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Chapter VII

IN-PLANE BENDING

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DEFINITION OF A BEAM

G
G

Other crosssection ( to the axis) Area A’

G’
G’
2 DEFINITION OF A BEAM G Other cross ‐ section (  to the axis) Area
2 DEFINITION OF A BEAM G Other cross ‐ section (  to the axis) Area

Beam axis

Crosssection ( to the axis) Area A

CROSS‐SECTION DIMENSIONS < BEAM LENGTH / 10
CROSS‐SECTION DIMENSIONS < BEAM LENGTH / 10

INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION

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G
G
INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION 3 G EXTERNAL FORCES AND REACTIONS CUT  stresses (equilibrium )
INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION 3 G EXTERNAL FORCES AND REACTIONS CUT  stresses (equilibrium )
INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION 3 G EXTERNAL FORCES AND REACTIONS CUT  stresses (equilibrium )

EXTERNAL FORCES AND REACTIONS CUT stresses (equilibrium )INTERNAL FORCES

INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION

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Cross‐section (  to the axis) Axis DEXTORSUM SYSTEM OF AXES
Cross‐section (  to the axis)
Axis
DEXTORSUM SYSTEM OF AXES

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IN-PLANE BENDING

5 IN-PLANE BENDING BEAM DEFORMATION UNDER CONSTANT MOMENT: CIRCLE Shortening Compressive stresses  = 0 somewhere
5 IN-PLANE BENDING BEAM DEFORMATION UNDER CONSTANT MOMENT: CIRCLE Shortening Compressive stresses  = 0 somewhere

BEAM DEFORMATION UNDER CONSTANT MOMENT: CIRCLE

Shortening

Compressive

stresses

= 0 somewhere in between (neutral axis)

Elongation Tensile stresses

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BERNOUILLI’S PRINCIPLE

6 BERNOUILLI’S PRINCIPLE Cross‐sections remain flat and perpendicular to the beam axis
Cross‐sections remain flat and perpendicular to the beam axis
Cross‐sections remain flat and
perpendicular to the beam axis

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IN-PLANE BENDING

7 IN-PLANE BENDING • Slice of unit length

Slice of unit length

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IN-PLANE BENDING

and so
and so

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Linear distribution of and

 y ENA
y
ENA

Linear distribution of deformations

y

  E

Hooke’s law

Linear distribution of stresses

E E

y

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Determination of the neutral axis and

Longitudinal equilibrium (along the beam axis)

dA

A

0

E   A
E
A

ydA

0

  • Neutral axis corresponds to the centre of gravity

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Determination of the neutral axis and

Equilibrium in rotation

ydA

A

E

A

2

y dA M

1

M

11 IN-PLANE BENDING • Determination of the neutral axis and  • Equilibrium in rotation 

as

A

2

y dA I

Flexural rigidity

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Stress distribution

 y ENA
y
ENA

1

M

EI

and

E

y

My Navier :   I
My
Navier :
 
I

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Navier applicable to symmetrical and nonsymmetrical crosssections as long as the plane of bending corresponds to one of the principal axes of the crosssection

z
z

y

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Navier not directly applicable to crosssections subjected to bending not applied about the main axes

14 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier not directly applicable to cross ‐ sections subjected to bending not

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant bending moments along the beam length

p

15 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant
15 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant

T 1 = PL/2

M max = pL²/8

15 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant

T 2 = -PL/2

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

Rectangular

cross

section

16 IN-PLANE BENDING • Limitations of the Navier linear distribution Rectangular cross ‐ section b h

b

h



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IN-PLANE BENDING

Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant bending moments along the beam length

P

17 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant

T 1 = P(L-a)/L

M max = Pa(L-a)/L

T 2 = -Pa/L

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

18 IN-PLANE BENDING • Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

In practice:

Local effect (StVenant’s principle) Local yielding under the concentrated load Transverse stiffeners Bearing plate plate

19 IN-PLANE BENDING • Limitations of the Navier linear distribution – In practice: • Local effect

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Navier still assumed to be valid for tapered beams (smooth crosssection variation)

20 IN-PLANE BENDING • Navier still assumed to be valid for tapered beams (smooth cross ‐

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

21 IN-PLANE BENDING • Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Limitations of the Navier linear distribution

! Stress concentration cfr. tension
!
Stress concentration
cfr. tension

IN-PLANE BENDING

Beam crosssection verification

<y

=y

IN-PLANE BENDING • Beam cross ‐ section verification  <   =  h 

h

IN-PLANE BENDING • Beam cross ‐ section verification  <   =  h 
 e =2 y /h
 e =2 y /h
IN-PLANE BENDING • Beam cross ‐ section verification  <   =  h 

<R

=R

=(Mh/2)/I R

 R 
R

y

IN-PLANE BENDING

Beam crosssection verification

< y = y My   I h   R for y  
< y
=
y
My
 
I
h
 R for y  
max
2
h
 e =2 y /h
M h
max
R 
2
I
I
M
R WR
<R
=R
h 2
=(Mh/2)/I ≤R

IN-PLANE BENDING

Beam crosssection verification

Mh M  1 h 2   R 1,max 1 I W G 1 Mh
Mh
M
1
h 2
 R
1,max
1
I
W
G
1
Mh
M
2
 

 R
h 1
2,max
2
I
W
2
 
M  min(WR ;WR )
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2
2

IN-PLANE BENDING

Adapt crosssection shape

IN-PLANE BENDING • Adapt cross ‐ section shape  max Similar values of A and h:
IN-PLANE BENDING • Adapt cross ‐ section shape  max Similar values of A and h:
IN-PLANE BENDING • Adapt cross ‐ section shape  max Similar values of A and h:
 max
 max

Similar values of A and h:

I crosssection:

W=0,32 Ah

rect. crosssection: W=0,167Ah

  • I section twice more resistant

IN-PLANE BENDING

Adapt crosssection shape

IN-PLANE BENDING • Adapt cross ‐ section shape Similar values of A and h: • W=0,32Ah
IN-PLANE BENDING • Adapt cross ‐ section shape Similar values of A and h: • W=0,32Ah

Similar values of A and h:

W=0,32Ah

W=0,5Ah

IN-PLANE BENDING

Adapt crosssection shape

 

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Beams made of two different materials

dy E 0 b modulus E a modulus E a modulus
dy
E 0 b modulus
E a modulus
E a modulus

Equal forces in the slice dy E 0 b bdy = E a b 1 dy

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Beams made of two different materials

E 0 b modulus E a modulus E a modulus
E 0 b modulus
E a modulus
E a modulus
30 IN-PLANE BENDING • Beams made of two different materials E 0 b modulus E a
0 E b  b E a
0
E
b
 b
E
a
b 1
b
1

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Beams made of two different materials

 b  b,equ E a  b   int int E a  int
 b
 b,equ E a 
b
 int
int E a  int
 a
 a E
a  a

EQUIVALENT SECTION

 b E 0 b /E a  b,equ  E 0 b /E a 
 b E 0 b /E a  b,equ
E 0 b /E a  int
b,int
a,int E a 
int

a =E a a

ACTUAL SECTION

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IN-PLANE BENDING

Beams made of two different materials

0 E E b b b  b ( ins tan. loading or b ) (
0
E
E
b
b
b
b
(
ins
tan.
loading or b
)
(
after creep
)
1
E
E
a
a