TO WHAT EXTENT WERE THE PEACE TREATIES OF 1919-23 FAIR?

MAKING PEACE
Introduction By 1918 it was clear that Germany was being defeated in many areas of the war. Defeat was only a matter of time. In January 1918, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, offered the Germans a plan for peace. This plan was called The 14 Points. THE 14 POINTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. No more secret treaties Freedom of the seas Free trade between countries Multilateral disarmament A review of the future of colonies Russian territory should be left Germany should leave Belgium Alsace-Lorraine to go back to France 9. Re-draw the Italian border 10. Self-determination for the people of Austria-Hungary 11. Balkan states to be left. 12. Self determination for people in the Turkish Empire. 13. Poland to be re-created with access to the sea. 14. A League of Nations to be set up to prevent future wars.
These had helped cause the war.

FACT FILE
THE COST OF THE WAR

This would stop arguments over weapons.

These 2 areas had been taken from France in an earlier war.

Self-determination – the right of people to choose who rules them

This would mean taking land from Germany

Wilson thought that an organisation of all countries could talk about problems rather than going to war.

8 million troops dead 21 million wounded France lost 250,000 buildings, 8,000 sq. miles of farmland 60% of France’s young men were killed or wounded. Britain spent £9 billion on the war. The empires of Germany, Austria and Russia collapsed. A flu epidemic spread through Europe in 1918-9 killing 20 million

The Germans refused to accept the 14 Points in January 1918. They still believed that the war could be won. However, when the war ended in November 1918, the Germans expected peace to be based on the 14 Points. In the end, the final treaty included some, but not all of the 14 Points. The British and French leaders believed that the 14 Points were not a sufficient base for peace. They said nothing about the future of Germany or reparations. The three leaders met in Paris in January 1919. Their aims were very different.

4. Self-determination is very important. 6. 3. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU French Prime Minister Obsessed with making France secure from a future German attack. . He is too idealistic. Germany will want revenge if we too harsh. I want security and reparations to rebuild the country. We should all reduce our armies and navies. Alsace-Lorraine should be returned. Germany should not be punished too harshly. It would be nice to have some of Germany’s colonies. Germany must pay very high reparations. CLEMENCEAU 1. Germany should pay some reparations. 3. 5. We need peace in Europe to rebuild trade. Germany was harsh on Russia at Brest-Litovsk. thinking he can make the world a safer place. 6. 4. The Rhineland should be given to France. I want a fair peace. 2. Self-determination for all people. 2. People at home expect me to be harsh and demand high reparations. 4. 3. Rebuilding Germany is essential to the future of British trade. WILSON 1. 2. WOODROW WILSON President of the USA He want the USA to set an example to the people of Europe. I want a fair peace that will last. Demanded high reparations Views of the Big Three LLOYD GEORGE 1. Lloyd George and Clemenceau are too selfish. 5. Germany must be severely weakened to prevent any future attack on France. The League of Nations will bring future peace. Germany should not have any military forces.Who were the Big Three? What were their aims and attitudes I want revenge for the damage Germany has done to France. Germany will want revenge if we are too harsh. A League of Nations too! DAVID LLOYD GEORGE British Prime Minister He wanted a fair treaty but the British people wanted him to be harsh. We must have a peace without winners and losers.

the Germans saw the treaty as a diktat. Germany kept Southern Schleswig. This means it was dictated to them! WILSON CLEMENCEAU LLOYD GEORGE THE SIGNING OF THE TREATY IN THE HALL OF MIRRORS AT VERSAILLES. They were given the chance to complain. The Rhineland Demilitarised Alsace-Lorraine This was returned to France.The Treaty of Versailles. 1919 Northern Schleswig This was returned to Denmark. Posen (The Polish Corridor) This area was given to re-create Poland. It was to give Poland access to the sea. . Many Germans lived in this territory under Polish rule! Other land losses DANZIG – made a free city under League control GERMAN COLONIES – taken away from Germany and given as mandates. In this way. 28th June 1919 After months of discussion and argument the final treaty was presented to the Germans. but they knew that any complaints would be ignored.

6 billion) G is for German land losses (Alsace-Lorraine.6 billion.000 No conscription No submarines No tanks No aircraft REPARATIONS The final figure was not agreed on until 1921! The final figure was calculated as £6. MILITARY Army reduced to 100. Freedom of the seas 3. blame) A is for army (reduced to 100. Free trade Partially achieved 9 Italian borders to be settled 11 Invading armies to leave the Balkans 14 An effective League of Nations 4. It was intended to be like an international police force to keep peace in the future. no tanks. Posen) LE is for League of Nations (Germany banned) Woodrow Wilson – What happened to my 14 Points? Achieved in full 7 8 10 13 Germany to leave Belgium Alsace-Lorraine to France Independence for Austria-Hungary Independence for Poland Not achieved 1. Non-interference in Russia 12. but Germany was not allowed to join! …And Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria An easy way to remember the terms of the treaty: G is for Guilt (war guilt. LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations was set up. 231. Multilateral disarmament 5. Independence for non-Turks . no aircraft) R is for reparations (set in 1921 at £6.000. This allowed the allies to impose reparations. Independence for colonies 6. A ban on secret treaties 2.WAR GUILT Article 231 of the treaty made Germany accept that they were to blame for causing the war.

BRITAIN Most thought that Germany got what they deserved. they thought that Germany might look for revenge . There were celebrations on the streets of Paris. Some people were more cautious though. Many believed that the threat from Germany no longer existed. Lloyd George was greeted by the King on his return from Paris. CLEMENCEAU Satisfied Germany weakened Reparations set Army reduced Alsace-Lorraine given back War guilt WILSON Satisfied Alsace-Lorraine Germany punished League of Nations set up Not satisfied Too harsh Reparations too much Not based on 14 Points Self determination not applied fairly Not satisfied Germany may seek revenge Reparations not decided on time Not satisfied Reparations too low Rhineland not given to France Germany not weakened enough How did different countries react to the Treaty? FRANCE Most people were very enthusiastic. Clemenceau was seen as a great patriotic hero.HOW SATISFIED WERE THE BIG THREE? LLOYD GEORGE Satisfied Germany weakened Trade Colonies given as mandates Public happy Danzig made a free city.

They had no say in it! East Prussia was cut off from the rest of Germany THE TREATY IS ONLY A SCRAP OF PAPER! We shall seek revenge for the shame of 1919. 12. The Treaty was a diktat. Many Americans disagreed with Wilson’s views and wanted to be isolated (away from Europe). President Wilson returned to the USA very disappointed.A. Germany had always been very proud of their army. The Congress (US parliament) refused to sign the treaty. 5% of Germany’s population was lost War Guilt – they did not start the war on their own 10% of German land was lost Army restrictions were humiliating.S.U. . Millions of Germans were now living under foreign rule.

What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany up to 1923? Between 1919 and 1923 Germany suffered. My government was very unpopular. Treaty of Versailles is signed Reparations are fixed at £6. This caused Germany huge financial (money) problems. I was President of the new Weimar Republic. What they didn’t understand was that we didn’t have any choice. . The French invasion of the Ruhr in 1923 only made matters one hundred times worse. I was also left with the debts that the old government had. November 1918 28. June 1919 1921 1922 1923 WW1 ends. Defeat comes as a huge surprise to most Germans. The new German government (The Weimar Republic) signed the armistice.6 billion At the end of 1922 the Germans missed a reparations payment to the French France and Belgium invade the Ruhr Hyperinflation The Nazis attempt the Munich Putsch I am Frederick Ebert. This is an overview chronology of those years: 11. 1923 was a crisis year. The people blamed us for signing the Treaty of Versailles. Historians can make some direct links between the crises Germany suffered and the Treaty of Versailles.

The govt. They printed more paper money. Germany was already in serious debt from the war. 1921 – REPARATIONS FIGURE DECIDED A figure of £6.6 billion was agreed. 1923 – FRANCE AND BELGIUM INVADE THE RUHR The French invaded the industrial heart of Germany and began taking coal and iron ore as reparations.A Diagram explaining the events of 1923 1919 – TREATY OF VERSAILLES SIGNED This treaty humiliated the Germans by taking away land and the armed forces. 1923 – MUNICH PUTSCH The small Nazi Party tried to take advantage of the crisis. was blamed. Although this failed. 1922 – GERMANY MISSES A PAYMENT At the end of 1922. REACTION OF THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT The govt. People lost their life savings overnight. causing hyperinflation. . Reparations were decided on but a figure was not set. This led to inflation which got out of control. continued to pay its workers. Germany missed a reparations payment. They attempted to take over the government in Munich. it showed how unpopular the Weimar government had become. This was an added burden. This was the first instalment they had missed.

Some historians agree with this view.Were the peacemakers ‘very stupid men’? Harold Nicolson was a British diplomat. We know that the treaty helped Hitler come to power and that it helped cause the Second World War. The government of the Kaiser that took Germany to war was not the same government that made peace. After the treaty had been written. They say that the peacemakers faced an impossible job and that they did the best they could. It is important not to be affected by hindsight . Germany was not alone in causing the First World War. but did not weaken Germany enough so they could not seek revenge. It was a mistake to include the war guilt clause (Article 231) The treaty damaged Germany. There are those who disagree with this view. Here are the arguments that the two opposing historians would use: THE TREATY STORED UP PROBLEMS FOR THE FUTURE It punished the wrong people. . The treaty should have helped the new Weimar Republic become strong. will come to the conclusion that we were very stupid men. He was at the Paris Peace Conference and kept a diary throughout. caused hatred. They argue that the treaty just stored up problems for the future.We left feeling that the terms were neither fair nor wise. he wrote: The historian . We arrived determined to get a fair peace….

Germany had planned to pay its debts by making the countries it defeated pay reparations. THE PEACEMAKERS DID THEIR BEST Public opinion in France and Britain demanded a much harsher treaty. Then will come revenge for the shame of 1919! . Germany could easily have paid reparations.THE TREATY WAS FAIR. The Germans would have been just as harsh if they had won. Do not forget it! The German people will press forward to re-conquer the place among nations to which it is entitled. Deutsche Zeitung 28 June. 1919 T oday in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the Disgraceful treaty is being signed. Bad government caused Germany problems not the treaty. In 1918 Germany had imposed a very harsh treaty on Russia at Brest-Litovsk. The peacemakers held back from making it even harsher. Germany sorted out its problems very quickly after 1923. IT WAS AN IMPOSSIBLE JOB.

Back up the MESSAGE with DETAILS from the cartoon. 5. Wilson Clemenceau Peace Treaty (Versailles) on the floor Clemenceau’s nick-name Caption suggests that he doesn’t realise why the child is crying . Go round all the numbers labelling the features. 2.CARTOON QUESTIONS To help you get the meaning of a cartoon follow this procedure: 1. Use the features to get the MESSAGE. Look carefully at all the details of the cartoon. Peace should not produce future cannon fodder What soldiers going to their deaths were called Orlando (Italy) Lloyd George ‘1940 CLASS’ This child will be old enough to fight by then. A worked example Sarcastic title. Imagine the cartoon is a clock face. Use your own KNOWLEDGE to judge whether the cartoon is accurate. 4. 3.

. Message – Details . Using your own knowledge gives you the final 2 marks. K. Clemenceau is the biggest figure. In the cartoon. The people desired revenge. The cartoonist is suggesting that the Treaty of Versailles will not bring peace.What is the cartoonist suggesting about the Treaty of Versailles? (6) REMEMBER: M. This means that by 1940 the child will be old enough to be a soldier in another war.Knowledge This is the message of the cartoon. Now. Also. This explains why the cartoonist drew things the way he did. the treaty at his feet. Explaining how you worked out the message by using details will get you a further two marks. My own knowledge supports what the cartoon shows. dominating the scene which suggests that the cartoonist believes Clemenceau was most to blame. He was right. Clemenceau was the leader who pressed for a harsh peace. This message is clear because in the cartoon Stating an accurate message will get you 2/6. Here. D. reparations and land losses caused resentment in Germany. In fact it will cause another war by 1940. The child has ‘1940 class’ above his head. The treaty was very harsh – war guilt. the details of the cartoon are explained to show how the message was arrived at. knowledge is used to explain how accurate the cartoon is. The title of the cartoon supports this – the child is future cannon fodder. the artist has drawn a small child crying. Clemenceau is seen as the main figure in causing this. War broke out again in 1939. This artist of 1919 predicted that the treaty would cause another war.

The other treaties The Treaty of Versailles was only one of the treaties signed in 1919-20. = new countries If you look carefully at these two maps you will see how much Europe changed after the peace treaties had been signed. Treaties also had to be made with other defeated countries. This map (pre-1919) shows the countries that treaties were signed with and the names of those treaties: Treaty of Versailles (Germany) Treaty of St Germain (Austria) Treaty of Neuilly (Bulgaria) Treaty of Trianon (Hungary) Treaty of Sevres (Turkey) .

Slovakia) and Yugoslavia (e. Bohemia).g. It returned Smyrna to Turkey. Another treaty was negotiated.g. Army restricted to 20. Turkish leader. . Slovenia) 3 million Hungarians ended up living under foreign rule.000 Reparation set but Hungary was to weak to pay.g. Czechoslovakia (e. This was the Treaty of Lausanne.g. Yugoslavia and Romania.g.g.g. Reparations set at £100 million The Treaty of Sevres (with Turkey) Lost land to Greece (e. Czechoslovakia (e. Bosnia) No anschluss with Germany Army reduced to 30. The Treaty of Neuilly (with Bulgaria) Land lost to Greece. Transylvania). Iraq) Reparations set The Turks refused to accept the Treaty of Sevres.000 men.The Treaty of St Germain (with Austria) Land lost to Italy.000 men Reparations set The Treaty of Trianon (with Hungary) Land lost to Romania (e. Poland and Yugoslavia (e. Mustafa Kemal challenged the treaty with force. Army reduced to 35. Smyrna) Countries of the Turkish empire became independent or mandates (e.

Poland soon became involved in fighting with Russia over borders. P O L A N D Poland had existed before but it been swallowed up by Russia. Yugoslavia broke up in the 1990s. it was a mix of nationalities. Y U G O S L A V I A This country was formed by merging Serbia with some of its neighbours. Poland was recreated to keep an eye on Germany and act as a barrier to Communist Russia. Germany and Austria in the late 1700s.What were the impact of the treaties on central and eastern Europe? C Z E C H O S L O V A K I A Czechoslovakia was made from the states of the old Austrian Empire. It was made economically strong. . However. The allies hoped that Yugoslavia would become a strong stable state in the region where the First World War had its origins.

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