Antibiotics

Ampicillin

Chemotherapy with Antibiotics
The chemotherapy of bacterial infections dates back to 1935, when the synthetic group of drugs commonly known as sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs, was introduced. Examination of mortality rates in England and Wales from that time onwards indicates that these drugs reduced the mortality from hemolytic streptococcal infections (typified by puerperal fever), pneumonia, and cerebrospinal fever. Though often referred to as antibiotics due to their bacteria-fighting ability, sulfonamides are not derived from living organisms and should not, therefore, be classified as such according to traditional usage of the term. It was not until several years after sulfonamides became available that true antibiotics derived from, or produced by, fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, were added to the arsenal of medicinal weapons available for combating bacterial diseases.

René Dubos. Indeed. but was unable to isolate the material. The first to isolate and chemically characterize the substance were pathologist Howard Florey and biochemist Ernst Chain. and his further efforts revealed that a substance dubbed tyrothricin derived from the bacterium was actually able to combat an impressive . which quickly became a widespread form of medical treatment. an increased necessity for finding ways of treating infections suffered by wounded members of the military resulted in increased interest in penicillin research. as well as a wide range of other antibiotics. produced this unusual effect. shortly after the introduction of penicillin to the world. an American scientist. Clindamycin Today. helped revolutionize the medical field during the twentieth century. Fleming correctly deduced that the mold was producing a substance.Erythromycin Penicillin. the first antibiotic ever discovered. who in 1928 observed by chance that the growth of bacteria he was attempting to culture in his laboratory was inhibited by a contaminating mold (Penicillium). Knowledge of this important and powerful antibiotic began with Alexander Fleming. whose achievements led to the ability of generating sizable quantities of the antibiotic. found that a soil bacterium was able to render pneumococcus bacteria innocuous. During World War II. which he termed penicillin. there are hundreds of derivatives of penicillin that have been developed. including the semi-synthetic compound ampicillin that appears on the banner above.

many are skeptical and believe long-term concerns about the increasing immergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Around the same time. This controversial practice. For similar reasons. is intended to increase the weight of the animals. which correspondingly increases their economic value. Yet. which is often carried out even for healthy livestock. The drugs are also frequently included in the diet of cattle and other farm animals. many in the scientific community also find the everyday use of antibiotic soaps and lotions that has arisen among the general public in recent years problematic. which common exposure to antibiotics promotes. For similar monetary reasons. however. although utilization of antibiotics for such purposes may make shortterm economic sense. antibiotics are also widely used to treat a number of plant diseases caused by bacterial infections.array of infectious bacteria. These and additional antibiotics that have since been developed are responsible for saving innumerable lives and improving the quality of life for countless others. Amoxicillin Antibiotics are not only utilized as a form of medical treatment for humans. American microbiologists Selman Waksman and Albert Schatz isolated streptomycin and a variety of other bacteria-fighting agents from the microbe Streptomyces griseus. Ofloxacin . often enabling farmers to avoid significant crop losses. should take precedence.

Streptococci. As more and more multiresistant bacteria evolve. These remaining bacteria reproduce and pass the same characteristic to their offspring. Some of the other common bacteria that have since been found to be unaffected by antibiotics that were formerly effective in rendering them harmless include Salmonella.The development of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics essentially occurs due to the evolutionary process and natural selection. Chloromycetin Many strains of bacteria have become. If they are unable to meet the challenge. More precisely. when strains of both pneumonia-causing pneumococcus and the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium that is responsible for gonorrhea were discovered. and Escherichia coli. These remarkable microorganisms are commonly referred to as "superbugs" due to the incredible difficulty in combating them. when a group of bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic. illnesses that came to be considered trifling occurrences in the twentieth century may once again become a cause for alarm. . Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were discovered as early as the 1960s. the faster pharmaceutical companies must race to develop new antibiotics to fight them. resistant to multiple antibiotics. only those that exhibit a certain trait or mutation can survive. resulting in an entire generation of microbes that are resistant to that particular compound. in fact.

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pain and swelling. . The mechanism of action appears to be binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits in susceptible bacteria to suppress protein synthesis. skin rash. Side effects include fever. It is particularly useful in patients with a history of allergies towards other antibiotics. topical. nausea. and systemic treatment of bacterial infections.Erythromycin Erythromycin is an wide-spectrum antibiotic that is used in ophthalmic.

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and skin rash.Clindamycin Clindamycin is an antibiotic that is primarily used as a topical solution in an alcohol base to treat external infections. fever. diarrhea. . therefore this drug should be reserved for serious infections when all other less toxic therapies have been exhausted. Side effects include abdominal cramps and pain. Therapy with clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis which may lead to death. sore throat.

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and occasionally dizziness and anxiety. Side effects include nausea. amoxicillin is not resistant to penicillinase so it is not effective against penicillinase-producing bacteria. . ampoxicillin exerts it's biological activity by inhibition of the biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall mucopeptides. The compound is stable in the presence of stomach acids and may be given without regard to meals. several hypersensitivity reactions. diarrhea.Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic derivative of penicillin and an analog of ampicillin that displays a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against many gram-positive and gramnegative organisms. Like other members of this class of antibiotics. Unfortunately.

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skin and related tissues. the eyes. Principal uses are to treat infections of the lower respiratory tract. There are also reports of tendon rupture and mental confusion with patients taking ofloxacin.Ofloxacin Ofloxacin is a synthetic broad spectrum antimicrobial agent that displays activity against a large spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. . the urinary tract. and several sexually transmitted diseases. Side effects with this drug can be severe and the drug should not be given to patients with head injuries.

Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners. This website is maintained by our Graphics & Web Programming Team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. 2004 at 02:42 PM Access Count Since September 19. graphics. All Rights Reserved. Davidson and The Florida State University. Mar 02.© 1995-2010 by Michael W. No images. scripts. Last modification: Tuesday. 1995: 22538 Microscopes provided by: . software. or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders.

Chloromycetin Chloromycetin is an antibiotic first derived from cultures of the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae in the late 1940s. gastrointestinal reactions. and hypersensitivity. nerotoxicity. Although this drug was commonly used in the 1950s and 1960s. There are numerous adverse reactions to the drug including bone marrow depression. it is now reserved for microbial infections that are resistant to antibiotics that have fewer side effects. .

1995: 59706 Microscopes provided by: . software. This website is maintained by our Graphics & Web Programming Team in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Last modification: Tuesday. or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. No images. 2004 at 02:41 PM Access Count Since September 19. All Rights Reserved. scripts. Davidson and The Florida State University.© 1995-2010 by Michael W. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners. Mar 02. graphics.

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