You are on page 1of 76

CommunityRelationsCouncil

Responsetotheconsultationonthe

ProgrammeforCohesion, SharingandIntegration Consultation


OCTOBER2010

CONTENTS

Chapter1TheCommunityRelationsCouncil Chapter2TowardsaSharedSociety?thebackgroundand contextofCSI Chapter3Sharingoverseparation:buildingaprogramme forcohesion,sharingandintegration Chapter4Makingchangehappen:whatworksfor cohesion,sharingandintegration? Appendix1Examplesofmodelsofgoodpracticein communityrelationsdevelopedthroughCRC Appendix2Domesticlegislativecontext. Footnotes


CHAPTER1THECOMMUNITYRELATIONSCOUNCIL 1. Introduction a. InJuly2010,theNorthernIrelandExecutivereleaseditsdraftProgrammeforCohesion, SharingandIntegrationforpublicconsultation.Whilethedocumenthasbeenalong timecoming,successivedevolvedadministrationshavefounditdifficulttoagreeonthe prioritiesforthisvitalwork.WiththepublicationofaprogrammetheExecutivehas nowsetoutwhatitbelievestobetheprioritiesofaprogrammeforasharedandbetter futureandhasinvitedwidersocietytoconsiderthecontent. b. TheCommunityRelationsCouncil(CRC)welcomesthefactthatgovernmenthasfulfilled itspromisetoproduceadraftpolicyi.CRCisalsodelightedtoengageinafullandopen publicdebateonthisissueasCRCbelievethatitisabsolutelyvitalforthefutureofthe wholesocietyhere.Inmakingthisresponse,theCouncilismindfulofitsparticular existingresponsibilitiesforworkinthisarea.TheCRCwasestablishedin1990asan independentbodyatarmslengthfromgovernmenttochampionequality,community relationsandrespectforculturaldiversity.Partofitscontributionhasbeentoactasan intermediaryfunder,shapinganddevelopingpilotcommunityprojectswhichboth tackledconflictissuesastheyemergedandsoughttopromoteasharedandbetter future.ButtheCouncilhasalwaysbeenacutelyawarethatitsfundamentaltaskisto neitherpreservetheorganisationnordevelopprojectsbuttousethesetoolsalongside otherstoensurethattheprinciplesofequityandjustice,realrespectfordiversityand inclusion,andinterdependencebecomenormalpartsoflifehere. c. Followingacomprehensiveconsultationunderthelastreviewofthisareaofwork,A SharedFuture,theCouncilwaswidelyendorsedastheregionalbodyforcommunity relationsworkwithanobligationtochallengeacrossthesystemtopromoteashared andbetteracrossgovernmentandsociety.CRCthereforeregardthissubmissiontothe consultationasacentralpartofourpublicobligationtochallenge,andaspartofour primarycommitmenttothepromotionofanewnormal.Reconciliationmustbecentral tothenewprogramme.However,itisnotanevent,butapathwhichmustbepursued withdedication,patienceandcommitment.Theslowbutsteadyreductioninactive politicalviolenceoverthelastdecadehasleftasocietyanxioustomovetowardsthese principlesalthoughstilltentativeandsuspiciousabouttheintentionsofothers. 2. WhatistheCommunityRelationsCouncil? a. TheCommunityRelationsCouncil(CRC)wasformedinJanuary1990withthepurposeof supportingandpromotingcommunityrelationsworkatalllevelswithinthecommunity, arolewhichitcontinuestocarryout.Itoriginatedfromaproposalofaresearchreport commissionedbytheNIStandingAdvisoryCommitteeonHumanRights,titled ImprovingCommunityRelations(FrazerandFitzduff,1986).CRCistheregionalbody forcommunityrelationsinNorthernIreland,establishedasanindependentcharityand actingasanarmslengthbodythroughsponsorshipbytheOfficeoftheFirstMinister andDeputyFirstMinister(OFMDFM).TheMemorandumandArticlesprovideforupto onethirdoftheBoardtobeappointedbytheGovernmentbutthisoptionhasnotyet beentakenupbythedevolvedadministration.Theboardisappointedthrougha

b.

c.

d.

e.

supervisedpublicappointmentsprocess.Sinceitsestablishmentin1990theCRChas supportedpracticalinitiativesunderpinningprogresstowardsasocietywhoseprinciples arefairnessandjustice,thepeacefulcelebrationofvarietyanddifference,andthe importanceofsharing,trustandinclusion.Bysupportingpartnerships,cooperation, dialogue,meetingandfriendship,andbypromotingbetterpracticeandpolicy,CRCis theleadingindependentvoicechampioningchangetoachieveandmaintainashared andopensocietybasedonfairness,thecelebrationofdiversityandvariety,andgenuine reconciliationandinterdependence. Followingwidespreadconsultationunderthelastreviewofthisareaofwork,AShared Future,anindependentCRCwasconfirmedastheregionalbodyforcommunity relationsworkwithanobligationtochallengeacrossthesystemtopromoteashared andbetterfutureacrossgovernmentandsociety.TheconsultationresponsestoA SharedFutureclearlyindicatedthattherewaswidespreadsupportfortheimportanceof aregionalbody,independentofgovernmentandcapableofcommandingwidespread supporttopromotegoodrelationsacrossgovernmentandsociety,support organisationsthroughfunding,traininganddevelopmentofgoodpracticeandto provideachallengefunctionacrossthepublicsectorandwidercivicsocietythrough research,bestpractice,andpolicydevelopment. SinceitsinceptionCRChasdevelopedsignificantlyinitsapproachtothiswork,andinits supportandimplementationofactionsandprogrammesthatseektoproactively acknowledgeanddealwiththelegacyofourconflictandthecontinuedimpactsof divisionsoastoensureabetterqualityoflifeforallinoursociety. CRCsvisionisofapeaceful,inclusive,prosperous,stableandfairsocietyfoundedonthe achievementofreconciliation,equality,cooperation,respect,mutualtrustandgood relations,ofanopensociety,freefromintimidationandthreat,wherepeaceand toleranceareconsiderednormal. Tosupportthesecuringandattainmentofthisvision,iiCRCsresponsibilitiesasa regionalbodyare: promotinggoodrelationsactionsinthestatutory,private,andvoluntaryand communitysectors,encouragingconstructivedebateondifficult,sensitive,and controversialtopics; developingpracticalopportunitiesforintercommunityandintercultural partnershipandunderstanding; developing,supportinganddisseminatingbestpracticeexamplesofpeacebuilding, intercommunitypartnershipandinterculturalcooperation promotingactionandsupportdevelopinginterventionsatinterfacesandotherat riskareas; providingsupport(finance,advice,information)forinnovativeprojectsundertaken bylocalgroupsandorganisations; developmentandmanagementofinnovativeintercommunityworkthroughtheIFI CommunityBridgesProgramme; developingworkwithVictimsandSurvivorsofviolenceincludingaleadrolein acknowledginganddealingwiththepastthroughtheEUPEACEIIIProgramme(in consortiumwithPobal); advisingDistrictCouncilsonbestpractice,includinganadvisoryrolethroughthe PEACEIIIprogramme(inconsortiumwithPobal);

3. a.

b.

c.

d.

e. f.

g. h.

advocatingandchallengingprogresstowardsabettersharedandprosperoussociety andincreasingpublicawarenessofcommunityrelationswork; assistingGovernmentinthedevelopment,implementation,anddeliveryonpolicies, programmesandactionsbyconnectingactionsatregional,subregionalandlocal level; providingsupport,trainingandguidancetoorganisations;statutory,private, communityandvoluntaryanddistrictcouncilsandindoingso; developingandproducinggoodpracticeadvice; commissioningandundertakingresearch;and encouragingtheflowofideasandpracticeonNorthSouth,EastWest,Europeanand internationallevels. ExamplesofCRCsworkandachievementsoverrecentyears Thedevelopmentofasustainedandvibrantregionalinfrastructureforcommunityand goodrelationsworkacrosstheregionthroughOFMDFMcorefunding,PEACEII,PEACE IIIandIFICommunityBridgesProgrammeisrecognizedasbeingofworldclassiii.This includesthedevelopmentofcapabilitiesandkeyskillssuchasmediation,training,public dialogueandworkwithpublicinstitutions.CRChasalsoshapedthedevelopmentof communityrelationsworkinkeythematicareassuchastheworkplace,sportand churches.CRChastakenakeeninterestinensuringthatthisworkbuildsonthe enthusiasmofavarietyofconstituencies,includingyoungpeopleandwomen.CRChas investedinvolunteerandresidentialcapacityaswellascommunityrelationsworkinthe mostcontestedareas,suchasinterfaces,andinlocalareasacrossthetownsandcities ofNorthernIrelandandbeyond.ItalsoincludesthedevelopmentofCRCasaleading agentforthesupportanddevelopmentofcrossborderpeacebuildinginIreland. Theestablishment,supportanddevelopmentofadensenetworkofinterfacepeace projectsacrossBelfastincludingprogramme,practicalsupportandinnovation. PracticallyallofthisworkhasbeenundertakenthroughschemesmanagedbyCRC.This hasbecomethecoreforintercommunitydialogueinthemostcontestedareasofthe cityandbeyondandavitalresourceforstability. Developmentofinnovativecommunityprojectswhichhavebecomeexemplarsofbest practiceincommunityrelationsandthebaseforwiderinitiativese.g.Springfarm, HazelwoodPartnership,RuralEnablersProgramme. Developmentandcoordinationofstatutoryvoluntarypartnershipstotacklethemost difficultresidualissuesinpeacebuilding:TheInterfaceWorkingGroupandtheBeyond Belfastprojectintoruralsegregation. Thesensitiveandprofessionaldevelopmentofsystematicandinclusiveadvocacyand servicedeliverystructurebyvictimsforvictimsoftheconflict. Developmentofimportantservicesforvictimsandsurvivorssuchasvolunteer befriending,caringandrespiteforcarersandengagingvictimsinthemostsensitive complexissueofpeacebuildingandasharedfuture Supportanddevelopmentfortheestablishmentof14localPEACEPartnershipscovering allofNorthernIrelandandthe6Bordercounties.(inconsortiumwithPobal) Oneofthemostinnovative,creativeandresponsivesmallgrantsprogrammefor communityrelations,culturaldiversityandemergencyresponseinNorthernIreland.

i.

j. k.

l. m.

n.

o. 4. BestPracticemodels Asexamplesofmodelsofbestpracticedevelopedbygroupsandorganizationsthrough supportandencouragementofCRCithasincludedasampleofthehugerangeofprojects andinitiativeswhichhaveemerged.ThesecanbefoundatAppendix1.

CooperativeinstitutionalpartnershiponcriticalissuessuchasReImagingCommunities, CreatingCommonGround,SharedNeighbourhoodScheme,GoodRelationsForum, SharedEducationProgramme,NorthBelfastCommunityActionUnitandBelfastCity CouncilGoodRelationsUnit. Systematicpolicyresponsetosharedfuture,communityrelationsandculturaldiversity issues. Participationinreviewsofsomeofthemostdifficulttopicse.g.theAshdownReviewon Parading,theCrumlinRoadGaol/GirdwoodAdvisoryPanelandtheSentenceReview Commission. Establishmentofbroadpublicplatformsforasharedfutureandagainsthatecrime,such asCommunityRelationsWeek,UniteAgainstHateandtheOneSmallStepcampaign Practicalandintellectualsupportforcommunityrelationsworkandpolicy: establishmentofSharedSpaceResearchjournal; numerousresearchpublicationsonkeytopicssuchasinterfaces,education,young people,planningandsharedspaceandtheembeddednessofsectarianism; publicconferencesonkeythemessuchascohesion,sharingandIntegration, businessandeconomicdevelopment,youngpeopleandasharedfuture; sustainabilityincommunityrelationsworkandthefutureofvictimsandsurvivors work; trainingeventsrangingfromsupportforfinancialandprogrammemanagement, evaluationandmonitoring,tosectarianismandracism; seminarsonkeyresearchandcorethemessuchassharedspace,housing,cohesion artsandcommunityrelations,andtheworkofkeythinkersonpeacebuilding 5Practitionersforumsperannum;and publicchallenge,newspaperandjournalarticlesandadvocacyacrossNorthern Irelandandtheborderregion.InternationallearningsupportthroughtheAMBIT programmeandtheOutwardandForwardlookingRegionprogrammeofEUPEACE IIextension. Advicetogovernmentdepartmentsonnumerousissuesofintercommunityconcern includingMinisterialworkinggrouponNorthBelfast,FlagsProtocolMonitoringGroup, NorthBelfastCommunityActionGroup,GoodRelationsPanel,DESharedFuture Advisorygroup,DoEMigrationAdvisorygroup,DSD,BRO,DCALandnumerousDistrict Councils. EstablishmentoftheRowntreeMonitoringprojectontheprogressofpeace.

CHAPTER2TOWARDSASHAREDSOCIETY?THEBACKGROUNDANDCONTEXTOFCSI 1.Thelegacyofhistory:fromsectarianismtoreconciliation? a. Sustainedpoliticalandsocialantagonismalongpoliticallineswhichhadstrong associationswithreligioustraditionhasdefinedandconfinedlifeinthenorthofIreland overgenerationsandforcenturies.DeepdivisionsoverEmpire,theroleoftheBritishin Ireland,andtheroleofreligionemergedatthecoreoftheunderlyingcrisisoverthe legitimacyandnatureofthestatethathavemarkedNorthernIrelandoutsinceitcame intoexistencein1920.Asaresult,andwellbefore1969,publiclifeherewasmarkedby sporadicandrepeatedpoliticalviolence,permanentemergencylawandfixedpolitical identitiesiv. b. Politicaldivisionsreflectedandreinforceddivisionsinthepatternofinterrelationshipin everydaylife.Whiletherearefewacknowledgedsectarians,thisnexusofhostilityand separatenessaroundpoliticsandreligionisoftenreferredtoassectarianism.The struggleforpowerbetweenemergentblocsfosteredandjustifiedallsortsofactsof discriminationandviolencebystate,paramilitariesandotherprotagonistsand individuals,leavingadeepimprintonoursenseofwhoweareourveryidentities.The experienceofexclusionanddiscrimination,ofimminentthreattoculture,personand propertyandofviolenthatredhasbeentoopersistenttobewishedawayordismissed asatemporaryattitude.Andoursocialworldswereoftenbuiltonthebasisofthe themandusshapedbyexclusion,fearandbitterexperience. c. Inthisway,sectarianismispartofourinheritance,partofwhatcountsasnormal.It wasneverthetotalityofourexperience.Butitsinfluenceoverfundamentalchoices likewherewelive,wherewegotoschoolandwhowetalktoshapedeventhosewho woreitslegacylightly.Overthelastdecades,ithasalsocharacterizedwhattherestof theworldunderstandsastheNorthernIrelandproblemourseeminginabilitytofinda waytolivepeacefullytogetherasequalsinasharedsociety.Withoutrecognitionofthe depthofpolarisationandevenhatred,itisimpossibleeithertoacknowledgethe breathtakingdegreetowhichagreeingjointpoliticalinstitutionsrepresentsahistoric breakthroughinrelationships,ortoacknowledgethescaleofthedivisionthatboth precededtheemergenceofviolencein1969andhasoutlastedtheemergenceofour fragilepeaceinrecentyears.Anditisthistheopportunityforsystemicchangecreated bypoliticalprogressandthesheerscaleofthetaskoftransformingadividedsociety intoasharedandbetteronewhichformsthebackdroptothecurrentpolicyfor Cohesion,SharingandIntegration(CSI). d. DivisionbetweenUnionistandNationalist,CatholicandProtestant,BritishandIrish, loyalistandrepublican,istheleitmotifthesignaturefeaturemarkingusoutinthe widerworld.Foreveryonelivingthroughtheperiod19692007,variouslyreferredtoas theTroubles,theconflict,thewareachofwhichtermsisloadedwithmeaning normalityinNorthernIrelandincludedallsortsofaccommodationswithdivision, includingthedailyrealityofbombingandshooting,profounddivisionsinourattitudes tolawandtheforcesoflawandorder,normalisedseparationinhousing,education, sportandcultureandtheemergenceofpeacewallsarmedpatrolsandsecurity zonesasthebestavailablewaytocreatesafetyandsecurity. e. Atthesametime,thecommonsenseofpublicadministrationinNorthernIreland,and eventhenameitselfissometimestakenasadeclarationofallegiance,hasbeentoavoid

seriousengagementwiththisunderlyingcrisisandthedilemmasitcreatedinpublic policy.Publicpolicysimplycouldnotaffordtoconstantlyreengagewiththecrisisof legitimacyanduneasypeacewhichunderlaytheinstitutionsofstate.Thisfailureto grapplewiththeunderlyingissueofdivisionandsuspicionlastedthroughthelastperiod ofseriousviolence,datedbackbymostpeopleto1969andresultingby1972inthe introductionofdirectBritishpoliticalcontrolfromWestminster.Planning,public services,businessandmuchofprivatelifewereconductedasifthiswereanormal society. f. Theemergenceofalocallycreatedpolicyframeworkwhichseeks,howevertentatively, tonameandaddressthedepthofdivisionisthereforeanimportantsymbolofchange. Thechallengeforanypolicyforcohesion,sharingandintegrationistobemorethan superficialandtotacklethislegacyattherightscale. 2.Theprinciplesofasharedandbetterfuture:equalityandgoodrelations a. Sectarianismhasbeenevidentinexclusivepoliticsandcultureandinsocioeconomic discrimination.Amongotherthingsitisacrisisintheexpectationofequalvalue,equal treatmentandequalopportunityatthehandsofboththestateandofeachotherthatis thebedrockofdemocracy. b. TheCommunityRelationsCouncilhassinceitsinceptionbelievedthattheprincipleand practiceofequalityisatthecoreofbuildinggoodrelations.Thisimpliesboththefull applicationoftheequalityprovisionofSection75andagenerositywhichacknowledges pastlackoffairnessanddisadvantageandseekstoredressanyunacceptableexclusions resultingfromit.CRCfurtherbelievesthatthiscommitmenttoinclusionandequality relatesnotonlytothepastbuttopolicyprioritiesforthepresentandfuture. c. Theemergenceofparallelandhostilecommunitiesaroundtheseissues,thethemand usculture,meansthattrustandinterdependenceremainfragile.Equalityisnot plausiblebetweenenemies,becauseenemiesalwaysseekvictoryandadvantage.The glibacceptanceofseparatebutequalalwaysignoresthefactthattheunderlyingtruth aboutseparationisexclusion.Historicallymostoftheadvocatesofseparatebut equalintheSouthernUSorSouthAfricaweremoreconcernedaboutseparationthan equality.ThustheobligationonpublicauthoritiesinNorthernIrelandtohaveregard forgoodrelationsdoesnotdilutethecommitmenttoequalitybutispartofa commitmenttoinclusion,andtotheequalvalueofall.Therewillbenogoodrelations withoutequalvalueandtreatment;buttherewillbenoequalityunlessthereisa commitmenttothewellbeingofall. d. Theconceptofgoodrelationsispoorlydefinedinlaw,andthismaylieatthecoreof thedeepconfusionwhichappearstocharacterisepublicdebateonthisquestion.For CRCgoodrelationsdoesnotprecludeproperreadjustmentsofemployment,goodsand serviceswhereinequalityisproven.Indeeditbothrequiresthatsuchredistribution takesplaceandcreatesaframeworkwithinwhichsuchnecessaryadjustmentisseenas desirableandimportant.Theprincipleisnotthemaintenanceofsuperficialharmony, butacommitmenttononnegotiableinclusionandinterrelationshiponthebasisofthe developmentofsocialandpoliticalrelationshipsrobustenoughtoacknowledgeconflicts andtotakeclearandprincipleddemocraticdecisionswithoutviolencetoredress injusticeandbuildaninclusivecommunity.Goodrelationsmustalwaysbecompatible withthefullimplementationofhumanrightsincludingtherightsofminorities.

e. CRCdoesnotbelievethatapartheid(separateandperhapsequal)isequallydesirableor equivalenttointerdependence,trustandconfidence.Apartheidwhichisrootedin exclusionandsupremacyisneverbenignbutalwaysconcealsexclusionbasedon violenceandthreat.Theappearanceofanytendencytoapartheidshouldtriggeran urgentconcerntopromotegoodrelationspreciselytoensurethatequalitycanbe achieved. f. ThiswasrecognisedintheNorthernIrelandAct(1998)withitsadditionalemphasison goodrelationsinthreespecifiedcategoriesunderSection75(2).WhileCRCbelieves thatthislistcanbeextended,itishoweverconvincedthatprogresstofullequalityand trustbetweenpeopledividedbyrace,religionandperceivedpoliticalaffiliationhere demandsadditionalattentiononthepartofpublicauthoritiestorecognisethedangers ofseparatedevelopment. g. TheNorthernIrelandActandalldevolvedgovernmentactionsarealsosubjecttothe EuropeanConventiononHumanRightsandTheHumanRightsAct,pertinentexamples ofwhichincludeArticle2(righttoLife,theissueabouteffectivelyinvestigatingdeaths whenitcometodealingwiththepastinparticular),Article8(therighttorespectfor privateandfamilylife,homeandcorrespondence),Article9(freedomofthought, conscienceandreligion;thisrightincludesfreedomtochangereligionorbelief,and freedom,eitheraloneorincommunitywithothersandinpublicorprivate,tomanifest religionorbelief,inworship,teaching,practiceandobservance),Article10(therightto freedomofexpression.Thisrightshallincludefreedomtoholdopinionsandtoreceive andimpartinformationandideaswithoutinterferencebypublicauthorityand regardlessoffrontiers). h. TheemergenceofSection75hasenabledCRCtoprioritisethefullrangeofintercultural worksince1998.Thegrowthofamorediverseandgloballyconnectedsocietyin NorthernIrelandinrecentyearshasbeenaparticularlyrewardingconsequenceofthe peaceprocess.However,wehaveallbeenconfrontedbythefactthatviolenceand exclusionpreviouslytargetedonasectarianbasisnowhasbrutalparallelsinattackson vulnerablepeopleonthebasisofminorityethnicbackgroundorsexualorientation. Whileinterculturalworkinnowayexhauststherequirementtoensurefullrace equality,itrepresentsavitalelementinensuringthelongtermequality,participation, securityandbelongingofallpeopleofdifferentbackgroundsinNorthernIreland. i. NeitherCSInorS75(2)defineequalityorgoodrelations.,However,thenewEqualityAct 2010(forGB,notextendedtoNI)doesprovideadefinitionofgoodrelationsinpara149 (5)Havingdueregardtotheneedtofostergoodrelationsbetweenpersonswhosharea relevantprotectedcharacteristicandpersonswhodonotshareitinvolveshavingdue regard,inparticular,totheneedto(a)tackleprejudice,and(b)promote understanding. j. Thereispreexistinglegislation(priortotheAgreement)whichextendstobothpublic authoritiesandprivateemployers.TheFairEmploymentandTreatment(Northern Ireland)Order1998makesdiscriminationonthegroundsofreligiousbeliefandpolitical opinionunlawfulbothintheworkplaceandintheprovisionofgoods,facilitiesand services.TheRaceRelations(NI)Order1997makesracialdiscriminationunlawfulinthe followingareas:employment;goods,facilitiesandservices;education;andhousing managementanddisposalofpremises.Inthecontextofrace,itispossibletofindan internationalhumanrightsstandardwhichmayalsobeapplicabletomanyaspectsof sectarianism.

k. CRCbelievesthatthecaseforadditionalcategoriesofdiscriminationandexclusion requiringaspecificallygoodrelationsapproachshouldbeconsideredwhereitisclear thatsuchisnecessaryandappropriate..Thisdoesnotsubtractinanywayfromthe obligationtoundertakeallnecessarystepstoprotectandpromoteundertheexisting provisionsofSection75(1). l. Aboveall,CRCbelievesthatadebatewhichpitsequalityagainstgoodrelations,which suggeststhatequalitycanbeachievedwhilehostilityremainsintactisirrational, ethicallyquestionableandpotentiallydishonest.Thelegitimatedemandofallthose promotinggoodrelationsisacommitmenttogenuineequality.Thesamedemandon allthosepromotingandprotectingequalityisthatitdoesnothideadisregardforthe fearsandthreatsofallwhichdriveseparationnorpretendthatequalitycanbeachieved atthecostofembeddinghostilitytoothers. m. Thereisarealopportunitytoreflectallofthisinthevaluesshapingtheprogramme. ThroughouttheCSIdocumentthereisrepeateduseofaseriesofvalues:fairness, equality,rights,responsibilityandrespect.Thesevaluesareallvitalcomponentsofa sharedandbetterfuture.However,theabsenceofanycommitmenttoavaluewhich wouldspecificallytargetorrejectseparationorhostilityrepresentsasignificant weaknessinadocumentoncohesionandsharing.CRCthereforesuggeststhatthe valuesofthedocumentneedtoberevised,toensurethatnoambiguitycanbereadinto theExecutivescommitmenttosharing,interdependenceandinterculturalinteraction throughtheabsenceofupfrontcommitment. 3.TheInternational,PoliticalandLegislativeFrameworkofCSI a. CRCbelievesthatthejourneytowardsreconciliationandinterculturallearningisnot confinedtoNorthernIreland,Irelandortheseislands.Indeeditispartofan internationalcommitmenttoalignallthatwedotovitalhumanethicsandprinciples. Whilethesearelaidoutinlegalforminawidevarietyofdocuments,theycanonly flourishwhentheyarearticulatedaspartofatrulyhumanvision.Amongthemost persuasiveadvocatesofthiskindofchangeinthelastcenturywasDrMartinLutherKing Junior.InaspeechinNashvilleon27December1962,hesetatoneandapproachwhich stillhasenormousresonance: Whenthedesegregationprocessisonehundredpercentcomplete,thehumanrelations dilemmaofournationwillstillbemonumentalunlesswelaunchnowtheparallelthrust oftheintegrationprocess.Inthecontextofwhatournationalcommunityneeds, desegregationaloneisemptyandshallow.Wemustalwaysbeawarethattheultimate goalisintegrationandthatdesegregationisonlyafirststepontheroadtoagood society.Integrationiscreative,andisthereforemoreprofoundandfarreachingthan desegregation.Integrationisthepositiveacceptanceofdesegregationandthe welcomedparticipationofallinthetotalrangeofhumanactivities.Integrationis genuine,interpersonal,intergroupdoing.Wedonothavetolookveryfartoseethe perniciouseffectsofadesegregatedsocietythatisnotintegrated.Itleadstophysical proximitywithoutspiritualaffinity.Itgivesusasocietywhereelbowsaretogetherand heavyapart.Itgivesusspatialtogethernessandspiritualapartness.

b. Whilethetaskofreconciliationandbuildingagenuinelysharedsocietyhereisnot identicalwiththestruggleforcivilrightsintheUSAofthe1960s,theneedforaclear visionandpurposehasnotdiminished.Bysettingthegoalofsocietyatcohesion, sharingandintegration,theExecutivehasundertakenavitaltask.Butitwillonly succeedifitisdrivenbygenuinecommitmentandawillingnesstoengageinthe complex,difficult,creativeandrewardingtaskofreconstruction,recognitionand reconciliation. c. TheonlylegislativeframeworkreferredtowithinCSIisSection75.Thispresentsan incompletepictureofthelegalcontext.TheUKgovernmentisasignatoryto internationalhumanrightsstandardswhichalsobindthedevolvedadministrationand itsexecutiveagencies.Inadditionthereisabodyofimportantdomestichumanrights, equality/nondiscriminationandgoodrelationsstatutes,aswellascriminallaw.CSI alsorestsonkeyinternationalcommitmentssuchastheEuropeanConventionon HumanRights,UnitedNationsConventionontheRightsoftheChild,UnitedNations Resolution1325,WorldProgrammeforEducation,andtheFrameworkConventionfor theProtectionofNationalMinorities,aswellasdomesticlegislationandpolicy commitments.CRCrecommendsthatthislegalframeworkisreflectedinthefinal versionoftheCSIprogrammev. d. TheCouncilofEuropehasledinternationaleffortstodefineinterculturalism.Boththe UKandIrelandarefullmembersoftheCouncilvi.ThereisnoreferenceintheCSI documenttothisimportantframeworkwhichisbindingonallsignatorystatesand whichsetsinterculturaldialogueasacriticalelementofallpolicyacrossEurope.Inthe WhitePaperonInterculturalDialogue(2008),theCouncilmaintains: Europesincreasingculturaldiversityrootedinthehistoryofourcontinentand enhancedbyglobalisationinademocraticmannerhasbecomeapriorityinrecent years.Howshallwerespondtodiversity?Whatisourvisionofthesocietyofthefuture? Isitasocietyofsegregatedcommunities,markedatbestbythecoexistenceofmajorities andminoritieswithdifferentiatedrightsandresponsibilities,looselyboundtogetherby mutualignoranceandstereotypes?Orisitavibrantandopensocietywithout discrimination,benefitingusall,markedbytheinclusionofallresidentsinfullrespectof theirhumanrights?TheCouncilofEuropebelievesthatrespectfor,andpromotionof, culturaldiversityonthebasisofthevaluesonwhichtheorganisationisbuiltare essentialconditionsforthedevelopmentofsocietiesbasedonsolidarity. e. Critically,theCouncilofEuropemakesclearthatcivicparticipationanddialogueare vitalelementsinanyhealthyinterculturaldialogue: Interculturaldialoguehasanimportantroletoplayinthisregard.Itallowsustoprevent ethnic,religious,linguisticandculturaldivides.Itenablesustomoveforwardtogether, todealwithourdifferentidentitiesconstructivelyanddemocraticallyonthebasisof shareduniversalvalues.Interculturaldialoguecanonlythriveifcertainpreconditionsare met.Toadvanceinterculturaldialogue,theWhitePaperargues,thedemocratic governanceofculturaldiversityshouldbeadaptedinmanyaspects;democratic citizenshipandparticipationshouldbestrengthened;interculturalcompetencesshould betaughtandlearned;spacesforinterculturaldialogueshouldbecreatedandwidened; andinterculturaldialogueshouldbetakentotheinternationallevel.

f. TheCouncilofEuropehasinsistedthatinterculturaldialogue,buildingonuniversal norms,isthekeytomanagingdiversity.Itholdsoutthevisionofanintegratedsociety ofdiverseindividualcitizens,eachofwhomseestheothersashis/herfellowcitizens. Thisisanimportantphilosophicalbreakthroughforatolerantfuture. g. Developingasystematicresponsetothechallengesofinterculturalrelationshas becomeamajorconcernofpoliticalandsocialthinkingacrossEurope.Inrecentyears othermajorcitieshavedevelopedspecificpolicyframeworksforintercultural dialoguevii.Alloftheseoffersignificantsupportforthedevelopmentofafullyframed policyforinterculturaldialoguehere.CSIbadlymissestheopportunitytoplacepolicy thinkinginthiswidercosmopolitancontext. 4.BeyondSectarianism:thechallengeofCohesion,SharingandIntegration a. TheambitioustitleoftheExecutivesdocumentTheProgrammeforCohesion,Sharing andIntegrationsuggeststhattheExecutivewishesnotonlytotacklethespecificand enormouslegacyofsectariandivision,,buttoacknowledgethathostility,discrimination andhatredhashadenormousconsequencesforpeopleacrosssocietyonthebasisof otheraspectsofidentity. b. CRCiswellawarethatpublicrecognitionoftheunacceptabilityofexclusionand discriminationhasimplicationsfarbeyondonecategoryofpeople,andbelievesthatwe addressitwhereverwefindit.Thefocusoncohesionhasthisimportantadvantageof placingsectarianismandracismintheirpropercontextasoffencesagainstcommon humanitywhichpermitviolenceorexclusionagainstsomeonthebasisofperceivedor presumedcharacteristics. c. CRCrecognisesandwelcomestherecognitionthattacklinghatecrimeandexclusion mustbeanethicalandpoliticalpriorityforallandanygovernment.Indeedour experienceofhowsectarianismescalatesfrompoliticalhistoryintoembeddedsocial normsremindsusthattheseissuescannotbeallowedtofesterorbeignored.The commitmentintheCSIdocumenttozerotoleranceforhatecrimeiswelcome,although itissurelyimpossibletoconceiveofanyalternativepolicy. d. CRCalsorecognizesthattheemergenceofaseriesofunacknowledgeddiscriminations acrosssocietyisbothasignofconfidenceonthepartofthosewhomightpreviously havesufferedwithoutrecognitionandasignoftheincreasinginterdependenceof peoplesacrosstheglobe.Allofthesechangesobligeustorespondnotonlywith sympathyandlegislationbutalsothroughpolicyandculturalchange. e. In2007,theUKGovernmentsCommissiononCohesionandIntegrationchairedby DarraSinghpublishedtheirreportintotheseissueswithinanEnglishcontext.Intheir work,theCommissiondefinedcohesionasprincipallytheprocessthatmusthappenin allcommunitiestoensurethatdifferentgroupsofpeoplegetonwelltogether.They definedIntegrationtomeantheprocessthatensuresthatnewresidentsandexisting residentsadapttooneanotherviii.Bothofthesearerelevanttotheissuesattheheart ofCSI. f. TheCommissiononCohesionandIntegrationidentifiedsixkeyfeaturesofanintegrated andcohesivesociety: Aclearlydefinedandwidelysharedofthecontributionsofdifferentindividuals andcommunitiestoafuturevision.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

5. a.

Astrongsenseofrightsandresponsibilitieswhenlivinginaparticularplace. Thosefromdifferentbackgroundshavesimilarlifeopportunities,accessto servicesandtreatment. Astrongsenseoftrustininstitutionstoactfairly. Astrongsenseofthecontributionofall,withafocusonwhatisheldin common. Strongandpositiverelationsbetweenpeoplefromdifferentbackgroundsin theworkplace,inschoolsandotherinstitutions. TheCommissionalsolistedfourkeyprinciplesunderlyingtheirreport: Anemphasisonwhatbindscommunitiestogether, Anemphasisonresponsibilitiesaswellasentitlements, Anemphasisoncivilityandmutualrespectrecognisingthatcommunities changeandthereisaneedformutualhospitality,and Acommitmenttoequalityalongsidearequirementtomakesocialjustice visibleandtoensurethatcitizenstrusttheirinstitutions. DespitethetitleoftheCSIdocumentindicatesnoneofthisworkisreflectedinthe content.Aboveall,itdoesnotprovidesatisfactorydefinitionsoftheselinkedbut distinctconcepts.Nordoesitoutlineindetailthespecificmeasuresthatshouldand mightbetakenineachcase.Asaresult,legitimateexpectationsofacknowledgement andactionhavebeenraisedbuthavenotbeenfulfilledinthedocument. Inpractice,thedocumentfocusesontheembeddedissuesofsectarianismandonthe consequencesofracism.Withthisinmind,ourcontributiontothisconsultationwill focusontheseareasofwork,whereCRChasmajorexperience. ForCRCtheframeworkofsocialcohesionoffersmanyfutureopportunitiestoconnecta rangeofimportantissues.CRClooksforwardtofuturedebatesonthesemattersand urgetheExecutivetobringforwardproposalsforactionsonalloftheconnectedyet separateissueswhichthisraises.Thisisparticularlythecaseinrelationtothoseatrisk becauseoftheirsexualorientation,age,genderordisability. Theconsequenceofthisdebatewillalsorequirechangesininstitutionalarchitectureto ensurethatcommitmentsinprinciplearetranslatedintoaction.CRCdoesnotbelieve thatasinglebodyorsingleapproachwillbeadequatetothecomplexityofthistask. However,thisshouldnotprecludeanongoingdiscussionabouthowthesedistinctyet interrelatedmattersshouldbetackled.ForitspartCRCwillcontinuetoplayitspartin anyagreedwayforward. Buildingcohesion,sharingandintegrationongoodpractice Enormouseffortshavealreadygoneintothetaskofmakingpeaceandseekingrealand meaningfulreconciliation.Manypeopleandorganisationstookrealrisksforchange evenwhenreconciliationwasdismissedasnaive.TheCommunityRelationsCouncilwas establishedtosupporttheseeffortsandtobuildfromtheirinsightsandachievements. Internationalpartnersmadeahugecontributiontothischange.TheEuropeanUnion hasdonatedupwardsof1.5bntopromoteeconomicregeneration,socialinclusionand reconciliationsince1995,enablingthedirectparticipationofhundredsofthousandsof peopleinbuildingpeace.TheInternationalFundforIrelandhaslikewiseinvested 630mineconomicregenerationandreconciliationsince1985.AtlanticPhilanthropies alonemayhaveinvestedover$300m.Thisbroadlybasedsupportforagenuinepeoples

peaceprocesssustaininghopethroughyearsofpoliticaldisagreementanddifficulty wasvitaltotheultimatepossibilityofpoliticalagreement.Theabsenceofsufficient acknowledgementofthecontributionofthisinvestmentintheCSIdocument,orindeed thatoftheIrishGovernmentwhichannuallyallocatesaround3mforreconciliation projects,leavestheimpressionthatmuchofthiseffortisirrelevantandignored.Most importantly,CRCbelievesthatthevalueofthepresentpolicycanonlybereally measuredifitbuildsonthisachievementratherthanseemstosuggestthatnopolicyor practicehaspreviouslybeenbuilt. 6. Politicalcommitmenttoreconciliation a. TheBelfastorGoodFridayAgreementcementedthevaluesofreconciliationandmutual respectinaninternationalpeacetreaty.IntheDeclarationofSupport,thesignatories committedthemselvestopartnership,equalityandmutualrespectasthebasisof relationshipswithinNorthernIreland,betweenNorthandSouth,andbetweenthese islands.Thesectionalsoreferredtothetragediesofthepastandacommitmentthat Wemustneverforgetthosewhohavediedorbeeninjured,andtheirfamilies.Butwe canbesthonourthemthroughafreshstart,inwhichwefirmlydedicateourselvestothe achievementofreconciliation,tolerance,andmutualtrust,andtotheprotectionand vindicationofthehumanrightsofall.ix b. Specifically,allsignatoriestotheGoodFridayagreementcommittedthemselvesto ongoingactionsinrelationtoReconciliationandVictimsofViolence: Itisrecognisedthatvictimshavearighttorememberaswellastocontributetoachanged society.Theachievementofapeacefulandjustsocietywouldbethetruememorialtothe victimsofviolence.Theparticipantsparticularlyrecognisethatyoungpeoplefromareas affectedbythetroublesfaceparticulardifficultiesandwillsupportthedevelopmentof specialcommunitybasedinitiativesbasedoninternationalbestpractice.Theprovisionof servicesthataresupportiveandsensitivetotheneedsofvictimswillalsobeacritical elementandthatsupportwillneedtobechannelledthroughbothstatutoryandcommunity basedvoluntaryorganisationsfacilitatinglocallybasedselfhelpandsupportnetworks.This willrequiretheallocationofsufficientresources,includingstatutoryfundingasnecessary,to meettheneedsofvictimsandtoprovideforcommunitybasedsupportprogrammes. Theparticipantsrecogniseandvaluetheworkbeingdonebymanyorganisationstodevelop reconciliationandmutualunderstandingandrespectbetweenandwithincommunitiesand traditions,inNorthernIrelandandbetweenNorthandSouth,andtheyseesuchworkas havingavitalroleinconsolidatingpeaceandpoliticalagreement.Accordingly,theypledge theircontinuingsupporttosuchorganisationsandwillpositivelyexaminethecasefor enhancedfinancialassistancefortheworkofreconciliation.Anessentialaspectofthe reconciliationprocessisthepromotionofacultureoftoleranceateverylevelofsociety, includinginitiativestofacilitateandencourageintegratededucationandmixedhousing. c. AftertheAgreementin1998wewitnessedmanypoliticalupsanddowns,with intermittentdevolvedanddirectruleadministration.However,thecommitmenttoa sharedfuturewasmadepartoftheministerialpledgeofofficeforallincoming Ministers.SincethentheintergovernmentalStAndrewsAgreementx,theHillsborough

CastleAgreementxiandthecurrentdevolvedadministrationhavegivensocietynew hopethatpowersharingingovernmentandevenbroadlybasedhistoricreconciliation maybepossible.Agreementonpoliticalstructureshasbeenacruciallandmarkinthis process.Furthermoreagreementsonpolicing,paramilitarydecommissioning, demilitarisationandadjustmentstoallowstabledevolutionhavebeenequally important.Alloftheseagreementswerecharacterisedbytheirhistoricambition,their willingnesstoimagineasharedandbetterfutureandbytheirdeterminationtoreplace hostilityandexclusionwithaculturewhichpromotedinterdependence,fullandequal citizenshipforallandrespectformutualrightsandresponsibilities.Politicalstability bringswithitmanyexpectationsinrelationtothedevelopmentandimplementationof publicpolicythatwillbringaboutrealchangetocommunitiesandpersonallifechances aswellastoinstitutionsandstructures. d. Theseenormousandsustainedeffortshavegivenusahistoricopportunityforasea change,holdingouttheprospectthatwewilllearntolivewithoneanotheraspartners andequalcitizensforthefirsttime.Itisahistoricopportunitytotransformhostilityinto partnershipwhichwedarenotsquander,requiringustoensurethatthecommitmentto cohesion,sharingandintegrationisattheheartofpolicy.CRCisconcernedthatthe currentdraftfailstotackletheseissueswithsufficientseriousnessorimportance. e. ThePEACEIIIprogrammeisbasedonawidelyaccepteddefinitionofreconciliation developedbyHamberandKellyforthePEACEIIprogrammeasaresultofsupport agreedthroughCRCxii.TheprogrammewasagreedbythecurrentExecutivein2007and thedefinitionstillappearstoustobebothaccurateandhelpful: Thedefinitionregardsreconciliationasavoluntaryactwhichcannotbeimposed andinvolvesfiveinterwovenandrelatedstrands,asfollows: Developingasharedvisionofaninterdependentandfairsociety:The developmentofavisionofasharedfuturerequiringtheinvolvementofthewhole society,atalllevels.Althoughindividualsmayhavedifferentopinionsorpolitical beliefs,thearticulationofacommonvisionofaninterdependent,just,equitable, openanddiversesocietyisacriticalpartofanyreconciliationprocess; Acknowledginganddealingwiththepast:Acknowledgingthehurt,losses, truthsandsufferingofthepast.Providingthemechanismsforjustice,healing, restitutionorreparation,andrestoration(includingapologiesifnecessaryand stepsaimedatredress).Tobuildreconciliation,individualsandinstitutionsneed toacknowledgetheirownroleintheconflictsofthepast,acceptingandlearning fromitinaconstructivewaysoastoguaranteenonrepetition; Buildingpositiverelationships:Relationshipbuildingorrenewalfollowingviolent conflictaddressingissuesoftrust,prejudice,intoleranceinthisprocess,resultingin acceptingcommonalitiesanddifferences,andembracingandengagingwiththose whoaredifferenttous; Significantculturalandattitudinalchange:Changesinhowpeoplerelateto,and theirattitudestowards,oneanother.Thecultureofsuspicion,fear,mistrustand violenceisbrokendownandopportunitiesandspaceopenedupinwhichpeoplecan hearandbeheard.Acultureofrespectforhumanrightsandhumandifferenceis developedcreatingacontextwhereeachcitizenbecomesanactiveparticipantin societyandfeelsasenseofbelonging;and

Substantialsocial,economicandpoliticalchange:Thesocial,economicand politicalstructureswhichgaverisetotheconflictandestrangementareidentified, reconstructedoraddressed,andtransformed. f. Theabsenceofavisionofreconciliationinthedocumentisaclearomissionandshould berectifiedifthedocumentistobeacrediblesuccessortothepolicyandinvestment whichprecededit.CRCbelievesthatthedefinitionofferedbyHamberandKellyshould bereinstatedtogiveshapetothepolicyandtheactionswhichmightarise. g. SuccessforCSIwilldepend,however,onensuringthatwerespondtothechallengewith thenecessaryvision,energy,actionandresources.Inthefaceofviolentdivisionin NorthernIreland,whatthismeansis: avisiontomatchthehistorictaskofreconciliation; leadershiptochangedeeplyingrainedexpectations; wideparticipationbythewholeofsocietyanditsinstitutionswhichaccepts thatwehavetochangethenormalandnotjustthesuperficial;and thepriorityofthisissueattheheartofalldecisionsabouteconomics,social changeandculturallifeforthenextgeneration. 7. Policy a. Thereareanumberofkeypoliciesthatmustbetakenintoconsiderationwhen consideringthedraftprogrammeforCohesion,SharingandIntegration. b. TheASharedFutureconsultationcarriedoutduring200305tookplaceduringaperiod whendevolutionwassuspended.Althoughtheconsultationwasverybroadlybased,it wasimplementedwhilepoliticalconsensuswastoofragiletoallowforprogresswiththe consequencethatitlackedthefulllegitimacyandconfidencethatonlydevolved governmentcangive.Nevertheless,itrepresentedthefirsttimethatgovernmenthad acknowledgedthatreconciliationwouldrequirecomprehensiveactionandchangeby thestateanditsagencies,andcouldnotsimplybelefttopoliticalnegotiationsandlocal communitiesandorganisations.Thissetabenchmarkwhichacknowledgedthat practiceandpolicyhadreachedacertainlevelandnowneededtoadvance. c. TheEuropeanPEACEProgrammeshavebeenimplementedinIrelandwiththesupport ofallpartiesandfollowingawideconsultationprocessanddetailedprocessof evaluationandlearning.ThePEACEIIIProgrammewassupportedbythecurrent Executive,andtheoperationalprogrammecontainsclearandunambiguous commitmentstopeaceandreconciliation.TheprogrammeacknowledgesthatThekey challengesintheshorttomediumtermfuture,allofwhicharelinked,include: harnessingthepotentialforsustainableeconomicdevelopmentandtackling sectarianismanddevelopinglastingreconciliation.Buildingonthefoundationsofrecent politicalprogress,theBritishandIrishGovernmentsarecommittedtoworkinginclose cooperationwiththeincomingNorthernIrelandExecutivetothatend.xiiiCRCbelieves thatthisanalysisisstillvalidbutbelievesthattheselinksarenotadequatelymade withinthecurrentCSIProgramme. d. ThePEACEIIIOperationalProgrammeidentifiesanumberofkeyindicatorswhich requireurgentattention:residentialsegregation,interfaces,lackofsharedservices, sharingineducation,lackofcrosscommunitycontact,issuesforethnicminoritiesand crossborderworkandconnectsthesetosignificanteconomicweaknesses.The

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

8. a.

Executivessupportforthisprogrammemakestheabsenceofanysuchanalysisinthe CSIdocumentallthemoresurprising. ThePEACEIIIprogrammehastwostrategicobjectives: Reconcilingcommunities:keyactivitieswillfacilitaterelationshipsonacross communityand/orcrossborderbasistoassistinaddressingissuesoftrust,prejudice andintolerance,andacceptingcommonalitiesanddifferences.Inaddition,keyactivities willseektoacknowledgeanddealwiththehurt,losses,traumaandsufferingcausedby theconflict;and Contributingtoasharedsociety:keyactivitieswilladdressthephysicalsegregationor polarisationofplacesandcommunitiesinNorthernIrelandandtheBorderRegionwitha viewtoencouragingincreasedsocialandeconomiccrosscommunityandcrossborder engagement. TheabsenceofanyreferencetotheseobjectiveswithinCSIisanoteworthyomission whichshouldbeurgentlycorrected. PEACEIIIhasfourkeypriorities:buildingpositiverelationsatlocallevel,acknowledging anddealingwiththepast,creatingsharedpublicspacesandbuildinginstitutional capacityforasharedsociety.Italsocreatesaclearframeworkformeasurement.This approachshouldbereproducedwithinCSI. PeacebuildingwasprioritisedinthecurrentProgrammeforGovernmentxiv,withan overarchingaimofbuildingapeaceful,fairandprosperoussociety,andcomprisedof fivestrategicandindependentprioritiesxvincludingonetopromotetolerance,inclusion andhealthandwellbeing.TheacknowledgementbytheExecutivethatcreatingthe conditionstocreateapeaceful,prosperous,fairandhealthysociety,contributeto economicgrowthanddeliverrealimprovementsinhealthandwellbeingandthat sectarianism,racismandintoleranceimpactnegativelyoneconomicinvestmentand venturesisapositiveposition.TheExecutivealsorightlyrecognisethatmajor challengesremainforoursocietyintermsofpeacebuildingandconflicttransformation. ThePattenCommissiononpolicingdemonstratedthedegreeofchangerequiredofthe singleinstitutionofpolicingtomovefromconflicttoanewnormality.Itisperhapsthe bestexampleofthescaleandscopeofwhatchangewillrequireofeveryotheraspectof asocietyshapedbyconflict. Sectarianhostilityisnotjustahistoriclegacytobediscussedbyacademics.Ithas shapedthestructureswhichwehaveinheritedfromeducation,topublicsafetyto communitydevelopment.Ithasshapedthemostbasicpersonalchoiceslikewherewe mightlive,whatwecanwearandwhatwemightsaytowhom.Allofthisshapesour attitudestopolitics,economics,ourideasaboutthelawandcultureandour understandingofhistoryandmoralityinIreland.Sotoseekreconciliationisnotasmall tinkeringenterpriseaimedatcontrollingsomeantisocialelements.Itistoproposea newnormalandtocreatetheinstitutions,attitudesandexpectationswhichmightgive realmeaningtothegoal.Itistomovefromapoliticsofthemandustoapoliticsofus together. Addressingthecausesofconflict? OneofthepoliticalcriticismslevelledatASharedFuturewasthatitfailedtoaddressthe causesofconflict.Unsurprisingly,theCSIdocumentisequallyshortonanyanalysisof

b.

c.

d.

e.

causes.Bothreflectthecommonsenseexperiencethatattemptingtoexplainthepast collapsesinrecriminationanddisagreementandpreventsallprogressoraction. Worryingly,thefactthatnoconsensusispossiblereflectstheprofoundimportance attachedtotheseissuesratherthanindifference.Becausewhoeverwinsthe intellectualdebateaboutcauseswinsthemoraldebateaboutwhoistoblame,whose causewaslegitimateandwhowasresponsibleforviolenceandcrimeinIreland. Howevercoarsely,thedebateaboutcausesisthedebateaboutwhowerethegood guys,whoweretheterroristsandwhowerethevictimsandaboutimportantmoral idealsanddutieslikefreedom,justiceandthedefenceoflovedones.Furthermore,they arenotmerelyinventions,butbasedonhistoricandrecentexperienceoftraumatic violence,exclusionanddiscriminationwhichwerepartoftherealpolitical,socialand economichistoryoftheseislands. Forpeople,organisationsandcommunitieswhohavebeencommittedtocausesand sufferedtheirconsequencesforgenerations,thisisabattleaboutmeaningandidentity whichcannotbelost.Silenceinintercommunitysettingsseldomrepresentsan agreementtodisagree,butmoreoftenhidesafesteringresentment,andcontrasts sharplywiththecertaintyandsimplicityofthestorytoldwithinandbycommunitiesto ourselves,usuallyalone.Oftenwetellthestoryofourownvictimhood,whilethe violenceemanatingfromourowncommunitiesisveiledfromusbythelegitimacyof causeandtheabsenceofourvictimsfromtheroom.Butifeveryoneisavictim,then nooneisresponsible. Tragically,thefailuretocommunicateandfindreconciliationaboutthepastoften reinforcesoursenseofisolationanddifferencefromoneanotherandalwaysthreatens toreemergeasresentmentandviolence.Eventswhichcommemorateormake referencetothepastarethereforealwayspotentialtriggerpointsfornew disagreementsandviolenceinthepresent.Paradoxically,ourdisagreementsaboutthe pastpreventtrustinthepresent,andpotentiallyintothefuture.Anditstillseemsthat silenceistheonlybasisonwhichcooperativeprogresscanbemade. CRCismadeawareofthesedilemmasonadailybasisthroughourworkincommunities andwithvictimsandsurvivors.Manypoliciesandactionsinboththedistantandrecent pasthavecausedconflict.Whatiscertainisthatthesecauseshaveincludedpolitical dominationthroughEmpireandreligion,thefearandexperienceoflethalviolencefrom ourneighboursandpoliticalinstitutions,concernforlibertiesatthehandsof authoritarianopponentsandinstitutions,economicdiscriminationandmarginalisation, revengeforpastinjuryandmisunderstanding.Whatisnotclearisthatanyorallof thesecanbeaccountedforinanysimpleorjustconclusion. Thisisnotthesame,however,assayingthatnomeaningfulagreementscanorshould bereachedabouthowtostopthepoisonofinjusticeandviolenceinthepastpreventing meaningfulprogressinthefuture.Ifthecausesremaindisputed,muchofthelegacyis clearlyvisible.Centraltothepeaceprocesswastheneedtocreateapoliticalbasisfor cooperation.TheprimarypurposeoftheCohesion,SharingandIntegrationprogramme mustbetoseizethehugeopportunityofthispoliticalagreementandtocreatethe policyframeworkandactionprogrammetotacklethelegacy.Indeed,unlessthatis done,itistheviewofCRCthatthelegacywillcontinuetogenerateviolentoutbreaks whichdestroylives,embedmistrustandpreventrealprosperity.

9. Aprogrammeforareconciledfuture a. Inspiteofhugepoliticalprogress,theshadowofthepastcontinuestohauntthefuture here.Individuals,communities,towns,villages,theworkplaceandservicedelivery continuetoexperiencethedailyconsequencesofthelegacyofthepastsectarianism anddivisionhavenotyetdisappeared.Therearedifferentlegaciesofthepastsocial, economic,physicalandemotional.Toooften,fearandatraditionofsuspicionstill determinewherewelive,socialiseandwork.Formanypartsofsocietythishasbecome anormalandacceptablefeatureoflifehere.Fortoolongpublicpolicyacceptedthe principlethatweareadividedsocietywithoutacknowledgementorcomment.Muchof thishastodowithacommonsensebasedonfearandhostility,whichmayhavehad somevalidityinthepastbutwhichnowpreventstheemergenceofasocietytrulyat peace. b. Acruciallegacyissuetobeaddressedis,ofcourse,violenceanditsconsequences. Undoubtedlythemosttragicmanifestationoftheimpactoftheconflictisthelegacyof death,injuryandbereavement.Thecommitmenttopurelypoliticalmeansand agreementontheruleoflawaremajoradvances.Thepotentialforareturntoviolence mayhavegrownoverrecentyearsandcontinuestoimpactonsecuritybudgetsxvi. Violencecanonlybeultimatelydefeatedwhenitisshowntobefutileanddemonstrably unabletogeneratemeaningfulprogress.Partofthatprogressisengagementwiththe rightsandexpectationsofthevictimsofviolenceandaseriousdiscussionabouthow thosedirectlyengagedinviolentconflictaretobeintegratedintonormalityinthe future.TheabsenceofanyreferencetotheseimportantdimensionsintheCSI documentisthereforeasourceofdisappointmentandconcern. c. Thelegacyofviolenceinthepastisnotconfinedtothegenerationwhichlivedthrough theworstyears,andithashadaprofoundimpactoncommunityhealthxvii.CRCalso believesthatameaningfulpublicandpoliticalcommitmenttoacknowledgingdealing withthepastwithhonestyrepresentsaseriousgapinpolicy. d. TheCSIpolicymustalsoputanemphasisonsafetyforall.Zerotoleranceshouldnot simplybeproclaimedbutaccompaniedbyactionstomakeitreal.Undersystematic threat,communitiesherehaveresortedtoseekingbasicsafetythoughseparation,the constructionofwallsandavoidancexviii.Itisjustnotacceptableinawesterndemocracy thatpeoplehavetorelyonfortyfeethighpermanentbarrierstoprotectthemfrom beingburnedoutoftheirhouses.Norisitacceptablethatpeopleofdifferent backgroundscanbeintimidatedoutoftheirhouseswithoutprotectionoractionagainst theirpersecutorsxix.Theresultsofviolencehaveleftcommunitiesisolatedfromone anotherxx,butalsofromservicesandjobsxxi.Concernsaboutsafetydominatepeoples decisionsaboutwheretheycanlive,wheretheycangoandwhattheycansay.Itis commonsenseheretoavoidcertainpartsofourcitiesandtowns,toworryabout sportingallegiancesortakingjobsorusingthelocallibrary.Thesharedspaceagendais notapioushope,butadeterminedefforttoensurethatalldistrictsandpublic resourcesfromhousestohealthcentresareofgoodqualityandareequally welcoming,accessibleandsafeforallmembersofsociety. e. Thelawisveryspecificinrelationtomatterspertainingtosharedspace,specificallythe PublicOrder(NI)Order1987Article9and19,(SeeAppendix2). f. AsimilarcriticallegacyissueforCSIistheendingofalldiscrimination.Exclusionfrom powerandmarginalisationineconomicshasfuelledviolenceandresentmentfor

generations.Genuineequalityisacriticalelementofanysharedfutureandwillonlybe possibleifitispartofaproperlyopenandwelcomingsociety.Thiswillrequireanew commitmenttoopeninguphousing,publicresourcesandservicestoall,toatransport policywhichenablespeopletoaccesskeyresourcessuchasjobsandservicesandtothe extensionoftheprincipleofpartnershipaspartofthenormalwayofdoingbusiness. g. ACSIproposalalsoneedstoconsiderthestatutorydutiestoprovidesafepublicspace andequalaccesstopublicspaceimposedonDistrictCouncilsandthedutytomeet objectiveneedinhousingimposedonDSDandNIHE. h. TheCSIpolicymustsupportthegrowthofunderlyingtrustinbotheachotherand institutions.Thepatternofpublichousingsegregationcontrastssharplywiththe repeatedresultsofsurveyaftersurveythatthevastmajoritywanttoliveinpeace together.xxiiEducationcontinuestooperateonthebasisofparallelprovision.Some youngpeoplecontinuetobeonthefrontlineofcommunityviolence,blamedbysome foractingoutalongprevalentpatternofcommunityhatred,whileothersoptoutof democraticsocietyaltogether.Thereisaneedtodevelopaseriousyouthstrategy whichdealswiththevariousneedsofyoungpeopleastheyare,ratherthanthecurrent providerledmodelswhichleavetoomanyyoungpeoplewithoutsupport.Moststarkly ofall,theremustbeaseriousattempttoregeneratetheinterfacesandreintegrate thesecommunitiesonthefrontlineofconflictandviolenceintothemainstreamofcivic lifexxiii.Thisisnotasimplequestionoftakingdownthewalls,butofaconcertedeffort toreinforcesafetythroughpartnershipandtrustandcreateassetswhichserve everyonethroughradicalregeneration.Allofthiswillrequireamuchmorespecificand perhapspainfulattempttoresolveourculturalconflictsthroughagreementsonthe rightswhichmustaccordtoallandthebehaviourwhichisexpectedfromeveryone, thaniscurrentlyoutlinedintheprogramme.Furthermore,ourculturaljewelssports, arts,museumsmustreflectthegrowingculturaldiversityandpluralismofoursociety, actingasmeetingplacesratherthanbattlegrounds. i. FinallytheCSIprogrammemustmakethevitalconnectiontoeconomics.Therehasbeen asharptendencytopretendthateconomicprosperityrepresentstheonlybasisofour agreement,withoutaseriouswillingnesstoaddresstheobstaclesinourlegacyof conflictandviolencetoanymeaningfulprogress.Todate,prosperityhasbeenthe alternativetotalkingaboutthepast.Buttheoppositeistrue.Investmentdependson attractiveness,onattractingfinancialinvestmentandgoodpeopletocomehereinthe contextofaglobaleconomywhereeveryoneisincompetition.Wewillneversucceedin thiscompetitionwithoutseriouscohesionandsharing.Fordecadesnowwehavebeen largelyshieldedfromthefailuretogrowaprivatesectoreconomybytheinvestmentof thepublicsector.Since2008thishasleftusextremelyvulnerabletotheglobal recession.Unlessweaddressoursignatureweaknessviolenceandconflictwewillfind itincreasinglydifficulttoattractinvestmentandpeople.Acommitmenttocohesion, sharingandintegrationisanintegralpartofreconstructingtheeconomy. j. Oneofthemostpromisingareasforserviceindustrygrowthistourism.Eventsthis summeraroundparadesandprotestsremindedgovernmentsacrosstheworldofthe risksofvisitingthenorthofIrelandxxivandresultedinawarningfromtheAustralian GovernmenttoitscitizenswhointendedtovisitNorthernIrelandtoavoidallprotests anddemonstrationsastheymayturnviolentxxv.WarningswerealsoissuedbytheUS ConsulateandtheNewZealandgovernments.Again,aseriousattempttobuildashared

andinclusivesocietyisthenecessaryconditionforeliminatingthisriskandgrowingour tourismtoitspropersize. k. Inthemeantime,wecontinuetoinvestresourcesinduplicatingcoreserviceswhich couldbemoreefficientlyprovidedthroughsharing.Ourpoliceserviceismuchlarger thanshouldbenecessaryxxvi,ourschoolsystemismademuchmoreinefficientthrough ourinabilitytocombineresourcesxxviiandourleisureservicesareprovidedonaparallel basis. l. Perhapstheworstresultistheimpoverishmentofwholecommunitiesandfamiliesxxviii. AccordingtoNorthernIrelandStatisticsandResearchAgency(NISRA),ofthetoptwenty mostdeprivedareasinNorthernIreland,17arelocatedinNorthorWestBelfast.Itis obviousthatmanyofthemostdeprivedpartsofNorthernIrelandarealsothemost segregated,containingthemostnumberofpeacewalls,anditisimportanttonotethat NorthandWestBelfastaloneaccountedfor1240(oroveronethird)ofthe3636 fatalitiesintotalthattookplaceoverthecourseoftheconflict.Suchstatisticsprovide directevidenceofthedisproportionateimpactoftheconflictonthepoorestsectionsof oursociety.Thereforenotonlyhavecommunitiessuffereddisadvantagebecauseofthe conflict,butconflicthascreatedmarginalisedcommunities,andthismakesthe attractionofinvestmentimpossibleanddrivesthebestandmostsuccessfulmembersof communitiesaway.Communityrelationsworkisoftencaricaturedasofinterestonlyto thechatteringclasses.Inrealitytheoppositeisthecase:thepeoplewhopaymostare usuallyamongthepoorestinsociety.Sectarianismdestroyseconomiesandtargetsthe poorest. m. Ifqualityoflifedependson: healthyrelationships safety equalvalue jobs highqualityservicesandfacilities aneconomyand afutureforfamiliesandchildren thenthereisanurgentneedforaseriousprogrammeforcohesion,sharingand integration.Peacehasalreadyenabledustoreconnecttotheglobaleconomyand madethisanattractiveplaceforpeopletomoveto.Successwilllooklikemorepeople arriving,incontrasttotheemigrationandeconomicdepressionwhichisthealternative. Diversityisabuzzwordeverywhere,butthecentralimportanceofcohesion,sharing andintegrationacrossmanyculturesandbackgroundswillgrowthemoresuccessfulwe are.Theprogrammeneedstofocusnotonlyonthepastbuttheopportunitiesand challengeswhichaninterculturalfuturewillbring.Cohesion,sharingandintegrationis notonlyaquestionofaddressingthelegacyofthepastbutalsooftakingthe opportunitiesofthefuture.CRCbelievesthatthismattersenormously,anditisvital thattheprogrammeandstructuresmatchthescaleofthechallengeahead.

10. Conclusion a. Wehavebeenhandedahistoricopportunitytoaddressthelegacyofdivision.Peace broughtahugedividendinthatNorthernIrelandbecameanattractiveplacetovisitand moveto.Theissuesofcohesion,sharingandintegrationdonotdiminishthroughthis process,theychange.Thisisnotanadditionalextrabutacorechallengetoallina globaleconomy.ItisvitalthatwetakethisopportunitythroughtheCSIStrategy. b. Therequirementtobuildatrulyinterculturalfutureisaparamountconcernhereand acrossEurope.TheCSIpolicyshouldberootedinabroadlegalandpoliticalframework whichpromotesanewnormalofinterculturalintegratedsocieties,openand welcomingtoallandrootedindemocraticvalues. c. CRCbelievesthatthetitleofthedocumenthasgivenrisetolegitimateexpectationsthat itwilldealwithallaspectsofthesecomplexsubjects.Asthisisnotthecase,thismay leadtoarealsenseoffrustrationinanumberofconstituencies.CRCurgesthatpolicy onallaspectsofthiscomplexpolicyareabedeveloped. d. CRCbelievesthatsectarianismisthedefiningfeatureofNorthernIrelandspoliticaland sociallandscapeandrequiresacomprehensiveanddeliberatepolicyapproach.The scaleofthecurrentCSIisinadequatetodealwiththetopic. e. CRCbelievesthatequalityandgoodrelationsareintimatelylinkedandmustbepursued ascommonobjectives.CRCbelievesthataproperlyunderstoodgoodrelations approachtoissuesofsectarian,politicalandracialdivisionisavitalelementinthe requirementsofequality. f. ThevaluesstatedintheCSIdocumentneedtoberevisedtoensurethatthereisno ambiguityabouttheExecutivescommitmenttosharingandinterculturalequality. g. Thepastcontinuestothrowalongshadowoverallattemptsatreconciliation.TheCSI documentcontainsnothingoncauses.Thefailuretoacknowledgeourdivisiononthis tendstoreducetheseriousnesswithwhichweapproachthetopic. h. CSIshouldofferaseriouspossibilitytoaddressthelegacyofpastinjustice.Thereisno referencetovictimsorexcombatantsinthedocument.Thisreducesthevalueofa documentaimedatsharingandintegration. i. Divisionisaneconomicissue.Tobeseriousapolicyoncohesion,sharingand integrationmustaddresssafety,equality,trustandeconomics.Thisisnowhere reflectedinCSI.

CHAPTER3:SHARINGOVERSEPARATION:BUILDINGAPROGRAMMEFORCOHESION, SHARINGANDINTEGRATION 1. Introduction a. InthischapterCRCwillfocusonourcritiqueoftheconsultationdocumentaswellas makingsuggestionsforthewayforward.Ourcommentsaremadeinaconstructive spiritandCRClooksforwardtodiscussingourrecommendationswithOFMDFM Ministersandofficialsinthecomingmonths. b. Oursocietyisnolongerdefinedsolelybyitspastconflict,andissometimesseenasa signthateventhemostintractableofpoliticalconflictsmightberesolvedthroughthe politicalprocess.Atapoliticallevelwehaverootedpeaceinsharedpower,agreed institutions,theprincipleofconsent,equalityandhumanrightsandtheruleoflaw. Wherewehavebeensuccessful,thesechangeshavebeencharacterisedbyawillingness tostriveforinclusiveagreement,byacommitmenttoaccommodateothersandevento difficultcompromise,andtoafirmcommitmenttobuildtrustonthebasisofinclusion, equalityandanendtoviolence.Thishascreatedahugeopportunitytotacklethe legacyofdivisionandtocreateacohesive,sharedandintegratedsociety,openand welcomingtoall,resolvingconflictsonapurelypeacefulbasis.Becausethisdraft programmehasatitsfoundationtheneedtotackletheunderlyingstructuresbuilton hostility,thishasthepotentialtobethemostsymbolicallyandhistoricallyimportant consultationsincedevolution. 2. Vision&Context a. TheCohesion,SharingandIntegrationdocumentisthefirstdocumentagreedbylocal politicianstotackletheseissuesxxix.Ithasemergedinthecontextofyearsofcommunity effortandanunsurpassedlevelofinternationalinvestment.Thisisthethirdreviewof communityrelationssince2001,andtheexistingpolicywasestablishedin2005.Civil societyhascontributedstronglytothesubstanceofchangeduringthepeaceprocess, andtheExecutivenowhastheopportunitytoensurethatthispolicyisproperlyand robustlyshapedtoensureanongoinginteractionwithcivicsocietyandkeystakeholders toensuretheCSIProgrammeisfitforpurpose. b. ItisagainsttheseeffortsthattheCSIdocumentmustbemeasured,andCRCbelieves thatpolicyshouldbuildontheirachievementsratherthanstepbackfromthem. BecausenoneofthesearedirectlyreflectedoracknowledgedintheCSIframework,the documentmaybemeasuredagainsttheabsenceofagreementonpolicyratherthan againstthequalityofworkandthinkingthatneedstobeprotectedandprogressed. c. Thiscontextperhapsclarifieswhy,inreflectingonthepolicycontentoftheCSI programme,CRChascometotheconclusionthatitdoesnotgofarenoughtoaddress theissuesitreferences.Whilsttherhetoricofsharing,collaboration,equalityandrights recursthroughoutthedocumentCRChasgenuineconcernsthatthepractical commitmentswillnotdojusticetothescaleandscopeofsectarianismandracism. d. CRCremainsconcernedthatthevisionanditsrespectivegoalsandidentifiedactionsare insufficientlyfocussedonreconciliation.Thecurrentpolicy,ASharedFuture,appeared asapolicyandstrategicframework,whilsttheCSIdocumentisonlyreferredtoasa

e.

f.

g.

h.

programme,raisingtheconcernthatthisindicatesalackofpolicyoradropinpolicy status.Aboveall,CSIdoesnotappeartooutlineacompleteprogrammeofactionorany commitmenttoresources.Inthiscontextwebelievethatthecurrentdraftprogramme appearstobearegressionfromcommitmentsalreadycontainedwithincurrentpolicy. TheabsenceofaformalreviewofexistingpolicyintheCSIprogrammeisaserious weakness,leavingconsulteesunsureaboutthestatusofworkdevelopedoverdecades andofthedirectionofpolicyinASharedFuturewhichsawasignificantinter departmentalactionplanasthecoreofnewdevelopment.ThePattenCommission demonstratedthedegreetowhichpolicinginNorthernIrelandwasshapedbyandto thecircumstancesofmistrustandconflict.Italsooutlinedthescaleofchangerequired forthenewcircumstances.Inthisparticularcase,theurgencyandimportanceof policingreformhadthesupportofpoliticalparties,thepolicethemselves,andof committedinternationalsupporters.Itwasalsoextremelycostly.Itisclearthatthis degreeofinternationalandfinancialsupportisunlikelytobeavailableagain.However itisbeyonddoubtthatreconciliationrequireschangetoenableanewnormalincritical areasofpublicpolicyanddelivery,includingsuchdifficultareasaspublichousingand education. Beyondthetollonlivesandcommunities,theeconomiccostsofconflictareenormous. DesmondTutureferstoconflictasdevelopmentinreverse.Areasofendemicand longtermconflictarecharacterizedbydeeppovertyanddisadvantage,theflightof investmentandinvestors,byemigrationandbythedestructionofinfrastructure.In NorthernIreland,thefailuretoattractprivateinvestmentortoretainandattractglobal talenthasbeencompensatedforinpartbypublicsectorinvestment.Thishasleft NorthernIrelandextremelyvulnerabletoreductionsinpublicsectorsupport.Aserious economicpolicymustalsoincludeaseriousstrategytoensurecohesion,sharingand integration. Anyhopeofbuildingsignificanteconomicproduction,ofattractingtalent,ofsustaining inwardinvestment,ofgeneratingsignificanttourism,oroftacklingpovertydependson puttingtheviolentpastdefinitivelybehindus.Furthermore,itistheonlywaytoreduce longtermdependencyonpublicsubvention.Puttingthatinreverse,cohesion,sharing andintegrationisanessentialelementofanymeaningfuleconomicpolicy.Theabsence ofthisconnectioninthedocumentisaseriousomissionoroversight. CRCbelievesthatspecialcircumstancesdoindeedapplytothecurrentpolitical, economicandsocialrealityinNorthernIreland.Butadditionalresourcescanflowfrom centralfundsifandonlyiftheyaretobeusednottoshoreupanunsustainablydivided andantagonisticstructurebuttotackleandaddresstheunderpinningstructuresof hostilityanddiscriminationwhichpreventtheemergenceofanopensocietyandchange thepatternsofthepast.CSImustplayasignificantroleintheplanningprocessforthe nextprogrammeforgovernment.

3. CritiqueofCSIdocument a. CRCbelievesthattheconsultationwouldbemademuchstrongerandclearerwith: aclearvisionstatementatthebeginning; acleardefinitionoftheproblem; anoverarchingaimtoidentifythesolution; asetofobjectiveswhichwouldrealisethataimifachieved;

programmesandprojectstoimplementthoseobjectivesconcretely; thestructures/mechanismsneededtoprovideacoherentframework; designatedactorstotakeresponsibilityforgettingtheworkdone; Aclearstatementaboutresources. arrangementsformonitoringandevaluationofitseffectiveness;and reviewandrevisionofthestrategyinthatlight.xxx

4. TheProblem a. CSIisnotbasedonareviewofcohesion,ofexistingworktotacklesectarianismand racismorofthestateofcommunityrelationspolicy,practiceordevelopment.Thissets apotentiallyinaccuratecontextinwhichtoassessthepolicy.Whileacknowledgingthat challengesexist,itprovideslittleanalysisormeasureofthescaleoftheproblem.The documentfailstodescribehowthesegregatednatureofoursocietyhad,andcontinues tohave,alastingimpactonhowweengageandinteractwitheachotherortoassess thebarriersthisgeneratesforemployment,housing,andaccesstofacilities. b. ElevenyearsonfromtheBelfastAgreement,antagonismandparalleldevelopment remainseriousobstaclestoanormal,openandpeacefulsociety.Themajorityofpublic policystilloperateswithinacontextwhichtakesseparateandparallelcommunitiesfor granted.Furthermore,directresponsibilityforimprovingcommunityrelations,race equalityandothercohesionissuescannotbereducedtoasmallelementofone department.ItistheviewofCRCthattheExecutiveanditsDepartmentsmustagreeto shareresponsibilityforaddressingthelegacyofthepastandbuildingasharedand betterfuture.Section75(2)clearlyimaginedthewholeofthepublicsectorbeing responsible,accountableandconcernedaboutgoodrelations. c. CRCbelievesthatpublicpolicyshouldbereframedaroundaframeworkofconflict transformation.Fortoomanyyearspublicpolicyhasbeenframedaroundthe containmentofcommunitiesasatoolofconflictmanagementleadingtoapatternof separation,duplicationandsocialdistance.Thisprogrammeshouldexaminehowpublic policycontributestothestabilityofthepeaceprocess. d. Thedocumentdoesnotsufficientlyacknowledgetheunparalleledscaleofinternational supportandcommunityeffortforpeaceinrecentyearsorthepaceofprogressonthe ground.Thereshouldbegreateracknowledgementandrecognitionofthework, expertiseandsuccessesofexistingpracticeandtheeffortsofthousandswhichhasoften beenachievedindifficultanddangeroussituations.Thepeaceprocesshashad investmentoftimefrommillionsandthepaymentofbillions.Thedocumentshould committotheprinciplethattheachievementsofthelast20yearsisthebedrockof futureprogressandcommittoensuringthatthereisnoregressionfromcurrentlevels ofintercommunityactivityandpartnership. 5. AimsandObjectives a. Thepresenttitleoftheprogrammecohesion,sharingandintegrationopensupthe expectationthatthepolicywilladdressallaspectsofcohesion,includingchallengesto cohesionandintegrationbasedonage,gender,sexualityanddisability.However, becausemostofthepolicyistakenupwithtacklingthespecificproblemsof sectarianismandracism,policyonwidercohesionissueswillrequirefurther

elaboration.CRCbelievesthatitisimportantthatthisisclarifiedinthefinalpolicy,and clearguidancegivenonfutureexpectationsinrelationtoallaspectofcohesion. b. CRCbelievesthattheaimsandobjectivesofthedocumentshouldbestrengthened.A policytotacklesectarianismandracismshouldincludeacommitment: tobringtheantagonismofthepasttoanend,byacknowledgingitsconsequencesand injusticesandundertakingallnecessarychangetoensurethattheycannotberepeated and tobuildafutureinwhichsectarianismandracismisconfinedtothepast,inwhichall citizensaretreatedasequalsandinwhichalldisputesareresolvedpeacefullyand throughpurelypoliticalmeans. 6. Programmesandprojects a. CRCispleasedthatanumberofcriticalissueshavebeenidentifiedaspriorities including: Addressingthephysicalandcommunitydivisionatinterfaces Ensuringandpromotingthesafetyofvulnerablegroups Tacklingthevisiblemanifestationsofintoleranceandsectarianism Addressinghatecrime Promoteequalityandtackledisadvantage Creatingandexpandingsharedspaces b. Allofthesearevitalissues.Havingsaidthat,itisunclearwhytheseparticularpriorities havebeenselectedwhileotherkeyissues,suchaseconomicandsocialregeneration, communitysafety,housing,cultureandcommemorationandeducationarenotsimilarly prioritised.Inapolicyforcohesion,sharingandintegrationalloftheseareserious challenges. c. Thecommitmentsremainoverlygeneralandlackinginpracticaldetail.The commitmenttoensurethesafetyofvulnerablegroupsislaudablebutstillvague.The promisetotacklehatecrimeisabsolutelyessential,butthedocumentappearstodo littlemorethanrestateanassumedcommitmenttozerotoleranceforthiskindofcrime. Thecommitmenttotackleinequalityanddisadvantageiscrucialbutthereisincomplete evidenceofeconomicorsocialanalysisofhowthismightbeachievedthroughthis policyarea.Thecommitmenttointerfacesisuncertaingiventhatitisbothanurgent priorityandlistedasanareaforlongtermchange.Finally,CRChaschampioned serioussharedspaceformanyyears.However,bysuggestinginonepartofthe documentthatsharedspacewillbeashorttermareaforprogresswhiletacklingflags andemblemsandsectionalsymbolismwillonlybeaddressedinthelongterm,CRCis concernedaboutthechoiceofpriorities,theabsenceofdetailedpolicyandthe commitmenttochange. d. Throughoutthedocumenttherearereferencestopolicyissuesincludingchildrenand youngpeople,education,furthereducation,housing,regeneration,economyandsocial economy,paradingandpublicassemblies,sharedservicesandfacilities,workplaces,hate crime,race,reimaging,health,leisure,sport,tourism,ruralcommunities,volunteers, language,communityfestivals,artsandculture.Whilethedraftprogrammecannotbe criticisedfortherangeofnamedpolicyissuesfewofthesearefleshedoutinanydetail. Withoutsomeindicativeactions,theprogrammeremainsvagueandinsubstantialrather

thancomprehensiveintheseareas.Italsofailstoinspireconfidencethatevery departmentandministersarecommittedtoasharedsetofprinciplesandcommitments. e. Thereareanumberofunexpectedomissionsfromthedocument.Thereislittle referencetotheconsequencesofdivision,violenceanddiscriminationinthepast.Policy forvictimsandsurvivorsoftheconflictisnotintegratedintopolicyforcohesion,sharing andintegrationandthereisnoreferencetotheimplicationsforthosewhowereactively involvedasexcombatantsandexprisoners.Thedocumentregrettablyfailsto acknowledgeorexaminetheroleandcontributionofwomentopeacebuilding.Given thespecific1325UNresolutioninrelationtowomenandpeacebuildingitseemsa significantoversightthattheimportantroleofwomeninconflicttransformationhas beenignored,anomissionwhichpotentiallyrestrictsthemfromanyfutureroleunder CSI.Churchesandtradesunionshavebeensimilarlyomitted,ashasthecontributionof communitydevelopmentandcapacitybuildingandtheneedforreexaminationinthe lightofpeacefulcircumstances.Thereisalsosurprisinglylittlereferencetothe substantialbodyofcrossborderworkundertakenoverthelast40yearsandmore. f. Thedivisionofprioritiesintoshort,mediumandlongdoesnotappeartohavebeen thoughtthroughandisprofoundlyillogicalandconfused.Thismakesitdifficulttomake anysignificantcommentontheircapacitytoensurechangeparticularlyintheabsence ofanydetailorcommitmenttospecificoutcomesorresources. 7. PolicyIssues Withthisinmind,CRCbelievesthatthepolicyneedstoaddresssomeofthefollowingkey issues: A. Ourviolentpast a. CRCbelievesthattheabsenceofpolicyforacknowledgingdealingwiththepastwith honestyrepresentssignificantproblemsengagementwiththefutureexpectationsof thevictimsofviolenceandanopendiscussionabouthowthosewhowerethemselves directlyengagedinviolentconflictaretobefullyintegratedareimportantpriorities. CRCthereforerecommendstheinclusionofthesegroups,bothasstakeholdersand contributorsinthefinalCSIpolicy. b. TheconcernsofvictimsandsurvivorsshouldbeatthecoreoftheCohesionSharing andIntegrationprogramme.Itisimportantthatvictimsandsurvivorshaveavoicein thisprocessandareincludedinthestrategyanditsimplementation,andare acknowledgedasbeinganimportantpartinhealingthedivisionsofthissociety. Dealingwiththepastishighlycontestedanditwouldbeusefultolearnhow GovernmentunderstandsthecomplementarityoftheCohesion,Sharingand IntegrationstrategywiththeVictims&SurvivorsStrategy. c. Inourownworkwithvictimsandsurvivorsgroups,the6mainareasofneedas identifiedintherecentHunterreportxxxi(commissionedbyCRC)areasfollows: counselling&therapy; befriending,respiteandsocialsupport; organisationaldevelopment; education/training/employmentandwelfareadvice; truth,justiceandacknowledgement;and transgenerational/youngpeople

d. Onthebasisofourexperienceandknowledge,CouncilbelievesthatpolicyforCSIand forvictimsandsurvivorsshouldbecrossreferenced.Ourspecificunderstandingof issuestobeaddressedisincludedinthisdocumentinthefootnotesxxxii. B. Economics a. ThecurrentCSIdoesnotconnectcohesion,sharingandintegrationtoasuccessful economy.Thiscontributestotheongoingsensethatpolicyonsectarianismandracism isonlyofsecondaryimportanceofinterestonlytoanarrowgroupofselfinterested intercommunityorganisations. b. IntheviewofCRC,theoppositeisthecase.CRCbelievesthatongoingviolence,conflict andsocialdivisionaroundtheseissuesisthesignatureweaknessofNorthernIreland. Tacklingendemicsectarianismandracismiscrucialtoanystrategyofdoingbusiness. Prosperityandeconomicswillfalterifwedonotacttoensurethatsectarianismand racismceasetodefinewherepeoplefeelsafetolive,work,play,traveltoschool,meet friendsandaccesspublicresources.Theultimateaimofastrongerandvibrant economyshouldbeaboutreducingourdependencyonexternalagenciesandimproving qualityoflifeforallendingdivision,duplicationandsectarianismisfundamentalto achievingthisobjectiveoftheExecutive. c. Buildingasharedsocietyneedstobeattheheartofeconomicregenerationifitistobe successful.Ifweareseriousaboutbuildingasustainableeconomy,therethree interrelatedprioritieswhichmustallbeaddressed: attractingpeople,investmentandcreativity(economics); buildingajustsocietywithintheruleoflaw(safetyandjustice);and addressingthelegacyofthepastandembeddingtrust,safetyandpartnership. d. Failuretoaddressthisissueatsourceleavesusvulnerabletoinstabilityand,inaworld whichdependsonattractivenesstocapitalandlabour,makesusunattractive internationallyandexposedastheregionmostdependentonpublicsectorsubvention fromtheUKtaxpayer.ThusMayorBloombergswarningthatthecontinuedexistenceof peacewallsrepresentedaseriouslynegativesigntointernationalinvestorsshouldbe takenseriously,particularlyifwehavetheinterestsofthoselivingintheshadowofthe interfacesatheart.Specifically,ongoingsectarianismandracism: reducesourattractivenesstoforeigndirectinvestment; reducesourattractivenessasaplacefortalentedentrepreneurs; repelstourists; detershighlyqualifiedNIbornyoungpeoplefromreturningtoNorthernIrelandfor work; underminesthegoodworkdonesincethepeaceprocess; generatesuntoldduplicationofservices; increasestheresourcesspentonsecurity; leadstoasemipermanentmisallocationofresources; contributesenormouslytothepovertyofinterfaceareas; reducesgrowth,increasepovertyanddestroysaglobalandopenimage;and leavescommunitieshardesthitbytheconflictinacycleofpovertyandviolence. e. Buildingasustainablepeacecannotbeamatteroflimitedpartycooperationoroflocal action.ItwillrequireconcertedgovernmentactionacrossALLdepartmentalareas, includingJustice,EconomicDevelopment,Planning,SocialDevelopment,RuralAffairs, EducationandCulture.Spreadingprosperitydependsonembeddinglastingsocial stability.InCRCsview,sustainablepeacewillrequireyearsoffocussedworkbythe

AssemblyandExecutive,settingthedirectionandinvestingresourcesforthe developmentofanormalcivicsociety. f. Businessisgoodforpeaceandpeaceisgoodforbusiness.Economicpolicyandgood relationspolicyareinterdependent,notalternatives.Goodbusinessrelationshipsand strongrelationshipsacrosssocietyareinterdependent,asbusinesswillalsobea beneficiaryofthestabilitythatimprovedcommunityrelationswouldbring.Thereisno betterwaytocementourinterdependencethanthroughtradeandinvestment.Where violenceisrifeorsocialtensionsdominate,therearealwaysbetterplacesforbusinesses togo. g. Theprinciplesofpeacefulinteractionallowingsharingandaimedatembeddingtrust andreconciliationshouldbeenactedacrossallgovernmentdepartmentsandneedsto bereflectedinthedifferentdepartmentbudgets. Safeaccessibilitytoemploymentisaprerequisitetobuildinganyeconomyandmust beaddressed.Itwillrequireajoinedupapproachbetweentheexecutive departmentsandthewidercommunity. Distributionofeconomicinvestmentandbenefitmustbeequallyfeltacrossallparts ofourcitiesandonaneast/westandurban/ruralbasis. C. Safety a. HateCrimeisasignificantthreattothelivesandsafetyofasignificantportionofour population.Thisextendsbeyondsectariancrime,whichcontinuestobeunder reported,toracismandcrimesagainstpeopleonthebasisofsexualorientationor disability. b. Thedocumentproposesaseriesofcommunitysafetyprioritieswhichinclude eliminatingattacksoncultural,sportingandothersymbolicpropertyandmonuments; ensuringthatallresponsibleagenciescontinuetoprovideahighlevelofcommunity safetydeliveredwithinrightsbasedframeworkandanoverarchingethosofmutual respect;buildingcommunitysupportnetworksacrosscommunity,culturalandminority ethnicgroupsandbuildingthecapacityofthelocalandminorityethniccommunitiesto supportpeoplewhohaveexperiencedhatecrime. c. TheProgrammefurthercommitstheExecutivetoazerotoleranceforcrimesmotivated byprejudiceandallformsofhatecrime,whilstactivelypromotingrightsandrespect; andtoensureandpromotethesafetyofvulnerablegroups.CRCstronglywelcomesthe explicitconnectionbetweensectarianism,racismandallformsofhatecrimewith communitysafety.CRCisparticularlypleasedtoseetheengagementofcommunitiesin supporting,encouragingandprovidingsafety.Zerotolerancecannotmerelybe proclaimedbutshouldbepresumedanddemonstratedthroughactionxxxiii.Atpresent thecommitmentstoendattacksonsymbolicpremisesandpledgesonhatecrimecould beseenasreiterationsofexistingpolicy.Furtherdetailontheimpactofcurrenthate crimelegislation,orwhatnewmeasuresareneededforthefuturewouldbehelpful. CRCbelievesthatthepossibilityofpeaceshouldallowfortheemergenceofanew paradigmonsafetywhichseekstoensurethatallcitizensaresafeinallplacesandatall times.Everyonehastherighttolive,work,playandsocializeinasafeenvironment. Communitysafetymustencompasseveryoneregardlessofwhethertheycomefromthe communityornot,andregardlessoftheirbackground,viewsororientation. d. Insteadofamodelofsafetywhichdependsonexcludingpeoplefromareas,through intimidation,communitycontrolorphysicalbarriers,thereshouldbeacommitment

thatallpeopleshouldbefreeandsafetolivewheretheycanorwish,andthatallpeople shouldbesafetowalkthestreetsandaccessservicesasworkers,serviceusersor visitors.Policymustthenseektorealisethesehighlevelgoalsinpractice.Cities,towns andneighbourhoodsmustbesafeplacesforeveryoneandsharedspaceshouldbea centralthemeindesigning,developingandimplementingmeasuresandprogrammes thatcancontributetosafesharedspace. e. Thecurrentsystemwherebypeoplewhoareintimidatedareremovedfortheirsafety fromtheirhomesshouldbeparalleledbyarenewedefforttoensurethatjusticeis servedonthosewhointimidate.Thiswillrequirenewconnectionsbetweenpolicing andcommunitiesaswellastheengagementofstatutoryservices.Thisshouldbe directlyconnectedtocommunitypolicingstrategiesandcommunitydevelopmentplans. f. Theinvolvementoflocalorganisationswhoareinvolvedintacklinghatecrimeatlocal levelisparamountinanyworkaimedatpromotingbettercommunitysafety, regenerationandworktoreducetensionsandviolenceorcreatesharedspaceat interfaces.Likewise,targetinghotspotswillrequireajoinedupapproachandmust includeworkwithcommunityleaders. D. Culturalissues a. CSIseekstopromotegreaterunderstandingofculturaldiversityandexpressionsof culturalidentityandaimstoprogressthisworkunderarangeofactions.WithinCSIthe termscultureidentity,culturaldiversityandcultureandidentityareused somewhatambiguously.Cultureisprimarilydiscussedasalegacyofconflictinatwo communitymodel.Thisisreflectedinthetreatmentofregionalandminoritylanguages. Thereferencestominorityethnicdiversityislargelylimitedtothepromotionof respectfornewcomers!,TravellersandchildrenfromtheRomacommunity(5.6 DepartmentofEducation),zerotoleranceforhatecrimeandcommunitysupportfor thosewhohaveexperiencedhatecrime;andthedevelopmentofsupportnetworks acrosscommunity,cultureandminorityethnicorganisations.Inexamplesofgood practice,promotinginterfaithdialogueandtheroleofminorityethniccommunitiesin celebratingcultureisidentified. b. FromCRCsperspective,cultureremainsavitalandunresolvedareaofconcernfor intercommunityrelationsaffectingallcommunities.Culturalspaceisreducedtoan ongoingandbitterculturewarwhichreducesculturetousandthem.Azerosum gamebetweentwomonolithiccultureswouldbeadisasterforpublicpolicyandquality oflife.Atwocommunitymodelofcohesion,sharingandintegrationisnolonger sufficientforamorediverseNorthernIrelandwhichbuildsonlongestablishedfaithand minorityethniccommunities. c. Inthiscontextoffaithandminorityethnicdiversityandthelegacyoftheconflict importantissuesincludehatecrimeandattacksonproperty,language, commemoration;culturalexpressionaspartofsharedspaceflags,emblems,parades andprotests;andthepotentialroleofarts,cultureandsportascriticalpartsofapolicy ofparticipation,cultureandchange. d. TheRacialEqualityStrategy(RES)isnotreplacedorsupersededbyCSIanditisargued thelatterprovidesaframeworkforthedeliveryofgoodrelationsaspectsoftheRES. ArguablyracialequalityandtacklingracismisunderminedwithoutacommitmentinCSI toreconciliation.Anapproachthatplacestheburdenoncommunitiesiswholly inadequatetothechallenge.Itisnecessarytotakeastepbackandconsiderthe

implicationsofracismandsectarianismintermsofconflict,identityandnew populationsinNorthernIrelandxxxiv. e. Violenceisadevelopedhabitwhichisanidentifiablelegacyoftheconflict.Itistheso calledgangculture,wheregroupsofyoungmenuseorthreatentouseviolenceand instilasenseoffearpreventingmoderationinthecommunityxxxv.Inthiscontextfearis themechanismusedtosafeguardterritoryandresourcesandindeedattemptto regulatewhatisacceptableorunacceptablebehaviour.Arecentreportdispelsthe myththatProtestantcommunitiesaremoreantagonisticthanCatholiccommunitiesto newpopulations.Itsuggeststhatthemonolithiccommunalidentitieshavecreated imperviouscommunitiesthatdifferentiatepeoplebytheextenttowhichtheydonot belongDifficultiesexperiencedbypeopleofminorityethnicbackgroundare exacerbatedduetotheconflictandthelegacypresentsadditionaldifficultiesxxxvi. f. TheRacialEqualityStrategy20052010containsarobustanalysisonthescaleofthe challengeinaddressingracismandracialinequalities.Thefirstactionplancommitted departmentstomeagre,smallscaleinitiativesorpreexistingcommitmentsand thereforedidnotreflectthevision,strategicaimsandprinciplescontainedwithinit. DepartmentsandagenciesthereforeneedtorevisittheREStoensurethattheir commitmentsunderCSIareindeedgroundedinthestrategy.Therecommendationsof theSTEPAdditionalDifficultiesreport(cited)haveinformedthespecificactions identifiedbelow.Specificactionsinclude: deliveringonthecommitmentforethnicmonitoringbyserviceprovidersofkey serviceareas; stafftrainingforserviceproviderstoaddresslackofunderstandingorcultural insensitivity. utilisebilingualrecruitmentbecauseitisefficientandeffectiveincreatingpathways toservices; utiliseschoolsaskeypointsforintegrationofchildrenandtheirparents; developeducationalprogrammesforschoolsandcommunitiesthataddress xenophobiaandracismtoaddressthetransgenerationalnatureofthelegacyofthe conflict; providefortheparticipationofbothnewandoldcommunitiesinunderstanding conflictandconflictresolutioninawiderandsustainablecontext; developastrategicapproachtotheacquisitionandmonitoringoflanguage proficiencyandtheeffectivenessoftranslationservicesthataddressesintegration andaccesstoservicesandequalityandhumanrightsofthenewpopulations; strengtheninteragencyengagementinProtestant,Catholicormixedcommunities withcommunitylevelactiontodealwithincidentsastheyoccurratherthan facilitatingorpreemptingtheexclusionofotheridentities; protectionofmembersofminorityethnicandfaithcommunitiessubjecttoattacks; moreeffectiveenforcementisrequiredandconflictrelatednatureofantisocial behaviourrecognized;and ethnicityandidentityneedtobecrosscuttingthemesacrossallCSIandPeaceIII fundingmeasures. g. Inaddition,thereareanumberofseriousabsencesinCSI: cultureistreatedasfixedcommodityratherthanasaliving,evolvingorganic resource.Thepotentialforavibrant,safe,welcoming,diverse,forwardlooking

culturalspacetocontributetoqualityoflife,attractivenesstocreative entrepreneursandkeycompaniesandtourismisnotdeveloped; thereisnoreferencetofaithdiversity(forexamplesBahais,Hindus,Jews,Muslims andSikhs); Thebarrierstointegrationandexpressionoffaithandminorityethnicgroupsarenot explored; theinterconnectionofculturalspacewiththeconceptofsharedspace.Howdowe resolvethedilemmasofparticularculturalexpressionwithinabroadlyshared framework?; thehugeopportunitytopromoteculture,artsandsportsasvehiclesforintegration, participationandthedevelopmentofyoungpeopleisundeveloped;and failuretoexplorenevermindfindaclearbasistoresolveissuessuchasflagsand emblems,paradingandprotests. h. Aculturaldiversitypolicymusthaveatitsheartacommitmenttoreflectthevarietyand complexityofculturallife,toraisequestions,tocreatesafeandopenplacesfor interactionanddebate,tocreategatewaysforengagementandtoresolvepolitical issuesinawaythatisconsistentwiththeoverarchingvaluesofequality,humanrights andreconciliationxxxvii. i. CRCacknowledgestheimportanceofworkwithincommunitiesandcontinuestofund someprojectsandinitiativeswhichprovideopportunitiesforcommunitiesandgroups toreflectonandaddressissuesofidentitywithinasafespaceandtopromotemany particularcontributionstothepublicrealm.TheCityofCulture2013Derry/ Londonderryoffershugeopportunitiesforreflectionandlearningabouthowcultural andcommemorationisexpressedinthecontextoftheoverarchingvalues.Oneofthe keyactionsincludedistheaccommodationofdiversitywithinaninterculturalnorm ratherthanthecurrentrealitywheresharedfestivalsareseenasexceptional. j. Segregationwithinsocietyimpactsonminorityethnicandfaithcommunitieswhoalso askIsitsafetolivehere?Thisdrawsattentiontothelinkbetweensectarianismand racism.CSIaffirmstheRacialEqualityStrategy(RES),however,withoutreconciliation,it isarguedCSIandtheRESwillnotbecomplementary.Thepositivecontributionby peoplefromminorityethnicbackgroundsneedstobeacknowledged. k. Theabsenceofreferencetofaithdiversitybeliestheprogressthathasbeenmadeinthis area.Specificactionshouldinclude: recognitionofhowtheminorityethnicorganisationshavedeveloped; theirinclusioninpositionsofleadershipparticularlywithinthecontextof mechanismstosupportCSI; reconciliationmustbeincludedwithintheCSIstrategythuslinkingitwiththeRacial EqualityStrategy; inclusionshouldbeakeyprincipleintheorganisationofallcommunityevents; encouraginggreaterunderstandingoffaithdiversity,includingthedevelopmentof educationalmaterialsforschools;and supportinginterfaithdialogueandthestructuresthatsustainit. l. Azerotoleranceapproachtohatecrimerequiresthatthosewhoareattackedare protectedandthecriminaljusticesystemandpolicearemoreeffectiveinenforcement. Thekeyaimofworkingtoeliminateattacksonculturalandsymbolicpropertyneedsto includereferencetocontinuingattacksonpropertybelongingtootherfaithbased organisationssuchastheIndianCommunityCentreandBelfastIslamicCentreandof

m.

n.

o.

p.

q.

symboliccentressuchastheChineseWelfareAssociation,aswellasattemptsto preventthefurtherdevelopmentbyfaithandminorityethnicgroups.Actionshould include: effectiveanddevelopedpolicies,strategiesandactionplanstoimproveprotection andenforcementinrelationtohatecrimeandattacksoncultural,faithandsymbolic propertyandmonumentsand acknowledgementofthevulnerabilityofpropertybelongingtoallfaithsand symbolicpropertiesrelatingtominorityethnicgroups. CSImakesseparateprovisionforUlsterScotsandtheIrishlanguageasminorityand regionallanguageswithoutseriouslyattemptingtomaketheirpromotionlessdivisive. Withintheminorityethniccommunityandorganisationssupportingtheirinclusionand integration,proficiencyinEnglishisidentifiedasasignificantbarriertointegration. Childrenandyoungpeoplefromminorityethnicbackgroundsrequireabackgroundin theirparentsfirstlanguage.Specificactionsinclude: encourageandpromoteaninclusiveapproachtoIrishandUlsterScots; tailorEnglishlanguageprogrammestoreflecttheneedsofthevariousminority ethniccommunitiesincludingaddressingilliteracy,levelofeducation,marginaland isolatedgroups,reflectingincomeandworkinghours; supportformothertongueSaturdayschoolsarerequired;and servicedeliveryatstatutoryandcommunitylevelshouldproactivelyaddressthe needsofpeopleofdifferentfaithandminorityethnicbackgroundsinaccordance withtheprinciplesofequality,humanrightsandmutualresponsibilities. Thefirstdecadesofthe21stcenturyinclude100and400yearanniversariesthathave hadanenduringimpactonourconceptsofBritishandIrishidentity.Thisincludesthe UlsterCovenantandtheEasterProclamation,thefoundationoftheRepublicand NorthernIreland,theFirstWorldWar,theimpactofthePlantationandtheearlyyears oftheimmediateconflictaswellastradeunion,maleandfemalesuffragemovements. Wheretheseareexpressedinpublicspace(andwithpublicfunds): principlesunderpinningexplorationandanniversaryactivitiesinthepublicarena shouldaimforaplural,interactiveandmodernapproach;and ourunderstandingandpracticeofmodelsforhowcommemorationsetinbroad historicalcontextsshouldbefosteredinthepublicasopposedtoprivatespace. Culturaldisplaysshouldoccurinthecontextofcivilandpoliticallibertiesandin accordancewithinternationalhumanrightsnorms.Theexplicitrighttofreedomfrom sectarianharassmentmadeintheBelfastAgreement(1998)isalsorelevant. Inademocraticsociety,paradesandprotestsneedtobepeacefulandbasedona respectfortherightsofall.Controversiesoverparadesandprotestsarepartofthe legacyandalltoooftenactasaproxymeasureofculturalequalityinsociety.Inaddition, newparadesandnewlycontestedparadescausedisruptionwheredemographicor politicalbalanceshaveshifted,causingnewrivalriesandpowerstrugglestoemergeon thestreets.Thereisnoquickfix.Weshouldnotbesatisfiedwiththeannual containmentofpotentialviolenceinwhichcontentionisnormalised.Thefailureofthe recentparadeslegislationconsultationandtheactiontakentoappointtotheParades Commissionindicatesthatwedonothaveanagreedbasisfortheirregulation. Flagsandemblemsimpactdirectlyontheplausibilityofideaslikesharedspace,onthe futureofinterfacesandonthepossibilityofaseriousculturalaccommodationina dividedsociety.Thereisanurgentneedforallpoliticalpartiestoidentifythedifference

betweenthefreedomofculturalexpressionontheonehandand,ontheotherthe permanentmarkingoftowns,districtsandpublicamenitiesinawaythatsuggeststhat theyarepartisanpossessionsratherthanpartofthepublicrealm.Moreover, communitydevelopmentand/orenvironmentalimprovementhaveshownsignificant resultsinthecontextofbothreducingdisplaysofflags,emblemsandmuralsand/or reducingtheperiodoverwhichdisplaystakeplace,andtransformingthecontextin whichthedisplaysareviewed. r. TheFlagsProtocolhasbeenineffectiveincoordinatingstatutoryactionandtherefore iscurrentlyunderreview.The2010QUBMonitoringReportindicatesabout30%offlags remainallyearroundandthenumberofflagsinabsolutetermsremainsrelatively constant;andthelocation(outsidepublicamenities),contentandthelengthoftime theyareondisplayareofsignificance.Thisaffectspersonalsafetyandaccesstopublic amenities,housingandworkplaces.Italsonegativelyimpactsoninvestmentand commerciallifeintowncentres.Specificactionsinclude: paradesandproteststodevelopalongtermsolutionanongoingconflict transformationandreconciliationactionplandeveloped,deliveredandreviewed withtheinvolvementofallkeystakeholdersatcommunity,districtcounciland centralgovernment; flagsandemblemsjointprotocolsdevelopedbetweenthekeydepartmentsand agencies; detailedprotocolsneedtobedevelopedineachstatutoryorganisationtosupport staffsettingouttheirroleandthebasis(andlimits)ofaction; districtcouncilsshouldhavealeadroleincoordinationinthecontextofcommunity engagementandstatutoryagencyresponse;and inspecificcircumstancestheRoads(NI)Order1983Article87inrelationtolampposts shouldbeenforced. s. Againstthisbackdropwewishtosee: aseriouspoliticalattempttoagreethebasisofculturalandinterculturalequality withinhumanrightsforNorthernIreland; policiesandprogrammesdesignedtorenewandreclaimpublicspaceandreaffirm thatcommunityownershiphasthepotentialtobuildgoodrelationswithinand betweencommunities; supportgiventosportsbodieswhoseektoopenuptheirsportstotheparticipation ofall.Muchprogresshasbeenmadeinthisdirectioninrecentyearswithvery encouragingresults.CRCwouldliketoseethesportsauthoritiesrewardedwith strongpoliticalleadershipandprogrammesdevelopedwhichmovebeyondsymbolic eliteeventstograssrootsdevelopment;and artgalleriesandmuseumsplacedincontextofhowoursocietyandcommunities havechangedand,toembraceourgrowingdiversity,createmorecollections concentratingonthenineteenthandtwentiethcenturysandthepresentday.Both Museumshavevitalroleasplacesofinteractionandpubliceducation.Inadivided societythishasaparticularimportance,offeringvitalopportunitiesforsafespaceto engagewithevidence,experience,artefactsandstorieswhichmaybedifferentfrom ourexpectations.Therecanbefewmoreimportantplaceswhichenableustomake senseofourdiversity,ourinterdependenceandallofourculturaltraditionsand identities.

E. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

SharedSpacesorParallelLiving CRCstronglywelcomestheinclusionofsharedspaceinthedocument.HoweverCRCis concernedthatthereisnoformalanalysisofthemanyissuesinvolvedinthisconcept andofthechallengesingeneratinganewnormalitythatallspacebelongstoall.The documentalsolacksanyclearstatementofthepreferenceforsharingoverseparation. Thesharedspaceagendaisnotapioushope,butadeterminedefforttoensurethatall districtsandpublicresources,fromhousestohealthcentres,areofgoodqualityandare equallywelcoming,accessibleandsafeforallmembersofsociety. ForCRCthereisnosuchthingasseparateandequal.SeparatemeansbydefinitionthatI cannotaccessyourresourcesandviceversa.CRCdoesnotbelievethatequalresources canbeprovidedonasegregatedbasis.Thecostbothfinanciallyandsociallyofthe duplicationofservicesandfacilitiesisunsustainable.Inacontextwhereresourcesare short,theresultwillbeanappallingfightbetweenpoorcommunitiestoretainmeagre resources,wheretheonlyavailableequalitywillbeanequalityofmiseryandpoverty. Inthecontextofdivisionandhostility,sharedspacebecomesimpossible.Current examplesincludethefailuretodeveloptheCrumlinRoadGaol/GirdwoodsiteinBelfast; thefactthattowncentreslikeLurganaredividedwithassetsnotaccessibletomanyasa resultoffear;disputesaboutparadeswhichremainunresolvedaftermanyyears,and thefactthatmanyassetsfromlibrariestoleisurecentrestohealthcentresandchildcare facilitiesareseenasthepreserveofonecommunity.Itprovedimpossibletobuilda newChineseWelfareCentreontheDonegallPassortoopenupanewroundaboutat Broadwaywithoutitbecominganotherinterface. CRCbelievesthat sharedspacesmustbeuseful,welldesigned,thoughtfullylocatedandmanaged; sharedspacemustbedevelopedwithinaframeworkofeconomicandsocial relevancetotownandcitycentres,accessandarterialroutes,retailcentres,public servicesandhousingestates; asystematiccommitmentisrequiredtoensurethatallfuturedevelopment maximisestheopennessofallresources,commitstosharedpublicrealmand integratestheconceptofsharingintotheplanningandmanagementofassets;and progresswillrequireseriousinterdepartmentalworking.Nocommitmenttothis ideainpracticewillmaterialisewithoutsignificantresources,determinationand effortandawillingnesstomanagethedifficulties. TheCSIprogrammecommitstheExecutivetodevelopsharedandsafespacesfor working,shopping,socialisingandplaying,tocreatesharedaccessibleandwelcoming facilitieswhichprovidehighqualitypublicservices;andsafetyforindividualsandgroups whowishtoexpressandcelebratetheiridentityorculturepeacefully.Achievingthis involvesanumberofcommitmentsfromdepartmentssuchastheDepartmentforSocial Development(DSD)i.e.ensuringcityandtowncentremasterplanningprogrammes promotesharedspacesandthatphysicaldevelopmentandpublicrealmprojectswork toremovephysicalevidenceoftheconflictsuchasredundantsecuritymeasures.Tasks arealsoidentifiedfortheDepartmentofRegionalDevelopment(DRD)whichmight resultintherevisedRegionalDevelopmentStrategy(RDS)settingoutguidanceon strengtheningcommunitycohesion,fosteringastrongercommunityspiritandthe importanceofcityandtowncentresassharedspaces.Thereisalsoaseriesof

commitmentstotacklingthevisiblemanifestationsofracism,sectarianismintolerance andotherformsofprejudice,andproposalsthatthedisplaysofflagsandemblems, graffitiormurals,paradesorpublicassembliesorfestivalstakeplaceinanenvironment whichrespectsindividualandcommunityrights. f. TheroleoftheworkplacehasbeenparamountinchangeinNorthernIreland.Itis currentlyoneofthefewgenuinelysharedspaceswherepeoplemixasamatterof routine,andbusinessandthetradeunionsaretobecongratulatedfortheirefforts. Sometimesthishasbeenwonthroughstrictneutrality.CRCwouldliketoseemore emphasisontheopportunitieswhichtheworkplacepresentsformoretolerantand diverseapproaches,althoughnochangewillbepossibleifthesewordsbecomecodefor intimidationorthreat. g. ThesectioninthedocumentwhichfocusesprimarilyontheroleoftheNorthernIreland CivilService(NICS)andhowitworkstocreatesharedworkplacesrequiresmore explanationandclarity. h. Thereisinsufficientrecognitionofthecentralroleoftradeunionshaveplayedin combatingharassment,especiallygiventhataCRCcorefundedgroup,Trademark,is highlightedasamodelofgoodpractice.Therearenoactionsidentifiedwiththissection andagainnodepictionofthebarriersorworktakingplacetochallengebarriersto sharedworkplaces. F. Education&YoungPeople a. Youngpeopleareavitalpartofthefuture.Theyarealsoavitalpartofthepresent.CRC isawareofthechallengesfacingyoungpeopleinNorthernIrelandonadailybasis. Attacksonpeopleforwearingthewronguniformarerecurrent;busestakelonger routesthanrequiredtoavoidpotentialflashpoints;arrangementsaremadeforriots throughsocialnetworkingsites;parks,swimmingpools,cinemas,shoppingcentresand restaurantsareoutofboundsforkidsintownsacrossthewholeregion.Thisis particularlytrueatnightandatcertaintimesoftheyear. b. Surveysandacademicresearchconsistentlysuggestthatthereisconsiderablesupport forincreasingtheopportunitiesforsharingwithintheeducationsystemxxxviii.These preferencesrevealtheaspirationofmanyparentstoeducatetheirchildreninamixed religious,integratedandsharedenvironment,anambitionthatisnotcurrentlybeing met. c. Inrelationtodomesticlawtheeducationorders,particularlyTheEducation Reform(NorthernIreland)Order198964.(1)statethat:Itshallbethedutyofthe Departmenttoencourageandfacilitatethedevelopmentofintegratededucation,thatis tosaytheeducationtogetheratschoolofProtestantandRomanCatholicpupils. Internationallawalsocommentsstronglyontherightsofchildrenandyoungpeople. Article29ortheUNConventionontheRightsoftheChildstatesthatStatesParties agreethattheeducationofthechildshallbedirectedto:Thepreparationofthechildfor responsiblelifeinafreesociety,inthespiritofunderstanding,peace,tolerance,equality ofsexes,andfriendshipamongallpeoples,ethnic,nationalandreligiousgroupsand personsofindigenousorigin. d. CRCbelievesthathowourchildrenareeducated,whattheyaretaughtandwhois consideredoneofus,areimportantaspectsattheheartofallseriouslongtermpolicy forachangesectarianismandracism.CRCagreeswithSirGeorgeBainsassessment

e.

f.

g.

h.

thatTheeducationofchildrenandyoungpeopleinschoolsisoneofthemostimportant tasksofanysocietyataskthatisaboutmuchmorethanobtainingacademic qualifications.Ifeducationplaysacrucialroleinshapingattitudesandrelationship building,andinpromotingtheskillsthathelpchallengenegativeviewssuchashate, bigotryandprejudicethenthereferencestoeducationthroughouttheCSIconsultation documentaredisappointing.Thedraftprogrammereferstotheroleoftheintegrated sectorandothersectorsinpromotinggreaterunderstandingofsharedvalues.The currentCommunityRelations,EqualityandDiversityinEducation(CRED)policyoutfor consultationbytheDepartmentofEducationhasafocusonlearningthevaluesof mutualtrustandrespectintheclassroomand,despiteacommitmenttopromote engagementandinteractionthroughtheformaleducationalstructures,muchofthiswill dependonresources.ThedecisioninMay2010bytheDepartmentofEducationto eliminateseriouspublicsupportforintercommunityschoolsandyouthworkdoesnot bodewell.CRCremainsconvincedthatthisfailuretoinvestinasocietywhichhasfree andopenengagementbetweenallouryoungpeopleisaseriousmistakewithlongterm consequences. TheCSIprogrammedoesnotpresentanyanalysisontheimpactofexistinglevelsof separationineducation.Thereisnoreferenceoftheneedtoreducesurplusplacesand thecreativeopportunitiesthismightgiveforrealsharingwhilereducingthepotential diseconomiesofduplication.TheopportunitiesprovidedbytheBainreportarenotfully exploited.ArecentreportbyOxfordEconomicsfortheIntegratedEducationFund providedadditionalevidencethatsavingscouldbemadethroughamorecloselyaligned systemxxxix.Muchofgoodpracticeinpartnershipandcollaborationisdrivenlocallyby individualschoolsandschoolprincipals,withthefinancialsupportfromexternalbodies. Thereisnoindicationthatthemodelsthathavedeliveredpositiveoutcomesaretobe mainstreamedintopublicpolicy;rathertheimplementationofcutstothecommunity relationsbudgetoutsideofthecurrentCSRsetsthescenefortheroleofeducationin peacebuilding. NeitherCSInorCREDfullyacknowledgethehugeamountofworkbeingundertakenby schools,youthorganisationsandcommunitieswithyoungpeople,andbothfailto commentontheleadershipgivenbymanyyoungpeoplethemselvesintackling segregationandseparation.Giventhenumberofschemesandprogrammesdelivered throughschoolsandtheyouthsector,policymakersshouldreviewthecontributionhow thedifferentlevelsofformalandinformaleducationandpersonaldevelopmentcan workjointlytopromotemutualtrust,equalityandreconciliation. CSIdoesnotexaminetheroleofearlyyearsprovisionandtheroleofteachertrainingin apostconflictsociety.TherearecurrentlypublicconsultationexercisesonanEarly YearsStrategy(DE)andTeacherTraininginaClimateofChange(DE&DEL)anditis particularlyfrustratingthatneitherwithinsingledepartments,noracrossdepartments, istheremuchevidenceofcrossfertilisationofideasandallhavefailedtofailedtomake thecruciallinks. CRCbelievesthatasystematicapproachisrequiredtosupporttheembeddingand mainstreamingofgoodrelationsthroughoutschoolspolicies,practices,proceduresand ethos.Toachievethiskeystrategicobjective,thevariousdeliverystructuresthat encouragegreatersharingandcollaborationacrossandbetweencommunitiesshould besupportedandpromotedbetter.Sharingcannotbeseenasasingle,centrally dictatedmodel,butmustbeacoreprinciplewhichcanbeappliedindifferentcontexts

withdifferentresults.Thepresumptionthatwehaveparallelandpolarisedsystems shouldbereplacedwithacommoncommitmenttothewelfareofyoungpeople.Core religiousandculturalvaluesanddifferencescanbeprotectedwithoutfosteringasense ofeternalpolarisationorantagonismthroughpracticalandrepeatedmodelsofrealco operation,throughregularandnormalsharedresources,andthroughanopennessby schoolsandcommunitiestoexperimenttogetherinthestructuringandsharingof schools.Recentrecommendationsdevelopedthroughthejointchallengepaperin partnershipbetweentheEqualityCommissionandCRConbehalfoftheGoodRelations Forumproviderealopportunitiestoaddressthepersistentinequalitiesofacademic attainmentandperformance,andcanalsomakeasubstantialcontributiontoimproved socialandcommunitycohesion,bothwithinandbetweenthediversesocialmixofour society.Theyareincludedinthefootnotestothisdocument.xl G. Policyforyoungpeople a. Youngpeoplesexperiencesarecrucialtothepossibilityofchangeinthisandevery society.Likewiseeducationisthecrucialvehiclethroughwhichthebeliefs,attitudes andnormsofonegenerationarepassedontothenext.Whilefamily,communityand informaleducationplaythecrucialroleinanychildslife,formaleducationisavital sourceofinformationandlearning. b. Unfortunately,throughouttheCSIdocument,wegettheimpressionthatyoungpeople areaproblemforcohesion,sharingandintegrationratherthantheprimaryhopefor thefuture.Inseveralcasesthetextappearstodefineyoungpeopleasaproblemtobe curtailedportrayingthemasseparatefromthecommunityi.e.therelationship betweenyoungpeopleandthecommunity.Inanothersection,thedocument maintainsthatsomeyoungpeoplehavemadeflawedjudgementsthathaveresultedin theengagementincivildisturbances,antisocialbehaviourorinterfaceviolence. c. Thereisnodoubtthatthebehaviourofsomeyoungpeopleatinterfacesisindeeda seriousissue.However,therecanalsobelittledoubtthatyoungpeopleintheseareas arefollowingwellwornpaths,imitatingbehaviourwhichinpreviousgenerationswas regardedinsomequartersasheroic.Numerousstudiesintotheintergenerational impactofconflictonchildrenandyoungpeoplexlihaveshownthatthisissuewillonlybe resolvedwithanewapproachtoyouthinterventionandculturalwork.TheExecutive hasaclearresponsibilitytoaddressthestructuralandpoliticalissuesthatimpactonthe abilityofgenerationsofyoungpeopletoliveinasharedandpeacefulsociety.Thispolicy mustmakeeffectivepracticalactionspossible. d. Investmentsshouldalsobemadeinyoungpeoplelivingingeographiesofviolenceand infindingwaysofofferingyoungpeoplesustainablewaysoutofviolence.Thisincludes economicyouthdevelopmentandalternativepathwaystoliving.Thenarrativesof youngpeopleinvolvedinviolenceandsectarianismalsoneedtobeheardand understoodaspartoftheCSIprogramme. e. DesmondBellandSarahNelsononcehighlightedthatyoungpeopleinNorthernIreland, particularlyinworkingclassareas,areseentoplayanactiveandincreasinglycentral roleinthepreservationoftraditionsandthushavebecometheguardiansoftradition. Normalisedsectarianismisintergenerationalandyoungpeopleareoftenexposed becausetheyactoutthemessagesratherthanmerelyrepeatthemverbally.Young peoplesattitudesandbehaviourcanthereforeonlybeusefullytackledasaspecific

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

interventionwithinabroadercommitmenttocohesion,sharingandintervention,also requiringmultiagencyintervention. McEvoyLevyxliimakesitclearthatinthelongerterm,theenduranceofpeace agreementsdependsonwhetherthenextgenerationsacceptorrejectthem,howthey aresocializedduringthepeaceprocess,theirperceptionsofwhatthepeaceprocesshas achievedandtheirtangibleexperiencesofabetterlife.Successwilllieinwhetherthey remainobjectsofeliterhetoricandpolicy,orwhethertheybecomeparticipantsinthe transitionprocessandwhetherpeacebringstangiblebenefits. Policymakersshouldprovideopportunitiesforgenuinedialoguetooccurbetween children,youngpeopleandadultsinpower.Thisincludesfacilitatingyoungpeopleto settheirownagendaandseektobringaboutchange:genuinelyinvolvingyoungpeople inpolicymakingandenablingthemtodefinesolutionstoissuesimpactingonthem. Youngpeoplesroleinshapingpolicyiscrucialtotheinclusionofyoungpeoplein societyandyettheyaretoooftenpassiverecipientsofpolicy.Governmentand educationpolicyshouldputtheviewsofyoungpeoplecentraltosuchaprocess. Magill,SmithandHamber(2009)reportthatyoungpeoplewantananswertothe criticalquestions:whydidalltheTroublesstart?Whyitisstillgoingon?Andwhy couldntithavebeenprevented?xliiiTheReportoftheConsultativeGroupofthePast hashighlightedtheneedformuchmoredebateondealingwiththepastinNorthern Ireland.Findinganhonestwaytoexaminetheconflictisimportantifwearetospare thenextgenerationfromrepeatingthesamemistakeswemadexliv.CSImustaddress thiscrucialissueandnotleavethistobeaddressedinisolationatthecommunitylevel oreducationlevel.CSIcouldprovidethehonesty,leadershipandsupporttodealwith thepasteffectivelyandhonestly.Risksshouldnotbeleftwiththeeducationsectorto addresssuchcomplexitiesinisolation.Thefocusoneducationmustinvolveall stakeholdersonthissubstantialdialogueatalllevels. Researchshowsthatalargepercentageofyoungpeoplelearnaboutthepastfromtheir parents.Partnershipswithparentsareunderdevelopedandthereismuchtolearn fromthemaboutthelegacyissuestheydealwithonafamilybasis. Althoughthedocumentacknowledgestheneedtoprogressbeyondshorttermyearon yearapproachesandplacesaparticularemphasisonengagingyoungpeopleandthe communityinlongtermstrategiestoreduceprejudicepromoterightsand responsibilitiesandbuildacultureofmutualrespect,thereisnothingintheCSI documentwhichmovesbeyondtherhetoricalinthisarea.xlvCRCbelievesthatthereis broadcommunityconsensusthatthisshouldbeapriorityandcallsforanurgentreview ofyouthstrategywithacommitmenttofindresources. IncontrasttotheDepartmentofEducationsapproachin2010,CRCbelievesthatinter communityengagementshouldbemainstreamedasnormalwithinyouthwork.There isaneedtodevelopaseriousyouthstrategywhichdealswiththevariousneedsof youngpeopleastheyare,ratherthanthecurrentproviderledmodelswhichleavetoo manyyoungpeoplewithoutsupport.Aftersomanyyears,CRCisconcernedthatthe verbalcommitmentstoayouthinterventionprogrammearenotbackedbyanyplanof actionorbyanypromiseofresources. Progresswilldependonmovingfromtreatingyoungpeopleasaproblem,to encouraginganapproachwhichalsoengagesyoungpeopleinlearning,enhancingtheir employability,encouragingactivecitizenshipanddevelopinganawarenessofyoung

peoplesrightsandresponsibilitieswithinthecommunity.Thisneedstobetiedintoa properlyarticulatedearlyyearsandparentsupportstrategy. m. AlthoughCRCisawarearenumerousexamplesofgoodworkcarriedoutwithyoung people,thereisscantrecognitiongiventotheroleofyouthworkintheCSIdocument bothformalanddetached.Thishasbeenathemeofcommunityrelationsworkformany years.CRCthereforerecommendsarevisionoftheprogrammethatseriouslyconsiders thelearningfrombestpracticeatcommunity,voluntaryandstatutorylevel. n. Intercommunityyouthviolencemustaddressthespecificneedsofflashpointtimesin thecalendarandinspecificareasinrelationtosectarianconcernsboththrough targetedinterventionandwithinareviewedstrategicapproachtoyouthwork. Opportunitiestodeveloppilotprogrammesencouragingnormalisedintercommunity andinterculturalinteractionshouldbeidentified,developedanddeliveredtoyoung peoplewhoareoutofschoolorwhoareunemployed.Specialattentionshouldbepaid totheroleofyoungpeopleinconfrontationanddisputes,andatsensitiveareasthrough programmesdevelopedonayearroundbasisratherthanmerelythroughrepeated emergencyorseasonalinterventions. o. ThereisverylittleinterrelationshipbetweentheindicationsofayouthstrategyinCSI andtheproposalsbroughtforwardbytheDepartmentofEducationundertheir CommunityRelations,EducationandDiversity(CRED)programme.CRCbelievesthata coherentstrategyforyoungpeopleshouldbedeveloped,includingaformal commitmenttointercommunityandinterculturalengagement.Allofthisshouldbe fullyreflectedinthePrioritiesforYouthbeingdevelopedbytheDepartment. F. Housing a. HousingisacriticalmatterforCRC,impactingimmediatelyontheissuesofsafetyand freedomofmovement,onwherepeoplefeelsafetolive,workandplay.ForCRC, equalityinhousingprovisionisofcriticalimportance.Issuesofsegregationmustbe tackledwhilealsoprotectingthefundamentalprincipleofequalaccesstoaffordable housingonthebasisofneed.Atthesametime,ongoingterritorialisationofhousingin NorthernIrelandtouchesonprofoundissuesofterritorialcontrol,inequalityofaccessto vacantproperties,themythofchoice,freedomofmovementandintimidation.Inour view,noneoftheseissuescanbeignoredanylonger.CRCbelievesthattheongoing distortionofequalityandchoicethroughfearmustbetackledinsuchawayasto guaranteegenuineequalityofaccessintothefuturexlvi. b. TheCSIprogrammecontainsanumberofimportantDSDcommitmentstodevelop sharedhousingincludingactionssuchasintroducingthescreeningofeachnewsocial housingschemeforitssharedpotential;supportingathreeyearpilotprogrammeaimed atencouragingandsupporting30sharedneighbourhoodswithinexistingestatesacross NI,continuingtopromoteamixedtenureapproach(socialhousing),andexaminingthe processofSocialHousingallocationtoexplorehowbesttoaccommodatethe aspirationsofthemajorityofthepopulationwhowishtoliveinmixedreligion neighbourhoods.CRCisstronglysupportiveofallofthesemeasures.WhileCRCis awarethatDSDanditsagenciesplayacriticalrole,theywillrequiresupportandco operationfromplanners,builders,landlords,politicians,communitiesandeconomic developers.

c. CRCisconcernedbythelackofanyformalanalysisofthescaleofthechallengetobe faced.Whileeachofthespecificproposedchangesarewelcomeandoverdue,theyare insufficientlyambitiousforthetaskofensuringequalandsafehousingonthebasisof openaccessbyalltosafehousingthroughoutthenorth.Equalityinhousingprovisionis ofcriticalimportance.CRCbelievesthattheallocationofhousingandthepatternof livingtogethermustalsobeaddressedtoendeffectivesegregationinpublichousing andtheongoingdistortionoffreechoicethroughfear. d. Housingshouldbeaddressedinasystematicway,andareportshouldconsiderissues suchasplanning,communitysafetyandcommunitydevelopment.Aneffectivehousing systemin2020shouldincludeanobjectivetoreducesegregationorincreasethelevels ofsharedlivingwithinthistimeframe. e. Equalityandgoodrelationsinhousingcanonlybedeliveredthroughthedevelopment ofanagreedplanofactionandanacceptabletimeframe.Intimidationandfearprevent andreducehousingchoices.Theyalsocreateanunequalandunfairreactionofthe relocationofthevictimsofintimidationanddiscrimination.Thecriticalquestionsof equalityofaccessandcohesionmustbeaddressedtogetherparticularlyinrelationto housingandequalopportunitytoaccesshousing. f. Thereductioninhousingduplicationwillcontributetoefficiencysavingsinthecurrent budgetaryclimate.Itcontinuestobethecasethattherearevacanthousesavailable butinareasthatmanywouldfeelunsafe. g. Interagency/communityinitiativesmustbedevelopedthroughoutoursociety.These haveworkedinareasandhasrevitalisedpublichousing,byaddressingsectarianismand racismaswellasothersocialproblemsi.e.dereliction,emptyhouses,andantisocial behaviour.Springfarmisanexampleofwhatcanbeachievedviainteragencywork alongsidethecommitmentandleadershipofthelocalcommunity.Itnowhasawaiting listforhousing. h. Communitiesworkinghardtoaddressbarriersandtoenablechangeandprogressmust besupportedandmentored.Suchprogressresultsinasofteningofboundariesthat consequentlyenablingmorechoiceandopportunitiesforhousingselection. i. Itiscrucialthatdesignencouragessharingratherthandivision,forexample,designing outopportunitiesfortheerectionofparamilitarysymbolsetc j. Residentialspacesrequire: highqualityfacilitieswhichattractpeople; openandsafedesign; thoughtoutlocationandaccess;and seriousongoingmanagementofsitesandfacilities,particularlyinareas whicharecontestedandrequireproactiveinterventiontoensuresafety,openness andequality. k. Thereisaneedtoprotectandextendexistingmixed/openhousingareas. l. Thereisaneedtocontinuetosupport,developandincentivise: pilotschemesonintegratedhousing; mixedhomeownershiptopromotelessdividedterritory;and newbuildsharedhousingprojectsinboththepublicandprivatesector. m. Itisnecessarytoexploreoptionsforallocationandtoinvestigateshorttermapproaches thatcanmeasuretheabilitytomeetobjectiveneedwhilstalsoenablingmorechoicein housingprovision.Initiativesshouldalsobeembeddedtoincreasepublicsafetyforallin publichousing.

n. Designledcrimereducingapproachesintheplanningandconstructionofhousingcan worktomakenewbuildssecurefromthestartortomakeexistingdwellingsmoresafe withintelligentrefurbishment.DesignOutCrimeinitiativesinhousingplanningcanbe effectivepreventersofcapacityforantisocialbehaviour. o. Becausetheseissuesaresohugelycomplexandsupremelyimportant,CRCbelievesthat theycanonlybetackledviaahighlevelreviewofhousingprovisionchargedwith comingupwithproposalswhichwillensuresafe,sharedandequalaccesstohousingin anagreedperiodoftime,aprojectnotunlikethescale,scopeandambitionofthe PattenCommissiononPolicingappliedtohousing.CurrentlytheDepartmentofSocial DevelopmentisreviewingthefutureroleoftheHousingExecutive.Itisimportantthat theseelementsareattheheartofthatreview. G. PolicyforInterfaceCommunities a. Citiesandtownsaredividedbythephysicalbarrierswhichwereonceseenasshortterm protectionforembattledcommunitiesbuthavenowbecomepartofthepermanent structurallandscape.ThisisespeciallytrueinthecaseofBelfast.Thesestructuresserve toremindusthatthehostility,fearandangerofthepastremainaliveandcontinueto threatenthepeaceofpeopleandcommunitiesoneithersideofthebarrier.Thebarriers separatecommunitiesinwhichthefearremainsthat,withoutthebarrier,liveswillbe putatrisk. b. TacklingpovertyinNorthernIrelandisdirectlyconnectedtocreatinganewcultureof freedomfromfear.Oneofthelegaciesofconflictisthatmanyoftheareasmost traumatizedandshapedbyconflictarealsoamongthepoorestxlvii.Povertyandviolence havecombinedtoleavemanyareasbattlingwithmultipledeprivations,creatinga complexnexusofmultipledisadvantage. c. CRCisverypleasedtoseethatCSIcommitstotacklingtheproblemsofinterfacesby proposingtourgentlyaddressthephysicalandcommunitydivisioncreatedby interfaceswiththesupportofcommunities.Underthisareatheprogrammepromises toexecuteanearlyandstrategicinterventiontotackleantisocialbehaviourand tensionsaroundinterfaceswiththeobjectiveofcreatingsecureandsafecommunities whichmayfacilitatetheremovalofphysicalbarriers. d. However,CRCisconcernedthatthedocumentpromotesanoverlysimpleideaof communityconsentwithoutanequalemphasisontheprinciplethatitisagovernment obligationtoprovidesafetythatdoesnotdependonmassivephysicalbarrierswhich generatepoverty.CRCisstronglyoftheviewthatitisagovernmentobligationtolead effortstofindalternativestophysicalbarrierstosecuresafetyandthatthiswillrequire aproactiveapproach.CRCbelievesthatanewparadigmofcommunitysafetybe developedwhichcommitsthesystemtorealengagementandinnovationonthisfront. e. CRCiscommittedtotacklingtherealityofinterfacedivisionandpovertyxlviii.Overmany yearsithasinvestedheavilyinpeople,organisationsandprogrammestoalleviate violenceandtocreateadvocacyforcommunitiesontheinterfaces.CRCistherefore pleasedthatthedocumentrecognisesthatisolatedpiecemealapproacheswillnotbe effective,andhowcloselytheworkofcommunitysafetyandregenerationistiedto interfacesalthoughCRCisconcernedthatthedocumentdoesnotsufficiently acknowledgetheworkthatiscurrentlytakingplacexlix.Therearemanypilotsand programmesanditistimeforthelocallearningtomakeitswayintostrategicpolicy

f.

g.

H. a.

b.

developmentandimplementationwithaholisticapproachinterdepartmentally. Utilisingtheknowledgeandexpertisecurrentlyinplacewillbecrucialforanylongterm intervention. Moststarklyofall,theremustbeaseriousattempttoregeneratetheinterfacesand reintegratethesecommunitiesonthefrontlineofconflictandviolenceintothe mainstreamofciviclifel.Thisisnotasimplequestionoftakingdownthewalls,butofa seriousefforttobuildupthepartnershipandtrustandcreaterealregeneration. Evenatthisearlystage,itisclearthatthisstrategywillhaveanumberofkeyelements: theissueofinterfacesatastrategiclevel,whichwillensuretheyaregivendue regardwhendevelopinglocalactionplans.Whatisrequiredisaninter Departmentalapproach,whichtieschangesincommunitiestochangesin regenerationandinvestment,whichbuildsonthedesiresandknowledgeoflocal communitiesthemselvesandwhichtiestheinterfacesintotheregenerationofour citiesandregion; regenerationoffershugeopportunitiesforsocialinclusionandcohesion,bothat interandintracommunitylevel.CRCbelievesthatthesuccessofregeneration projectsrequiresanumberofkeyaims: thegenerationofsocial,economicandenvironmentalbenefitstogether inacoherentandcoordinatedfashion; ensuringthattherearebenefitsforlocalcommunities,thewidercityand regionandvisitors,connectingpreviouslymarginalisedareasintothe localeconomyandsociety.Generatingavibrant,inclusiveanddiverse environmentincommunitieswhichcontinuetostrugglewithpoverty, fearandseparation.Bestpracticeincommunitysafetyfromelsewhere shouldbeutilised.Tensionmonitoringisanimportanttooltomeasure potentialorgrowingproblemsinalocalityitshouldbeexaminedhowthis couldbeimplementedatacrossagencylevel.Alsovitalistheinteraction betweencommunitiesandpolicingandcommunitysafetypartnerships arecentraltothedevelopmentofsafe,openandsharedspaces;and communityrelationsandgoodrelationsshouldbemainstreamedintothe managementofsharedspaceprogrammesandcentraltointervention anddiversionaryprogrammes.Thiswouldcreatecommittedpartnership ratherthandialogueastheprimemodelofinterfacemanagementand couldcreateprogrammeswhichallowpeoplebothtoexplorebothintra andintercommunityviolenceandthedamageitcausesANDtodevise sharedpracticaloutcomes. Flags Flagsandemblemsareaparticularlyemotiveareaforbuildingasharedfuture.They impactdirectlyontheplausibilityofideaslikesharedspace,onthefutureofinterfaces andonthepossibilityofaseriousculturalaccommodationinadividedsociety.Thereis anurgentneedforpoliticiansofallpartiestoidentifythedifferencebetweenthe freedomofculturalexpressionandthepermanentmarkingoftowns,districtsandpublic amenitiesinawaythatsuggeststhattheyarepartisanpossessionsratherthanpartof thepublicrealmli. Theflagsprotocoliswidelyregardedasineffective.Itisweakbecauseoftheabsenceof anypoliticalconsensusonhowtohandlethisissue.Asaresult,publicauthoritieshave

beenparticularlyslowtodevelopanysystematicresponsetotheseissues.Nomatter howdifficult,itisapoliticalobligationonleadersseekingtomakechangesfromdivision toasharedandbetterfuturetotackletheseissuesalongwithotherculturalmatters. Thealternativeisthattheongoingculturewarsunderminethecredibilityofpolitical commitmenttoenddivision. c. CRCrecognisesanumberofparticularlyimportantmatters manyoftheseculturalexpressionsarepresentallyearroundandthusalsoactas territorialmarkers.Thisimpactsdirectlyonissuesofsafetyandequalaccessto publicamenities,housingandworkplaces; thereisarelationship,eitherperceivedoractual,betweenparamilitarygroupsand someofthesedisplays.Evenwhereintimidationisidentified,therecanbeproblems withidentifyingwhichagencieshaveresponsibilityfordealingwithsuchpractices. Thefailureofthestatetoregulatethisissuecontributestotheongoingappearance oftheweaknessoftheruleoflaw; clearlysomeculturalpracticesarepartoflocalcommunitytraditionsandaretoa degreepopular.However,thereissurveyandanecdotalevidencethatpeoplealso feelintimidatedbymanydisplays.Thereisaneedforformalregulationofthis balance;and inappropriatedisplaysofflagsandemblemscanleadtoeconomicdamage. Particularattentionneedstobepaidtomakingtowncentressafeandwelcoming spacesforeveryone.lii d. AspartofanyCSIprogramme,newagreementsmustbereachedonkeyareasof contention.Thisisoverwhelminglyamatterforpoliticalleadership.Currentlythe normalisedrefusaltoengageonthiscontentiousmatterisretainedinCSI.Despitethe commitmenttoreviewtheflagsprotocol,thereisnodetailoncurrentmonitoringorif thingshaveimprovedunderthecurrentprotocol.Theabsenceofactionand implementationplancreatesasituationinwhichthereviewingandupdatingofthe protocolcouldbealongprocess.Giventheroleoftheflagsprotocolinthecreationof sharespacesitdoesnotbodewellfortheshort,mediumandlongtermobjectivesof thepolicy. I. CommunityDevelopment a. Throughtheyearsofviolence,someofthemostimportantintercommunityworkwas keptalivethroughcommunityorganisationandcommunitydevelopment.Indeed withoutcommunityorganisationitisdifficulttoknowhowcommunitieswouldhave beensustained.Thesamepatternwasrepeatedduringthepeaceprocess.ThePEACE programmesinvestedheavilyincommunitylifeacrossNorthernIrelandandtheborder regionwhilepoliticsremainspolarisedorunabletoagreeoninstitutions.Therearenow densenetworksofintercommunityprojectsandcrossborderinitiatives.Interchurch organisationswereoftenpioneersinreconciliation,womensorganisationstookrisks developingnewlinks,interfacessawimportantcommunityledinitiativesandrural communitieswereheldtogetherandchallengedbynewcommunityinitiatives. b. Oftencommunityorganisationsweretotheforeinpioneeringpartnerships,new relationshipswithstatutorybodiesand,aboveall,spreadingparticipationin peacebuilding.Thislegacyneedstobuiltonandexpanded.Communitydevelopment

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

organisationsoftenmadetheimportantconnectionbetweenpeacebuildingandsocial inclusionwhichwasrecognisedacrossthepeaceprogrammes. Inrecentyearsthemanymorecommunityorganisationshavecometothefore.Groups foundedbyprovidingservicestovictimsandsurvivorsandexprisonersandex combatantsmadeauniquecontributiontoaddressingthelegacyofthepast.Minority ethnicorganisationsandgroupscomingfromoftenhiddenconstituenciesandhidden voiceshavemadeanimportantcontributiontoensuringthatthefutureisbuiltona pluralratherthanabipolarbasis. TheCSIdocumentdoesnotcommentoncommunityorganisationsortheirfuture.CRC believesthattimeisrightfornewpartnershipsinwhichthelearninginsomecommunity settingsistransferredtothepublicandprivatesectors.Fortoolongcommunity organisationshaveploughedalonelyfurrow.Itistimeforrecognitionandengagement. Atthesametime,itistimetochangetheparadigmofparalleldevelopment.Real communityrequiresopenandtransparentrelationshipslocally,connectionsand partnershipwithneighboursandalliesandthebuildingofcloseandpracticallinkswith statutoryorganisationsandelectedrepresentatives.Yetcommunitydevelopmenthas toooftenevolvedinNorthernIrelandintoparallelselforganisedcommunity organisationswhichgenerallyseektorepresentcommunityactivityfromwithinthe frameworkofparallelcommunityidentity.Asaresult,communitiesmaybecome competitive,focusedonprotectingcontroloverlocalassetsratherthandrivinga systemwideagendaaboutthedevelopmentofpeopleandpossibilities.Areviewof communitydevelopmentwouldprotectthehugequantityofgoodpracticebutseta newcontextforpublicsupportandfornewpartnershipsandpriorities. Aspeacebecomesestablished,itisvitalthatcommunitydevelopmenttakesthisunique opportunitytoreturntoitspurposes,toensuretheparticipationofthepoorestand mostvulnerableindecisionmaking,toensureaqualityoflifeineveryneighbourhood andtocreateaccesstokeytoolssuchaseducation,healthandemployment. TheCSIdocumentsayslittleaboutcommunitydevelopment,orabouttheimportant needtocreatesharedresources,strongpartnershipsandnetworkstopreventdeprived areasbecomingmoremarginalised.Vulnerablepeoplearetrappedbehindwallsand barrierswhichwereputtheretodefendthembuthavenowbecomeaccepted boundariesofusandthem.CSIoffersarealwaytoreviewtheprinciplesand organisationofcommunitydevelopment,toemphasiseitsfirstprinciplesof participationandinclusion,andtomoveawayfromthenecessityofterritorial organisationwhichhaslimitedaccesstoassetsandstuntedthecreativityand opportunityofthepeoplelivinginsomeofourpoorestdistricts.

CHAPTER4MAKINGCHANGEHAPPEN:WHATWORKSFORCOHESION,SHARINGAND INTEGRATION 1. Introduction a. TheultimatetestoftheprogrammeforCohesion,SharingandIntegrationiswillit work?Ameaningfulanswerdependsonansweringatleasttwofurtherquestions: whatarewegoingtodo?Isthereacomprehensivepolicyframeworkbackedby realresourcesandenergy? howarewegoingtomakeithappen?Dowehavethenecessaryleadership, developmentanddeliverystructurestodrivechangeandthemeasurementsto demonstratethatitisworking? b. Itmustbeabasicassumptionthatthestructureswhichemergemustbefitforthe purposeforwhichtheyaredesigned.Confusingly,theCSIdocumentsoffersfour deliveryoptionsinchapter11alongsideanapparentlysettleddesigninchapter10. 2. MinisterialLeadership a. CRCbelievesthatthededicationofpoliticalleadershiptoreconciliation,toputtingan endtosectarianismandracismandtoeliminatingdivision,discriminationandviolenceis thecorepoliticalachievementofthepeaceprocess.SincetheBelfastAgreementof 1998,therehasbeensteadypopularsupportforsharedgovernment,finallyachievedby devolutionin1999and2007.Everyotherimportantgoal,includingthecommitmentto buildingprosperityandasecureeconomy,mustbeunderstoodascontributionstothe ultimategoalofcreatingasharedsocietywhereeveryonecanliveinfreedom,equality andsecurity. b. ForCRC,therefore,oneofthemostimportantandencouragingelementsoftheCSI documentisthecommitmenttodirectministerialleadership.Thishasalreadybeen shownonnumerousoccasions,indifficulttimesfollowingactsofviolenceorinmany symbolicgesturesofenormousresonance.Whatisimportantnowisthatalltheparties intheexecutivewholeheartedlyembracethegoalsofcohesionsharingandintegration inpractice. c. AnunresolvedambiguityintheCSIdocumentiswhetheritisadocumentbindingonly theOfficeoftheFirstandDeputyFirstMinister(OFMDFM)withitsrelativelysmall communityfocussedbudgetsorabroadExecutivepolicy,bindingallMinistersinto sharedcommitmentsandspecificactions.Whilethereareexamplesinthedocuments ofactionsbytheDepartmentofSocialDevelopment(DSD)andtheDepartmentof Justice(DoJ),theproposedministerialstructureappearstobeledbythetwoJunior MinistersinOFMDFM.CRCbelievesthatthisambiguityshouldberesolvedbyplacing responsibilityforCSIwiththeExecutiveasawhole,ledbytheFirstandDeputyFirst Minister,witheveryMinisterenergeticallyseekingtoensurethatallpolicyis consistentlyaimedatsecuringrealreconciliation.ThiswouldensurethateachMinister reportsonprogressinrelationtotheactionswhichfalltotheirDepartments,with overallaccountabilitybeingtakenbytheFirstandDeputyFirstMinisters. 3. InterDepartmentalCoordination a. Theimportanceofinterdepartmentalcooperationcanonlyberesolvedthrough politicalcommitmentandExecutiveagreement.Whatisclearhowever,isthatno

b.

c.

d.

e.

4. a.

seriousissueincohesion,sharingandintegrationcanbetackledbyoneDepartment aloneworkinginasilo.Forexample: significantchangeinthepatternofhousingwillrequirechangesinsafety,policing, transport,educationandthelocationofpublicservices.; sharedspacewillrequireactionsbytheDepartmentsofSocialDevelopment, RegionalDevelopment,Culture,Education,Justiceandbylocalgovernment; therewillbenochangeontheinterfacesiftherearenotchangesinplanning, regeneration,transport,employmentandeducation; tacklingthepastwillinvolveactionsforhealth,employment,communityrelations, justiceandeducation;and raceequalityisclearlyamatterofseriousinterdepartmentalaction. Everycohesionandsharingissuewillneedtobetackledinthisway.TheCSIdocument doesnotyetcommentonthecomplexpracticalimplicationsofapolicyrequiringthis degreeofcoordination.However,failuretoachieveinterdepartmentalcoordination willresultinmuchreducedcredibilityandeffectivenessinthiscommitment. CurrentpolicyintroducedthenotionofaTriennialActionPlaninwhichitwasintended thattheactionsofDepartmentswouldbeidentifiedandcoordinatedagainstagreed outcomes.InpracticeDepartmentshavefailedtodeliveranyactionplanssince2007 ThecurrentsystemofPublicServiceAgreements(PSAs)couldpotentiallyachievethe sameresult,butitisimportantthattheeffectivenessoftheseproposalsistestedagainst theoverarchingobligationsofreconciliation. CRCbelievesthatitisimportantthatthefinalpolicy: ensuresthattheprinciplesofCSIareagreedbyallthepartiesintheExecutive; identifyspecificDepartmentalActionsincludingPublicServiceAgreements(PSA); and ensuremechanismsforreportingandmonitoring Currently,thetimelinesinthedocumentarevague.Thesectionidentifyingshort, mediumandlongtermactionsmakeslittlepracticalsenseandtheabsenceofanyaction planorimplementationtimeframeisaseriousfault.Addedtothisthereisnodetailon outcomes,monitoringandmeasurement,butratheritreferstothecurrentgood relationsindicatorsastoolsformeasuringprogress. Peaceasachangeforeveryone TheCSIdocumentmakesclearthatweshouldexpectchangesforbothpeopleand places.Ultimatelythiswillalsodependonchangesbypeopleinplaces.Thechanges towardsasharedandbetterfuturewhichhavetakenplaceoverthelasttwodecades havealwaysdependedonwidespreadcivicleadership,participationandsupport. InvestmentsinpeacebytheEUPEACEprogramme,theInternationalFundforIreland, andtrustfundshavesurpassedallprevioussupportforpeaceinanypeaceprocess anywhereintheworld.Untildevolutionthepoliticalelementoftheprocesswasthe mostvulnerableaspectofpeacebuilding..ThePEACEIIprogrammewasconceivedon thebasisthatpoliticalcooperationwassecureyetitwasenactedinacontextof profoundpoliticalinsecurity.Momentumforagreementwassometimessustainedin theinterimbycivicaction,internationalsupportandleadershipincommunitiesand publicinstitutions.Noneofthiseffortisfullyacknowledgedinthedocument.

b. TheCSIdocumentdoesnotcontainaformalreviewofcurrentdeliverymechanisms. Thismakesanyassessmentoftheproposalsdifficult,asnoevidentialbaseforchangeis provided.CurrentlythefunctionswhichCRCundertakesasaregionalbodyare: assistingGovernmentinthedevelopmentofitsplanandactionsforgoodrelations; deliveringonactionsfallingtoitasaresultofthoseplans; promoting,inpartnershipwithECNI,goodrelationsactionsinthestatutory,private, voluntaryandcommunitysectors,youthsector,churchandotherfaithbasedsectors withintheirrespectiveareasofresponsibility; providingtraininganddevelopment,support,advice,guidanceandasourceof specialistexpertisetodistrictcouncilsinthedevelopmentoftheirgoodrelations plans; providingachallengefunctiontodistrictcouncilsontheirgoodrelationsplans; workinginpartnershipwithdepartmentstopromoteculturaldiversity; actingasmainfundingsourceforvoluntaryandcommunityorganisationsto provideinnovativecommunityandracerelationsprogrammes; promotinghighriskactione.g.,developingandsupportinginterventionsat interfacesandotheratriskareas; developingandproducinggoodpracticeadvice; commissioningandundertakingresearch; preparingathreeyearassessmentonthehealthofcommunityrelationsin NorthernIrelandwhichwillformpartoftheGovernmentsmaintriennialreport whichtheAssemblywillbeinvitedtoconsider,debateandreport;and ensuringthatbestpracticeinaddressingdivisionandtheproblemsofdiversityin NorthernIrelandisofinternationalstandards,andencouragetheflowofideasand practiceonNorthSouth,EastWest,Europeanandinternationallevels. Ifreconciliationisaseriousgoal,CRCbelievesthatallofthesefunctionscontinuetobevital andcontinuetorequirearobustandlicensedindependentbodytocoordinatethem c. Incontrasttothisclearoutlineoftasks,theCSIdocumentmerelyassertsthatthe currentlandscapeofdeliveryiscomplexandconveystheimpressionthattasksare undertakenbyabewilderingvarietyofequallyrepresentedgroupsandorganisations withoutclearrolesandresponsibilitiesliii.Thisisnotonlymisleadingbuttotally inaccurate,dilutingCRCsstatedleadroleastheregionaldeliverybodyforcommunity relationspolicy. d. ForCRC,theeliminationofacoherentandindependentregionalcivicinstitution committedtoasharedandbetterfuturewouldbeamajorretrogradestepforavariety ofimportantreasons: theparticularnatureofpoliticalinstitutionshereleaveslittleroomfordesignated oppositionorholdinggovernmenttoaccount.Mandatedindependentinstitutions, withataskofchallengeandengagementonagreedthemesareanimportantand availablemechanismtoensurethatdifficultconversationstakeplaceandarenot suppressedundertheweightofpoliticalinterest; theissueofreconciliationinIrelandisacutelyandparticularlyvulnerabletoshort termpoliticalinterest,andweshouldnotsubordinatethisvitaloverarchinggoalto shorttermpartypoliticalinterests.Policyanddecisionmakingwillalwaysremain withgovernment.Butitisintheinterestsofallthatthisisformedinthecontextof acommitmenttotakedecisionshavingconsideredtheimplicationsacrosscivil societyforaninclusiveandinterdependentfuture;and

themovefromembeddeddivisiontosecurereconciliationherecannotbeasimple questionoftopdowncentraldirectionbasedentirelyonpoliticalknowledgeand interestbutoflearningtodowhatwehaveneverbeenabletodo.Learningfrom businessisthatinsuchcircumstances,thecriticaltoolisanetworkforopenlearning, ensuringthatknowledgeisgleanedfromaswideavarietyofsourcesaspossible, includingthemostmarginalcommunities,keyinstitutionsandpluralpolitical perspectiveswiththecentralstructuresactingtobringcoherenceandinsight allowingforeffectivepolicy.AregionalbodymustbemandatedbytheExecutiveto developpractice,enhanceanddeveloplearningandresearchandofferadvicebased onthisexperience. e. TheexistenceofCRChasbeenacknowledgedasasignificantinnovationininternational peacebuilding.Thecombinationofcivicindependencewithapublicfunctionrepresents auniqueanddelicatebalancewhichremainscritical.Aboveallthefocusonpractical developmentwork,advocacyaroundkeyvalues,learninginacontextofuncertaintyand advicetothewholesystempublicbodies,communityandvoluntarygroups,public policyconsultation,localgovernmentandcentralgovernmenthascreatedaunique networkofexpertisewhichcannotbereproducedthroughatenderingofgrantsto NGOsorbycivilserviceactivity. f. Thereductionofthefunctionsofthecivicinstitutioninpublicpolicytofundingand advicetogovernmentisshortsightedandcertainlyinsufficientforwhatthissociety needs.Thedistributionofreducedbudgetsthroughtenders,ortheeliminationofan independentvoice,wouldrepresentasignificantlossinamandatorycoalition government. g. CRCisdisappointedbythelackofformalanalysisofthesefactorsintheCSIdocument. Option1maintainsthatalltaskscanbecarriedoutbycentralgovernment.Unlessthelist oftaskscurrentlyunderstoodasthefunctionsofaregionalbodyisdismissed,CRCdoesnot believethistobepossible. Option2suggeststhatthefundingfunctioncanbetenderedout.Thismaybepossiblein thecontextofanarrangementtomaintaintheothercorefunctionsofaregionalbody. Simplydividingcurrentgrantaidintoaseriesoftenderswillbeneithereffectivenor efficient. Whileoptions3Aand3BmentionCRCdirectly,thebodydescribedappearstobevery differentfromthecreative,independentcriticalfriendcarryingtheconfidenceofpolitical leadershipwhichthetasksrequire. h. Withoutfurtherclarificationandmoredetailedinformation,CRCiscurrentlyunableto recommendanyoftheoptionsunderCSI,findingthemalltoberetrogradeand regressive. i. Byseparatingthemembersoftheadvisorypanelfromanyresponsibilityforactionor accesstoresourcesforlearningandadvocacythereisariskthatpoliticalleadershipmay bemistakenforpoliticalcontrolofallindependentvoice. j. CRCsconcernsaboutthemodelsofferedforconsultationshouldnotbemistakenforan unwillingnessofCRCtoengageinreformandrenewal.IndeedCRCstronglybelieves thatthisisthenecessaryopportunityforthatdebatetotakeplace.Thequestionswhich CRCbelieveneedtobeaddressedare: howdoesCRCensurethatitisbroadlyrepresentativeoftheentirecommunity? Currentlytheboardisrecruitedthroughregularopenpublicappointmentprocesses regulatedbytheOfficeoftheCommissionerforPublicAppointments.Foranumber

k. l.

5. a.

b.

c.

ofyearsOFMDFMhasnottakenuptheexistingoptionofdirectlyrecruitingupto onethirdoftheboardsmembership.CRCwouldwishtoseepartiesandsocial organizationsencourageawideapplicationtoCRCsboard; thefullscopeofthispolicycreatedbytheuseofthetermcohesioninthe documentisstilltobefullyresolved.Theinstitutionalresponsewillthereforeneed toreflecttheconclusionoftheconsultation..Howevertherelationshipof sectarianismandthecommitmenttoaninterculturalfutureareclearlyimportant aspectsofthisdebate.CurrentlyCRCisoftheviewthatcohesionrequiresamore complexinstitutionalresponsetothemanychallenges.Howeverthequestion remains:shouldCRCincludetherepresentationofothercohesionissues?CRCis confidentthatitsskillswillenableittomeetthischallenge; shouldareformedCRChaveadifferentstatutorybasis?CurrentlyCRCvaluesthe guaranteeofindependentvoicewhichitsindependentstatusbrings.Statutory changewouldhavetospecificallyreflectandsafeguardthatimportantprinciple. shouldCRCrelatemoreformallytostatutorybodiesresponsibleforHumanRights andEqualitywhichhavealegalandmorenarrowlydefinedresponsibilityforsome aspectsoftheseissues?;and iscommunityrelationsstillthebesttermtodescribetheworkofsecuringashared andbetterfuture? AllofthiscouldusefullybereflectedinafinalCSIprogramme.CRCbelievesthatthe absenceofsuchanassessmentrepresentsthemajorstructuralriskofimplementation. CRCbelievesthatthefunctionsoftheregionalbodyneedtoberetained,andbelieves thatithasdonethisefficientlyandeffectivelytodate.Therefore,CRCsuggeststhatthe currentoptionsbereconsidered.Moreconstructively,areviewofexistingstructures shouldfollowthepublicationofpolicyprincipleswithamandatetoensurethatthe structureswhichemergearefitforpurpose,effectiveandefficientforthecriticaltasks required,broadlyreflectiveofthewholecommunity,honest,independentand transparent.CRCisconfidentthatitcanmeetthoseprinciples. DistrictCouncils CRChasbeenworkingwithDistrictCouncilsoverthemanyyearsandmorerecently tookaleadingroleaspartofaconsortiumwithPobalinadvisingDistrictCouncilsinthe establishmentanddevelopmentoftheirEUPEACEPartnerships. Undertheexistingpolicy,itwasintendedthatDistrictCouncils,supportedbythe regionalbodyandOFMDFMwouldmakeasignificantcontributiontothedeliveryof changedservicesandrelationships.Unfortunately,theexpectedReviewofPublic Administration(RPA)hasnottakenplaceandthetransferofpowerstolocalauthorities hascometoahalt.ThisisreflectedintheCSIdocumentthroughaveryshort acknowledgementthatDistrictCouncilshavearoletoplay. CRCisdisappointedthatthestructureanddevelopmentofworktopromoteashared andbetterfuturehasbeenweakenedbythesedevelopments.Inparticularthelossof thewellbeingpower,underwhichCouncilsweretopromoteareacommunityplanning wouldhavebeenaneffectivetooltomainstreamcohesion,sharingandintegrationinto realdecisionsatlocallevel.CRCbelievesthatitiscrucialroleoftheregionalbodyto enhanceanddeveloptherelevanceandqualityofworkthroughpartnershipswiththe DistrictCouncils.

d. CRChopesthatanyreviewofDistrictCouncilGoodRelationsProgrammewillseekto buildonthegoodpracticedevelopedthroughtheexistingProgrammeandthroughthe PEACEPartnerships.CRCalsohopesthatthisworkwillbecomeadirectresponsibilityof electedmembersandseniorofficerswithinCouncilswiththesupportofregional expertise. 6. ResourcesforReconciliation a. Thedefaultposition,thenormalexpectation,isthatmanyservicesinNorthernIreland areprovidedonthebasisofparallelprovisionfordividedcommunities.Thisisneither sustainablenordesirable.Cohesion,sharingandintegrationofferstheopportunityto placepublicspendingunderanewlens,ensuringthatallpublicassetssuchashousing, healthfacilities,leisurefacilities,retailzones,youthservicesandeducationalservices areequallyavailabletoall.CRCisonlytooawarethatthisisnotthecase,with widespreadevidencethatfearandchillfactorscontinuetoexcludepeopleandshape choices.Seriousinroadsintoseparationandapartheidwillrequireseriousbudgetary changetomainstreamservices.Thecurrentpublicspendingreviewoffersan opportunitytoensurethatvalueformoneyisalsoassessedagainsttheobstaclesto peacefulandnormalinteraction.Noneofthisisattemptedinthedocument,allowing theimpressionthatthedocumentdoesnotseeanyconnectionbetweencohesion, sharingandintegrationandtheeconomicconditioninwhichwefindourselves. Furthermore,itisclearthatanyrequestforadditionalmoneyfromtheUKtreasury undercurrentcircumstanceswillbemoreconvincingwithaplanthatdemonstrates that,overtime,additionalresourceswillbeusedtoreducesegregationanddependency ratherthantomaintainthem. b. Inthefiscalclimatetheabsenceofanycommitmenttofutureresourcesisaworrying aspectofthedocument.Theconsultationwouldhaveprovidedanopportunityto indicatetheleveloffuturefinancialresourcesfortheimplementationofthis programme. c. Unfortunately,theCSIdocumentdoesnotcontainareviewofexpenditure,withno referencetopotentiallyimportantdocumentssuchastheCostofDivision.Thereisno reviewofthecurrentresourcesdevotedtointercommunitywork,noranyfuture planning.CRCisawarethattheintercommunityinfrastructureofthemostvolatile areasofNorthernIrelandhasbeenbuiltupovermanyyearsbycommunitiesinco operationwithCRC.Muchofitrestsoninternationaldonorsupportwhichisscheduled toendby201315.Currentlymorethan75%oftheresourcescommittedtointer communityworkthroughCRCcomefromthesesources(seefigure1below).Thefocus inthedocumentonthereallocationofsmallerOFMDFMbudgetsisthereforepotentially dangerouslymisleading.

Figure1

Who pays for peace?


Paying for PEACE?
Atlantic 2009 3% DFA 4% IFI 26% OFMDFM 12% DE 1%

EU PEACE III 54%

d.

e.

7. a.

b.

ExperiencewiththeapproachoftheDepartmentofEducationtofundingits responsibilitiesintheareasofintercommunityyouthandschoolsworkhasseta worryingprecedent.Inspiteofongoinginternationaldonorsupportandadomestic budgetof3.6mperannum(around5perpupilperyear)thisareaofworkwas identifiedasatargetforinyearsavings,reducingthebudgetto1.1m.Thishas essentiallyremovedapotentiallysignificantbudgettoensureintercommunity interactionamongyoungadultsandchildren. TheabsenceofaresourcereviewinCSIleavesafearthatthisareaofworkisvulnerable underthecomprehensivespendingreview.Theabsenceofinvestmentininter communitybridgingcapitalwouldnotonlybeunfortunate,haspotentiallyserious longtermconsequencesforthefuture. ConsultationEqualityimpactassessmentandyoungpeople UndertheEqualityCommissionNorthernIreland(ECNI)GuidanceforImplementing Section75oftheNIAct1998,mainstreamingrequiresthatequalityiscentraltothe wholerangeofpublicpolicydecisionmakingprocessfromtheinitialplanningand developmentstagesthroughtotheimplementation,monitoringandreviewofthe development.CRCbelievesthatthisrequirementshouldbepartofeverystageofthe developmentprocess.CRCisdisturbedthatafullEQIAhasnotbeencarriedout alongsidethisdocument.Itunderstandsthatahighlevelscreeningexercisehasbeen carriedoutandwouldcallonOFMDFMtopublishdetailsofthisscreeningexercise. OFMDFMalsoproducedachildrenandyoungpeoplesversionoftheconsultation document.Itisnotclearwhowasinvolvedintheproductionofthisversionandthe degreetowhichyoungpeoplehadadirectinputintotheproductionofthedocument.

Howeverweareconcernedthatthechildrenandyoungpeoplesversiondidnotreflect alloftheissuescontainedintheofficialversion. Conclusion 1. ThecriticaltestoftheproposalsintheCSIdocumentmustbe:Dotheyworkto promotecohesion,sharingandintegration?CRChasconcludedthattheproposalsdo notmeetthistest. 2. Thedocumentshouldincludeaformaldefinitionofreconciliationalignedtothe definitionintheEUPEACEIIIprogrammealreadyapprovedbythisExecutivein2007. TheEUhasbeenthemostsignificantinvestorinpeacebuildinginthewholeregionand hasdevelopedacoherentframeworkoflearningandanalysis.TheExecutiveshould remaincommittedtothisvisioniftheCSIdocumentistobeplausible. 3. Ministerialleadershipisanimportantprinciple.Ifthisisaninterdepartmental document,thentheleadershipshouldresidewiththeExecutiveledbytheFirstand DeputyFirstMinister. 4. Arrangementsforinterdepartmentalcoordinationarevitalifthisistobemorethana paperexercise. 5. CSImustnotonlybedelivered,butdeveloped,learnedandadvocatedfor.Thisisnot reflectedinthedocumentorinthestructuresproposedfordelivery. 6. Broadcivicengagementisvital,withaprotectedcapacitytospeakhonestly,evenwhen thisrunscontrarytoshorttermpoliticalinterests.Thereisadangerthatthecurrent proposalsconfusepoliticalleadershipwithpoliticalcontrol. 7. Theroleofregionalbodyisfarmorethanthatoffundingandadvicetogovernment.All ofthecurrentfunctionslistedforCRCinthelastpublicpolicyonthisareaofworkneed toberetained. 8. Theproposalsfordeliveryandfundingareallretrograde.CRCbelievesthattheyshould allbereconsiderediftheprincipleoffitforpurposeistobefulfilled. 9. Theprogrammewillnotbeplausiblewithoutaseriousresourcereviewand commitmentofresources.Thisgoesbeyondfundingforcommunitybasedactivityinto arethinkofmuchlargerandsignificantbudgetssuchaseducation,housing,community development,regeneration,justiceandculture.Withoutthisrethink,commitmentto reconciliationislikelytoremainmerelyrhetorical.

APPENDIX1:EXAMPLESOFMODELSOFGOODPRACTICEINCOMMUNITYRELATIONS DEVELOPEDTHROUGHCRC Thefollowingexamplesofgoodpracticeareaselectionofprojects,organisationsand initiativeswhichtheCommunityRelationsCouncilhashelpedtodevelopinrecentyears throughitsDevelopmentandFundingwork.Theyaredrawnfromalloftheprogrammes whichCRCdelivers: OFMDFMCOMMUNITYRELATIONSincludingcorefundingandsmallgrants OFMDFMVICTIMSPROGRAMME IFICOMMUNITYBRIDGESPROGRAMME EUPEACEIIIPROGRAMME Inthisdevelopment,CRChasplayedapivotalpartasaregionalbodywithinabroadco operativeframework.Noneofitcouldhavedevelopedasitdidwithoutacommitted regionalbody,partnershipandreflectivedevelopmentworkandthehugecommitmentof peopleacrosstheregion.Eachpieceofworkhasbeenledbydedicatedpeopleand organisationsincommunitiesandundertakingenormouslyimportantandsometimes unrecognisedrisks.Theexpertisewhichhasbeendevelopedisenormous,andCRCsrole hasbeentoidentify,coordinateanddevelopthatemergingpracticeandtoapplythat learningtoourownadvocacyandfuturedevelopmentpractice.Critically,theregionalbody providessupportforaction,advocacyandsupportwhengroupscomeunderpressureanda partnerinlearning. Theorganisations,projectsandinitiativesdonotrepresentascientificallyselectedgroup. Thelistisneitherexhaustivenordefinitive.Itispresentedkaleidoscopicallytounderline thesheerscale,scopeandvarietyofworkthathasbeendevelopedthroughCRCandto emphasisehowasinglesetofvaluesequity,diversityandinterdependenceistranslated intosignificantactioninpractice. Theydemonstrate Theinternationalqualityofworkwhichhasnowbeendevelopedinintercommunity workthroughCRC Thehugeamountofeffortandreflectioninpeacebuildingandtacklingissueswhich CRChasgeneratedwithourpartners Thegeographical,politicalandthematicspreadofCRCswork Thecontinuedeffortsofthoseincommunitiestodevelopasharedandpositive society CRCsroleinthedevelopmentoftheseorganisationshasbeenstrategicandsignificant.All ofourprogrammeshaveprovideddirectadviceanddevelopmentsupport,aswellasstrong frameworksforassessmentandevaluation,regularpractitionersforums,trainingevents, seminarsandconferences.CRCprovidesongoingandactivesupporttothework,enabling theassessment,developmentandsupportofqualityaswellascontributingtoexpertiseand knowledgeofpeacebuildingandreconciliationwork.Thereisnoothercomparableagency anywhereelseinEuropeorindeedelsewhereinconflictareasacrosstheglobe.

CRCishonouredthatfouroftheprojectswereselectedtoappearwithintheCSIdocument aspartofthedocumentssixmodelsofgoodpractice,demonstratingoncemorethe importanceofaregionalhub.Theimportanceofnetworksandexpertise,ofadvocacyand developmentsupportcannotbeexaggeratedwithinthiswork.Itisourviewthatthe deliveryoptionsintheCSIdocumentwillnotsufficientlyprotectthisinheritance. TRADEMARK Trademarkisanethicallybasednotforprofitorganisationwhichworkstowardssocial changeinwhichtheprinciplesofsocialjustice,equality,andpluralismareactivelypursued corefundedthroughCRC.TrademarkisanofficialpartneroftheIrishCongressofTrade Unions(ICTU)deliveringtraining,researchandevaluationonarangeofrelatedthemes includingequalityandgoodrelations,humanrightsandpeace&reconciliation. Trademarkscoreworkcontinuestoacknowledgethatthepromotionofsharedworkplaces isnotsimplyaresponsibilityofthepublicsector.Privatesectoremployersalsohaveakey roletoplayinpromotingtheirworkplacesasdiverse,welcomingandsharedenvironments. (CSI3.12) TrademarkdeliverstraininginCommunityLeadershipandPoliticalEducation(inHighfield, andSandyRow)andinGoodRelationsaspartofTrademarksAdvancedTradeUnion LeadershipCourse,fundedunderPeaceIII.ThiscourseisaccreditedbytheInstitutefor LeadershipManagement(ILM).TheteamalsoleadtheEqualityandGoodRelationsTrainers Programme(EGRT)for30publicsectorworkers.TrainingdeliveredtostaffinCarrickfergus Council,ColeraineCouncil,MoyleCouncil,LimavadyCouncil,NorthWestPeaceIIIcluster (Sport&LeisureProgramme).Otherorganisationshaveaccessedthistrainingsuchas Extern,NIFireAuthority,EqualityUnitNIAssemblyCommissionandothersaswellasthe IPSEUSapproachinconfrontingthelegacyofthepast.Trademarkhasalsobeenengaged byoneofNorthernIrelandslargestprivateemployerstodeliverantisectariantrainingtoall 4,500staffmembersalongsideprovidinganongoingadviceandconsultationservicein preparationfortheopeningofnewpremises.Trademarkisalsoconductingamajor quantitativeandqualitativestudyoftheextentofsectarianharassmentanddiscrimination inworkplacesacrossNorthernIreland. CRCCoreFundinghasenabledTrademarktoleveragesubstantialadditionalprojectfunding fromarangeofsources. SOUTHBELFASTROUNDTABLEONRACISM TheRoundtablewasconvenedbySouthBelfastPartnershipBoard,inconjunctionwiththe ChineseWelfareAssociation,theNorthernIrelandCouncilforEthnicMinoritiesandthe CommunityRelationsCouncilinresponsetotheseriousproblemofracistattacksinsouth BelfastwhenNorthernIrelandwasdubbedtheracehatecapitalofEurope.TheRoundtable hasbeenwidelyrecognisedasaneffectiveresponsetoseriousproblemsbringingtogether keyagenciesandcommunityorganisations,withaninterestinaddressingracisminsouth Belfastinapositiveandproactiveway.TheRoundtablehasexpresseditssolidaritywith minorityethniccitizensandorganisationsandaffirmstherightofeveryonetoliveandwork insouthBelfastfreefromintimidation.Thelocalgroupsinvolvedincluderepresentatives

fromminorityethnicgroups,localcommunity,churchandpoliticalleaders,thepolice, voluntaryandcommunitygroupsandrepresentativesofstatutorybodies. INTERFACEWORKINGGROUP CRChasbeenresponsibleforputtinginterfacepolicydebateandtheregenerationof interfaceareasfirmlyonthepublicandpoliticalagendaandexpectittobeakeypriority areaintheforthcomingCSIstrategy. CRCsetupandistheleadbodyinthefollowinggroups: TheInterfaceWorkingGroup(IWG)ismadeupofkeystatutoryandcommunity representativeswithresponsibilityforand/orworkingininterfaceareas.Itisahigh levelpolicygroupwhichhasfinaliseditsToR,agreedaslimmeddownmembership ofcommittedseniorstatutoryandvoluntary/communityrepsanddeliveringon actionstowardsthesocial,economic,andphysicalandcommunityregenerationof interfaceareas. TheInterfaceCommunityPartnersgrouprepresentthevoiceofBelfastinterface communities.IttoohasfinaliseditsTermsofReference,agreed4representatives sitontheIWG.Thepartnersaredevelopingactionsforcommunityengagementto enableinterfacecommunitiestofullyparticipateinthepeaceprocess. TheBeyondBelfastgrouprepresentscontestedareasinrural,urbanandborder areasbeyondBelfast.ThisisledandfacilitatedbyCRCinpartnershipwithRCN. Duringthisyearanumberofconsultationeventswerecarriedoutwithkeygroups acrosstheregionandborder.ICRhasbeencommissionedtofinalisethereport flowingfromtheseconsultationswhichwillbethefirstreportofitskindever produced. HazelwoodCommunityPartnership(HCP)isledandfacilitatedbyCRCinpartnership withOFMDFM.Itisahugelysuccessfulinterfaceprojectwhichreportsannuallyto theExecutiveonattitudestowardsthefenceatHazelwoodIntegratedPrimary Schoolandthecommunityrelationsworktoaddressinterfaceissuesintheareaand recentlylaunchedtworeportsoneonHCPprogressandoutlineofactionplanand oneontheworkoftheYouthProvidersForumwhichisamodelofbestpracticein youthinterventionatinterfaces. JEDI TheJoinedInEquity,DiversityandInterdependenceProjectwasalsofacilitatedbythe CommunityBridgesProgramme.Theinitiativebroughttogetherallofthekeycomponents andinstitutionsrepresentingtheYouthSectortheYouthCouncil,theDepartmentof Education,theEducation&LibraryBoards,YouthnetandkeyVoluntaryBodiestoprovidea challengeandframeworktoembedtheprinciplesofcommunityrelationspolicyand practiceintotheircorebusiness.Inessence,thechallengewasfortheadultsand institutionsworkingtosupportthedevelopmentofyoungpeopletomodelthevaluesand behaviourtheysoencouragedyoungpeopletofollow. FOOTBALLFORALL InitsroleasanintermediaryBodyunderthevariousEUPEACEprogrammesCRChas supportedtheIFAinitsFootballforAllcampaignsince2002.Thishashadalmost

revolutionaryeffectsontheimageoftheNorthernIrelandfootballteam,engaging supportersandtheIFAinaradicalprogrammeofchange.TheFFAphilosophyisnowbeing promotedthroughthewholeassociation,andappliedtograssrootsdevelopment. TheAimoftheprojectistoeradicatesectarianismandracismandtoremovebarriers throughtheinvolvementinfootballtherebyincreasingparticipationfromminoritygroups. Inadditiontotacklingthecultureandcommitmentsofallthoseinvolvedinfootballhere, theprojectiscommittedtoraisingdifficulttotopicsandfindingpracticalsolutions.FFA hascreatedasafeenvironmenttodiscusscontroversialissuestoidentifybarriersto inclusion.Theprojectcoordinatestrainingandsupportforclubsintheirowncommunities toaddresstheissuesofsectarianismandracismandpromotesacultureofinclusionin footballthroughplaying,supporting,trainingandcoaching.. FootballForAllhasbeenrecognisedbybothFIFAandUEFAasaprojectofworldlevel significancewinningmanyawardsfortheirinnovation. RELATIVESFORJUSTICE RelativesforJusticehavealonghistoryofprovidingsupporttovictimsandsurvivorsofthe conflict,includingcapacitybuilding,campaigningwork,training,youthprogrammesandthe developmentofhighstandardsinComplementaryTherapyprogrammes.RFJmaintainsan advocacyandcampaigningroleandworksoftenwithfamiliesseekingjusticeforlovedones whohavebeenvictimsofstateacts.ThecampaigningworkofRFJhasbeenthemost publicallyrecognised,howevermuchoftheirotherworkhashappenedquietlyinthe background.OneofthemajorsuccessesofRFJhasbeentheirquiltingprojectwhichhas seenthegroupdisplaytheirremembrancequilts,madebymembers,displayedin internationalexhibitions. RFJaimstoprovideaholisticapproachtowardshealingandunderstandingtrauma.RFJ providesadvocacysupporttovictimsandsurvivorsandusesvolunteersandlegalinterns fromabroadtosupportindividualfamiliesintheircontactandengagementwiththe HET(HistoricalEnquiriesTeam).DespiteaninternalpolicyofnonengagementwiththeHET byRFJasanorganizationtheyarehappytoassistindividualsandfamiliesintheirpursuitof truthandjustice. IFICOMMUNITYBRIDGESPROGRAMME:area/districtapproaches Followinglargescalecommunaldisorderandabreakdownincommunityrelationsacross keyinterfacedistrictsinBelfast,theCommunityBridgesProgrammedevisedanareabased approachwhichallowedsingledistrictsandneighbourhoodstoaddresstheirown contributiontointercommunalconflictandviolence,indigenousgenerationalsectarianism, tobegintopreparethegroundforpartnershipwithneighbouringcommunitiesaswellasto begintotackletheadditionalproblemsofdisadvantageexacerbatedbyincessant communityinstability.ThisapproachwasfirstpioneeredwiththeParksideCommunity Associationandwasquicklyfollowedbysimilarinvestmentsseekingtoexplorethepotential ofthisnewpilotintheShortStrandcommunityofEastBelfast,theLowerNewtownards Road(BallymacFriendshipCentre),inGlenbrynwithaninvestmentwiththeConcerned ResidentsofUpperArdoyne(CRUA)andtheLowerShankillCommunityAssociation.The finalareabasedpilottookplaceinPortadownwithagranttoPLACE.

Thelearningoutcomesfromthepilotswereverysignificant.Whendirectcrosscommunity contactanddialoguewasnotfeasible,thepilotsallowedthedevelopmentofcapacity,an infrastructureandavolunteerbasetoemergewherenonepreviouslyexisted.Community activistsandleadersbegantothinkofalongertermstrategyofconflicttransformation ratherthanconflictmanagement.Insomecaseswhereneighbourhoodsanddistrictswere inaperpetualstateofvolatility,thepilotsbroughtadegreeofpeaceandstabilityandinall casesleadtotheformationofstrongandsustainablecrosscommunitypartnershipson issuesofmutualconcern. SPRINGFARMSHAREDNEIGHBOURHOODSCHEME IntheabsenceofaworkinggoodrelationsstrategyatExecutivelevel,CRCsupported Springfarmtodevelopitsownvisiontosecure,growandmaintainitsmulticultural community.Ithasachievedthroughcarefulplanning,partnershipworking,thecareand considerationofSpringfarmresidentsandalothardworkwhichenabledSpringfarmto becomeaselfdeclaredsharedneighbourhood. Springfarmsuccessfullyremainedamixedcommunityandcontinuallyworkstokeepout sectarianismandracism,paramilitarygroupsandthedisplayofflags,emblemsandsectional symbols.Infact,thepopulationofSpringfarmisnowmadeupofapproximately20% minorityethnic,40%Protestantand40%Catholicresidents.Thisisalsoreflectedinthe makeupofthelocalintegratedschoolandthechangewithinNorthernIrelandgenerallyas peacebecomesembeddedandsocietybecomemoremulticultural. ThiswastheflagshipprogrammefortheInternationalFundforIrelandfundedShared NeighbourhoodSchemewhichfunds30replicationsharedneighbourhoodschemesacross theregionwhichaimstodevelopneighbourhoodswherepeoplewishtolive,learn,work andplaytogetherandpromoterespectforselfandothersandrespectforcommunityand environment. CORRYMEELACOMMUNITY CRChassupportedtheCorrymeelaCommunitythroughmanyofourprogrammes. CorrymeelaisaChristianreconciliationinitiativewhichworkswithpeopleofallfaithsand none,andhasexistedformanyyears.CRCcorefundinghassupportedthedevelopmentof aninternationallyrecognisedcentreofreconciliationworkingwithcommunities,families andyoungpeople.CurrentlytheEUPEACEIIIprogrammesupportsinterfaceworkwiththe IrishPeaceCentresandhasdevelopedanewprogrammeinclosepartnershipwithNICRAS (NorthernIrelandCommunityofRefugeesandAsylumSeekers)tosupportintegration betweenthehostcommunityandthegrowingrefugeecommunityinNorthernIreland. Thisprojectisdesignedtodevelopmutualunderstandingbetweenthehostcommunityand growingrefugeecommunityandpromotewaysofdealingwithdifferencethatmayreduce thelikelihoodofsectarianbehaviourandviolenceandincreasethepotentialformembers oftherefugeecommunitytofullyintegrateintotheirnewenvironment.Theprojectwill aimistoreinforceprogresstowardsapeacefulandstablesocietyandpromote reconciliationinfosteringrelationshipsbetweenpeoplewithinasharedneighbourhood.

TheIFICommunityBridgesProgrammealsosupportedthedevelopmentofa comprehensivevolunteeringprogrammewhichhasraisedstandardsandcontributedtothe developmentofahighlyregardedlocalandinternationalpeacevolunteeringprogramme. REACTKILKEEL TheREACTProjectinKilkeelallowedforthedevelopmentofatrulycrosscommunityYouth Projectestablishedinasharedspaceandcentreinthemidstofahighlysectarianand segregatedtownanddistrict.TheprojectundertakenbytheGoalLineYouthCentrein Portadownillustratedhowayouthclubcanbecomecompletelyintegrated.Meanwhilethe taskofprovidingformativeexperiencesforyoungpeopleintheirsocial,personaland vocationaldevelopmentbecametheresponsibilityoftheManagementCommittee,Staff, VolunteersandSeniorMembers. WAVE CRChassupportedWavesInjuredInjuredonthatDayBookastorytellingprojectwhich hasunderlinedtheeffectsoftheconflictonthosethathavesufferedaninjuryasaresultof theNIconflictandsubsequentresearchproject.Thisprojecthasbroughttotheforeissues relatingtothosethathavebeendamaged/injuredasaresultoftheconflict.Oftenthese victimsareforgottenandsuchprojectshavehelpedbringisolatedprojectsintothe mainstreamworkofwaveanditiscrosscommunityinnature.Suchneedsofinjuredvictims havebeenoverlookedinthepastandstorytellingprocesseshelptoprovide acknowledgement,recognitionandgreater/widespreadawarenessoftheirplight.Such issuesincludechronicpainmanagementisoftenongoingasvictimsandtheperceptionfrom thisgroupisthatthereisalackofacknowledgmentoftheirvictimstatus.Thisworkis specificallywithindividualsthathavesufferedanInjurythroughtheTroubles,(injury rangingfromamputationstoposttraumaticstressdisorder)andsupportsareductionin feelingsofisolationandbeingforgottenabout,byhighlightingtheneedsoftheinjured. Theworkofthisgroupsaimstoaddressthepoortreatmentindividualshavereceivedfrom serviceswhendealingwithinjuredcases.Theworkisledbythosewhothemselveshave experiencedinjuryandinsodoingempowerthemtobringaboutthechangethatisneeded. IFICOMMUNITYBRIDGESPROGRAMME:CrossInterfacePartnerships FromtheoutsettheCommunityBridgesProgrammeestablishedasapriorityinvestingin projectswhichcoulddemonstrategoodpracticeintheformationandmaintenanceofcross interfacepartnerships.SustainedinvestmentintheSuffolk/LenadoonInterfaceGroupover 3fundingcycles,supportfortheFinaghyCrossroadsGroup,theShortStrandCommunity Forum/BridgeCommunityAssociationProject,theSkegoneill/GlandoreCommonPurpose projectandtheGreaterWhitewell/GreencastleCommunitySurgeryarekeyexamplesofthe Programmesintent.Withoutthetechnicalanddevelopmentalassistancemanysuch initiativeswouldnothavefulfilledtheirpotential.Overaperiodof15years,the Programmeevolvedanapproachtopeacebuildingatinterfacesbasedonpractical knowledgeandinterventions.Itlearnedtounderstandthefactorsandcircumstances neededtobeplaceforlongtermtransformativerelationshipstoflourishacrossinterfaces. THEJUNCTION/HOLYWELLTRUST

TheJunctionisengagedincollaborativeprogrammesofwork,relationshipbuilding,andthe provisionofpremisesforcommunityrelationsandcommunitydevelopmentwork,healing workshopsandotherpersonaldevelopmentwork.HolywellTrustseekstofostersocial transformationintheNorthWestthrougharangeofdifferentapproachesincluding developmentofprojects,developmentofforumsfordiscussionandfollowupaction, provisionoftraining,provisionofsupporttootherorganisations,andanemphasisonthe importanceofculture,historyandheritagewithinthearea. CRCCoreFundingenablesHolywell/Junctiontoleveragesubstantialadditionalcoreand projectfundingfromarangeofsources. TheworkofHolywell/Junctionhasbeenbrokendownintonumberofworkareasandis summarisedasfollows: GoodRelationstrainingforCouncillors,Officers,StatutoryBodies,LSPsandVoluntaryand CommunityorganisationsinDerryandotherCouncilareas.Thishasincludedtraining provisionforbodiessuchastheCarrick,Antrim,NewtownabbeyPeaceIIIcluster,DerryLSP, Dungannon,Coalisland&CaulfieldPartnershipBoard,NorthWestInstituteforFurther& HigherEducationandforColeraineCouncilwithPRG. CreativetrainingfororganisationssuchasCommunityTechnicalAid(Dublinbased organisationengagingwithexprisonersaspartofitswork),withRDConintegrating communities,ongoingworkshopswithCommunityDialogue,YouthActionYoungLeaders, Coiste&EPICTourGuideprojectandCommunityRelations&CulturalDiversitytrainingfor UU(MageeCampus)students. TowardsunderstandingandHealingprovisionofTrainingtheTrainersprogrammelooking athowtoaddressthelegacyofthepast,fundedthroughPeaceIII.Engagingwithgroups suchasFoyleWomensInformationNetwork,LINCResourceCentre,inongoingTrainingof TrainersonStorytellingandDialogue.Alsodeliveredtrainingtoaninternationalaudience fromCanadaandatStEthelburgasPeaceCentreinLondon. EthicalRememberingwithIrishSchoolofEcumenicswhichisworkinpreparationfor anniversariesofsignificantpolitical/culturaleventsfrom2012to2022. TheJunctionhasbecomecentraltothenetworkofcommunityandvoluntaryorganisations intheNorthwestbyprovidingaspacethatenablescommunityrelationsworktohappen andintheprovisionofcommunityrelationsresources.Thisworkareaalsoincludesthe generalpartnershipworkthatboththeJunctionandHolywellTrustareengagedin.Work includeshostingtheNorthWestInterfaithForum,TheatreofWitness,actingasmentorto emergingcommunityleadersintheJourneysOutproject,ongoingworkontheDiversecity Projectandvariouscrosscommunityandcrossborderinitiatives. OngoingworkbeingledbyHolywellTrustunderthebanneroftheWalledCityCommunity Partnershipwhichaimstotransformthe2existingbuildingsonBishopStreetintoacentre forSocialHealingandTransformationthatwillbesharedby11partnerorganisations.This hasinvolvedasignificantamountofworkinsecuringfundingfromtheDSDModernisation FundandIFI.Thisworkshouldbestartingin2011andbecompletedby2012.

DERRYWELLWOMEN DerryWellWomanhavedevelopedprogrammesforindividualvictimsaffectedbythe conflictandalsodevelopedtrainingandprofessionalvolunteersandwomanworkingwith thoseaffectedbytheconflict.Theyalsohaveafocusonmentalhealthissuesandchallenge thecurrentmedicationofmentalhealthwhilstacknowledgingtheemotionalimpactof mentalhealth.DerryWellWomanwelcomesthecontributionofcomplementarytherapies withtheirfocusofholistichealth.Theyalsopromotehealtheducationbyliaisingwith existinghealtheducationservices. THECROSSGROUP Thiswasthefirstvictimsupportgroupsetupandoriginatedin1975.Thisisacross communityandvoluntarybasedgroupmadeupofprisonofficerswives,victimsofall terrorist/paramilitaryviolenceandexsecurityforcepersonnel.Thereareover60members inthegroupandthemainactivitiesarebefriendingandsocialsupport.Thegroupfirstmet inCorrymeelaHouseandnowmeeteverymonth.Thegroupcontactseverymemberwho haslostamemberoftheirfamilyandsupportsthemthroughvisits,phoneandletters, NorthernIrelandwide.Thegroupnolongerseekfundingresourcesbutmeetonavoluntary basisandtheirworkcontinues.Theyareaninspirationalgroupofpeoplethathave supportedoneanother,providingalifelineforeachotherformanyyears. CRUSADERSFC/NEWINGTONFC CrusadersFCandNewingtonFChavecombinedtopromotetheconceptofasharedsports villageandstadiumcomplexinoneofthemostcontestedpartsofNorthBelfast.The breadthofthevisionandthedynamicleadershipoftheorganisersledtoprivateinvestment andwidesupport.Thiscouldbeoneofthemostsignificantsharedspaceinitiativesin NorthernIreland.CRChaveprovidedPathfinderseedingfundingforthecommunity outreachaspectsofthisproject. TIDESTRAINING TIDESwereawardedCRCCorefundingtoenableittodelivertrainingin:diversity;conflict management;goodrelations;labourmobility;andcapacitybuildingprogrammesacrossthe publicsectorinrelationtocommunityrelations.CRCCoreFundingensuresthatTidescan meetsomeofitsManagement,FinancialandAdministrativecostsandallowsTides Directorstomanagetheorganisationanddevelop&enhanceitstrainingprovision.Core FundingprovidesTideswiththecapacitytocoordinateandhaveoperationaloversightof allitstrainingprogrammesandtodesignanddevelopnewtrainingprogrammesthatrelate intothenationalandlocalqualificationsframework.Thereisabigmultipliereffectfrom thissmallamountoffunding. TIDEShasdevelopedkeypartnershipswithotherorganisations.Thisincludesworkwith OCNinthedevelopmentandpilotingofnewLevel4and5OCNprogrammesofCRtraining. ThisworkareaalsoincludesthesignificantachievementofTidesinwinningtheNational TrainingAwardsatbothregionalandnationallevelsinitsworkwithBytes.Tideshas deliveredsignificanttrainingtoawidevarietyoforganisationssuchasBytes,Corrymeela, VAST,Gems,Springboard,andSouthBelfastRoundtableonRacismamongothers.Training hasbeendeliveredonissuessuchas:LabourMobility;ConflictManagement;Good Relations;TrainingforTrainersprogrammes;CivicLeadership;UnderstandingRights&

ResponsibilitiesofCitizenshipamongothers.Thistraininghasbeensuccessfullydelivered withaveryhighproportionoflearnersachievingOCNqualifications.Foranumberofyears TIDEShasalsodeliveredGoodRelationstrainingtonewPSNIrecruits.Thisworkis continuingandTideshavebeenaskedtodeliverthetrainingforanother2yearsandhas recentlybegunaprogrammetodelivergoodrelationstraininginNIHEEstates.TIDESisnow providingsignificantsupportbeenunderthePeaceIIIprogrammeinareassuchastheNorth EastClusterandintheArmagh,Craigavon&BanbridgeCouncilareas.Workiscontinuingvia SEUPBPeaceIIIEngagementProgrammeforHardtoReachCommunitiesinBallymoney, Coleraine,LimavadyandMoyleDistricts.AlsoinvolvesworkingwithKilcrannyHouse, BusinessintheCommunity,BallymoneyCommunityResourceCentreandotherbodies.It willalsoinvolveworkingwithSouthernPeaceIIIclusterandBanbridgeandCraigavon Councilareas.TidesarealsoengagedwithArmaghCityandDistrictCounciltoreestablish theArmaghDistrictGRForuminordertobuildskillsinthisworkandtofacilitatethe developmentofastrategicplan.TIDESisalsoworkinginternationallyaspartoftheDialogue forPeacefulChange(DPC)Programme. LENADOONCOUNSELINGPROJECT TheLenadoonCounsellingProjectwasformedafteraprocessofcommunitydevelopment andcapacitybuildingwithintheLenadoonestate(WestBelfast).Thelevelofneedfor counsellingwassuchthatastructuredapproachtoofferingcounsellingserviceswas establishedinJune1999.LenadoonCommunityCounsellingProjectmovedintheSLIG interfacebuildingandwentfromasingleidentitycounsellingservicetonowoperatingand providingservicestoallcommunitieswithinSuffolkandLenadooninterface.TheCouncil hassupportedthisgroupoverthepast7years. IFICOMMUNITYBRIDGESPROGRAMME:EducationSectorInvestments TheIFICommunityBridgesProgrammeadvocated,designedandfinanciallysupporteda rangeofpilotprojectswhicharticulatedtheneedforthedevelopmentofacitizenship curriculumbasedsubject,adequatepreparationandtrainingforteachersandthe developmentofpilotprojectswhereclustersofschoolsinadjacentneighbourhoodsand districtsembeddedkeycommunityrelationsprinciplesandvaluesintotheirwholeschool, involvingalloftheteachers,allofthechildrenandyoungpeopleineverydayactivities. SchoolofEducation,UniversityofUlster StJohnsHighSchool,Dromore DukeofWestminsterHighSchool,Kesh HarmonyHillPrimarySchool,StAloysiusPrimarySchoolandStJosephsPrimary School,Lisburn CommunityRelationsInSchoolsPilotClusterProject SpiritOfEnniskillen NorthernIrelandCouncilforIntegratedEducation CorrymeelaTeacherEducationProject REACTARMAGH EPICMidUlsterwasfoundedin1999asanorganisationworkingprimarilywithloyalistex prisonersandtheirfamilies.Thisworkfocusedonreintegrationissues.Duetoanincrease inthedemandforEPICsservicesthescopeoftheworkevolvedintocapacitybuilding throughacommunitydevelopmentapproach.In2002EPICrebrandedtobecomeREACT,

withamorefocusedapproachonaddressingcommunityneedthroughreconciliationand communityrelationswork,education,youthdevelopmentandtraining.REACTcontinues todealwithcontentiousissuesonaninterandintracommunitybasisandencourage thoseaffectedbythelegacyoftheconflicttomoveforward,throughthefacilitationof communitydialogueandencouragingparticipationindevelopmentprogrammes.Theaimis topromotepeaceandreconciliationnotonlywithintheCityofArmaghbutfurtherafield. REACTwasresponsibleforassistinginthedevelopmentandoperationalisingtheArmagh BandsForumanditimplementedatrainingprogrammeforthisForum.Itisalsoworkingto developandimplementtheBandsForumModelofGoodPracticetootherdistrictcouncils andcommunitygroupsthroughoutNorthernIreland.TheForumhasbeenengagedin supportinglocalbandsinarangeofdifferentareasi.e.lobbyingstatutoryagenciesontheir behalf(PSNI,StrategicReviewofParades,ParadesCommission),depoliticisingmarching bands,localCouncil,developmentofdiversetrainingprogrammesforbandmembersi.e. marshallingskills,riskassessment,childprotection,andpromotinginterbandcooperation withForummembership.REACTactivelyfacilitatediscussionbetweenthecommunityand statutoryagenciestoreachagreementonthenumberandtypesofflagsthatwillbeflown, thetimesofdisplayandwhowillremovethem.ABannerProjectwasdevelopedwhere REACTfacilitatedworktoreplaceperceivedparamilitaryflags(i.e.flagsthatarenotinfact illegalbutareofhistoricalsignificancerelatedtotheFirstWorldWarbuttomostpeople theyareseenasUVFflags)withculturalpolebannersononeofthemainthoroughfaresin Armagh.REACThasestablishedarelationshipoftrustwiththeArmaghCulturaland HistoricalAssociationandisactivelyworkingwithitonarangeofissuesincludingexploring waystoreducetensionsaroundthetraditional11thJulybonfires.Thisworkisparticularly sensitivebutisofanongoingnature.TheArmaghCulturalandHistoricalAssociationare abouttoundertaketrainingwithTidesTrainingonculturaldiversity. PEACEANDRECONCILIATIONGROUP(PRG) ThePeaceandReconciliationGroup(PRG)wasestablishedin1976asalocalgroupofthe NorthernIrelandPeacePeopleinDerry/Londonderryandthenbecameanindependent bodytwoyearslater.Theoriginalintentionsoftheorganisationweretobuildbridges betweenthereligiousandculturalcommunitiesinNorthernIrelandthathadbeenpolarised byaninstitutionalised,segregatedsociety.Theseoriginalaimsremainintact.PRGis supportedthroughCRCcorefundingtogivecoresupporttoitslongstandingandhighly regardedprogrammeofwork. PRGisworkingwithmanydifferentorganisationssuchasDistrictCouncilsinareassuchas Derry,Strabane,Magherafelt,Limavady,Newtownabbey,Ballymena,Ballymoneyand Moyle.PRGisalsoengagedonaregularbasiswiththePSNI,NIHE,theApprenticeBoysof Derry,UniversityofUlsterandDerryCityCentreManagementamongothers.PRGdelivers mediationtrainingforNewtownabbeyCouncilandgroupsinSligoandtheNorthWest.PRG isengagedinmediationworkinrelationtodissidentRepublicans.Theyarealsoengagedin ongoingworkwithmembersofthePULcommunityinantisectarianismprojects. ThroughtheDealingwiththePastandShapingtheFuture(DPSF)underPeaceIIIand involvesprovidingtraininginmediationandconflictresolutionskillsfor120crossborder leaders.PRGCoreFundedstaffaredeliveringtheExploringDiversitycourse.Itincludesa commitmenttoCorrymeelaFamilyRespiteHolidays.PRGbelievesthatdealingwiththe pastinvolvesworkingwiththefamilyunit.Thisprojectisdesignedforthebenefitoffamilies

frominterfaceareasorsingleidentitycommunitiesintheDerry/LondonderryandDonegal borderareasandparticipantsareexpectedtojoininwithaprogrammeofcommunity relationsactivitiesandworkshops.PRGareapartnerintheJourneysoutProgrammewhich aimstoengageanewgenerationofcommunityleadersinthedebateaboutdealingwith thepastinNorthernIrelandandtheBorderCounties. Throughitsprogrammesofworkviapartnership,mentoring,trainingandmediation,PRG hasbeenabletoengagewithcommunityorganisations,schools,crossborderbodies, ApprenticeBoys&OrangeOrder,exparamilitaries,traders,thePSNIandotherstatutory bodies.TheworkofPRGhasbeenaboutengagingindividualsfromthesesectorsinfaceto facedialogueandinprovidingthemwiththeskillstocontinuetheirworkoverthelonger term.ItisalsoclearthatthePSNIvaluetheworkandsupportofPRGindealingwith marchingissues,theoutcomeoftheSavilleInquiry,mediationtrainingtodealwith neighbourhooddisputes,mobilephonenetworks,generaladviceprovisionandinforming newofficersoftheparticularissuesfacedinDerry/Londonderry.PRGaregenerallyviewed ashonestbrokersbetweenallpartiesthatthePSNIareengagedwith. LURGANTOWNINITIATIVE YouthworkersintheSouthernEducationandLibraryBoardhaverecognisedthechallenges whichsectarianismhasleftforyoungpeopleintheLurganarea.TheCouncilhassupported localworkerstodevelopaninitiativetobringtogetheralloftheyouthprovidersinthearea tocoordinateactionsandtoensurearealinteractionbetweenyoungpeopleinLurgan. Theprojectaimstoensurethattheconcernsforyoungpeoplearevoicedincivicforaand thatrealchangestakeplaceinthetown.Theprojectiscurrentlyunderconsiderationfor supportbytheInternationalFundforIrelandoverthenextthreeyears. SOUTHEASTFERMANAGHFOUNDATION Theorganisationwasformedinresponsetoaperceptionofneedandfeelingofisolation amongstvictimsinthearea.S.E.F.Fhasanagerangeof1380years.Theorganisation aimstoprovidearangeofservices,resources,informationandsupport.Theyseekto encourageandsupportcommunityactionatneighbourhoodandlocallevelthrough developingprojectsandprogrammesinresponsetotheirmembersneedsand requirements.Theyprovideafree,confidentialandimpartialwelfarerightsand informationservicewithcommunityandvoluntarygroups. SEFFhasundertakenaDVDProjectwithexUDRandexRUCmembers,recodingstoriesina safeandsecureenvironmenttoassistintheirhealingprocess.SouthEastFermanagh Foundation(SEFF)encouragepeoplewhohavebeenvictimsofterrorismandfeelisolated andfearfultoleavethesanctuaryoftheirownhomestomeetwithotherswheretheycan participateineventsthatsuittheirneedsandhelptointegratethemthewiderSEFF membershipandeventuallysociety. OverthelastnumberofyearsSEFFhavereportedanincreaseinmembershipwiththe facilitationofservicessuchascounselling,befriendingandwelfareadvice.Thosethatavail oftheseservicesnormallyprogresstosocialinclusionsupportwhichwouldincludeclasses heldwithinthecentreandsomeprogresstorespitewhichinvolvesmemberstravellingto

newandunfamiliarplacesinthesafetyofagrouptoencouragememberstoventurefrom theircomfortzonewithoutfear. HEALINGTHROUGHREMEMBERING HTRbringstogetherindividualsholdingdifferingpolitical,socialandreligiousperspectives tofocusonhowbesttodealwithissuesofconflict.Overthepast8yearstheyhavereceived supportfromtheCRCDschemetoexplorethedebatearounddealingwiththeconflict.They havesubgroupslookingatthemesincludingReflection,TruthRecovery,Storytelling, CommemorationandLivingMemorialandtheyhavealsodevelopedproposalsaroundan AnnualDayofReflectionthatwouldallowalltoreflectontheconflictintheyearstocome. TheyarecurrentlydevelopingaprojectonaLivingMemorialMuseumoftheConflict. CRWEEK CommunityRelationsWeekhasbeenorganisedandcoordinatedbyCRCforthelasteight years.ThishasbeenahighprofileprogrammeofeventsacrossthewholeofNorthern Irelandwhichseekstobothshowcasegoodpracticeincommunityrelationsworkand illustrateworkinprogress.Almost150eventshavebeenpartoftheprogrammeeveryyear, withcontributionsfromdistrictcouncilsandotherpublicsectorbodiesaswellasfromthe voluntaryandcommunitysector.Theprojectwonboththesilverandgoldawardsforthe bestcommunitycampaigninNorthernIrelandfortwosuccessiveyears. MYDAY TheMyDayseriesforprimaryschoolswasreleasedinSeptember2007andasecondseries aimedatsecondaryschoolpupilswasreleasedin2008.Theprojectaimstoprovidea classroomresourceforallschoolsinNorthernIrelandengagechildrenofallagesto welcome,engageandlearnfromandwithpeoplefromallbackgroundsinthenewnorth. TheprojectispartofCEAsC2Ksystemfortechnologyinschools. THEVALUEOFSMALLGRANTS: CARRICKFERGUSYMCA AmountAwarded:3990 TheCouncilawarded3990in2009toprovidereconciliationandgoodrelationstrainingfor tenyoungadultsandtheirfamiliesfromtheCarrickfergus.Thiscollaborativeproject involvedCarrickfergusYMCA,WoodburnPAKT,DonegalYMCAandLondonderryYMCA. Theprojectprovidedpeereducationtrainingtoensurethesustainabilityofpromotinggood relationsintheareaforfutureyears. ThroughtheinitialsupportfromtheCRC,thegroupsdevelopedtheirprogramtothestage wherebytheywereabletoapplyforandreceivefundingfromCANPeaceIIIpartnershipto runfurthercrossborderPeaceandReconciliationprogrammeswithbothadultsand teenagers.Theresultingprojectshavereceivedseveralawardsnominations. Thegrouparecurrentlyintheprocessoffurtherdevelopingtheirantisectarianismand racismtrainingundertheirStrengtheningFamiliesProgramme. TheinitialCRCinvestmenthasenabledthegrouptosubstantiallygrowththeirCRworkover thepast23years. MARKETSDEVELOPMENTASSOCIATION AmountAwarded:4000.00

Afterreceivingsupportovera2yearperiodtoprovidediversionaryactivitiesforyoung peoplefromtheirowncommunitythegroupreceivedsupporttowardsthedevelopmentof relationshipswithneighbouringyoungpeoplefromtheProtestantandChinesecommunity. CRCsupportenabledthegrouptodevelopongoingrelationshipswithyoungadultswho wereinvolvedininterfaceconflict.Throughthisinitialsupporttheyouthworkerswereable toestablishcontactswiththeircounterpartsinneighbouringcommunitiesandworkon runninganumberofjointdiversionaryprogrammesoverthesummerperiodforthefirst time. CAIRNCASTLELOL692COMMUNITYANDCULTURALGROUPAmountAwarded:3500.00 ThisGrouphasbeensupportedbyCRCDinthepastfortheirUlsterScotsFestivalwhichwas traditionallyasingleidentityproject.FollowingdevelopmentmeetingswithCouncilstaff, thisyearsfestivalincludesartistsfromSouthernIrelandandScotlandwithparticipationfor thefirsttimefromtheminorityethniccommunity(BallymenaInterEthnicForumand BeyondSkin).Thisfestivalisacelebrationofdifferentculturesandtraditionsthroughmusic andworkshopswhichwillimproverelationsintheareaandincreaserespectand acceptanceofdifference. Councilstaffplayedakeyroleinprovidingthedevelopmentsupportthegroupneededto expandtheirculturalcelebrationbeyondtheirowntraditionalborders. APPENDIX2DOMESTICLEGISLATIVECONTEXT PUBLICORDER(NI)ORDER1987ARTICLE9AND19, Useofwordsorbehaviourordisplayofwrittenmaterial 9.(1)A person who uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, or displays anywrittenmaterialwhichisthreatening,abusiveorinsulting,isguiltyofanoffenceif (a)heintendstherebytostiruphatredorarousefear;or (b)havingregardtoallthecircumstanceshatredislikelytobestirreduporfearislikelyto bearousedthereby. (2)An offence under this Article may be committed in a public or a private place, except that no offence is committed where the words or behaviour are used, or the written material is displayed, by a person inside a dwelling and are not heard or seen except by otherpersonsinthatoranotherdwelling. (3)In proceedings for an offence under this Article it is a defence for the accused to prove that he was inside a dwelling and had no reason to believe that the words or behaviour used, or thewritten material displayed, would be heard orseen by aperson outside that or anyotherdwelling.

(4)Apersonwhoisnotshowntohaveintendedtostiruphatredorarousefearisnotguilty of an offence under this Article if he did not intend his words or behaviour, or the written material,tobe,andwasnotawarethatitmightbe,threatening,abusiveorinsulting. (5)This Article does not apply to words or behaviour used, or written material displayed, solely for the purpose of being included in a programme broadcast or included in a cable programmeservice. Provocativeconductinpublicplaceoratpublicmeetingorprocession 19.(1)Apersonwhoinanypublicplaceoratorinrelationtoanypublicmeetingorpublic procession (a)usesthreatening,abusiveorinsultingwordsorbehaviour;or (b)displaysanythingordoesanyact;or (c)beingtheowneroroccupierofanylandorpremises,causesorpermitsanythingtobe displayedoranyacttobedonethereon,withintenttoprovokeabreachofthepeaceorby whichabreachofthepeaceorpublicdisorderislikelytobeoccasioned(whether immediatelyoratanytimeafterwards)shallbeguiltyofanoffence. (2)A person guilty of an offence under paragraph (1) shall be liable on summary conviction toimprisonmentforatermnotexceeding6monthsortoafinenotexceedinglevel5onthe standardscale,ortoboth. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE (NO. 2) (NI) ORDER 2004 AND ITS DEFINITION OF HATE CRIME ARTICLE3,PROTECTIONFROMHARASSMENT(NI)ORDER1997 Prohibitionofharassment 3.(1)Apersonshallnotpursueacourseofconduct (a)whichamountstoharassmentofanother;and (b)whichheknowsoroughttoknowamountstoharassmentoftheother. (2)ForthepurposesofthisArticle,thepersonwhosecourseofconductisinquestionought to know that it amounts to harassment of another if a reasonable person in possession of the same information would think the course of conduct amounted to harassment of the other. (3)Paragraph (1) does not apply to a course of conduct if the person who pursued it shows

(a)thatitwaspursuedforthepurposeofpreventingordetectingcrime; (b)thatitwaspursuedunderanystatutoryprovisionorruleoflawortocomplywithany conditionorrequirementimposedbyanypersonunderanystatutoryprovision;or (c)thatintheparticularcircumstancesthepursuitofthecourseofconductwasreasonable. a.Thereisnotstatutoryobligationtotackleobjectiveneed.Rather,itisalongstanding policycommitment(throughTSNandLifetimeOpportunities),wasreaffirmedintheSt AndrewsAgreement,andiscentraltothePFG20082011.(appendix2) Governmentisdeterminedtoeliminatethescourgeofpovertywhichblightsthelivesofso manypeopleinNorthernIreland.TheAntiPovertyandSocialInclusionStrategy,Lifetime Opportunities,aimstobuildonprogresstodateandaddresscontinuingchallenges.It recognisesdifferentprioritiesatdifferentstagesinpeopleslivesandtheneedforpolicies andprogrammestobetailoredtothesespecificneedsandtargetedatthoseingreatest objectiveneed.Page13 8.Alongsidetaxandbenefitspolicy,governmenthasandwillcontinuetoseektostrengthen andsupporttheNorthernIrelandeconomy,targetresourcesatthoseareas,groupsand individualsingreatestobjectiveneed,andlegislatewherenecessarytoprotectthe vulnerablefromdiscrimination.Page17 19.Policyneedstofocusonthemostpersistentlyandacutelydeprivedareasonthebasisof objectiveneedandtotailoranddevelopstrategies,workinginclosepartnershipwiththese communities.Itneedstostopthedownwardspiralofdeprivationandoffercommunitiesa realisticprospectofregenerationoftheirneighbourhoodsandimprovementintheirlives. Page21. 174.TheAntiPovertyandSocialInclusionstrategy,retainsthekeyprincipleofNew targetingSocialNeedwhichistodirectresourceswithingovernmentprogrammesatthose areas,groupsandindividualsingreatestobjectiveneedgyforNorthernIrelandspendingon roads,educationorhealthinfrastructure,theprocessmaybelessstraightforwardand guidancewillbeprovidedparticularlywhentheilitatedtheestablishmentofanumberof areasofcrossbordercooperation.Progresshasbeensignificantinrecentyears, particularlythroughtheworkoftheNorth/SouthMinisterialCouncilandEUfunded PeaceProgrammesinNorthernIrelandandtheborderregionofIreland. 171.TheIrishandUKgovernmentsarecommittedtodevelopingandpromoting furtherNorth/Southconsultation,cooperationandcommonactionconcerningpolicieson povertyandsocialexclusionovertheperiodofthisplan.Tothisend,areportoutlining commonandcurrentareasofcrossborderworkandinitiativesbetweenNorthernIreland andIrelandwillbeprepared.Potentialareassuitableforfurthercrossbordercooperation

willbeidentifiedaswillthemechanismsbywhichthisworkcouldbeundertakenand delivered.CentralAntiPovertyUnit 172.TheCentralAntiPovertyUnit(CAPU)withintheOfficeoftheFirstMinisterandDeputy FirstMinisterwillberesponsibleformonitoringandevaluatingtheoverallimpactofthe AntiPovertyandSocialInclusionStrategy.ThisUnitwillalsoprovidethesecretariattothe MinisterialPovertyForum. 173.AnInterdepartmentalEqualityandSocialNeedSteeringGroupwhichischairedbya seniorofficialintheOfficeoftheFirstMinisterandDeputyFirstMinisterwillbethe principlemechanismforcoordinating,monitoringandevaluatingacrossdepartmentsand Agencies.MembersofthisgroupwillalsorepresenttheirdepartmentontheMinisterialled PovertyForum.TheCentralAntiPovertyUnitwillalsoprovideSecretariatsupporttothe EqualityandSocialNeedSteeringGroup. 174.TheAntiPovertyandSocialInclusionstrategy,retainsthekeyprincipleofNew TargetingSocialNeedwhichistodirectresourceswithingovernmentprogrammesatthose areas,groupsandindividualsingreatestobjectiveneed.Forsomeprogrammes,suchas NeighbourhoodRenewal,thisisdonethroughtheuseofobjectiveindicatorsofneed.For others,includingthoseinvolvingsignificantspendingonroads,educationorhealth infrastructure,theprocessmaybelessstraightforwardandguidancewillbeprovided particularlywhentheseprogrammesarebeingdeliveredthroughPublicPrivate Procurementinitiatives.Page69. 192.Governmentisdeterminedtoeliminatethescourgeofpovertywhichblightsthelives ofsomanypeopleinNorthernIreland.TheAntiPovertyandSocialInclusionstrategyaims tobuildonprogresstodateandaddresscontinuingchallenges.Itrecognisesdifferent prioritiesatdifferentstagesinpeopleslivesandtheneedforpoliciesandprogrammesto betailoredtothesespecificneedsandtargetedatthoseingreatestobjectiveneed.Page 76. THEFLAGSREGULATION(NI)2000hasdefinedtheuseoftheUnionFlagfordesignated governmentbuildingsondesignateddays,however,itdoesnotapplytoDistrictCouncil buildings: Flyingofflagsatgovernmentbuildingsonspecifieddays (1)TheUnionflagshallbeflownatthegovernmentbuildingsspecifiedinPartIof theScheduletotheseRegulationsonthedaysspecifiedinPartIIoftheSchedule. (2)TheUnionflagshallbeflownonthedaysspecifiedinPartIIoftheScheduleat anyothergovernmentbuildingatwhichitwasthepracticetoflytheUnionflagon notifieddaysintheperiodof12monthsendingwith30thNovember1999. (3)Inparagraph(2),notifieddaysmeansdaysnotifiedbytheDepartmentof FinanceandPersonneltootherNorthernIrelandDepartmentsasdaysfortheflying

oftheUnionflagatgovernmentbuildingsduringtheperiodof12monthsending with30thNovember1999. (4)WhereagovernmentbuildingspecifiedinPartIoftheSchedulehasmorethan oneflagpole,theEuropeanflagshallbeflowninadditiontotheUnionflagon EuropeDay. SCHEDULERegulation2PARTISPECIFIEDGOVERNMENTBUILDINGS AdelaideHouse,AdelaideStreet,Belfast. CastleBuildings,StormontEstate,Belfast ChurchillHouse,VictoriaSquare,Belfast. ClarenceCourt,1018AdelaideStreet,Belfast. DundonaldHouse,UpperNewtownardsRoad,Belfast. NetherleighHouse,MasseyAvenue,Belfast. RathgaelHouse,BallooRoad,Bangor,CountyDown.

NI Executive (2008), Programme for Government 2008-2011, Page 12. http://www.northernireland.gov.uk/pfgfinal.pdf We will bring forward a programme of cohesion and integration for this shared and better future to address the divisions within our society and achieve measurable reductions in sectarianism, racism and hate crime. Programme for Government 2008-11.
ii i

CRCs principles and values The CRC is founded on the following values and principles: Equity and Equality: CRC is committed to fair treatment for all, through open access to resources, structures and decisionmaking processes at all levels of society, as an essential basis for good community relations. Human Rights: The CRC is committed to upholding the human rights of all as a fundamental basis for good community relations. Diversity: CRC is committed to the promotion of inter-cultural respect and freedom of expression and movement (whether expressed through religious, ethnic or political background) and supports the peaceful expression of variety and difference. Interdependence: CRC recognises and affirms the interconnectedness of the personal and community experiences of all those living and working in Northern Ireland. CRC exists to promote good relations based on trust, respect and inclusion. Non-violence: CRC recognises non-violence as an essential condition for the growth of trust, dialogue and conflict transformation. Openness, Transparency and Accountability: As a provider of public services, CRC will uphold this principle in all its work. All of our work is conducted on the basis of these values See for example, Accord, Northern Ireland: Striking a balance 2003; , http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/peace/docs/accord99.htm

iii

iv

Arthur, P (1990), Government & Politics of Northern Ireland, Longman There have been visible connections between Unionism -with its insistence on British identity- and being born into one of the varieties of Protestantism and between Irish Nationalism and Catholic background. Indeed the connections have been strong enough to allow both religious and political terms to be used interchangeably as shorthand vernacular to describe clearly understood identities. The divide was most powerfully reflected and reinforced in voting patterns with almost no movement between apparently fixed blocs resulting in the emergence of identity politics with an apparently permanent internal Unionist majority and a consequent Nationalist minority (the majority, the minority) polarised around the foundational question in politics- should the state exist or not? aka to be or not to be?

Case of Barankevich v. Russia Referring to the hallmarks of a democratic society, the Court has attached particular importance to pluralism, tolerance and broadmindedness. In that context, it has held that although individual interests must on occasion be subordinated to those of a group, democracy does not simply mean that the views of the majority must always prevail: a balance must be achieved which ensures the fair and proper treatment of minorities and avoids any abuse of a dominant position (see Gorzelik and Others v. Poland [GC], no. 44158/98, 90, 17 February 2004). The Court further reiterates that in a democratic society, in which several religions coexist within one and the same population, it may be necessary to place restrictions on the freedom to manifest one's religion or belief in order to reconcile the interests of the various groups and ensure that everyone's beliefs are respected. However, in exercising its regulatory power in this sphere and in its relations with the various religions, denominations and beliefs, the State has a duty to remain neutral and impartial. What is at stake here is the preservation of pluralism and the proper functioning of democracy, and the role of the authorities in such circumstances is not to remove the cause of tension by eliminating pluralism, but to ensure that the competing groups tolerate each other (see Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Others v. Moldova, no. 45701/99, 115 and 116, ECHR 2001-XII, with further references). Agga (no2) v Greece. The Court recalls that freedom of thought, conscience and religion is one of the foundations of a democratic society within the meaning of the Convention. The pluralism inherent in a democratic society, which has been dearly won over the centuries, depends on it. It is true that in a democratic society it may be necessary to place restrictions on freedom of religion to reconcile the interests of the various religious groups (see the Kokkinakis judgment cited above, pp. 17 and 18, 31 and 33). However, any such restriction must correspond to a pressing social need and must be proportionate


to the legitimate aim pursued (see, among others, the Wingrove v. the United Kingdom judgment of 25 November 1996, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1996-V, p. 1956, 53). It is true that the Government argued that, in the particular circumstances of the case, the authorities had to intervene in order to avoid the creation of tension among the Muslims in Xanthi and between the Muslims and the Christians of the area as well as Greece and Turkey. Although the Court recognises that it is possible that tension is created in situations where a religious or any other community becomes divided, it considers that this is one of the unavoidable consequences of pluralism. The role of the authorities in such circumstances is not to remove the cause of tension by eliminating pluralism, but to ensure that the competing groups tolerate each other (see, mutatis mutandis, the Plattform rzte fr das Leben v. Austria judgment of 21 June 1988, Series A no. 139, p. 12, 32). In this connection, the Court notes that, apart from a general reference to the creation of tension, the Government did not make any allusion to disturbances among the Muslims in Xanthi that had actually been or could have been caused by the existence of two religious leaders. Moreover, the Court considers that nothing was adduced that could warrant qualifying the risk of tension between the Muslims and Christians or between Greece and Turkey as anything more than a very remote possibility. Hyde Park and Others v Moldova (no. 4) 50. In so far as the proportionality of the interference is concerned, the Court recalls that it has stated many times in its judgments that not only is democracy a fundamental feature of the European public order but the Convention was designed to promote and maintain the ideals and values of a democratic society. Democracy, the Court has stressed, is the only political model contemplated in the Convention and the only one compatible with it. By virtue of the wording of the second paragraph of Article 11, and likewise of Articles 8, 9 and 10 of the Convention, the only necessity capable of justifying an interference with any of the rights enshrined in those Articles is one that may claim to spring from a democratic society (see Refah Partisi (the Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey [GC], nos. 41340/98, 41342/98, 41343/98 and 41344/98, 86-89, ECHR 2003-II, and Christian Democratic Peoples Party v. Moldova, cited above). 51. Referring to the hallmarks of a democratic society, the Court has attached particular importance to pluralism, tolerance and broadmindedness. In that context, it has held that although individual interests must on occasion be subordinated to those of a group, democracy does not simply mean that the views of the majority must always prevail: a balance must be achieved which ensures the fair and proper treatment of minorities and avoids any abuse of a dominant position (see Young, James and Webster v. the United Kingdom, 13 August 1981, 63, Series A no. 44, and Chassagnou and Others v. France [GC], nos. 25088/94, 28331/95 and 28443/95, 112, ECHR 1999-III).REFAH PARTS (THE WELFARE PARTY) AND OTHERS v. TURKEY 89. The Court considers that there can be no democracy without pluralism. It is for that reason that freedom of expression as enshrined in Article 10 is applicable, subject to paragraph 2, not only to information or ideas that are favourably received or regarded as inoffensive or as a matter of indifference, but also to those that offend, shock or disturb (see, among many other authorities, Handyside v. the United Kingdom, judgment of 7 December 1976, Series A no. 24, p. 23, 49, and Jersild v. Denmark, judgment of 23 September 1994, Series A no. 298, p. 26, 37). Inasmuch as their activities form part of a collective exercise of the freedom of expression, political parties are also entitled to seek the protection of Article 10 of the Convention (see United Communist Party of Turkey and Others, cited above, pp. 20-21, 43). 90. For the purposes of the present case, the Court also refers to its case-law concerning the place of religion in a democratic society and a democratic State. It reiterates that, as protected by Article 9, freedom of thought, conscience and religion is one of the foundations of a democratic society within the meaning of the Convention. It is, in its religious dimension, one of the most vital elements that go to make up the identity of believers and their conception of life, but it is also a precious asset for atheists, agnostics, sceptics and the unconcerned. The pluralism indissociable from a democratic society, which has been dearly won over the centuries, depends on it. That freedom entails, inter alia, freedom to hold or not to hold religious beliefs and to practise or not to practise a religion (see Kokkinakis v. Greece, judgment of 25 May 1993, Series A no. 260-A, p. 17, 31, and Buscarini and Others v. San Marino [GC], no. 24645/94, 34, ECHR 1999-I). 91. Moreover, in democratic societies, in which several religions coexist within one and the same population, it may be necessary to place restrictions on this freedom in order to reconcile the interests of the various groups and ensure that everyones beliefs are respected (see Kokkinakis, cited above, p. 18, 33). The Court has frequently emphasised the States role as the neutral and impartial organiser of the exercise of various religions, faiths and beliefs, and stated that this role is conducive to public order, religious harmony and tolerance in a democratic society. It also considers that the States duty of neutrality and impartiality is incompatible with any power on the States part to assess the legitimacy of religious beliefs (see, mutatis mutandis, Chaare Shalom Ve Tsedek v. France [GC], no. 27417/95, 84, ECHR 2000-VII) and that it requires the State to ensure mutual tolerance between opposing groups (see, mutatis mutandis, Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Others v. Moldova, no. 45701/99, 123, ECHR 2001-XII).
vi

Council of Europe, 2008, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue Living together as equals in dignity Strasbourg, http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/source/white%20paper_final_revised_en.pdf

vii

For example the Pla Barcelona Interculturalitat ( Barcelona Intercultural Plan), Barcelona, Adjuntament de Barcelona, March 2010

viii
ix

Commission for Integration and Cohesion, Our Shared Future, Department for Communities, London:2007.

The Agreement (1998), NIO. http://www.nio.gov.uk/agreement.pdf Declaration of Support Page 2 Pledge of Office Page 12 - (c) to serve all the people of Northern Ireland equally, and to act in accordance with the general obligations on government to promote equality and prevent discrimination; Code of Conduct Page 13 - Ministers must at all times operate in a way conducive to promoting good community relations and equality of treatment;


The St Andrews Agreement (2006). http://www.nio.gov.uk/st_andrews_agreement-2.pdf Page 2 & 3, Paragraph 8 Human Rights, Equality, Victims and other issues. Section 8 states Both Governments have also discussed other matters raised by the parties. Some of these relate to the final implementation of the Agreement and others have been raised in the context of the Preparation for Government Committee. The British Government has also agreed to take forward a number of measures to build confidence in both communities and to pursue a shared future for Northern Ireland in which the culture, rights and aspirations of all are respected and valued, free from sectarianism, racism and intolerance. The Hillsborough Castle Agreement -Securing a better future for all (2010) http://www.nio.gov.uk/agreement_at_hillsborough_castle_5_february_2010.pdf Comments from First & Deputy First Minister: Today's Agreement is the surest sign that there will be no going back to the past. - Peter Robinson First Minister. We need to make life better for our children and for our grandchildren. That is what this Agreement must mean in practice. - Martin McGuinness deputy First Minister. Hamber, B. and Kelly, G. (2004) A Working Definition of Reconciliation. Occasional paper published by DemocraticDialogue, Belfast. PEACE III EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation, 2007-2013, Northern Ireland and the border region of Ireland Operational Programme, SEUPB 2007.
xiii xiv xii xi x

Programme for Government (2008), NI Executive http://www.northernireland.gov.uk/pfgfinal.pdf Page 6 Strategic and interdependent priorities: growing a dynamic, innovative economy promote tolerance, inclusion and health and well-being protect and enhance our environment and natural resources invest to build our infrastructure deliver modern high quality and efficient public services

xvi

The cost to communities of the continued threat of dissident activity is evidenced in response to an assembly question asked by Tom Elliott MLA, where it is detailed that for 2010/2011 and additional 37.4million will be committed to the PSNI to deal with the dissident threat. Further the cost of replacing the Armoured Land Rover (ALR) is estimated having a capital cost to replace the ALR fleet is estimated to be between 25 and 30 million. Detailed further in this chapter are some of the costs incurred due to policing contentious parades (Newsletter, 29 September 2010). Trauma, Health and Conflict (2008), Northern Ireland Centre for Trauma and Transformation

xvii

Towards Sustainable Security: Interface barriers & the Legacy of Segregation in Belfast (2009), Community Relations Council; http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/iwg-publication.pdf
xix

xviii

Special Purchase of Evacuated Dwellings (SPED). DSD. Cost of homes purchased by the NIHE because of sectarian intimidation of the occupants (SPED) 2005-2009: 2005/06 69 (9.88m), 2006/07 22 (3.19m), 2007/08 22 (4.81m), 2008/09 46 (9.21m) (more than double than which were purchased in each of the two previous years). 2008/09 SPED costs saw an increase of 91% on the 2007/08 costs.

Mapping Segregation in Belfast: NIHE Estates (2007) & Mapping Segregation outside Belfast: NIHE Estates (2009); Northern Ireland Housing Executive. In general 91% of estates fell into a very polarized category defined as having more than 80% of one community or less than 20% of that community using community background .Highlighted lower class areas are usually considered to be more segregated than middle class neighbourhoods, and estates became more segregated from 1971-1991, and that this had changed little between the years 1991-2001. Shirlow P and Murtagh, B (2006); Belfast Segregation, Violence & the City; Pluto Ireland. In a survey of 9,000 individuals living within interface communities 78% of respondents provided examples of at least three publicly funded facilities that they xxi did not use because they were located on the wrong side if an interface The survey also revealed that the vast majority of respondents in both republican/nationalist and unionist/loyalist communities (81% and 72% respectively) stated that on least 3 occasions they had not sought a job in an area dominated by the other community (page 85 & 91) Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey. http://www.ark.ac.uk/nilt/results/comrel.html#contact SRELNGH: How many of your neighbours are the same religion as you? 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 MXRLGNGH: Would you prefer to live in a neighbourhood with people of only your own religion? 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 MIXDLIV: Are you in favour of more mixing where people live? 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Northern Ireland had much to offer but another important step is needed. Removing the barriers is in the interests of peace and prosperity and the sooner the physical barriers come down, the sooner the flood gates of private investment will open." th Michael Bloomberg, Mayor of New York , Investment Conference 8 May 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7390938.stm Policing Parades, (October 2010), Page 5, Policing Matters October 2010, Policing Board NI, http://www.nipolicingboard.org.uk/nipb_pm_oct_10.pdf
xxv xxiv xxiii xxii xxi

xx

Australian Government Travel Advice (August 2010) http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/United_Kingdom & BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-11103791


xxvii

Integrated Education Fund, Developing the Economic Case for Shared Education (September 2010), Oxford Economics. http://www.ief.org.uk/archive/scoping_report/Developing%20the%20case%20for%20shared%20education%20lr.pdf There are currently 50,000 empty places in schools in Northern Ireland around 15% of total capacity. It is estimated that Northern Ireland pays a premium of up to 300m each year to have a sectoral education system a huge sum could potentially be saved. Report notes that there are almost 1,500 schools in Northern Ireland and over the next 10 years it is estimated that around 3.6bn is needed to be invested in the schools estate.

xxviii

Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure (NIMDM) 2010, NISRA, http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/nimdm_2010.htm NI executive, Programme for Government, 2008, Page 12 http://www.northernireland.gov.uk/pfgfinal.pdf

xxix

xxx

Wilsons 8-point concept of policy-making. These points correspond to the sequence identified by Jordan and Lenschow (2008: 12), of agenda setting (1), initiation (2), decision-making (3), implementation (4-6), evaluation (7) and revision (8). Andrew J Jordan and Andrea Lenschow (2008), Integrating the environment for sustainable development: an introduction, in Jordan and Lenschow (eds), Innovation in Environmental Policy? Integrating the Environment for Sustainability (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), 3-23.

xxxi

Review of the Community Relations Councils Funding for Victims and Survivors, March 2010, Community Relations Council http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/victims-reports/CRC_-_Final_Report_March_2010.pdf

New Victims & Survivors Service CRC advise using the report and findings from Deloittes Review of the Community Relations Councils Funding for Victims and Survivors (http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/victims-reports/CRC_-_Final_Report_March_2010.pdf) in designing the key arrangements for the Victims & Survivors Service to support those in our society that have already suffered most. The challenge for the service is to continue those services that have been offered by groups. This is particularly important as it was noted in the report, that there is limited evidence of the statutory sector being able to deliver services such as advocacy, befriending, truth recovery and acknowledgement in the immediate future. It is also important that in the preparation for the new service the following takes place: Management of recommendations from Governance Review support to groups working with victims & Survivors on Good Governance & Financial Accountability Focusing on end-users needs in order to tender and bid for services. The Council understands that: Adequate resources need to be allocated for this purpose. Appropriate training on good governance following governance review. Workshops/training on what to expect re: tendering for services by way of preparation for groups providing services/activities to individual victims and survivors. A seamless transition is vitally important so that services to individual victims and survivors are unaffected. Requirement for appropriate lead in time to ensure there is phasing in of the new V&S Service whilst phasing out of the old CRC Core/Development Grant Schemes. Exit Strategy would be a key requirement for unsuccessful groups. Connection to Need. Relationship between identifying need to meeting needs. The Council understands that: Focus should be placed on ensuring needs are evidenced-based, informed by the emerging conclusions of the Comprehensive Needs Assessment undertaken by CVSNI. Training and development support should be provided to groups supporting victims and survivors to enable the capture of appropriate, acceptable and standardised evidence/data. Demonstrating Benefit The Council understands that there should be training to groups to support them to be better able at: providing descriptors of how work is delivered and showing a benefit/positive impact to individuals victims and survivors in relation to coping mechanisms to the adjustment to their lives and their path towards healing. Arrangements for Volunteer Based Groups and Non-Professionally based Services The Council understands that: In designing new Victims & Survivors Service planning is required to ensure work undertaken by such groups is valued and not lost. Such groups should not be required to be pushed into a more professional tender-based bidding process for services to end-users. Central Services Consideration to One Stop Shop support/new support structures for groups supporting end-users and funded through the new Victims & Survivors Service i.e. photocopying, audit/book-keeping support, etc. Partnership working/shared services Links to other groups/agencies providing services to meet needs of individuals. Rationalisation of the Sector There is a need to ensure that there is protection of the services that best meet the needs of end users. Adequate funding support is provided to those best equipped to manage such services. Review of transgenerational work with young people As time goes on, such needs are likely to become more significant, not least if later generations are fated to become victims/survivors themselves. Their lives must not be blighted by the legacy of the troubles. This is an issue for the future however there is also an ageing profile of victims and such needs will change, particularly for those injured, having pain management issues, etc. Legacy of the Past

xxxii


Dealing with the legacy of the past is clearly an important part of the healing process for many individual victims and survivors that we are engaged with. Forum for Victims & Survivors The transition forum has dealt with highly contentious and sensitive issues with respect to NIs troubled past, with sub groups focusing on Dealing with the Past, Services and Needs. By the participation in this forum many representatives spoke about their own changes in attitudes and perceptions of others, this undoubtedly has created a ripple effect within the communities and organizations that these individuals come into contact with. This has an instrumental impact within communities and would appear to assist in the whole cohesion, sharing and integration policy. The Forum did focus on Dealing with the Past (as well as other issues) and government(s) and political leaders should seek to address the main issues outlined within Eames/Bradleys report. Newly published by STEP. Research to Identify Additional Difficulties Faced by Minority Ethnic Groups and Migrant Workers Because of the Conflict in Northern Ireland Commissioned by Peace III Cluster South West Partnership January 2010 explores these issues in some depth. While there is theoretical debate about the link between racism and sectarianism, they suggest they have similar structures, manifestations and outcomes in terms of identity-based power structures (ibid. 99). The findings of the research suggests there is significant evidence of the conflict presenting additional barriers to minority ethnic (and faith) populations through the use or fear of violence as a mechanism; the political system based geared towards sectarian identity (and therefore limited engagement with the implementation of good relations and race equality policies) and structural legacies such as community segregation.
xxxv xxxiv

STEP. Research to Identify Additional Difficulties Faced by Minority Ethnic Groups and Migrant Workers Because of the Conflict in Northern Ireland Commissioned by Peace III Cluster South West Partnership January 2010.102

The experience of prejudice members of immigrant and migrant worker communities across the UK and indeed Europe was generally found to mirror the experience in Northern Ireland. The report reviews a number of small scale studies in Dungannon, Aughnacloy, Fermanagh, Cookstown and Magherafelt and by the Rural Community Network. The research highlights the patterns of exclusion and isolation experienced by new populations in Northern Ireland. It suggests this impacts on every aspect of life, including access to services, health provision, education, housing, employment rights, access to leisure facilities, interactions with the local population and the experience of discrimination, exploitation, racism and abuse (ibid.92). Complex issues (ibid.85-93) are identified particularly in relation to how health, education and childcare services are accessed and experienced. Language proficiency may not stretch to specialist language regarding matters such as tax, benefits, healthcare, obtaining driving licences etc. Translation services can be problematic and are not always utilised. Access to information about administrative systems, services, legal rights and responsibilities was deficient. Prejudice and discrimination, language barrier, difficulties in integrating and a sense that the host community was not welcoming are identified as key issues. The research suggests that there is sufficient evidence to conclude the systemic nature of disadvantage and the apparent ubiquity of common negative themes indicate a society that is not yet coping with or accepting demographic (ibid.92). This is not withstanding positive efforts and good practice that is developing in an ad hoc fashion in schools, communities and by agencies and district councils. Depending on their legal circumstances the issues facing people of minority ethnic backgrounds differ. The implications of this and the cultural sensitivities required in order to address the needs of people of different ethnic, cultural and faith backgrounds is insufficiently understood.
xxxvii

xxxvi

CRC has a long history of work with Parades and Protests, Arts, Sports, Festivals and Museums. Recent examples include: Consistent long term work both directly and through funded organisations with parades, protests and local disputes. Partnership with the Arts Council on Cultural Diversity and Re-Imaging Communities Strategic and local support for festivals and community arts and sports initiatives including the Belfast St Patricks Day festival, Orangefest, the Mela, the Maiden City Festival, Feile an Phobail, Football for All and Peace Players International. Partnership with museums on conflict, cultural diversity, symbols, religious diversity. Limited funding support for faith and minority ethnic groups to support engagement. Integrated Education Fund, Developing the Economic Case for Shared Education (September 2010), Oxford Economics. http://www.ief.org.uk/archive/scoping_report/Developing%20the%20case%20for%20shared%20education%20lr.pdf
st

xxxix

Good Relations Forum, Ensuring the Good Relations Work in our Schools Counts - A Strategy to meet our needs for the 21 Century (April 2010), CRC & ECNI. http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/crc-good-relations-forum-booklet-final-21april-2010-pdf.pdf School and Local Level: Compulsory good relations programmes in schools; Good practice to be shared and publicised; Capacity building programmes for existing school teaching staff; Capacity building of parents and local communities; Keeping local communities fully informed of the opportunity for possible collaboration, where school are at risk of being closed or new schools are planned. Strategic Level: Strategic leadership - the Minister of Education and the Department of Education to give greater strategic direction to the schools sector to ensure that the teaching and practice of good relations is successfully mainstreamed across all schools. Culture change - by creating a culture of co-operation, partner schools and colleges can bring considerable resources and skills that both add value to the learning experiences of children and young people, and crucially, help schools to do things differently. Budget commitment to good relations programmes - the Department of Education to identify and commit a long-term and appropriate budget to supporting all schools to provide good relations modules within Citizenship programmes.

xl


Good Relations lens the entire curriculum to be good relations proofed, at least in those subject areas where it is both relevant and appropriate to do so. Targeted support and resources - the Department and ESA to offer more targeted support and resources for those schools in areas that continue to experience considerable community conflict, segregation and disadvantage. Greater focus on sharing and collaboration within service delivery - the Department, ESA and other key educational stakeholders to focus on maximising value for money and avoiding duplication of educational provision, by placing a greater focus on existing drivers, policies and practices that encourage greater sharing and collaboration, particularly on a cross-community basis. Developing tools that measure change the Department to develop a set of targets, as well as a monitoring and evaluation framework to measure the changes to the level of collaboration and cooperation between local schools. This should be published yearly and publicised widely. Teacher, head teacher and governor training - the Department to ensure that amendments are made to the various training programmes by relevant regulatory and training bodies, making good relations modules compulsory components of study. Greater sharing and collaboration between teacher training colleges the Department and ESA to encourage stronger collaboration between the different teacher training institutions, to ensure all student teachers, whatever their community background, have the appropriate time and opportunity to experience other sectors and school ethoses. All initial teacher training courses/programmes to encompass an element of teaching from different sectors on a cross-community basis. Mapping future opportunities - Audits would help identify geographical areas for potential growth in integrated or shared education and changes in public attitudes, thus, providing a strategic context within which the transformation of schools might take place. A generic commitment to collaboration cannot be allowed to disguise the imperative for inter-sectoral sharing which must result. Of course, some schools will have more opportunities than others to engage on a cross-community basis and there are already a number of schools delivering this in practice. However without an obligation to explore all options some schools may opt out of this opportunity. This collaboration cannot be allowed to occur on an ad- hoc basis - this could simply come down to it being easier to engage/collaborate cross sector (not cross community) and also happen at the discretion of Board of Governors or the Principal.

xli

Connolly P, Smith A, Kelly B (2002) Too Young To Notice - THE CULTURAL AND POLITICAL AWARENESS OF 3-6 YEAR OLDS IN NORTHERN IRELAND. Community Relations Council; McAlister, S., Scraton, P. and Haydon, D.(2009) Childhood in Transition: Experiencing Marginalisation and Conflict in Northern Ireland Belfast: Queens University, Save the Children, The Princes Trust, November 2009. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_9666.htm

xlii

McEvoy-Levy, S (2006) Troublemakers or Peacemakers? Youth and Post-Accord Peace Building. University of Notre Dame Press.

xliii

Magill, C., Smith, A. & Hamber, B. (2010) The Role of Education in Reconciliation. University of Ulster, http://unesco.ulster.ac.uk/PDFs/ed&rec_report.pdf Eames, R. a. (2009). Report of the Consultative Group of the Past. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office, http://www.irishtimes.com/focus/2009/troubles/index.pdf

xliv

xlv

While Community Relations Council does not fund directly fund or do youth work it provides support both financially and developmental to organisations which do have this remit.

Mapping Segregation in Belfast: NIHE Estates (2007) & Mapping Segregation outside Belfast: NIHE Estates (2009); Northern Ireland Housing Executive. These reports reveal the level of segregation in houses owned and managed by the authority In general 91% of estates fall into a very polarized category defined as having more than 80% of one community or less than 20% of that community using community background. Areas which are less well off are usually considered to be more segregated than middle class neighbourhoods. Estates became more segregated between 1971-1991. Changed little between 1991-2001.2 Outside of Belfast there are similar patterns of segregation: Using religion, following Belfast, in terms of segregation follows Craigavon, Dungannon, Derry, Cookstown and Lisburn; and Armagh, Newtownabbey and Omagh are all more segregated than the figure for NI as a whole. When using community background Belfast, Derry & Mid Ulster have high levels of segregation. Towards Sustainable Security: Interface barriers & the Legacy of Segregation in Belfast (2009), Community Relations Council; http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/iwg-publication.pdf It evidenced that while there were only a few interfaces they have multiplied over the years, from 18 in the early 1990s to, according to research for the Belfast area, there is up to 88 security and segregation barriers, 44 PSNI CCTV cameras and 6 intrusive security measures at police stations. It alarming that two weeks before the renewal of devolution there were 46 officially recognised peace walls (plus 11 gates) dividing working class communities, the most recent being constructed at an integrated school (Hazelwood, North Belfast). Interfaces, Donnelly, Paul (2006), Sharing Over Separation, Community Relations Council; http://www.communityrelations.org.uk/fs/doc/part-b-p-donnelly.pdf. This review of interface issues highlighted the need for government to work with interface communities to develop a long-term vision for the areas, with reference to regeneration, development and working in partnership, and also identified the importance of working with young people, capacity building and mapping existing resource and service provision.
xlviii xlvii

xlvi

CRCs work in these areas has included the establishment of the Interface Working Group and Community Partners Group, Hazelwood Community Partnership as a model of community based planning and good practice, and research including Towards Sustainable Security, consultations and the Challenge of Change conference, plus currently Beyond Belfast research project due for publication. We provide development support and funding to a range of grass root community groups and organisations to create positive change at practical and ground level across issues impacting those living in interface areas.


This has been a core role for CRC in terms of influencing both policy and practice, with the goal of creating the conditions for the removal of barriers through building community confidence and safety. Towards Sustainable Security: Interface barriers & the Legacy of Segregation in Belfast (2009), Community Relations Council http://www.community-relations.org.uk/fs/doc/iwg-publication.pdf - CRC, brought forward a framework for the regeneration of Interface areas and advocated that it was fundamentally important to develop local strategic approaches to barriers, safety and security and this must be based on two key elements: These were: it must be inclusive and thus involve community representatives and local residents, as well as local representatives of key agencies; and locally grounded approaches must be developed to meet each specific local context. Community Relations Council have supported organisations like REACT who are involved in a number of initiatives in Armagh aimed at reducing tension and creating better relationships in and between communities and between communities and statutory bodies such as the Flags and Banners Project. lii Wide community consultation will be an essential aspect of a new approach to flags and emblems. Within a policy on flags and emblems which contains general principles, local agreements on community festivals will be required. Locally based projects which seek to work with communities within the context of community development and/or environmental improvement have shown significant results in both reducing displays of flags, emblems and murals and/or reducing the period over which displays take place, and transforming the context in which the displays are viewed.
liii li xlix

OFMDFM, Draft Programme for Cohesion, Sharing and Integration, July 2010, http://www.nidirect.gov.uk/reformatted_final_print_version_csi_-_26.07.10.pdf The CSI Document states 11.3 Across the equality and good relations landscape, there are currently a number of bodies that are responsible for providing advice to Government and challenging existing policy, including Equality Commission Community Relations Council Community Organisations 11.4 Additionally there are a number of bodies distributing funding and services to specific groups as well as to the public 11.5 Within such a complex landscape, the importance of clearly defined roles and responsibilities is vital. This is particularly so in times of uncertainty when resources must be used with maximum efficiency to deliver the best possible outcomes.