Sociology (Reviewer)vfv | Norm (Social) | Gender

CULTURE Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, custom, and any other

capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of Society. Culture refers to the artificial or man- made environment as well as the behavioral aspects of man’s way of life. Characteristics of Culture CULTURE IS LEARNED CULTURE IS SOCIALLY TRANSMITTED THROUGH LANGUAGE CULTURE IS A SOCIAL PRODUCT CULTURE IS A SOURCE OF GRATIFICATION CULTURE IS ADAPTIVE CULTURE IS THE DINSTINCTIVE WAY OF A GROUP OF PEOPLE CULTURE IS MATERIAL AND NONMATERIAL CULTURE HAS SANCTIONS AND CONTROLS CULTURE IS STABLE YET DYNAMIC CULTURE IS AN ESTABLISHED PATTERN BEHAVIOR COMPONENTS OF CULTURE 1. Norms- these are guidelines people are supposed to follow in their relation with one another. Among the social mores are: FOLKWAYS- these are everyday habits, customs, traditions, and conventions people obey without giving much thought to the matter. Laws – enacted by people vested with legitimate authority. 2. IDEAS, BELIEFS, AND VALUES Ideas are non-material aspect of culture and embody man’s conception of his physical, social and cultural world. Beliefs refer to a person’s conviction about a certain idea. Values abstract concepts of what is important and worthwhile. 3. MATERIAL CULTURE Refers to the concrete and tangible objects produced and used by man. 4. SYMBOLS Refers to an object, gesture, sound, and color design the represents something. MORES- these are the norms people consider vital to their wellbeing and most cherished values. Two kinds of mores; Positive mores or duty or the “thou shall behavior- DUTY - Refers to the behavior , which must and ought to be done. Negative mores or taboo or the “thou shall not behavior” Refers to societal prohibitions on certain acts which must not be done.

Other sub-concepts related to culture CULTURAL RELATIVISM- states that cultures differ.

refers to smaller groups which develop norms. REBELLION AND REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS.evaluation of one’s culture and that of others based romantic notion. values beliefs and special languages.involves cultural borrowing and cultural imitation.refers to the process of finding a new place or an object. It is politically termed as imperialism. disorganization and frustration one experiences when encounters cultural patterns. creating and producing something new. Enculturation. CULTURE LAG – refers to gap between material and non-material. artifact or anything that previously existed. SUBCULTURE. DIFFUSION. INVENTION. Acculturation.this is the biological or hereditary fusion of members of different societies. Diffusion involves the ff. and norms of one’s own group. social and political policy of establishing a colony which would be subject to the rule. COLONIZATION. XENOCENTRISM-refers to the idea what is foreign is best and that one’s lifestyle. social processes.CULTURE SHOCK.It refers to the spread of cultural traits.refers to the feeling of disbelief. CAUSES OF CULTURAL CHANGE DISCOVERY. ETHNOCENTRISM.this the blending or fusion of two distinct implies a creative mental process of devising.refers to the tendency to see the behaviors. COUNTERCULTURE OR CONTRA CULTURE. UNIVERSAL PATTERNS OF CULTURErefers to broad areas of social living found in all societies.these aim to change the whole social order and replace the leadership. products or ideas. beliefs values. Assimilation. NOBLE SAVAGE MENTALITY.refers to the political. .this is the deliberate infusion of a new culture to another. Amalgamation.refers to subgroups whose standards come in conflict with.

Superego. social and cultural differences between males and females. LABELING THEORY. psychological or mental.the result of society’s labeling on human behavior as either good or bad.the general classification of human beings as males and females based on the differences of their primary sex organs. is individual personalities of members of societies are tiny replicas. Charles Horton Cooley. and spiritual traits of a person which underlie his behavior and which makes him distinct.socialization for sex roles begins at birth. unique or different from all others. ASCRIBED STATUS. . THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT FREUD’S THEORY OF SOCIALIZATION Id. SOCIAL STATUS.determined by birth where a person has no choice like sex and age. plays a corresponding role and emerges with personality.the reservoir of sexual and aggressive urges. Gender Identify – refers to conception that we have of ourselves as men and women Gender Training.the main factor that determines human behavior. SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM THEORY George Albert = the self consists of two parts: I and me. ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT refers to the physical surroundings. Gender – connotes the physical. Ego-is the rational part of the self. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGICAL INHERITANCE OR HEREDITY HEREDITY refers to the physical and mental traits transmitted by the parents to their offspring through the germ plasma.“looking glass self” BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM THEORY.refers to the social position of a person in the group. SOCIALIZATION FOR SEX ROLES Sex. PERSONALITY Refers to the sum total of all the physical or biological. emotional.conscience CULTURAL DETERMINISM THEORY Franz Boaz view is that personality dev. social or cultural.Socialization Socialization is the learning process where the individual acquire a status.

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