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PRACTICAL 2: Observation of animals cell: Check cell and plant cell: Leaf epidermis cell Objectives: To prepare slides

of animals cell and plant cell using the correct staining technique Aim: To investigate animals and plant cell Tools/Apparatus: Microscope, microscope slides, cover slip, dropper, forceps, blade, toothpick, methylene blue, Iodine solution, Onion Procedure A. Observation of check cell 1. Mouth is rinsed. 2. A thin layer of cell from the inside of check is gently scraped off using a toothpick. 3. The scrapings are mounting in a drop of methylene blue solution on a slide. 4. The cover slip gently lowers over it. 5. The specimen is examined under low power objective lenses followed by high power objective lenses. 6. The check cell is draw and the following parts is labelled: nucleus, chromatin material, cell membrane and cytoplasm.

Result :

Picture 14 : Picture of cheek cell under the microscope (Magnification: 10 x 4mm)

Picture 15: Picture of cheek cell under the microscope (Magnification: 10 X 40mm)

Procedure B. 1. The epidermis layer of onion scale leaf is peel off using a forceps. 2. The epidermis layer was cut off a small piece and mount in a drop of iodine solution on a slide. 3. Cover slip was gently lower over it. 4. The specimen was examined under low power objective lenses followed by high power objective lenses. 5. The onion leaf epidermis cell was draw and the following parts were labelled: nucleus, chromatin material, cell membrane, cytoplasm and vacuole. Results :

Picture 16: Structure of onion leaf cell (Magnification : 10x4mm)

Picture 17: Structure of onion cell (Magnification: 10 X 40mm) Conclusion: The plant cells of the onion are a regular shape and held together by the cell wall. The animal cells are not bound to each other and independent. Onion cells are living and the cheek cells are sloughed off remnants of the epidermal lining of your mouth lining.

Questions: 1. Name the types of cell which lines inner cheek. Epithelial cells 1. State the similarities and differences between animal cells and plat cells. - Plant cells have a cell wall surrounding the cell membrane, and animal cells only have a membrane. - Plant cells contain chloroplasts which are used for photosynthesis. - Plant cells have a large vacuole (it's like a fluid sack), compared to an animal cell which has multiple vacuoles. - Animal cells are 'blobby', but cells in plants are more structured due to the cell wall, and form a lattice like structure which helps with rigidness. 2. Why the nucleus is called the control centre of the cell? The nucleus is like the brain of the cell.The other reason why nucleus is called the control center is that- It has genetic material called DNA which undergo different functions such as replication, transcription,

translation i.e. formation of different enzymes and proteins necessary for the development of whole cell Another reason is that-the cell which lac nucleus during abnormal cell division known to be dead cell. 3. What is tissue? What word means collections of tissue doing one particular jobs? Tissue is a collection of cells then, collections of tissue call muscles

References : Charlie Lok, Jacqueline R.S., Ching L. S., Leong L. S., Nalini B. Ace Ahead STPM text Biology volume 1. Oxford Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. (2010). Shah Alam, Selangor.

Noi L. A. Reference Lengkap SPM Biology. Marshall Cavendish Sdn. Bhd. (2011). Shah Alam, Selangor.

Wai M. C., Tina Kim L. S. Ulangkaji Total Terkini Biologi SPM Tingkat 4 & 5. Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd. (2006) Petaling Jaya, Selangor