columbia River Power System, Oregon Harbor Station Haynes Generating Station 3 Hoover Dam, Nevada Intermountain Power Project, Utah Mohave Generating Station, Nevada Navajo Generating Station, Arizona Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Scattergood Station Valley Station

1

7
Nevada

Utah California

6 8
13

9

2

4
5

12

11
10

Arizona

A. Scott

Los Angeles consumes
Dairy
per year 310,488,200 gallons of milk 167,689,829 pounds of butter 407,433,884 pounds of cheese 326,209,123 pounds of ice cream 113,321,643 pounds of cream 3,157,285,088 eggs per day 13,610,958 glasses of milk 1,837,808 sticks of butter 8,930,000 grilled-cheese sandwiches 223,450 scoops of ice cream 709,714 cans of whipped cream 8,650,096 eggs

Fruits and vegetables
per year 1,745,022,297 pounds of fresh fruit 2,115,774,032 pounds of processed fruit 2,431,502,540 pounds of vegetables 5,925,477,366 pounds of processed vegetables per day 7,649,315 fresh-fruit salads 6,182,648 cans of fruit salad 10,657,534 garden salads 17,315,068 cans of vegetables

MAN-MADE HABITAT

Meat
per year 1,514,448,780 pounds of red meat 896,092,531 pounds of poultry 193,891,366 pounds of seafood per day 22,798 cows 818,349 chickens 4,249,500 fish sticks

126

Other
per year 390,402,886 pounds of salad/cooking oil 335,379,660 pounds of baking/frying fats 1,961,184,969 pounds of wheat flour 302,627,740 pounds of corn product 255,464,976 pounds of rice 2,018,828,348 pounds of sugar per day 2,139,178 cups of oil 114,849 gallons of fat 229,253,333 flour tortillas or 3,583,333 loaves of bread 414,558 ears of corn or 9,954,000 corn tortillas 11,200,000 rice bowls 531,000,000 sugar cubes

sources: Agriculture Fact Book 2000 (www.usda.gov) 1997 Economic Census (revised 15 May 2000), U.S. Census (www.census.gov)

T. Morrison

photos: S. Zukowski

Food

photos: J. Kung

Tons of waste generated in 2000
Paper Glass Metal Plastic Food Other organic materials Construction Hazardous waste Other Total household 1,546,471 227,376 260,665 430,269 1,125,005 1,410,044 252,311 18,211 295,301 5,565,653 commercial 2,602,670 213,861 512,708 702,753 1,320,496 967,637 663,280 79,466 463,728 7,526,599

MAN-MADE HABITAT

128

Grand total of 13,092,252 tons 12,509,294 tons buried in landfills 582,958 tons burned and transformed into energy $21,002,715 in waste-management fees

source: Solid Waste Characterization Database, California Integrated Waste Management Board (www.ciwmb.ca.gov/wastechar)

photos: K. Müller

Waste

During a recent two-day cleanup of the river sponsored by a local environmental group, two volunteers pulled a Jacuzzi from its channel in the Glendale Narrows. Other exotic items removed from the river included a VCR, a camper shell, a telephone, a putter, a moped, a five-foot-tall child’s basketball goal, a Christmas tree still in its stand, and an American Flag.
Blake Gumprecht, The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1999), 238.

M. Lipson

Global transportation through LAX, 1999
Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) ranks third among the world’s busiest airports.
airport Atlanta (ATL) Chicago-O’Hare (ORD) Los Angeles (LAX) London-Heathrow (LHR) Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Tokyo-Haneda (HND) Frankfurt/Main (FRA) Paris-Charles de Gaulle (CDG) San Francisco (SFO) Denver (DEN) # of enplaned passengers 78,092,940 72,609,191 67,303,182 62,263,365 60,000,127 54,338,212 45,838,864 43,597,194 40,387,538 38,034,017 average # of people per day 184,392 136,436 47,956 21,761 revenue $1,162,392,000 per year $3.2 million per day

MAN-MADE HABITAT

132

total passengers domestic passengers international passengers non-U.S. citizens

Who flies to LAX?
76.00% 16.00% 2.00% 1.30% 1.12% .60% .60% .30% .30% .30% .30% .20% .20% .10% .09% .10% .09% .06% .02% .01% Temporary visitors for pleasure Temporary visitors for business Students Temporary workers and trainees Other Exchange visitors Treaty traders and investors Intra-company transferees Spouses/children of transferees Spouses/children of temporary workers Transit aliens Foreign/government officials NAFTA workers Representatives of foreign information Media Spouses/children of exchange visitors Spouses/children of students Fiancés(ées) of U.S. citizens NATO officials International representatives
sources: Airports Council International, as cited in the Los Angeles Times 11 February 2001, C6. Times, Los Angeles World Airports (www.lawa.org)

HKG

e int

tio rn a

nal =

4 8 ,0 0 0

people per day
FRA CDG LHR

HND

SFO LAX

DEN

ORD ATL DFW MEX

JFK

do

Air Travel

es

m

tic

=1

36,0

0 0 p e o ple p er

day

GRU

MEL

SYD

EZE

Where are they flying from?
46.00% 28.00% 12.00% 6.70% 4.00% 2.00% .60% .53% .09% .09% Asia Europe Oceania Mexico South America Central America Africa Other Canada Caribbean

photos: L. Pesce

M. Lipson

MAN-MADE HABITAT

134

E. Hillard

Air Travel

E. Hillard

Airports in Los Angeles
air por t
1. Los Angeles International Airport 2. John Wayne-Orange County Airport 3. Ontario International Airport 4. Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport 5. Long Beach Airport 6. Santa Monica Municipal Airport 7. Hawthorne Municipal Airport 8. Compton Airport 9. Whiteman Air Park 10. Van Nuys Airport 11. Torrance Municipal Airport 12. Fullerton Municipal Airport 13. Brackett Field 14. Cable Airport 15. Mirofield (Rialto Municipal Airport) 16. Norton Air Force Base 17. Redlands Airport 18. Riverside Municipal Airport 19. Flabob Airport 20. March Air Force Base 21. Corona Municipal Airport 22. El Toro Marine Corps Air Station 23. Tustin Marine Corps Air Station 24. Chino Hills Airport 61,216 7,460 6,435 4,732 647 -------------------2,133 1,291 429 498 1,375 596 35 164 412 1,520 579 262 672 241 343 -114 274 74 -205 --548 11,765
sources: Southern California Association of Governments (www.scag.ca.gov) www.airnav.com

ay 98 er d , 19 ts p e um ligh ay s vol of f way unw ger e# of r r un ag sen r t f pas fee #o ave
4 2 2 2 5 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 -1 2 1 -1 --3 40 42,397 8,587 22,398 12,918 30,299 4,987 11,115 7,340 4,120 12,001 8,000 3,121 8,500 3,865 7,150 -4,505 8,252 3,200 -3,200 --18,081 224,036 or 42.4 miles of runway

MAN-MADE HABITAT

136

photos: Z. Crosher

M. Lipson

9 10 4 16 15 3 6 24 1 7 8 12 5 21 20 19 18 17

14 13

Air Travel

11

23 2 22

There is nothing to match flying over Los Angeles by night. A sort of luminous, geometric, incandescent immensity, stretching as far as the eye can see, bursting out from the cracks in the clouds. Only Hieronymous Bosch’s hell can match this inferno effect. The muted fluorescence of all the diagonals: Wilshire, Sunset, Santa Monica. Already, flying over San Fernando Valley, you come upon the horizontal infinite in every direction. But, once you are beyond the mountain, a city ten times larger hits you. You will never have encountered anything that stretches as far as this before. Even the sea cannot match it, since it is not divided up geometrically.… This one condenses by night the entire future geometry of the networks of human relations, gleaming in their abstraction, luminous in their extension, astral in their reproduction to infinity.
Norman M. Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (New York: Verso, 1997), 112.

Los Angeles is now among the top 4 destination/departure points by rail in California, and is estimated to be the most popular station for boardings and alightings via high-speed rail.

Current inter-city travel via automobile, plane, and rail
35% 23% 14% 12% 9% 7% Major cities to the Central Valley L.A. region to San Diego Sacramento to San Francisco Bay Area L.A. region to San Francisco Bay Area Within the Central Valley Other Total number of trips: 154 million per year

MAN-MADE HABITAT

Projected travel transferred to high-speed rail
61% 71% 7% 14% of travel normally made by air of travel normally made by conventional rail of travel normally made by car of all travel

138

Projected high-speed rail travel in 2020
35% 16% 17% 11% 7% 5% 2% 7% L.A. region to San Francisco Bay Area L.A. region or San Francisco Bay Area to Central Valley L.A. region to San Diego L.A. region to Sacramento San Diego to San Francisco Bay Area Sacramento to San Francisco Bay Area Within the Central Valley Other Total number of trips: 215 million per year Total number of passengers: 32.1 million per year Revenue: $889 million per year

High-speed rail statistics
Average length of train: 10 cars accomodating 650 passengers, running every 15 minutes during peak periods Maximum speed: 100–150 miles per hour 50-foot wide right-of way versus the 225-foot right-of-way necessary for a 12-lane freeway
source: California High Speed Rail Authority (www.cahighspeedrail.ca.gov)

Rail stations
1. Bakersfield 2. Concord 3. Dana Point 4. Encinitas 5. Escondido 6. Fresno 7. Gilroy 8. Hanford 9. Lancaster 10. Lompoc 11. Long Beach 12. Los Angeles 13. Los Banos 14. Madera 15. Merced 16. Modesto 17. Monterey 18. Moorpark 19. Napa 20. Oakland 21. Oceanside 22. Oxnard 23. Palmdale 24. Palo Alto 25. Porterville 26. Riverside 27. Sacramento 28. Salinas 29. San Bernardino 30. San Diego 31. San Francisco 32. San Jose 33. San Luis Obispo 34. Santa Barbara 35. Santa Clarita 36. Santa Cruz 37. Santa Maria a in ri d e r in u te t 38. Santa Monica 39. Santa Rosa 40. Stockton 0 0-m 2 41. Thousand Oaks 42. Tulare 43. Tustin 44. Vacaville 45. Vallejo 46. Visalia 47. Woodland
16 15 32 36 7 28 17 8 46 25 13 14 6

47 27 39 19 44 45

31

2 20

40

Rail Travel

24

42

ride rain te t inu 0-m 15

33

1

37 10 34 22 18 35 41 38 11 3 21 4 5 43 9 23 12 29 26

future rail & stations existing rail & stations

18

5

t inu -m

et

in ra

30

There is probably no more peculiar feeling in all of Southern California than riding on a train. Traveling along the backsides of industrial buildings in Northridge, or slipping underneath downtown’s Wilshire Boulevard, or passing the county courthouse in troubled Compton, the feeling a rail rider gets is not fear or frustration, relief or relaxation, but sheer irrelevance.
William Fulton, The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles (Point Arena, Ca.: Solano Press Books, 1997), 125.

rid

e

photos except as noted: B. Kalpin

Metrolink
Metrolink is claimed to be the fastest growing commuter rail system in the nation. Service began in 1992, implemented by the Southern California Regional Rail Authority. Established for the Southern California region, Metrolink services the counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura. Its annual operating budget is $80 million, and 51.6% of its operating costs are covered by operation revenues. In its five years of operation, Metrolink has grown from 11 stations to 49 and from 24 weekday trains to 106. Daily ridership has grown from 2,400 to over 31,000. It maintains 416 route miles and has a total of 399 network grade crossings. The “Saturday Explorer” serves recreational interests. 65% of Metrolink riders formerly drove alone, removing 22,048 auto trips a day. The average commute trip length is 36 miles, and 35% of riders make downtown Los Angeles their destination.

About Metrolink (as of 14 June 2001)
MAN-MADE HABITAT
22,048 8.5 36.7 miles 32,404 65.4 1/3 mile 35 44 mph 128 416 49 6 Number of auto trips removed per day Percent of freeway traffic removed on parallel freeways each peak hour Average commute trip length Average daily riders Percent of riders who formerly drove alone Average distance for a Metrolink train to stop Percent of riders that make downtown Los Angeles their destination Average system speed (with stops) Average trains operated per day Route miles Stations in service Number of routes
source: Metrolink (www.metrolinktrains.com)

140

M. Perkins

proposed high-speed rail and stations Metrolink commuter rail lines and stations metro rail transit lines and stations

Rail Travel

Beyond the arguments of efficiency, however valid, lies a larger question of civic identity. Public works of the magnitude of the MTA subway system cannot be judged in snapshots of time, including snapshots of temporary confusion. Is the vision of the generation that brought the subway project into being as a matter of legislation and finance…so totally misguided that its investment must now be abandoned? Are the anti-subway forces so confident in 1997 that they can see the effects of the subway (or the absence of the subway) in 2007, 2017, 2067 and the rest of the century to come? And what will the surviving fragment of the subway, already in operation, come to mean in that distant time, if the subway project is abandoned? Will it mean that a generation wised-up and corrected its mistakes? Or will it mean that a generation lost faith in itself, lost faith in the unforeseen gifts and legacies of great public works across time, lost faith in the City of Angels and stopped its future?
Kevin Starr, “What MTA Debate Is Really About,” Los Angeles Times 7 September 1997, M-6. Times,

photos: E. Hillard

MAN-MADE HABITAT

144

There is no architectural element with which Los Angeles County is more closely identified than the 527-plus miles of curves, loops, and straightaways that make up the freeway system. Manhattan has its skyline, D.C. its monuments, Venice its canals: We’ve got the four-level interchange. Stealing water from the Owens Valley made metropolitan life in Southern California possible, but the Transportation Engineering Board’s Parkway Plan of 1939 shaped it. Los Angeles built the first freeway in the nation, the six-pointfive mile Arroyo Seco Parkway (later renamed the Pasadena), which opened in 1940. But unlike the Parisians, who adore their Eiffel Tower, or San Franciscans, who view the Golden Gate with affection, most Angelenos seem to hate their freeways with an unbridled passion.
Celeste Fremon, “Freeway,” Los Angeles Magazine (December 2000): 160.

195

US

89 299 36
395
US

interstate california

5

99 89 20
101
interstate california

US

80

47 39 19 45 2 20
280
interstate california

27 44
12

40
580 680
interstate california interstate california

1. Bakersfield 2. Concord 3. Dana Point 4. Encinitas 5. Escondido 6. Fresno 7. Gilroy 8. Hanford 9. Lancaster 10. Lompoc 11. Long Beach 12. Los Angeles 13. Los Banos 14. Madera 15. Merced 16. Modesto 17. Monterey 18. Moorpark 19. Napa 20. Oakland 21. Oceanside 22. Oxnard 23. Palmdale 24. Palo Alto 25. Porterville 26. Riverside 27. Sacramento 28. Salinas 29. San Bernardino 30. San Diego 31. San Francisco 32. San Jose 33. San Luis Obispo 34. Santa Barbara 35. Santa Clarita 36. Santa Cruz 37. Santa Maria 38. Santa Monica 39. Santa Rosa 40. Stockton 41. Thousand Oaks 42. Tulare 395 43. Tustin 44. Vacaville 45. Vallejo 46. Visalia 47. Woodland
US

Highway destinations

120

6

US

31

16
15 7 13
99

49

24 32 36

14 6

Road Travel

28 17
1
101
US

8
198

4246 25
395
US

190

highway
drive zone from Los Angeles

41

127 33
interstate california

33
1

1
58

2-hour 3-hour 4-hour 5-hour 6-hour-plus

5

37 9 23 22 18 41
1

10 34 35

15

interstate california

40

interstate california

62

38

12 11
405
interstate california

91

29 26 60
74 111

43 3 21 4

10

interstate california

5
interstate california

78
8

30 188

98

Condition of urban highways
S. Smith

r ile pai ay m f re do ghw ar) i nee of c er h s in gp life y ( n ndi hwa car spe hig per an air a ity c rb rep are t to of u ban itan ge cos l ur pol nta ge ua ra tro ce me ann ave per
44% 38% 35% 26% 22% 14% 13% 13% 4% $ 37,560 26,088 45,090 28,227 65,488 88,178 83,658 65,104 38,309 $1,284 1,416 1,109 980 1,071 837 991 1,325 722

Chicago Detroit Philadelphia New York Washington, D.C. San Francisco Boston Los Angeles Dallas

MAN-MADE HABITAT

source: Southern California Association of Governments (www.scag.ca.gov)

146

I know it’s fashionable to speak of freeways as instruments of cultural isolation. It’s true, if one drives from Sherman Oaks to Pomona, one can breeze right by the housing projects of East L.A. and never acknowledge their existence. Moreover, freeways were the tool with which the ‘50s middle-class fantasy of suburbia was made manifest by land barons from the Westside, Palos Verdes, and the Valley out to build their fortunes. Without freeways, white flight would have proved inconvenient. On the other hand, as a result of freeway construction, the area of land within a 30-minute drive from L.A.’s civic center leapt from 261 square miles in 1953 to 705 square miles by 1962, a widening of purview that applied equally to anybody with a vehicle and some gas money.
Celeste Fremon, “Freeway,” Los Angeles Magazine (December 2000): 160, 242.

K. Müller

14

5 210 118

170

2 134

Projected baseline freeway speeds, 2025
605 57

101
405

US

10 110 105 91

710 5 60

10

less than 20 mph 20 to 35 mph more than 35 mph

map source: Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority,

(www.mta.net)

Road Travel

There are…floating bottlenecks—freeway incidents—that haunt engineers’ thoughts. They are erratic and arrive without notice, and they account for one-half of the congestion in Los Angeles. In a city based on imagination, these incidents have no common trope. There are the flat tires and crashes due to speeding, the tickets due to speeding. There are the spills: Fuel-oil spill. Antifreeze spill. Orange spill. Lemon spill. Cattle spill. “We have had cows out there running loose on the freeway,” confirms a Caltrans dispatcher. The traffic backs up. Other animals run loose on the freeway. In the county’s northern precincts, across the 210 and the 118, coyote and deer cross the concrete unsuccessfully. The traffic slows. On July 5, traffic snarls after the county’s domestic animal population, spooked and unhinged by our county’s patriotism, runs onto the freeways and is killed in record numbers. Sometimes animals are deliberately introduced into the freeway network. Lacking rivers and bridges, owners of the city’s unwanted puppy litters leave them by medians in open bags to be killed. On mornings after cockfights, Caltrans work crews are sent out to recover trash bags of lacerated roosters that block lanes. The traffic backs up. Motorists dump trash into the lanes. They leave couches, chairs, refrigerators, stoves on the freeways. In the week after Christmas, Douglas firs sprout in groves across the network, complete with stands. The traffic slows. Other things are thrown away. Around February 14, the number of pedestrians jumping off bridges into the network spikes, jamming traffic. In the days following a well-publicized suicide, fatality crashes rise, copycat suicides using Chevrolet instead of Nembutal. Pedestrians drop bricks, bowling balls, pieces of the coastal range off overpasses. People are dropped into the network. Story told by a Caltrans dispatcher: “I had a friend of the family a long time ago. Someone I kind of grew up with. This was my first year in the district. I don’t know what happened to her, but she threw her kids off the freeway. Off an overpass of the 110. Two children. This is somebody I knew.”
Dave Gardetta, “Hard Drive,” Los Angeles Magazine (April 2001): 68.

J. McKnight

Freeways and traffic
Who’s on the roads?
36% of the population, or 4,671,279 people, driving solo 7% of the population, or 1,000,113 people, driving carpool

How many cars are in Los Angeles?
10,736,372 registered cars occupying 1,546,037,568 square feet of parking or 1/8 of the area in Los Angeles 6,731,705,244 gallons of gas consumed per year

How many cars are on the freeway during rush hour?
46,000

How many vehicle miles are traveled each day?
MAN-MADE HABITAT
528,745,000 miles, or 2,937 cars circumnavigating the globe daily Vehicle-miles traveled is growing at a rate of 8% per year. L.A.’s travel-rate index is the highest in the nation at 1.55 during non-congested hours. The travel-rate index during peak-traffic hours is 2.06 (travel-rate index: miles to travel x index rate = travel time in minutes, i.e., during non-congested hours, 20 miles takes 31 minutes to travel)

148

Annual delay per person in Los Angeles
56 hours versus the national average of 36 hours

Annual fuel waste in Los Angeles
84 gallons per person or 901,855,248 gallons for entire agglomeration

Annual congestion cost in Los Angeles
$1,000 per person or $10,736,372,000 for entire agglomeration

Most congested areas in the United States
1. Los Angeles 2. San Francisco-Oakland 3. Seattle-Everett 4. Washington, D.C. 5. Chicago-Northwestern Indiana
source: Texas Transportation Institute 2001 Urban Mobility Report (mobility.tamu.edu)

Like a lot of people in LA, he was secretly fond of this solitary commute. He had no car phone, and in the slow traffic, he’d turn up the air-conditioning and feel insulated behind his shades, deliciously impossible to reach, disconnected from all of it for the moment and safe. He’d crank the tape player and sing, sealed in among other cars containing other drivers, some of them singing as well. A tide had flooded in, it felt like, covering the connections and leaving him on his own tiny, sunny island.
Jim Paul, Medieval in LA: A Fiction (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1996), 163.

illustrations: C. Chung

If 2,937 cars simultaneously drove once around the earth, they would drive as many miles traveled every day in Los Angeles. If those cars were Ford Excursion sports-utility vehicles, this caravan would consume 11.8 million gallons of gasoline at a cost of $20,009,000 a day. If those cars were economical Honda Civic hatchbacks, this caravan would consume 3.2 million gallons of gasoline at a cost of $5,407,840. If those cars were the environmentally sensitive Honda Insight, this caravan would consume 1.7 million gallons of gasoline at a cost of $2,858,430.

source: California Department of Motor Vehicles (www.dmv.ca.gov)

Road Travel

J. Rocholl

Parking is definitely a “thing.” Finding the right spot for your car at the right time. How do we do it? Where do we do it? Who can do without it? In this County of Los Angeles, population nine mil plus, there are four million cars and approximately 40,000 parking meters, 150,000 “No Parking” signs, 41,000 “No Stopping” signs and 40,000 time limit signs. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out that there’s a shortage of parking and that this is no coincidence. The cities scattered through the County of Los Angeles handed out, at a rate of 45 tickets per officer per day, seven million parking tickets. At $28 a pop that’s $196 million dollars from the pockets of all of us. How do we deal with this highway robbery? How do we leave our houses and apartments everyday knowing there is little chance of finding a free parking place, let alone one to pay for?
John D’Amico, “Doris Day Parking: Finding Your Personal Space In L.A.’s Asphalt Jungle,” Mondo L.A. (February 1994): 8.

Smog
year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

rds ds nda dar sta tan y s alit ity ual r-qu ir-q l ai a era ate fed g st ing din d cee cee s ex s ex day day f f #o #o
167 180 149 152 173 158 164 160 178 157 130 130 143 124 118 98 90 68 62 41 tons per day 2,300 357 5,826 1,208

MAN-MADE HABITAT

150

210 222 191 190 207 206 217 196 216 211 184 183 191 185 165 154 151 141 114 118

J.McKnight

pollutants Ozone Particulate Matter (PM10) Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide

toxic air contaminants Acetaldehyde Benzene 1,3-Butadiene Carbon tetrachloride Chromium (Hexavalent) Para-Dichlorobenzene Formaldehyde Methylene chloride Perchloroethylene Diesel PM

tons per year 2,749 9,712 1,668 2 865 686 8,116r 4,317 5,781 8,024

primary source vehicles ple airborne particles from area peo on illi vehicles 1m per vehicles s tion lica mp ) co e alth sur f he expo ty o ime ili ifet bab pro d on l se (ba 8 111 123 ---30 3 -720

sources: South Coast Air Quality Management District (www.aqmd.gov) California Air Resources Board, The 2001 California Almanac of Emissions and Air Quality (www.arb.ca.gov)

B. Moss

# of days state carbon-monoxide standard was exceeded (micrograms/cubic meter), 1999 0–10 11–20 21–30 31–40 41–50 51+ direction of ozone-concentration flows monitoring site stationary source

map sources: Michael W. Donley, Atlas of California (Culver City, Ca.: Pacific Book Center, 1979) 1993 Congestion Management Program: Countrywide Deficiency Plan Background Study, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority South Coast Air Quality Management District (www.aqmd.gov)

Air Quality

Robert Irwin, one of the presiding masters of L.A.’s Light and Space artistic movement of the late sixties and early seventies, and a native Angeleno, concurred that there’s something extraordinary about the light of L.A., though he said that it was sometimes hard to characterize it exactly. “One of its most common features, however,” he suggested, “is the haze that fractures the light, scattering it in such a way that on many days the world almost has no shadows.”
Lawrence Weschler, “L.A. Glows,” The New Yorker (February 23 and March 3, 1998), 90.

A. Freitag

MAN-MADE HABITAT

152

Air Quality

photos 154-159: J. Kung

PEOPLE

154

PEOPLE

156

PEOPLE

158

Ethnicity

Spirituality

Immigration & Migration

Death

Age

Language

Education

Civic Identity

100 People of Los Angeles

Homeless

Body Beautiful

PEOPLE

160
Notice, further, how some people in L.A. talk a great talk when it comes to cultural diversity—but have secret limits? They will donate money to refugees in China, yes, insist on fresh coffee from Kenya, profess delight in the miserable Bolivians who clutch tiny pockmarked instruments on our outdoor Promenades. But…will they shower with them?
Sandra Tsing Loh, A Year in Van Nuys (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001), 51.

In another sense, though, Mexico has redeemed L.A. to me. I’ve discovered a buried city there—a Latino L.A., warm and celebratory, where Spanish traces an invisible heart line deeper than place. In the course of my days I may encounter a man or woman hailing from Guanajuato or Jalisco or Oaxaca, and matters of truth and fullness of heart may pass between us, and much laughter: riches invisible to most of my other friends. I can trace Los Lobos riffs back to norteño bands that come through our part of Mexico: Los Tigres del Norte, Los Bukis. California street names and foods reveal their origins. Suddenly the century-old Anglo patina looks flimsy, conditional.
Tony Cohan, On Mexican Time: A New Life in San Miguel (New York: Broadway Books, 2000), 116–17.

T. Morrison

According to the U.S. Census 2000, this photo is representative of Los Angeles.

PEOPLE

162

100 People of Los Angeles

1. Andrea Dunlop 2. Jennifer Dunlop 3. Tensho Takemori 4. Amy Owen 5. Todd Spiegel 6. Elijah Spiegel 7. Holly Spiegel 8. Ilana Spiegel 9. Ronald Hill 10. Gregory Valtierra 11. Koreen Valtierra 12. P. Max Hanson 13. Caroline Hanson 14. Rachel Penington Day 15. Natalie Lucia Valtierra Day 16. Monica Valtierra Day 17. Maria Arroyo Wauer 18. Dolores Villanueva 19. Maria Godoy 20. Jeffrey Wauer 21. Cooper Mayne 22. Blythe Alison-Mayne 23. Haden R. Guest 24. Maria Guest 25. Bob Day 26. Patrick M. Hanson 27. Vicki V. Hanson 28. Mark Valtierra 29. Grace E. Hodges 30. William Bryan Hodges 31. Denise Disney Hodges 32. Oliver Doublet 33. Karen Wolfe 34. Miles Wolfe 35. David Wolfe 36. Shaun Kozolchyk-Plotkin 37. Stephen Slaughter 38. Martha Deplazoala 39. Carolyn Castaño 40. Ann Kneedler 41. David Fletcher 42. Cooper Gerrard 43. Angelica Lopez 44. Myra Gerrard 45. Donny Gerrard 46. Suzanne M. Lopez 47. Rachael Petru 48. Nancy Lambert Mullio 49. Perri Chasin 50. Ann Mullio 51. Darryl Hooks 52. David Plotkin 53. Ray Mullio

43 53 42 45 46 48 50 54 51 49 47 37 38 40 1 2 3 4 7 6 5 34 9 33 36 35 52 32 55 56

57

59

63 66

58 60

62 65

68

67 31 29 30 10 12 11 28 27 72 61 64

7

44 41 39

2

PEOPLE

164

8

age under 5 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 74 75 to 84 85 and over

7% 8 8 7 8 15 16 13 4 3 6 4 1

race Caucasian Hispanic African American Asian Asian Indian Chinese Filipino Japanese Korean Vietnamese Other Native American Pacific Islander Multi-racial Other

41% 30 7 10 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 3

sex Male Female

49% 51%

sources: U.S. Census 2000 (www.census.gov) Los Angeles Almanac (www.losangelesalmanac.com)

54. Cara Mullio 55. Adam Wheeler 56. Bill Mohline 57. Laurence Brockman Tighe 58. Shannah Field 59. Devin McIntire 60. Jennifer Doublet 61. Piper Olf 62. Jason Kerwin 63. Dwoyne Matthew Cortez Keith 64. Chiaki Kanda 65. Yumna Siddiqi 66. Janet Keith 67. Fredy Ernesto Gomez 68. Ana Mercedes Sagastume 69. John “Wade“ Keith III 70. Maria Mercedes Gomez 71. Joao Santomauro 72. Mateus Santomauro 73. Joana Santomauro 74. Daniela Getlinger 75. Hazel Beatriz Gomez 76. Mauricio Antonio Gomez 77. Christopher Hepburn 78. Heather Heimann 79. Justus Hepburn 80. Hilary Rhode 81. Eliza Hepburn 82. Tiffany Heimann 83. Desirée Trinidad 84. Ji Youn Yi 85. Yoon Kyoun Yi 86. Eui-Sung Yi 87. Garth Trinidad 88. Jeff Howell 89. Sara Yoshitomi 90. Stephen Brockman 91. Paul Yoshitomi 92. Masahiro Kusumoto 93. David Pakshong 94. Victoria Pakshong 95. Mark Weintraub 96. Nathaniel Joseph Brockman Vail 97. Jasper Pakshong 98. Evan Pakshong 99. James Wauer 100. Reanna Wauer
97 98 81 88 69 76 70 75 77 80 90 93 83 78 86 74 73 25 24 20 84 87 89 91 92 95 96 99 100

79

82

94

71 85

26

23

22

21

13

16

15

17 18

19

14

100 People of Los Angeles

photos 165-167: S. Latty

PEOPLE

166

these 100 people do the following for fun music art dance rollerblade swim hike snowboard party entertain run read fish camp bike play eat computer games basketball ski long drives church activities travel scooter garden movies t.v. theater visit friends shop sleep nursing work out boogie board go to the beach walk festivals relax organize sing jog cook surf make magnets architecture golf hockey motorcycle sew bake softball tennis remodel house skateboard draw museums volunteer for children opera make love watch soap operas watch football, soccer & basketball download music off the net cards stay up late

when they think of L.A., they think riot! cars freeways palm trees beach sprawl cost air home sweet home diversity of people, sights, sounds, activities cultural diversity economic trendsetter for the world entertainment capital major technology center sunshine smog Lakers healthy lifestyle melting pot Hollywood Disneyland anything is possible/opportunity movies progressiveness fresh air by the beach flavor racism congestion festivals traffic nice cars money anonymity family comfort image consciousness eclecticism celebrities sea city on the verge of greatness and then it can just piss you off Disney Concert Hall history weather art pollution fun best home in the world missed opportunities color/visual aesthetics horrible drivers in the rain heat Mexican culture

LAX fabulous talk radio I love L.A. great weather desert political problems Hollywood Hills driving plastic (surgery, credit cards, personalities) museums dynamism beautiful with surrounding mountains good colleges,churches, institutions vast boulevards convertibles swimming pools Rodeo Drive the Beach Boys the Doors Sunset Blvd. Hollywood Blvd. Melrose Ave. Venice Blvd. Marina Del Rey farmers’ markets The Getty gangster rap how big the city is land of opportunity races united in one region ---------------

these 100 people do the following for a living student security senior manager owner post-production facility homemaker producer/writer optometrist infant/child realtor office manager chef toy tester festival evaluator sales architect Jewish Community Service Development political mobilizer (grassroots) pro golfer graduate student museum director landscape designer teacher landscape architect museum curator media management design environmental graphic designer musician/singer administrative assistant academic software developer psychotherapist author sales manager product manager sound mixer executive assistant artist loss-control manager business consultant dietitian television producer art and music independent contractor construction cook

100 People of Los Angeles

G. Borjorquez

PEOPLE

168

photos: S. Latty

The bungalows were filled with kids (music-video production companies) but the rent was cheap. The girls had tattoos and rings through their tummies—through their friggin eyebrows eyebrows—and Jabba said you-know-where else. Maybe he should get one, Bernie thought, right through the nose, like a fuhcocktuh bull.
Bruce Wagner, I’m Losing You (New York: Villard Books, 1996), 158.

G. Borjorquez

Body Beautiful

It seems that the only people on TV who don’t dye their hair these days are recently released captives. Of course, hostages are supposed to look tormented, but everyone else on TV from senators seems unable to stop at anything. This mentality, alas, is really bad in L.A., where the light is so pitiless. If you want to see all this striving against the ravages of being human in state-of-theart proportions, go to the Rodeo Gardens on any Saturday afternoon; it is there that body lifts, skin peels, fat suctioning, teeth bonds, and collagen flourish in the gracious noonday shade. It would almost look corrupt, except to be corrupt you have to have once not been, and nobody in this place was ever that.
Eve Babitz, Black Swans (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1993), 17.

photos: M. Lipson

PEOPLE

170

photos: S. Latty

Ethnicity in Los Angeles, 2000
Caucasian Hispanic African American Asian Native American Pacific Islander Multi-racial Other 41.4% 29.9 7.1 10.3 0.8 0.2 7.6 2.7 5,423,718 3,917,130 930,155 1,349,379 104,806 26,202 995,658 353,720

Growth-rate projections
Caucasian Hispanic African American Asian Native American 2000 - 6% 14% .4% 15% -2% 2005 - 3% 13% 3% 15% 1% 2015 4% 25% 14% 27% 13% 2025 5% 23% 14% 23% 13%

source: U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov)

PEOPLE

172
photos: T. Morrison

J. Rocholl

Ethnicity

White population densities
Russian, Encino English, Pasedena

Russian, West Hollywood English, Palos Verdes

English, Long Beach

English, Newport Beach

Asian population densities
Indonesian, Beverly Hills Thai, North Hollywood Indonesian, Encino Hills Asian Indian, Granada Hills Indonesian, Encino Hills China Town Little Tokyo Chinese, Monteray Park Indonesian Asian Indian, Diamond Bar

Korea Town

PEOPLE

174

Indonesian, El Segundo Hawaiian Japanese, Gardena Korean Filipino Guamanian Samoan, Carson Filipino, La Habra Heights Korean, Fullerton Asian Indian, Cerritos Loatian, Anaheim Asian Indian, Anaheim Hills Cambodian, Long Beach Vietnamese, Bolsa

photos: S. Latty

Black population densities
Jamaican Nigerian, Inglewood

Ethnicity

Hispanic population densities
Belizean, Western Ave., Los Angeles Mexican, East Los Angeles

Mexican, Santa Ana

Mexican, Long Beach

sources: Southern California Association of Governments (www.scag.ca.gov) James P. Allen and Eugene Turner, The Ethnic Quilt: Population Diversity in Southern California (Northridge, Ca.: The Center for Geographical Studies, California State University, 1997).

My piece of east was this big: wide and deep enough to fit a mess of hoboes, boxers, nine-to-fivers, nutso church ladies, trigger-happy con men, knock-kneed Catholicschoolers, and a handful of sexy-walking women in a space about twenty-five miles back to front. Up on top is our old street, Fisher, a nice stretch of fixer-uppers decorated with dead lawns and chained-up dogs, and to the west there’s Eastern Ave where the homeless tip back Bird in the shadow of the 710 Freeway. Down south there’s the number streets where the super-low-renters squeeze five or six into kitchenette studios, and then turning to the east is Divine Drive, the richest block in town, where you’ll find the church ladies who stay busy barking at their maids and polishing their silverplate.
Yxta Maya Murray, What It Takes to Get to Vegas (New York: Grove/Atlantic Inc., 1999), 3.

J. Rocholl

S. Moon

A. Scott

PEOPLE

176

J. Rocholl

S. Moon

S. Moon

Ethnicity
T. Morrison

T. Morrison

T. Morrison

A. Scott

S. Moon

I get in my 1980 Datsun 200 SX and head north on Crenshaw Boulevard to the Santa Monica Freeway. The farther I drive west, the lighter-skinned the people become in the cars alongside of me. By the time I reach the San Diego Freeway, not only have the people gotten more European-looking, but so have the cars. It’s a different world on the west side.
Michael Datcher, Raising Fences: A Black Man’s Love Story (New York: Riverhead Books, 2001), 76.

J. Rocholl

From 1990 to 1999, a net international migration of 1,254,303 people into the area accounts for 8% of today’s population.

Immigrants admitted through the portal of Los Angeles, 1998
European 817 Asian 11,902 African 402 Oceanian 552 North American 1,849 Canadian 10 Mexican 14 Caribbean 27 Central American 1,797 South American 359 Total 17,719

Immigrants admitted to the U.S. in 1998 who intend to reside in Los Angeles
PEOPLE

178

European Asian African Canadian Mexican Caribbean Central American South American Other Total

2,371 26,631 385 622 31,222 417 8,179 1,804 13,107 71,631

9,513 aliens were deported in 1999 from Los Angeles.
deportable aliens located 1992 12,921 1993 10,485 1994 7,229 1995 9,258 1996 9,309 1997 11,476 1998 8,691 1999 9,775

EUROPE 1,160 people ASIA 22,388 people

AFRICA

NORTH AMERICA Los Angeles Caribbean 892 people Mexico 36,457 people SOUTH AMERICA 432 people

Immigration & Migration
AUSTRALIA Other 21,764 people

ANTARCTICA

Immigrants naturalized in Los Angeles, 1999
European 2,895 Asian 36,107 Mexican 52,118 Central American 16,284 Caribbean 1,131 Other 27,810 Total 136,345
sources: Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service U.S. Department of Justice (www.ins.usdoj.gov) Service, Eric Schmitt, “To Fill in Gaps, Shrinking Cities Seek a New Wave of Foreigners,” The New York Times, 30 May 2001.

photos: S. Latty

J. McKnight

Los Angeles now

10.7%: Age 65+

52.1%: Age 25–64
PEOPLE

182

10.5%: Age 18–24

20.6%: Age 5–17

6%: Age 0–4
source: U.S. Census (www.census.gov)

Los Angeles tomorrow

4% 2005 2% 2000

15% 2015

12% 2025

2% 2005 -2% 2000

31% 2025 22% 2015

Age

Age 25–64

Age 65+

Age 18–24

Age 5–17

9% 2025

Age 0–4
10% 2000 12% 2015 14% 2005 23% 2015 -5% 2000 16% 2025 4% 2005 20% 2025 7% 2005 23% 2015 4% 2000

J. McKnight

Languages spoken in Los Angeles

PEOPLE

184

Language

source: www.losangelesalmanac.com

J. Fleischmann

PEOPLE

186

sources: Educational Demographics Office, California Department of Education (www.cde.ca.gov/demographics) U.S. Census (www.census.gov)

Higher education in Los Angeles

University of California California State University private university college

Activities of Angelenos under 18 Education
magazines read per month none 1–2 3–5 6–10 more than 10 books read don’t read books 1–2 per year every few months monthly weekly hours spent watching television per week less than one hour 1–2 3–5 6–10 11–15 16–20 21–30 more than 30 (%) 13.9% 45.5% 34.7% 5% 5% (%) 9.9 15.8 29.7 26.7 17.8 movies watched never rarely several times per year every other month once a month twice a month weekly several times a week video games played never couple times per year couple times per month 1–2 hrs. per week 3–5 hrs. per week 6–10 hrs. per week 11–15 hrs. per week more than 20 hrs. per week (%) .4 4.6 4.6 14.5 22 32.8 19.8 1.7 (%) 17.6 29.9 26.6 9.6 7 5 2 2.3

(%) 9.1 13.3 25.7 27 11.6 7.5 2.5 3.3

source: Los Angeles Times Magazine, 22 April 2001

S. Dimitrov

PEOPLE

188

At present, there is no dearth of significant stories being told about Los Angeles, although none of them is comprehensive enough to constitute an agreed-upon public identity. In building the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, the archdiocese is telling a story about Los Angeles being a profoundly Roman Catholic city. The Museum of Tolerance, meanwhile, suggests the city’s equally deep Jewish roots and consciousness. The completion of Disney Hall atop Bunker Hill points to Los Angeles’ century-old love affair with music, choral music especially, and the performing arts. The retrofitting of City Hall at the cost of tens of millions evokes a Los Angeles still possessed of the coherence of an urban body politic, despite secessionist mutterings all around. The Alameda Corridor and the debate regarding expansion of the Los Angeles International AirportCivic chapters in a much longer narraare Identity tive, going back to the stagecoach and drayage wagons established by Phineas Banning in the 1860s and the creation of a deep-water port in the early 1900s: a story about Los Angeles as Crossroads City…. What will this new Los Angeles story be? What will it take to bring the citizens of this city once more into the public square as both a physical and symbolic place?
Kevin Starr, “A City Desperately Seeking a Civic Identity,” Los Angeles Times, 13 August 2000, M-4.
photos: S. Latty

K. Marchionno

PEOPLE

190

photos: S. Latty

What do I remember of those days in 1992? I remember standing on a rooftop along Sunset Boulevard and seeing the southern horizon filled with smoke. Some terrible excitement, some evil thrill, made me shiver at the destruction.… Many people said after those violent days that L.A. had killed itself, slammed open its soul on the street and left it to bleed on the pavement with all the broken glass. I knew people who left town, left L.A. for any place else. I knew people who would never again go downtown without feeling afraid of the stranger. But L.A. did not die. L.A. is too resilient. L.A. is filled with too many babies and teenage fathers and too many grandmothers who hope for the future. Sometimes I think that L.A. saw its future for the first time during those terrible Civic Identity days of late April and early May.… It was the worst moment for Los Angeles. It was also the first moment, I think, when most people in L.A. realized that they were part of the whole. The city that the world mocked for not being a city, for lacking a center, having only separate suburbs, separate freeway exits— L.A. realized that it was interconnected. In fear, people realized that what was happening on the other side of town implicated them.
Richard Rodriguez, “Letter From 2042, an L.A. Memory,” Los Angeles Times, 27 April 1997, M-5.

J. McKnight

An estimated 261,400 homeless live in Los Angeles. Out of a national homeless population of 700,000, 38% live here.

PEOPLE

192

16% hispanic 17% black 61% white 30% have jobs 55% under age 18 79% under age 50 40% women 67% families with children
sources: www.thedesertsun.com San Bernardino County, CA Consolidated Plan for 1995, Executive Summary U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Shelter Partnership (www.shelterpartnership.org) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (www.hud.gov)

Homeless

Sleep under the freeway. Antonio had heard this phrase more than once in the weeks freeway. leading up to this humiliation, as the money in his wallet slowly disappeared and the prospect of eviction became a certainty. Sleep under the freeway. It was almost a refrain in the neighborhood. José Juan had said it once, just five days ago, when Mr. Hwang slipped the final, final eviction notice under their doorway. “Podemos dormir debajo del Podemos freeway.” freeway. It didn’t sound any better in Spanish. Elvira Gonzales, the elderly Mexican-American widow who lived down the hall, and who was now toward the back of the crowd staring at Antonio with a sad and disapproving motherly frown, had repeated it too. “Well, muchachos, if they throw you out, I guess you’ll have to sleep under the freeway. That’s what everybody else does. I guess it’s warmer there.”
Héctor Tobar, The Tattooed Soldier: A Novel (Harrison, New York: Delphinium Books, 1998), 7.

photos: M. Lipson

S. Durant

PEOPLE

194

photos: S. Latty

It is unlawful to tell the future in my city. One of the oldest ordinances in the city code book, adopted when the city incorporated in 1954, lists the illegal practices by which the future may not be foretold. It is illegal to furnish any information “not otherwise obtainable by the ordinary processes of knowledge by means of any occult psychic power, faculty or force, clairvoyance, clairaudience, cartomancy, psychology, psychometry, phrenology, spirits, seership, prophecy, augury, astrology, palmistry, necromancy, mind-reading, telepathy, or by any other craft, art, science, talisman, charm, potion, magnetism, magnetized substance, gypsy cunning or foresight, crystal gazing, or oriental mysteries.”
D. J. Waldie, Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (New York: Buzz Books for St. Martin’s Press, 1997), 158.

J. Fleischmann

Spirituality

Things were so bad at the start of 1993 that a group associated with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi offered to save L.A. through Transcendental Mediation. It would cost the city only $165 million a year for five years. That would finance nine thousand “coherencecreated experts” who would seek deeper levels of consciousness through TM and radiate peace and goodwill into the troubled areas of the county, which is just about everywhere except the gated communities that hire guards and snarling dogs. A press agent for the group explained that it takes a thousand experts per million population to work.
Al Martinez, City of Angles: A Drive-by Portrait of Los Angeles (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 77.

photos: C. Himmelstein

PEOPLE

196
Death
Los Angeles buried the remains of an estimated 4,193 unclaimed and unidentified people in 2000. In Los Angeles, 1,182 deaths were attributed to homicide in 1999.
sources: Lisa Leff, “Death Without a Ripple,” Los Angeles Times Magazine 6 May 2001. Magazine, U.S. Census (www.census.gov) California Crime Rate, 1999 CJSC Statitistical Table Site (http://justice.hdcdojnet.state.ca.us/cjsc_stats/prof99/00/11.pdf) 1999,

Death

Every year… several hundred men and women lose their identities when they die. Most are lucky enough to regain them within a few days or weeks after investigators from the coroner’s office find the medical records or fingerprints that match the body to the life it led. For others, months may go by before investigators can track down family members or friends and successfully reunite them with their names. Between 85% and 90% of the… John and Jane Does eventually are identified. But in a handful of cases, investigations can stretch on for years, remaining officially open, if not active, long after the dead have been cremated. In the most confounding cases, the ashes will be consigned to an unmarked common grave at the cemetery where Los Angeles buries its poor, its abandoned and its nameless dead.
Lisa Leff, “Death Without a Ripple,“ Los Angeles Times Magazine, 6 May 2001, 18.

J. Kung

MONEY

198

M. Lipson

MONEY

200

D. Moser

MONEY

202

Technology/ Financial Services

Business Services/ Government Money/ Health Services

Global Economy/ Top Industries

Tourism

Los Angeles Industry

Pornography

International Trade

Employment/ Unemployment

Wholesale Trade/ Manufacturing

Income/ Household Ranking

Motion Picture/ T.V. Production

Expenditure

Housing

MONEY

204ot everyone in L.A. is in show biz. In addition to actors, N

writers, directors, and others we refer to as being abovethe-line, we are also shoe clerks, air-conditioning repairmen, freeway litter removers, popcorn salesmen, female mud wrestlers, and the creators of logos that appear on T-shirts. This is by way of saying we are a heterogeneous mix in the nation of Los Angeles, and it is my job as a newspaper columnist to write about the melange. Actors are simply a part of the mix, but like blueberries in a muffin, they happen to be more obvious.
Al Martinez, City of Angles: A Drive-By Portrait of Los Angeles (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 138.

At a time when most native-born Americans were fleeing the traditional cities, newcomers from abroad flocked to the metropolitan cores, particularly the creative centers of New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Miami, and Chicago. The newcomers have restocked the human capital of such urban centers, even as other towns face a continuing loss of population and economic vitality. This group’s penchant for living in the urban center has its basis in cultural as well as economic realities.
Joel Kotkin, The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution Is Reshaping the American Landscape (New York: Random House, 2000), 17.

Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Southern California, 2000
rank 41 66 100 136 144 171 178 190 201 231 235 239 282 305 317 322 333 353 402 421 429 442 463 477 company revenue ($ millions) Ingram Micro 28,068.6 Walt Disney 23,402.0 Bergen Brunswig 17,244.9 Atlantic Richfield (ARCO) 13,176.0 Fluor 12,417.4 Pacificare Health Systems 9,989.1 Edison International 9,670.0 Northrop Grumman 8,995.0 Foundation Health Systems 8,706.2 Computer Sciences 7,660.0 Occidental Petroleum 7,610.0 Wellpoint Health Networks 7,485.4 Unocal 6,198.0 Mattel 5,515.0 Merisel 5,188.7 Dole Food 5,060.6 Litton Industries 4,827.5 Pacific Life Insurance 4,548.9 Countrywide Credit Industries 3,976.4 Kaufman & Broad Home 3,836.3 Avery Dennison 3,768.2 Fleetwood Enterprises 3,490.2 Amgen 3,340.1 Times Mirror 3,215.8 headquarters Santa Ana Burbank Orange Los Angeles Aliso Viejo Santa Ana Rosemead Los Angeles Woodland Hills El Segundo Los Angeles Thousand Oaks El Segundo El Segundo El Segundo Westlake Village Woodland Hills Newport Beach Calabasas Los Angeles Pasadena Riverside Thousand Oaks Los Angeles

E. Hillard

MONEY

206

Los Angeles companies in 1999’s Fortune 500 but out of 2000’s 247 Rockwell International 7,151.0 Costa Mesa to Milwaukee 644 Hilton Hotels 4,064.0 Beverly Hills 534 Western Digital 3,541.5 Irvine United States Filter 3,234.6 Purchased by Vivendi
source: Fortune Magazine 17 April 2000 Magazine,

Los Angeles has the 16th largest economy in the world.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. United States of America China Japan Germany India France United Kingdom Italy Brazil Mexico Canada Spain Indonesia Russia South Korea Los Angeles gross domestic product ($ billions) 8,511 4,420 2,903 1,813 1,689 1,320 1,252 1,181 1,035 Global 815 Economy/ 688 Top Industries 646 602 593 585 470

source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2001 (New York: World Almanac Education Group, 2001)

At millennium’s end, the two largest metropolitan regions, New York and Los Angeles, after lagging smaller regions for most of the past decade, led the nation respectively in aggregate payroll and new job creation.
Joel Kotkin, The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution Is Reshaping the American Landscape (New York: Random House, 2000), 12.

Who owns L.A. (as of April 2000)?

ASIA Denver
L.A.Kings Daily News Pasadena Star News and others

Tokyo
Columbia Pictures

Seattle
McDonnell Douglas North American Aviation Home Savings

Chicago

Times Mirror KTLA

San Francisco
Glendale Federal Savings First Interstate California Federal Savings

Las Vegas
MGM

Phoenix
L.A.Reader

Houston
Getty Oil Co

AUSTRALIA
MONEY

208

Sydney
Twentieth Century Fox L.A. Dodgers KTTV

ANTARCTICA

EUROPE

London
ARCO

AFRICA

Montreal
Universal/MCA

Chicago
Times Mirror KTLA

Lexington, Mass. Minneapolis
Santa Monica Bank Hughes Aircaft Co.

Detroit
Hughes Aircraft Co

Global Economy/ Stamford, Conn. UNOCAL Top Industries Fairfield, Conn.
KNBC

Dulles, Va.
Warner Bros

New York
Paramount L.A. Weekly KCBS KCAL KCOP

Marietta, Ga.
Lockheed

Charlotte, N.C.
Security Pacific National Bank Bank of America

Houston

Getty Oil Co

SOUTH AMERICA

source: “Who Owns L.A.?,” L.A. Weekly April 7–13, 2000 Weekly,

B. Welling

Base industries in Los Angeles
% of gross product revenue Direct international trade 20 Wholesale trade 18 Manufacturing 14 Business and professional-management services 12 Motion-picture and television production 8 Technology 7 Financial services 7 Health services/bio-med 6 Tourism6 Other 2
sources:

B. Kalpin

MONEY

210

Concentration of base industries
Ventura Technology Corridor ChatsworthCanoga Park San Gabriel Valley Eastern San Gabriel Valley

minor technopole major technopole

Airport Area

machinery–metallurgical clothing jewelry furniture movies & television production
Irvine Area

Los Angeles Industry

Again we passed through the LA landscape, block after block of minimarts and momand-pop stores, boutiques and restaurants and manicure shops. By then I could see each of these places as the economic center of someone’s life. How could they all stay in business? I wondered. Where in the world was the volume? Could there possibly be, back there where they actually lived, in the houses behind the avenue facades of dry cleaners and Christian bookstores, enough odd need, enough people coming forth from their homes each day on some pilgrimage that held the world together for a second—to rent a video game, to restock on Bounty—enough customers, anyway, to keep all these little shops in business? Evidently so. It seemed a miracle just then, like the loaves and fishes, though it was so everyday as to be invisible once you got used to it. In its ordinary way it was magnificent, like a terrific levitation act in which what gets levitated is a blue Dodge minivan.
Jim Paul, Medieval in LA: A Fiction (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1996), 225–26.

B. Walski

MONEY

212

LAX — 3rd busiest airport for freight in the world
6,670 tons per day at $167 million per day

Port of Long Beach — 10th busiest American port
158,205 tons per day at $283 million per day

Port of Los Angeles — 18th busiest American port
120,943 tons per day at $213 million per day
sources: Airports Council International, as cited in “World’s Busiest Airports,” Los Angeles Times 11 February 2001, C-6. Times, Los Angeles World Airports (www.lawa.org) www.losangelesalmanac.com U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (www.usace.army.mil) U.S. Department of Defense (www.defenselink.mil)

Local distribution
4 5

1

Alam da corri dor e

Global distribution via LAX

$

2

$

National distribution to U.S.

major truck terminals Alameda corridor existing freight rail lines distribution nodes highway 1. Union Station 2. Los Angeles International Airport 3. San Pedro Bay Ports 4. Van Nuys Municipal Airport 5. Burbank/Glendale/Pasadena Airport
3 $ Global distribution via San Pedro Bay Ports

International Trade

National/Global distribution

LAX

VALUE OF FLOWS ($ millions) 20,000–35,000 12,000–20,000

Port of Los Angeles Port of Long Beach imports

10,000–12,000 exports out of Los Angeles in to Los Angeles

source: 1993 Commodity Flow Survey U.S. Department of Transportation (www.dot.gov) Survey,

photos: S. Dimitrov

MONEY

214

International Trade

T. Morrison

Wholesale trade
# of establishments gross product Durable goods (cars, furniture, construction materials, computer equipment, medical supplies, etc.) 19,973 $190,055,931,000 Non-durable goods (clothing, drugs, food, tobacco, liquor, books, etc.) 12,565 $112,964,715,000 total 32,538 $303,020,646,000

Manufacturing
auto parts food and beverage petroleum apparel and textiles furniture total # of establishments 1,068 1,707 94 5,341 1,532 9,742 gross product $23,040,469,000 $13,417,227,000 $412,863,013,000 $10,635,538,000 $5,053,514,000 $65,009,761,000

source: 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov)
D. Dumanski

MONEY

216

T. Morrison

J. Rocholl

Concentration of aircraft, missile, and apparel manufacturing workers (percent of employed persons, 1990)

aircraft and missile manufacturing apparel manufacturing

map source: James P. Allen and Eugene Turner. The Ethnic Quilt: Population Diversity in Southern California (Northridge, Ca.: The Center for Geographical Studies, 1997).

Wholesale Trade/ Manufacturing

The district now known as Toytown represents a remarkable turn-around of the kind of archaic industrial area that has fallen into disuse all across the country: Here a combination of largely immigrant entrepreneurship and the fostering of a specialized commercial district have created a bustling marketplace that employs over four thousand people, boasts revenues estimated at roughly $500 million, and controls the distribution of roughly 60 percent of the $12 billion in toys sold to American retailers.
Joel Kotkin, The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution Is Reshaping the American Landscape (New York: Random House, 2000), 80–81.

S. Zukowski

Motion-picture/Television production
M. Lipson

# of establishments motion-picture production 5,056 sound recording 479 television broadcasting 92 radio broadcasting 185 total 5,812

gross product $29,184,223,000 $4,650,036,000 $3,137,074,000 $65,362,000 $37,036,695,000

source: 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov)-----------

M. Lipson

MONEY

218

Guaranteed motion picture attendance is no longer a slam dunk. To sell a movie today, to create not just the desire to see a particular film but rather the need to see it, studios hire hordes of flimflam men to create publicity, promotion, advertising, and only Harvey Weinstein knows what else. The average cost of this marketing mavenry? Twenty-six million dollars. Twenty-six million dollars to promote a single motion picture— whose story, as often as not, is given away in its briskly paced three-or four-minute trailer in a far more entertaining fashion than the life-sucking three-or four-hour film itself. We’ve certainly come a long way from the days when, for twenty-six mil, a studio could turn out two dozen Andy Hardy pictures, a Ben-Hur, and a Ben-Him. Ben-Hur
Larry Gelbart, “Hype!,” Los Angeles Magazine (December 2000): 158.

S. Zukowski

S. Zukowski

Concentration of theater and motion-picture workers
(percent of employed persons, 1990)

theater and motion-picture workers

M. Lipson

map source: James P. Allen and Eugene Turner, The Ethnic Quilt: Population Diversity in Southern California (Northridge, Ca.: The Center for Geographical Studies, 1997)

Motion Picture/ T.V. Production

A nest of movie vans parked on a residential street is a common sight in Los Angeles. The crew rarely look pleased. The waits are interminable. It is hard to believe that any of this will make an impact except on available parking. And yet, the imaginary maps that these movies generate are repeated throughout the world.
Norman M. Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (New York: Verso, 1997), 103.

Concentration of technology industries

Ventura Technology Corridor

Chatsworth / Canoga Park San Gabriel Valley

Eastern San Gabriel Valley

telecom companies biotech internet / software hubs
M. Lipson

Airport Area

Irvine Area

MONEY

220

Technology firms
Los Angeles Austin, Texas Massachusetts Silicon Valley # of firms 19,000 8,000 5,000 4,000 gross product $27,114,095,000 $5,986,715,000 $33,100,810,000

manufacturing design and development total

sources: The Zone News, February 2001 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov)

Concentration of managers, professionals, and lawyers
(percentage of employed persons, 1990)

Technology/ Financial Services

managers and professionals lawyers

map source: James P. Allen and Eugene Turner, The Ethnic Quilt: Population Diversity in Southern California (Northridge, Ca.: The Center for Geographical Studies, 1997)

Financial services
# of establishments banking 4,072 non-depository credit institutions 2,580 mortgage and loan brokers 1,440 securities 3,128 insurance 7,021 total 18,241 gross product $592,000,000 $17,270,882,000 $1,456,033,000 $9,217,901,000 $4,360,747,000 $32,897,563,000

Business services
# of establishments real estate and rental/leasing services 17,465 accounting/bookkeeping services 6,207 legal services 10,610 architectural/engineering services 4,875 advertising/media/public relations 2,477 management consulting 4,264 other design services 1,854 scientific research and development 497 total 49,785 gross product $20,184,432,000 $9,766,902,000 $9,762,390,000 $7,157,974,000 $4,137,001,000 $3,710,725,000 $1,386,070,000 $1,320,539,000 $58,483,427,000

source: 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov)

Government money
B. Kalpin

contributions federal government state government county government local government expediture health care infrastructure libraries
source: Rand California (www.ca.rand.org)

$2,454,226,000 $5,963,000,000 $1,893,000,000 $56,529,000,000 $2,012,000,000 $262,000,000 $94,000,000

C. Chung

MONEY

222

In 1994, after the Northridge earthquake devastated parts of the Los Angeles area, Paula Boland, a conservative Republican assemblywoman whose own home in Granada Hills was damaged, and who was then sleeping in her car, showed something of the same spirit when she declared that she would oppose even a small temporary sales tax increase to help repair quake-damaged roads, schools, university buildings, and other infrastructure. “Californians,” she declared, “are already paying too much in taxes.” It was the feds who should pay. “The President owes us. They’ve taken our military bases and all those jobs. They’re going to have to start giving something back to California.” There was an earthquake, but there was an almost equally ferocious determination—come hell, quake, or high water—not to allow anything to nuzzle up tax rates.
Peter Schrag, Paradise Lost: California’s Experience, America’s Future (New York: The New Press, 1998), 65–65.

Health services
# of establishments gross product ($ millions) physician offices 26,484 16,278.45 hospitals 106 3,064.78 nursing/residential care 2,040 2,532.78 laboratories 685 1,387.82 outpatient care 703 1,050.97 Business Services/ home health care 752 918.68 Government Money/ social assistance 2,490 667.67 Health Services other 216 423.12 total 33,476 26,324.28

Hospital ownership
non-profit for-profit public 50% 43% 7%
source: 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov)
C. Chung

A. Scott

Tourism industry
performing arts/spectator sports food services amusement, gambling, recreation accommodations museums, historical sites total # of establishments gross product ($ millions) 6,275 10,965.23 14,579 8,899.10 1,786 4,071.09 1,158 2,185.22 26 16.34 23,824 26,136.98

1999 tourism statistics
25.1 million business trips 42.5 million leisure trips 80% California residents 16% out-of-state travelers 4% international travelers

Travelers spent an average of $77.60 per day.
Travel revenue: $23,922,400,000 Payroll: $5,027,200,000 Employment: 248,280,000 jobs

Out of the top 25 amusement/theme parks worldwide, 3 are located within Los Angeles.
3. Disneyland, Anaheim 13. Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal City 20. Knott’s Berry Farm, Buena Park

MONEY

226

sources: 1997 Economic Census, U.S. Census (www.census.gov) California Division of Tourism (www.socalif.ca.gov) The World Almanac 2000 (New York: World Almanac Education Group, 2000)

photos 227-229: G. Narezo

Tourism

MONEY

228

Tourism

M. Lipson

In 2000, the porn industry made 3,500 original productions and released 11,000 titles. In Hollywood, 400 titles were released in 2000.
source: Adult Video News

MONEY

230

Pornography

Although cities like New York and San Francisco have given us plenty of porn in their heydays, if you are serious about being a sex performer, you will probably want to move to Los Angeles. Not only are 50 of the 85 top porn companies based there, but the City of Angels really lives up to it [sic] name: L.A. is home to the largest congregation of porn stars on Earth—around 1,600 of them! The heart of the porn business is in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles, often referred to as “Silicone Valley” or the “Valley of Sin.” Some of the hottest adult spots in the Valley include Sherman Oaks, Canoga Park, Van Nuys, Studio City, and Chatsworth. Porn moved out to L.A. from New York in the mid-80s during the explosion of the home-video market. The reason was more financial than anything else, since rent, equipment, and talent were significantly cheaper there. Now, the Valley accounts for 90% of America’s porn production. While mainstream film shooting in L.A. has decreased 13%, porn film production is up almost 25%. In July of 1999, one out of every five shoots in L.A. was an adult-film shoot. According to Adult Video News, the industry released 10,000 titles in 1999, up from 8,950 titles in 1998, and up from around 8,000 in 1996. That’s adding nearly 1,000 new titles every year! Considering that Hollywood only puts out about 400 theatrical releases a year, you can understand why people, whether they want to be talent or crew, have little difficulty finding employment in the adult industry. Porn taps into the underemployed, disaffected people who can’t find—or are waiting for—work in the big Hollywood studios. The L.A. County Economic Development Corporation estimates the number of jobs created by the adult film industry is between 10,000 and 20,000. A sign of the times for porn’s triumph over Hollywood came when Ron Jeremy, perhaps the only male porn star who is a household name in America, was invited to speak to executives at Paramount Pictures and Columbia TriStar on the theme, “Why can the porno industry spin out films for $50,000 in 3 days and make big profits while the major studios spend $40 million in six months and can’t?” (Ron’s answer? “Low overhead.”)
Matt Duersten (a.k.a. Ana Loria), 1-2-3 Be a Porn Star!: A Step-By-Step Guide to the Adult Sex Industry (Malibu, Ca.: InfoNet Publications, 2000), 57–58.

J. Fleischmann

MONEY

232

I. Sharp

J. Gillingham

Employment in Los Angeles
services retail trade manufacturing government wholesale trade finance/insurance/real estate transportation/utilites agriculture # of people 2,207,390 1,093,042 1,013,282 887,100 436, 287 401,685 352,516 60,939 17% 8% 8% 7% 3% 3% 3% 1% average salary $19,255 $19,908 $38,108 $46,900 $46,073 $56,526 $42,861 $21,238

source: National Compensation Survey, July 1999 Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.stats.bls.gov) 1999,

Among those with incomes in the lowest 25%, the percentage of Americans who cannot
freely take breaks choose working hours be absent from work to care for a sick child be absent due to personal sickness take vacation leave 39 64 70 78 59

J. Rocholl

source: “On the Job: Freedom by Income,” The New York Times, 13 May 2001, IV–14.

MONEY

234

I. Sharp

L. Hammerness

Employment/ Unemployment

Contemplating a day in Los Angeles without the labor of Latino immigrants taxes the imagination, for an array of consumer products and services would disappear (poof!) or become prohibitively expensive. Think about it. When you arrive at many a Southern California hotel or restaurant, you are likely to be first greeted by a Latino car valet. The janitors, cooks, busboys, painters, carpet cleaners, and landscape workers who keep the office buildings, restaurants, and malls running are also likely to be Mexican or Central American immigrants, as are many of those who work behind the scenes in dry cleaners, convalescent homes, hospitals, resorts, and apartment complexes. Both figuratively and literally, the work performed by Latino and Latina immigrants gives Los Angeles much of its famed gloss. Along the boulevards, at car washes promising “100% hand wash” for prices as low as $4.99, teams of Latino workers furiously scrub, wipe, and polish automobiles. Supermarket shelves boast bags of “prewashed” mesclun or baby greens (sometimes labeled “Euro salad”), thanks to the efforts of the Latino immigrants who wash and package the greens…. Only twenty years ago, these relatively inexpensive consumer services and products were not nearly as widely available as they are today. The Los Angeles economy, landscape, and lifestyle have been transformed in ways that rely on low-wage, Latino immigrant labor.
Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 3.

S. Dimitrov

A. Fishbein

MONEY

236
M. Lipson

Ever since becoming a producer at Paramount, Walter hadn’t had a day to himself. Twenty-four hours without last-minute script revisions or consultations with the studio lawyers, a cell phone practically grafted to his ear, was as hard for him to grasp as higher mathematics. He could barely remember what it was like to eat lunch alone, and prided himself on being able to talk business and chew food at the same time, no stray particles flying from his mouth or clinging to his teeth. Once, he knew enthusiasm for a great screenplay in the pit of his stomach, but now every day was filled with the hype and reflexive white lies—“This is a hot property”; “You’ll hear from us next week”—he relied on to spare a writer’s feelings, get cozy with a powerful agent, or end a tedious meeting early. Praise was little more than a convenience, and his opinions eventually circled back as dubious rumor.
Bernard Cooper, Guess Again (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 30–31.

I. Sharp

Unemployment
As of June 2000, Los Angeles’s unemployment rate was 4.1%, or roughly equal to the national average.
source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.stats.bls.gov/blshome)

Employment/ Unemployment

An estimated 25,000 desperate men gather each morning on roughly 125 corners in Southern California to beg for work.
Steve Lopez, “Staying Ahead of the Pack With a Professional Passenger,” Los Angeles Times Times, 1 June 2001, B-1.

S. Dimitrov

How much do people make in Los Angeles?
lawyers and judges college- and university-level teachers business executives writers/authors/entertainers/athletes engineers/architects/surveyors social scientists/urban planners teachers math/computer scientists technicians social/religious workers precision production police/detectives/guards sales administrative support truck drivers personal services machine operators groundskeepers/gardeners nurses and health aides janitors and maids waitresses and bartenders (calculated on the 40-hour work week)
source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.stats.bls.gov)

mean annual salary $81,351 $71,693 $71,251 $69,562 $65,530 $63,456 $60,442 $54,777 $41,357 $40,109 $37,478 $35,425 $31,622 $25,862 $25,747 $20,582 $19,546 $18,528 $17,818 $16,838 $15,571

MONEY

238
M. Lipson

T. Morrison-

M. Lipson

Household incomes in Los Angeles
22% 18% 15% 14% 8% 7% 5% 4% 4% 3% $35,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $74,999 $15,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 $75,000 to $99,999 $10,000 to $14,999 $100,000 to $149,000 less than $5,000 $5,000 to $9,999 $150,000 or more

13% of the population lives below the poverty level or 1,703,099 people or the population of Utah or the population of Slovenia
source: U.S. Census Bureau (www.census.gov)

I. Sharp

R. Yager

Income/ Household Ranking

photos: S. Smith

How do Angelenos spend their money?
(based on a median income level of $36,853) 37% 18% 13% 5% 5% 4% 2% 1% .4% .3% 14.3% housing transportation food clothing/apparel health care entertainment education personal care products/services tobacco and smoking supplies reading miscellaneous $13,635 $6,633 $4,791 $1,842 $1,842 $1,474 $737 $368 $147 $111 $ 5,252

source: U.S. Department of Agriculture (www.usda.gov)

MONEY

240

C. Chung

D. Dumanski

What a dollar spent for food paid for in 1999
farm value labor packaging advertising profits rent transportation business taxes depreciation energy interest repairs other 20 ¢ 59 ¢ 8¢ 4¢ 4¢ 4¢ 4¢ 3.5 ¢ 3.5 ¢ 3.5 ¢ 2.5 ¢ 1.5 ¢ 2.5 ¢
source: www.usda.gov/news/pubs/factbook/001b.pdf

What a taxi costs
Price of a 3-mile daytime ride within city limits (with tip) Los Angeles $14.60 Tokyo $14.10 London $11.10 New York $10.00 Berlin $9.38 Vienna $9.29 Milan $8.35 Copenhagen $7.95 Paris $7.89 Tel Aviv $7.76
source: Los Angeles Times 11 February 2001 Times,

Expenditure

“It’s amazing,” Dandy says as we walk away. “Since I’ve been famous, I get better deals on everything. It’s so ironic. When you can finally afford to buy shit, they give you everything for free. After my show’s been on a few years, I want to go on Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous and see if I can go a week without having to open my wallet.”
Dennis Hensley, Misadventures In the (213): A Novel (New York, Rob Weisbach Books, 1998), 68.

A. Scott

MONEY

244

I felt a sharp stab of resentment, no, make that rage. Never in my life would I be able to live like this. It wasn’t just the money, although these Hollywood Hills were paved with gold. It was the ease, the confidence, the organization that I’d never be able to figure out. The best thing I could hope for in my little life would be a house in the Valley, and the last thing in the world I ever wanted in my life was a house in the Valley.
Carolyn See, The Handyman (New York: Random House, 1999), 127.

Renting versus ownership

monthly mortgage payment (average by census tract)

$ 500–999 $ 1,000–1,499 $ 1,500+

monthly rent payment (average by census tract)

$ 0–564 $ 565–681 $ 682–839 $ 840–1,050

Housing

source: Southern California Association of Governments (www.scag.ca.gov)

J. Rocholl

J. Moon

MONEY

246
J. Moon

J. Rocholl

J. Moon

J. Rocholl

J. Rocholl

J. Moon

Housing

Contributing Writers

When I moved here in June 1991 to edit an architecture publication, Los Angeles was recessionhit but relatively complacent. Architects concerned themselves more with designing stylish baubles than grappling with issues of the city. The sun shone brightly, but most of us did not see the glaring social fissures. Then in April 1992 we were smacked in the civic gut by the riots. The events of April 29 shook the media, politicians, architects, and most citizens from what seems in retrospect to have been a pleasant oblivion to the seething tensions of a fast-changing city. Even though the riots were succeeded by other, natural calamities, and the recession gave way to economic boom, I believe the mindset here was profoundly altered; for better or worse, L.A. now demanded to be taken seriously. The riots spawned radio shows like “Which Way, L.A.?” (which I subsequently went to work for) devoted to analyzing the city. In fiction, non-fiction, and poetry, local writers explored the many facets of its complex, contemporary social fabric. We have turned to some of these writers for insights about Los Angeles to include in this book. Rather than pluck excerpts from the many great writers of previous decades, we have by and large chosen authors who have captured L.A. now—“now” being the years since April 1992, which in my mind prematurely kick-started our New Millennium. We have selected excerpts from recent books and articles to illuminate the different chapters of this book. Listed below are the authors’ names with brief descriptions about their work. I should add that the great pleasure of being the text editor for L.A. Now has been to enrich my own understanding and perceptions of L.A. through reading the sharp and varied voices out there on the subject. With thanks to the authors for letting us reproduce their work, I urge you to buy and read these books. —Frances Anderton

Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the U.S. Big City (2000), Prisoners of the American Dream: Politics and Economy in the History of the U.S. Working Class (1986), City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (1990), and Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster (1998). Davis taught urban theory at the Southern California Institute of Architecture. He now lives in Papa’aloa, Hawaii. All excerpts from Ecology of Fear Copyright ©1998, Fear, are reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, LLC. John D’Amico parks his car in West Hollywood. His e-mail address on the web is jad3@aol.com. Marla Dickerson is a staff writer for the Los Angeles Times Times, where she writes about manufacturing and the Southern California economy. An Illinois native, Dickerson holds a bachelor’s degree in finance from the University of Illinois and a master’s degree in journalism from Northwestern University. Matt Duersten is a Wisconsin-bred freelance writer and editor who has worked for two premiere failed L.A. magazines of the 1990s: Glue (for which he served as senior editor) and Buzz (for which he was a flunky). In addition to a book on L.A.’s porn industry, 1-2-3 Be a Porn Star!: A Step-By-Step Step-By-Step Guide to the Adult Sex Industry (penned Ana Loria, 2000), Duersten has written for Jalouse, Black Book, Variety Time Variety, Out, Flaunt, Instinct, Los Angeles Magazine The New Times, Magazine, and the L.A. Weekly Weekly. Celeste Fremon is an award-winning journalist and author of Father Greg & the Homeboys (1995). She is a frequent contributor to the L.A. Weekly Los Angeles Times Magazine Weekly, Magazine, Good Housekeeping Los Angeles Magazine Utne Reader, Housekeeping, Magazine, Reader MSNBC, and Salon. She and her son, Will, live in a small house in Topanga Canyon, which occupies 18.5 square miles of chaparral-covered hills in unincorporated Los Angeles County. William Fulton, a journalist and urban planner who has lived and worked in Southern California since 1981, is the author of The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles (1997). He lives in Ventura, California. Dave Gardetta has been a writer-at-large for Los Angeles Magazine since 1995. His stories have appeared in the International Herald-Tribune, The Washington Post and Post, the Los Angeles Times Magazine For the last four years, Magazine. Gardetta has taught journalism at Eagle Rock High School. Larry Gelbart has been an on-and-off, in-and-out resident of Los Angeles since 1943. For over half a century, he has written for radio, television, the screen, and the stage in Los Angeles, as well as two of its suburbs, New York and London. Jay Gummerman, author of the novel Chez Chance (1995) and a collection of stories, We Find Ourselves in Moontown (1989), received an M.F.A. in fiction writing from the University of California at Irvine. He resides in San Clemente, California. Blake Gumprecht is a human geographer and cartographer whose research interests focus on the cultural and historical geography of the United States and Canada, especially the West, with emphasis on urban studies, environmental history, ethnic studies, popular culture, and the perception of place. He is presently at work on a book about the American college town. Dennis Hensley is the author of the Misadventures in the (213): A Novel (1998). As a journalist, his work has appeared in Movieline, Cosmopolitan Us Weekly InStyle Cosmopolitan, Weekly, InStyle, and The Advocate. He recently released his first CD as a singer/songwriter, The Water’s Fine, and is currently working on his next book, Screening Party Party.-He lives in the (818). Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, author of Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence (2001), is associate professor of sociology at the University of Southern California. Roger Keil, author of Los Angeles: Globalization, Urbanization, Urbanization, and Social Struggles (1998), is an associate professor

Eve Babitz is a journalist and novelist living in Los Angeles. She is the author of Eve’s Hollywood: A Confessional L.A. Novel (1974), Slow Days, Fast Company: The World, The Flesh, and L.A. Tales (1977), Sex and Rage: Advice for Young Ladies Eager For a Good Time: A Novel (1979), L.A. Woman (1982), Black Swans (1993), and Two by Two: Tango, Two-step and L.A. Night (1999). John J. Berger teaches and writes on energy and naturalresource issues and is a consultant on environmental science and policy. He is the author of books on nuclear and renewable energy including Charging Ahead: The Business of Renewable Energy and What It Means for America (1998) and is the editor of Environmental Restoration: Science and Strategies for Restoring the Earth (1990). Tony Cohan is the author of On Mexican Time: A New Life in San Miguel (2000), and the novels Canary (1981), a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, and Opium (1984). His essays, travel writings, and reviews have appeared in books, magazines, and newspapers including The Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times Times. He divides his time between Venice, California, and Mexico. Bernard Cooper, recipient of the PEN/Ernest Hemingway Award in 1991 and the O. Henry Prize in 1995, is the author of Guess Again: Short Stories (2000). He has also published two collections of memoirs, Maps to Anywhere (1990) and Truth Serum (1996), as well as the novel A Year of Rhymes (1993). His work has appeared in Story Ploughshares Story, Ploughshares, Harper’s, Harper’s The Paris Review, The New York Times Magazine Magazine, and in anthologies such as The Best American Essays (1988, 1995, 1997), and The Oxford Book on Aging: Reflections on the Journey of Life (1994). Cooper is currently a contributing writer for Los Angeles Magazine Magazine. Michael Datcher is the author of Raising Fences: A Black Man’s Love Story (2001). An award-winning journalist and critic, his poetry has been featured in Body and Soul (1996) and Catch the Fire!!!: A Cross-Generation Anthology of Contemporary African-American Poetry (1988). Datcher is the co-editor of Tough Love: Cultural Criticism and Familial Observations on the Life and Death of Tupac Shakur (1996). Datcher has served as director of literary programs for the World Stage Anansi Writer’s Workshop in L.A’s Crenshaw District since 1993. Mike Davis is the author of several books, including Magical

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of environmental studies at York University in Toronto. Norman M. Klein is the author of The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory (1997). He is a critic and historian of mass culture. In addition to being a published writer, he is also a professor at CalArts as well as a faculty member at Art Center College of Design. Joel Kotkin is the author of The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution Is Re-shaping the American Landscape (2000). He has published four books and is a contributing editor to the Los Angeles Times and a columnist for the Los Angeles Business Journal A senior fellow Journal. with the Davenport Institute for Public Policy at Pepperdine University, Kotkin lives in North Hollywood. Lisa Leff is a former staff reporter for The Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times A Los Angeles native, she Times. writes frequently on youth and social issues for Los Angeles Magazine and the Los Angeles Times Magazine where her Magazine, article on Jane Doe #59 appeared. Sandra Tsing Loh is the author of A Year in Van Nuys (2001), Aliens in America (1997), If You Lived Here, You’d Be Home By Now (1997), and Depth Takes a Holiday: Essays From Lesser Los Angeles (1996). She is a writer and performer who received the Pushcart Prize in Fiction in 1995 for her short story “My Father’s Chinese Wives.” Steve Lopez is a writer for the Los Angeles Times Times. Land of Giants, a collection of Lopez’s columns on local politics, was published in 1995. He is also a novelist. His first book, Third and Indiana (1994), was a finalist for the Dashiell Hammett Award. Lewis MacAdams is the author of The River: Books One and Two. He is the author of ten books of poetry, a film documentarian [What Happened to Kerouac? (1985) and What Eric Bogosian’s FunHouse (1987)], and an award-winning journalist for Rolling Stone Actuel, Los Angeles Magazine Stone, os Magazine, and L.A. Weekly among others. His recent book, Birth of Weekly, the Cool: Beat, Bebop, and the American Avant-Garde (2001), is a cultural history of the American avant-garde of the 1940s and 1950s. A founder of Friends of the Los Angeles River, he lives with his wife and two children in Los Angeles. Al Martinez is the author of City of Angles: A Drive-By Portrait of Los Angeles (1996). Born in Oakland, California, he studied at San Francisco State University and the University of California at Berkeley. In 1972 Martinez joined the Los Angeles Times where he worked as a senior writer on an Times, editorial team that won the 1984 Public Service Pulitzer Prize in Journalism for a series on Southern California’s Latinos. Bill Moseley is an actor/writer living in Los Angeles with two daughters, three cats, three fish, and three birds. A graduate of Yale University, his work has appeared in Interview, Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair Omni, Glue, Hollywood Reporter and Fair, Reporter, National Lampoon His acting resume includes Pink Cadillac, Lampoon. White Fang Choptop in The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2, Fang, and Otis in House of 1000 Corpses Moseley’s hobbies include Corpses. gardening, girls’ soccer, and hiking in the California hills. Yxta Maya Murray, author of What It Takes To Get To Vegas Vegas, is a professor of law at Loyola Law School. She has written fiction and nonfiction for Buzz and Glamour, among other Glamour publications. Jim Paul, author of Medieval in LA: A Fiction (1996), What’s Called Love (1993), and Catapult: Harry and I Build a Siege Weapon (1991), has also published material in such journals as The New Yorker and The Paris Review. James Ricci has been the columnist for Los Angeles Times Magazine since November 1999. Previously, he was a special-assignment feature writer at the Times and a member of the newspaper’s literary journalism team. He came to the newspaper in September 1996 after fifteen years as a writer and editor at the Detroit Free Press. Richard Rodriguez is an editor at Pacific News Service

and a contributing editor for Harper’s Magazine U.S. News Magazine, & World Report and the Sunday opinion section of the Report, Los Angeles Times He has published numerous articles in Times. such publications as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The American Scholar, Time, Mother Jones, Scholar and The New Republic He has also written two books: Republic. Hunger of Memory, An Autobiography (1981), and Days of Obligation: An Argument With My Mexican Father (1992), as well as two BBC documentaries. Jerry Schad, author of nine books on outdoor recreation in Southern California, is a recognized expert on trails in the region. He is a professor of physical science at San Diego Mesa College, writes the weekly column “Roam-O-Rama” for the San Diego Reader hosts the “Afoot and Afield in San Reader, Diego” series on KPBS-TV, and exhibits his astronomical photography at www.skyphoto.com www.skyphoto.com. Peter Schrag is the author of Paradise Lost: California’s Experience, America’s Future (1998). He is an author of many books and was for nineteen years the editorial page editor of the Sacramento Bee. All excerpts from Paradise Lost, Copyright ©1998, are reprinted by permission of The New Press. Carolyn See is the author of nine books, including The Handyman (1999). She is Friday morning reviewer for The Washington Post and has been on the boards Post, of the National Book Critics Circle and PEN/West International. The recipient of Guggenheim and Getty fellowships, See currently teaches English at UCLA. She lives in Pacific Palisades, California. John Shannon is the author of The Orange Curtain: A Jack Liffey Mystery (2001). Shannon, a native of Los Angeles, grew up in San Pedro and attended Pomona College and UCLA, where he received his M.F.A. in film. His career has spanned writing to teaching to political activism. Stuart Silverstein is a writer for the Los Angeles Times Times. Kevin Starr, a contributing editor to the opinion section of the Los Angeles Times is State Librarian of California and Times, a professor at the University of Southern California. The latest volume of his series on the history of California, The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s, was published in 1997. Deyan Sudjic is the author of The 100 Mile City (1993) and editor of Domus magazine. Jervey Tervalon, author of Living for the City (1998), was raised in the neighborhood of South Central Los Angeles. He has translated the terrain of his youth and today’s headlines into urban American stories about a community imploding. Héctor Tobar, the son of Guatemalan immigrants, is a reporter for the Los Angeles Times and was part of the writing team that won a Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the 1992 riots. He holds an M.F.A. from UC Irvine. Bruce Wagner’s books include I’m Losing You (1996) and Force Majeure (1991). His third book, I’ll Let You Go, is due in 2002. Wagner has directed several film projects including Women in Film (2001), produced by Killer Films and the Independent Film Channel. D. J. (Don) Waldie is an essayist, poet, and author of Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (1996) and more recently Real City: Downtown Los Angeles Inside/Out (2001). He serves as Public Information Officer for the City of Lakewood. Lawrence Weschler has written for The New Yorker since 1981. He has authored several texts on David Hockney, including CAMERAWORKS (1984) and an interview with the artist in the 1988 Los Angeles County Museum of Art retrospective catalogue. Weschler has published numerous books, including Seeing Is Forgetting the Name of the Thing One Sees: A Life of Contemporary Artist Robert Irwin (1982); Mr. Wilson’s Cabinet of Wonder (1995); Calamities of Exile: Three Nonfiction Novellas (1998); and A Wanderer in the Perfect City: Selected Passion Pieces (1998).

Contributing Photographers & Designer/Illustrators

Sam Durant is an artist living and working in Los Angeles. He is represented by Blum and Poe in Santa Monica and Galeria Emi Fontana in Milan. His work has been shown recently at the MAK Center for Art and Architecture in West Hollywood, Nikolaj Contemporary Art Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, the Royal College of Art in London, and Dortmund Kunstverein in Dortmund, Germany. Anne Fishbein is a documentary photographer living in Southern California. Her work has appeared in Harper’s Harper’s, The Atlantic Monthly and Los Angeles Magazine and is Monthly, Magazine, in the permanent collections of The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; and The Art Institute of Chicago. Jessica Fleischmann recieved her M.F.A. in graphic design at CalArts in 2001. She currently works at Lorraine Wild Design in Los Angeles. She also designs @n.d. and The Journal of Aesthetics and Culture. Her work can be seen in Eye Eye, at Printed Matter in New York, and on the Lida.com website. Andreas Freitag studied photography and graphic design at CalArts in 2000-01, as well as in his native Munich. He drives a big blue Mercedes. Jenafer Gillingham received her B.F.A. from Art Center. After living abroad in London, Montreux, and Munich for five years, she returned to her native Los Angeles to continue working on editorial photography. Her clients include Los Angeles Magazine Children’s Hospital, Louey/Rubino Magazine, Design, Emmy Magazine and L.A. Weekly Magazine, Weekly. David Grey is currently the art director for Clae Footwear. After living with a group of Rastas off the coast of Belize, he moved to California and received his M.F.A. in graphic design at CalArts in 2001. David is a Libra who likes tacos, ‘71 cabernet and long sunsets. Larry Hammerness is a freelance photographer who works in Los Angeles. His subjects range from celebrities and surfing to disasters and weddings. His photographs have been published both nationally and internationally and have been shown in several exhibitions. Erik Hillard is a 6th-term photography student at Art Center. Most of the photographs he provided are related to his book Inertia Breathes, a study of movement, transition, journey, and change. His freeway images, part of a series titled Junction Silent, reflect his attraction to the graphic nature of Los Angeles freeway interchanges and how they stand in majestic silence while thousands pass through them daily. Cheryl Himmelstein grew up in Tucson, graduated from Art Center, and now resides in Venice, California. She photographs a range of subjects including environmental portraits, personal projects, and editorial assignments. Her work has appeared in the Los Angeles Times Los Angeles Magazine Times, Magazine, U.S. News and World Report Industry Standard and Time. Report, Standard, Karen Hirt studied graphic design at the School of Art and Design in Zurich and at CalArts. where she recieved her M.F.A. in 2001. She has worked at Design Studio Anthon Beeke in Holland and Interbrand in Switzerland. She recently collaborated on the website for the Graphic Design Program at CalArts (www.calarts.design.edu). i-cubed, LLC is a Fort Collins, Colorado-based geo-processing service organization that offers complete business solutions based upon information and geodata derived from air photos, satellite imagery, and other sources of geographic information. Brandon Kalpin, an Art Center photography graduate in Summer 2001, contributed many images to L.A. Now. Among them are works from his Rooftop series, which reveals details that guide viewers to a discovery about their world and potentially change their point of view. By abstracting these nuances, he seeks to provoke a new consideration of the everyday.

What does Los Angeles look like? We have all seen it in the movies, both as itself and as a substitute for other cities. It is at once unique and generic: a profusion of visual diversity and an all-too-familiar landscape of indistinguishable built mass. The photographs that illustrate this book describe, subvert, and illuminate L.A. Now’s data.-In addition to the images by Art Center photography students, we include a substantial body of work by Los Angelesbased photographers found through research, gallery visits, and word of mouth. Many of the photographers dedicate themselves to issues such as labor, the homeless, and fashion; others have almost encyclopedic archives that depict myriad aspects of the city—a richness of resources vital to portraying Los Angeles in all of its complexity. The work presented in L.A. Now comprises previously published, unpublished, and commissioned photographs. The team of Art Center photography students took part in discussions about the nature of L.A. Now’s data, then either photographed to illustrate specific topics or offered related images culled from their portfolios. A number of photographers also located images in their archives and generously granted permission to reproduce them in this volume. One photographer spent two months photographing sites along a designated line through the entire city. It is our hope that this book becomes a piece of Los Angeles itself, a document of the place, a culmination of the ideas at work right now. Gregory Borjorquez is a freelance photographer who has been capturing East L.A. culture for his book project, Eastsiders. His work has been featured in L.A. Weekly Weekly, Los Angeles Magazine and Big Time Magazine Magazine, Magazine. Kaucyila Brooke is a Los Angeles-based artist. Her visual work and writing has appeared in Deborah Bright’s The Passionate Camera: Photography and Bodies of Desire (1998) and Diane Neumaier’s Reframings: New American Feminist Photographies (1996). Her ongoing video project, The Boy Mechanic was recently shown as a multi-channel Mechanic, video installation in the exhibition “<hers> Video as a Female Terrain” at the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Austria. She is the director of the program in photography at CalArts. Stephen Callis is a photographer and educator living in Los Angeles. His work on the L.A. River has appeared in numerous publications and is on permanent display at the L.A. River Center in Highland Park. He has also published a fotonovela in collaboration with Rubén Ortiz Torres and Leslie Ernst about hotel workers at a prominent L.A. hotel titled Murder in My Suite Suite. Christina Chung is not Chinese like most people think. Instead she is short, right-handed, obsessed with falling-apart old houses, and was born in Santa Ana. Since graduating from CalArts in 2001, she has focused her attention on getting over her fear of snails, practicing horse stance, drawing pictures of pictures, and taking pictures of drawings. Zoe Crosher is a recent M.F.A. graduate from the Photography and Integrated Media Programs at CalArts, concentrating her efforts on the Out the Window (LAX) series and preparing for a project to be shot for the Liberace Museum in Las Vegas. She is also managing editor of the forthcoming <net. net.net> book, published by the California Institute of the Arts Press and featuring interviews with participants of the MOCAand CalArts-sponsored <net.net.net> conference. Slobodan Dimitrov is a photographer based in the Long Beach/Los Angeles harbors area. He is a contributing photographer for The Dispatcher L.A. Weekly The Building Dispatcher, Weekly, Trades News, and Random Lengths His work has appeared Lengths. in The Nation, The Carpenter The Progressive Los Angeles Carpenter, Progressive, Magazine, Magazine and The Economist, among many labor publications and newspapers. Dunja Dumanski, a 6th-term photography student at Art Center, contributed images of “consumption and waste” related to her interest in the human body. Dunja notes, “Los Angeles is decaying.”

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Edit Kozma has been living in Los Angeles for over ten years photographing fashion, advertising, nature, and art. She spent the last few months, among other projects, shooting the 246 photos that document a line that spans the Los Angeles agglomeration. The project has afforded her the enjoyment of getting to know the city in a unique way. Jane Kung graduated from Art Center’s photography department in Summer 2001. Her interest in cultural differences, informed by her Taiwanese background, can be seen in many of Kung’s images. She contributed two series— one on recycling, the other on the ethnicities of L.A. “I didn’t want to show any more stereotypes about different races,” she says. “Instead I want to show how people really live in L.A. and what they like to do. No one is better than another, and my hope for the future is that someday everyone truly becomes equal.” Stephen Latty is a graduate student of film at Art Center. The series of video stills that capture the “100 People of Los Angeles” stem from an interest in personal interactions within crowds and their general reflection of class relations. Mark Lipson was born in Toronto and attended New York University film school. He came to Los Angeles in 1978, where he has been a photographer and filmmaker exploring the surreal and mundane landscape of the city. He now resides in Venice, California, with his wife and children. Ken Lubas, now retired, has been a photojournalist on the staff of the Los Angeles Times for more than thirty years. His photographs have appeared on the covers and in the pages of Sports Illustrated National Geographic Time, Illustrated, Geographic, Newsweek, and Life, among other national and international publications. Among his many recognitions are two Pulitzer Prizes as a team member and numerous personal awards from major competitions. Ken Marchionno is an artist, writer, and educator currently residing in Los Angeles. His work has been published and exhibited throughout the U.S., Korea, and Russia. Jennifer McKnight received her B.F.A. in Printmaking at Washington University in St Louis, and has recently worked in advertising as a digital illustrator. She is currently working on an M.F.A. in graphic designat CalArts. Julie Moon is a graduate of Otis College of Art and Design. She lives and works in Los Angeles. Swan Moon is a young L.A.-based artist who works mainly in photography and film/video. She has exhibited work in Los Angeles and New York and is a recent graduate of the Photography Program at CalArts. Theo Morrison, a 6th-term photography student at Art Center, contributed works from two series, as well as the 100 People of Los Angeles photograph. About his involvement in the project, he writes: “I realized that the trajectory, the momentum of our massive concrete grids, is faster than documentation. The image becomes everything and nothing in relation to a world paced by circuit boards. What I find unique in photographing Los Angeles is the relation these images have to images propelling the make-believe that dominates the city’s folklore. I am also fascinated with the subject’s relation to this make-believe, as well as my own.” Dwayne Moser is an artist and writer living in Los Angeles. His work addresses the phenomenon of celebrity and, simultaneously, the Angeleno landscape. Brian Moss is a multi-media artist with an M.F.A. in photography from CalArts, and a B.F.A. in painting from Tyler School of Art in Philadelphia. This summer, Moss received a Durfee Foundation Artists’ Resource for Completion Grant for work made during a three-month residency at the Delaware Center for Contemporary Art. Since 1997, Moss has taught photography, digital imaging, drawing, and sculpture in a variety of Los Angeles schools and universities.

Karin Apollonia Müller has worked in both California and Germany for the last 6 years. The German-born artist has received numerous fellowships and awards including a DAAD grant, a Villa Aurora fellowship, and a Lannan Residency. A recent body of work was published as Angels in Fall (2001) by Kruse Verlag, Germany. She is currently represented by Karyn Lovegrove Gallery, Los Angeles, and Julie Saul Gallery, New York. Presently she is working on a Getty/CalArts commission in Los Angeles. All images from Angels in Fall appear courtesy of Kruse Verlag, ISBN 3-934923-09-7, www.krusepublishers.com www.krusepublishers.com. Gala Narezo, who recently graduated from Art Center in photography and is returning to do an honors term, focused on the people passing through LAX for her L.A. Now project. She is interested in exploring the state of community in the modern world. Touching upon ideas of belonging and displacement, she pays special attention to transient spaces where community might not be expected, such as an airport, mall, or grocery store. Marlon Perkins is a prominent researcher for “Merkin and his Organization”. He rents in the Locust Mountain neighborhood of Los Angeles. His work has appeared in books, in periodicals such as Newsweek, Space Shower TV and during sleep. He recommends frequent exposure to lightning. Lorenzo Pesce is an Art Center photography student who graduated in August 2001. His L.A. Now project—LAX at night—involved the idea of representing people through empty public spaces in Los Angeles. “Coming from Italy, I have always seen Los Angeles as an empty city, because you see a lot more cars than people.” Jennifer Rocholl recently finished her 7th term in photography at Art Center. Her motivation for the People series was to capture the faces of Los Angeles in the way she encounters them—whether it’s a boy with his puppy or a truck driver stopping in for breakfast at a diner. About the Homes of L.A. series, she says, “I think it’s interesting to be able to compare the diverse personal signatures of the residents of Los Angeles right on their front lawns.” Allen Scott, a 7th-term photography student at Art Center, has always had a curiosity in how quickly the world around us changes. “We live in a contradictory society in which we crave the familiar, a sense of history, and yet we constantly tear down and rebuild our environment to fulfill our craving for the ‘new and improved.’” With this in mind, he approached the topic of “consumption” while seeking timeless images of urban Los Angeles. Issa Sharp lives in Los Angeles with her husband and twelve-year old son. Stuart Charles Smith is an amateur celebrity sleuth who works in the agglomeration, where he lives with his dog, Nikki Love. He is an M.F.A. candidate in graphic design at CalArts. Jon Sueda is a graphic designer currently studying in the CalArts M.F.A. program in graphic design. Previously, he worked on Speak magazine in San Francisco and was visiting lecturer in the graphic design department at the University of Hawaii. Brandon Welling is a photographer and architect living in Santa Monica. He currently works for Morphosis, and his photographs have been published in books and magazines worldwide, including Metropolis Interiors, Casabella, C3 Metropolis, Korea, GA Japan The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Japan, Times. Robert Yager is an award-winning, L.A.-based photographer from London. His work regularly appears in such publications as The New York Times Magazine L.A. Weekly and several Magazine, Weekly, British magazines. He has also been documenting a Latino gang in L.A. over the last ten years. Scott Zukowski specializes in design for cultural institutions and has self-published several faculty/student collaborative projects. His research focuses on design- and culture-related issues explored through photography, screenprinting, collage, and installation. His work has been published in Eye Emigre Eye, Emigre, I.D., and Cranbrook Design: The New Discourse He has Discourse. worked at M&Co. in New York and has held full-time teaching positions at CalArts, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Herron School of Art. He received his M.F.A. from Cranbrook Academy of Art.

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