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Boukadi

Shock front theory implies that front saturation is ought to be located at position x where two shaded areas A and B of Figure 12 must cancel. Virtual line represents position of shock front saturation Swf . Following profile is obtained;

1-Sor Sw Sw

Swf Swc 0 x1 x x2 L

Figure 13: Saturation profile before breakthrough indicating shock front saturation

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 2

Figure 13 shows a saturation profile before breakthrough. Water is injected for sometime. At position x1, water saturation of plane is maximum, while at x 2 water saturation is shock front saturation. Need to determine location and value of saturation at front. We also need to estimate average water saturation behind front.

1-Sor Sw Sw

Swf Swc 0 x1 x x2 L

Figure 13: Saturation profile before breakthrough indicating shock front saturation

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 3

Material balance for injected water gives:

Wi = {volume swept } {average water saturation - connate water saturation}

(31)

Wi = A x 2

(S

1

Swf

(S

Swc

(32)

Sw = Swc +

(33)

Swf

dfw dSw

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Waterflooding/Introduction

Tangent to fractional flow curve from Sw = Swc ,fw = 0 is at fw = fw S = fwf . Extrapolated tangent must intercept line fw = 1 at point Sw = Sw ; fw = 1.

wf

Plot fw vs Sw , obtain derivative (inflection point indicates saturation at front). Sw Swc Swf fw = 1

1 fwf

fw = fwf Sw Swf

1 0

fw = 0

Sw Swc

Figure 14: Slope of fractional flow curve

Waterflooding/Introduction 5

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DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Oil recovery Equation Based on overall material balance, general oil equation writes as:

Np = Efficiency * N

where N is initial oil in place expressed as: S oi V p N = Bo

(45)

(46)

Recovery factor (RF), is product of microscopic displacement efficiency (ED) and volumetric sweep efficiency (Evol);

E R = E D E Vol Np = N

(47)

where,

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EVol =

6

Waterflooding/Introduction

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Oil recovery Equation Typical values of ER* are; Waterflooding 30-40% (EVxED=0.6x0.6=.36) Steam injection 30-50% Polymer injection 30-55% CO2 injection 30-65% Solvent injection 35-63% *depends on ER from primary and reservoir and fluid properties (Carcoana, 92) Volumetric sweep (Evol) is product of areal (EA) and vertical sweep (Ever);

E vol = E A E V

where,

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(48)

EA =

Waterflooding/Introduction 7

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Soi Vp N p = E DE A E v B o

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

(49)

8

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

To determine recovery, we need to estimate EA, ED, and EV from: 1. correlations 2. scaled laboratory experiments 3. numerical simulation Areal sweep efficiency data is obtained from Craig (1980). Correlations are for displacements in homogeneous, confined patterns.

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DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

EA , is a function of mobility ratio (M) and injected volumes (Vd);

From curve, we can conclude that EA: 1. increases with increasing throughput (Vd), injection volumes 2. increases with decreasing mobility ratio (M)

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10

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Mobility ratio (M) is defined as ratio of pressure gradients behind and ahead of displacement front (Prats, 1982): Also defined as ratio of mobilities of displacing (ing) and displaced (ed) phases, with; ing= water=krw/w and ed= oil=kro/o Mobility ratio (M) writes as:

M=

water k rw / w k rw o = = oil k ro / o k ro w

(50)

Debate about krw value; krw for water-contacted portion of reservoir kro in oil bank; 2 different saturations

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DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Mobility ratio (M) is: M= where, krw( S w); evaluated at average water saturation behind front at BT, S w kro(Swc); evaluated in oil bank ahead of front, Swc Mobility ratio characterizes stability of displacement front; 1. M is constant before breakthrough. 2. M increases after breakthrough. 3. if M < 1, displacement is stable. 4. if M > 1, displacement is unstable. 5. if M > 1, viscous fingering and early breakthrough. k rw (S w ) / w k rw (S w ) o = k ro (S wc ) / o k ro (S wc ) w (50)

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12

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Viscous fingering also results in prolonged injection to achieve sweep out. M= k rw (S w ) / w k rw (S w ) o = k ro (S wc ) / o k ro (S wc ) w

Need to optimize injection rate, qw, and number of injectors by using voidage replacement.

water

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DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

M, end-point mobility ratio, is:

M' =

where,

k ' (S orw ) / w

rw

k ro (S wc ) / o

k ' (Sorw ) o

rw

k ro (S wc ) w

(52)

krw is end-point relative permeability at Sorw kro is end-point relative permeability at Swc

For waterflooding, typical mobility ratio range is; 0.02 < M < 2

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14

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Vertical Sweep Efficiency It is defined as sum of darker shaded areas for each layer divided by sum of lighter and darker shaded areas (figure below);

Vertical sweep depends on: 1. heterogeneity 2. gravity 3. mobility ratio 4. capillary forces 5. throughput

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 15

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Vertical Sweep Efficiency 1. heterogeneity stratified layers with different perm breakthrough earlier in layer 1 sweep out when layer 4 breakthrough

Layer 1

Layer 4

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16

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Vertical Sweep Efficiency 2. Gravity Effect important with good vertical communication for large RL;

L kv RL = H k

where,

0 .5

L= distance injector/producer H= reservoir thickness kv= vertical permeability k= areal permeability practically speaking, kv < k L > H (gravity is an issue in waterflooding)

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 17

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Vertical Sweep Efficiency 2. Gravity Effect gravity forces are strong compared to viscous forces; Ng is large;

Ng =

= mobility of displacing fluid = density difference (displacing-displaced) = superficial velocity

where,

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18

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Vertical Sweep Efficiency 2. Gravity Effect gravity tonguing occur for large RL and Ng.

water

oil

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19

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Displacement Sweep Efficiency It is defined as;

ED =

efficiency is directly measured from a core flood (since Ev=1). can also be evaluated from Buckley-Leverett. for immiscible displacement ED is bounded by residual oil saturation, Sor. ED is a function of: Mobility ratio ED as M (increasing water, polymer) Throughput Wettability Dip angle Capillary number

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20

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Trapped Oil Saturation Trapping occurs because of high capillary forces. Capillary number, Nc, indicates that trapping occurs because of high capillary forces;

Nc =

where,

ww ow

ow=oil/water interfacial tension w=water superficial velocity w=water viscosity

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21

DISPLACEMENT FUNDAMENTALS

Trapped Oil Saturation Capillary de-saturation curves (CDC) indicates that for waterflooding, 10-7Nc10-5.

For Sor to drop from 0.3 to 0.2, Nc has to increase to 5*10-4 (polymer flooding).

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22

Oil recovery is estimated depending on type of reservoir: 1. Homogeneous; Buckley-Leverett Method

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23

HOMOGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Buckley-Leverett Method Before water breakthrough, oil recovery is equal to injected water. Let us estimate oil recovery after breakthrough as well.

After breakthrough at producing well, x 2 =L , let Wid = i =dimensionless LA number of injected pore volumes, with 1 PV = LA.

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24

HOMOGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

1-Sor Swbt

S w Sw

Swe

Sw

Swc

Sw

Saturation profile at breakthrough, tb Swbt=Swf

Figure 15: Water saturation distributions at breakthrough and after, in a linear waterflood

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25

HOMOGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

At breakthrough, front reaches production well and water saturation= S wf . Behind front, water saturation increases suddenly from S wc to S w . This confirms existence of shock front. Let us denote,

qid = qi LA

(45)

N pd bt = Wid bt = qid t bt =(Sw Swc ) = wbt S wc

1 dfw dS w Swbt

(46)

t bt = Wid bt qid

(47)

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HOMOGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

After breakthrough, both oil and water will be produced;

1 Wi = = Wid LA dfw dS w Swe

(48)

Sw = Swe + (1 fwe )

1 dfw dS w Swe

(49)

Or,

(50)

Subtract Swc from both sides of equation, post breakthrough recovery is estimated from:

N pd = Sw Swc = Swe Swc + (1 fwe )Wid

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

(51)

27

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Stiles Method Method applies for layered reservoirs when mobility ratio is close to 1.0. Stiles uses following assumptions; 1. Formation is linear and made up of a number of layers of constant thickness. 2. No fluid crossflow takes place between layers. 3. Displacement is piston like (length of transition zone is zero). 4. Position of front in each layer is directly proportional to absolute permeability of layer. 5. Volume of water injected depends on layer capacity, kihi. 6. Layers may have different thickness and absolute permeability.

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STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 16 shows stratified reservoir with 6 layers. Natural layering is reordered in a sequence of layers with decreasing permeability.

Natural layering Re-ordered layers

Layers are numbered from highest permeability (top) to lowest (bottom). For n layers, permeabilities are; k1 (highest), k2,..kn (lowest) and respective thicknesses are; h1, h2,.. hn.

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29

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Total recoverable oil, in standard barrels, is:

N pt ( STB ) = WHL (1 Sw c Sor ) 7758Bo

(52)

H L Bo

where,

= reservoir width, ft = porosity, fraction = total reservoir thickness, ft = reservoir length, ft = oil formation volume factor, (bbl/stb)

Following example shows implementation of Stiles method for a reservoir with seven layers.

Absolute k-md Thickness-ft 210 20 190 12 70 5 50 7 30 15 10 30 3 18

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 30

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

At time tj when jth layer breaks through, most of oil has already been produced from layers above, having higher perm. Since velocities of flood front in each layer are proportional to absolute perm, fractional recovery at tj in j+1 layer (for constant layer thickness) is:

K j +1 Kj

(53)

In the above example, fractional recovery in layer 2 at time t1 layer 1 broke through is:

K 2 190 = = 0.905 K1 210

(54)

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 31

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Otherwise, recovery at time tj is given by:

Rj = R ( t j ) =

hi +

i =1

i = j +1

hi

i

Ki Kj

h

i =1

(55)

First term in numerator refers to flooded out layers, while second term refers to partially flooded portion.

H = hi , h j = hi

i =1 i =1 n j

(56)

R j = R (t j ) = 1 hj + kj

i = j +1

h K

i

(57)

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32

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

We can also write Equation (57) as:

hj H

Rj =

(C

Cj )

K jH

(58)

where,

Ct = K i hi , C j = K j hi

i =1 i =1 n j

(59)

Fractional flow of water at breakthrough, for layer j, at bottomhole (60) and surface conditions (61), are defined as;

fw ( t j ) = MC j

MC j + (Ct C j )

(60)

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33

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

fws ( t j ) = AC j + (Ct C j ) AC j

(61)

Fractional flow of water at surface is evaluated considering formation volume factors of oil and water. where,

M= K rw o K ro w

(62)

and

A= K rw o Bo K ro w Bw

(63)

Recall that;

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34

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

qw fws ( t j ) = q q + o surface w

(64)

Table 4 summarizes Stiles example results. Oil and fluid properties are included in table. Revise calculations.

Exercise using Stiles Method

Bw = Bo = w = o = Recoverable oil= A= Layer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1.02 1.37 0.6 cp 0.83 cp 100,000 STB 0.699249772 absolute k-md h 210 190 70 50 30 10 3 krw = kro = 0.35 0.93

h 20 12 5 7 15 30 18 20 32 37 44 59 89 107

R at bt Np-STB fw 0.3553 35532 0.3730 37304 0.4999 49987 0.5615 56150 0.6617 66168 0.8822 88224 1.0000 100000

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction 35

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 18 depicts fractional flow of water versus cumulative oil recovered using Stiles method.

Stiles Method

1.00 0.90 0.80 fw 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0 20000 40000 Np 60000 80000 100000

Note that 80,000 STB recovered at water cuts >90% may be uneconomical?

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36

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Dykstra-Parsons-Johnson Method Relates waterflood recovery (R), initial water saturation (Sw), mobility (M), permeability distribution (V), and producing water-oil ratio (WOR). Correlation based on layered linear model with no crossflow. More than 200 flood tests made on more than 40 California sand cores. Figure 19 to Figure 22 ( next slides) show Johnson correlations.

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37

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Dykstra-Parsons-Johnson Method Vertical variation V is calculated from statistical analysis of permeability distribution; 1. by plotting permeability values on a log probability paper and 2. choosing best straight line through points.

V = K50 K84.1 K 50

(65)

with K50 = mean permeability; value with 50% probability K84.1 = permeability @ 84.1% of cumulative sample

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38

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 19: Johnson's correlation for a producing water oil ratio (WOR) of 1

Fractional oil recovery by both primary methods and waterflooding as portion of oil initially in place.

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

39

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 20: Johnson's correlation for a producing water oil ratio (WOR) of 5

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

k rw (S w ) / w k rw (S w ) o = k ro (S wc ) / o k ro (S wc ) w

40

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 21: Johnson's correlation for a producing water oil ratio (WOR) of 25

'

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

k ' (Sorw ) / w

rw

k ro (S wc ) / o

k ' (Sorw ) o

rw

k ro (S wc ) w

41

STRATIFIED RESERVOIRS

Figure 22: Johnson's correlation for a producing water oil ratio (WOR) of 100

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42

Guthrie-Greenberger Method Based 73 sandstone reservoirs with water drive or combined water and gas drives.

Model implies that water drive recovery efficiency is lower in reservoirs with higher porosity!

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43

API Statistical Study Based 312 reservoirs with water drive from sandstone reservoirs and for solution gas drive recoveries from sandstones and carbonates.

(1 S w ) E R = 54 .898 B oi

where,

0 .0422

k wi oi

0 .0770

(S w )

0 .1903

Pi P a

0 .2159

k [=] darcies wi [=] water viscosity@ Pi oi [=] oil viscosity @ Pi Correlation based on water drive performance has limited usefulness for waterflooding projects.

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44

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

Given;

Well spacing, acres Thickness, ft Average permeability, md Porosity, % Connate water saturation, %PV Current average gas saturation, %PV o @ Po w Po Current oil recovery, % OIIP Boi @ Poi Bo @ Po Flooding pattern Pattern area*, acres rw, ft

*5-spot contains 1 injector, 1 producer

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

20 50 10 20 10 15 1.0 0.5 1,000 psi 10.4 1.29 1.20 5-spot using existing wells 40 1.0

45

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

Given;

Sw, fraction 0.10 0.30 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 kro, fraction 1.000 0.373 0.210 0.148 0.100 0.061 0.033 0.012 0.000 krw, fraction 0.000 0.070 0.169 0.226 0.300 0.376 0.476 0.600 0.740 fw, fraction 0.0000 0.2729 0.6168 0.7533 0.8571 0.9250 0.9665 0.9901 1.0000

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Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

Swf, fraction 0.469 0.495 0.520 0.546 0.572 0.597 0.622 0.649 0.674 0.700 fwf, fraction 0.798 0.848 0.888 0.920 0.946 0.965 0.980 0.990 0.996 1.000 dfw/dSw 2.16 1.75 1.41 1.13 0.851 0.649 0.477 0.317 0.195 0.102

cum. pore volumes needed to reach Swf Qi, PV 0.463 0.572 0.711 0.887 1.176 1.540 2.100 3.157 5.13 9.80

Sw ,

fraction 0.563 0.582 0.600 0.617 0.636 0.652 0.666 0.681 0.694 0.700

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47

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

S w = 0 .563

1

0.9 0.8 0.7

2.5

kro

krw

fw, fraction

kr, fraction

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Sw , fraction

dfw/dSw

0.6

Swf = 0.469

1.5

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.4

0.5

Sw , fraction

0.6

0.7

Sw, fraction

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Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Calculation of mobility ratio;

M=

Calculation of ultimate waterflood recovery; initial stock tank oil in place in a pore volume of 1 barrel;

S oi 1 S wc 0.90 = = = 0.698 stb B oi B oi 1.29

at producing water cut = 98%, remaining oil in 1 bbl is; S o 1 S w 0.334 = = = 0.278 stb Bo Bo 1.2

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49

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Calculation of ultimate waterflood recovery; remaining oil in un-swept portion or reservoir in 1bbl; S oi 1 S wc 0.90 = = = 0.75 stb Bo Bo 1 .2 estimate volumetric sweep efficiency using; 1 V 2 1 ( 0 .5 ) 2 = = 0.9375 M 0 .8 total oil remaining in 1 bbl is;

total oil recovery is:

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

50

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite WOR-recovery performance; Dykstra-Parsons is recommended method

55 .9 10 .4 = 45 .5% of OIIP

Calculate fractional oil recovery at producing WORs of 1, 5; @ M=0.8 and V=0.5, for WOR=1, ER(1-Sw) =.200 ER=0.20/(1-Sw)=0.20/0.90= 0.222 @ M=0.8 and V=0.5, for WOR=5, ER(1-0.72*Sw) =.29 ER=0.29/(1-0.72*Sw)=0.29/0.928= 0.312

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51

Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite WOR-recovery performance; Calculate fractional oil recovery at producing WORs of 25, 100; @ M=0.8 and V=0.5, for WOR=25, ER(1-0.52*Sw) =.38 ER=0.20/(1-0.52*Sw)=0.38/0.948= 0.400 @ M=0.8 and V=0.5, for WOR=5, ER(1-0.40*Sw) =.43 ER=0.20/(1-0.40*Sw)=0.43/0.96= 0.459

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Example waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite WOR-recovery performance; Tabulate fractional oil recovery at producing WORs of 1, 5, 25, 100;

WOR 1 5 25 100 % OIIP 22.2 31.2 40.0 45.9 Waterflooding RF* 11.8 20.8 29.6 35.5

*- Primary recovery=10.4

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Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite injection and production rates, WOR, and recovery vs time Calculation approach of Craig, Geffen, and Morse (1955) to relate oil recovery and producing WOR to cumulative injected water. Correlation of Caudle and Witte (1959) for calculating five-spot water injection rates. For layered system with identical properties except permeability, determine performance of one base layer, for others adjust performance using permeability contrast. For stratified reservoir with layers differing in krw/kro, performance of each layer is calculated individually. Composite performance is sum of individual layer performance.

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

54

Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Performance of 5-spot flood approximates that of many other patterns. Minimum number of layers* of equal thickness required to obtain performance of 100-layer 5-spot waterflood @ WOR above 2.5.

Mobility Ratio 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 *Craig, 1970

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

Permeability Variation, V 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0.2 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 0.3 2 2 2 2 3 4 10 0.4 4 4 4 4 4 10 20 0.5 10 10 10 10 10 20 50 0.6 20 20 20 20 20 50 100 0.7 20 100 100 100 100 100 100 0.8 20 100 100 100 100 100 100

55

Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

Minimum number of layers* of equal thickness required to obtain performance of 100-layer 5-spot waterflood @ WOR above 5.

Mobility Ratio 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 *Craig, 1970

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

Permeability Variation, V 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0.2 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 0.3 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 0.4 4 4 4 4 4 5 10 0.5 5 10 10 10 10 10 20 0.6 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 0.7 10 10 20 20 20 50 100 0.8 20 100 100 100 100 100 100

56

Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern

Minimum number of layers* of equal thickness required to obtain performance of 100-layer 5-spot waterflood @ WOR above 10.

Mobility Ratio 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 *Craig, 1970

1/19/2011 Waterflooding/Introduction

Permeability Variation, V 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 0.3 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 0.4 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 0.5 4 5 5 5 5 10 10 0.6 5 5 5 5 10 10 100 0.7 10 10 10 10 10 20 100 0.8 20 20 20 20 50 100 100

57

Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite injection and production rates, WOR, and recovery vs time Water injection with no free gas initially present;

S wsz S wc E Abt (S w S wc )

1 ( N ps + N pu ) calculate WOR p = ( N ps + N pu )

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58

Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite injection and production rates, WOR, and recovery vs time Water injection with no free gas initially present;

E A (S w S wc ) S gi determine Soi

calculate

E A (S w S wc ) S gi * STOIIP S oi

Waterflooding/Introduction

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Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite injection and production rates, WOR, and recovery vs time Water injection with no free gas initially present;

from Figure 1

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Waterflood performance with time for 5-spot pattern Composite injection and production rates, WOR, and recovery vs time Water injection with no free gas initially present;

determine Wi estimate t = Wi/iw,average determine t = (t) calculate q = iw(Npu + Nps)/Bo determine iw,average

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