DEFINITION OF A BEAM
Other cross‐section ( to the axis) Area A’
Beam axis
Cross‐section ( to the axis) Area A
CROSS‐SECTION DIMENSIONS < BEAM LENGTH / 10
INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION
3
EXTERNAL FORCES AND REACTIONS CUT stresses (equilibrium ) INTERNAL FORCES
INTERNAL FORCES IN CROSS- SECTION
4
Cross‐section ( to the axis)
Axis
DEXTORSUM SYSTEM OF AXES
IN-PLANE BENDING
BEAM DEFORMATION UNDER CONSTANT MOMENT: CIRCLE
Shortening
Compressive
stresses
= 0 somewhere in between (neutral axis)
Elongation Tensile stresses
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Linear distribution of and
• Linear distribution of deformations
y
E
• Hooke’s law
• Linear distribution of stresses
E E
y
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Determination of the neutral axis and
• Longitudinal equilibrium (along the beam axis)
dA
A
0
ydA
0
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Determination of the neutral axis and
• Equilibrium in rotation
ydA
A
E
A
2
y dA M
1
M
as
A
2
y dA I
Flexural rigidity
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Navier applicable to symmetrical and non‐ symmetrical cross‐sections as long as the plane of bending corresponds to one of the principal axes of the cross‐section
y
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Navier not directly applicable to cross‐sections subjected to bending not applied about the main axes
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant bending moments along the beam length
p
T _{1} = PL/2
M _{m}_{a}_{x} = pL²/8
T _{2} = -PL/2
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Limitations of the Navier linear distribution
Rectangular
cross‐
section
b
h
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Navier still assumed to be valid for beams subjected to non constant bending moments along the beam length
P
T _{1} = P(L-a)/L
M _{m}_{a}_{x} = Pa(L-a)/L
T _{2} = -Pa/L
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Limitations of the Navier linear distribution
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Limitations of the Navier linear distribution
– In practice:
• Local effect (St‐Venant’s principle) • Local yielding under the concentrated load • Transverse stiffeners • Bearing plate plate
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Navier still assumed to be valid for tapered beams (smooth cross‐section variation)
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Limitations of the Navier linear distribution
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Limitations of the Navier linear distribution
!
Stress concentration
cfr. tension
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beam cross‐section verification
< _{y}
= _{y}
h
<R
=R
=(Mh/2)/I ≤R
y
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beam cross‐section verification
< y
=
y
My
I
h
R for y
max
2
h
e =2 y /h
M h
max
R
2
I
I
M
R WR
<R
=R
h 2
=(Mh/2)/I ≤R
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beam cross‐section verification
Mh
M
1
h 2
R
1,max
1
I
W
G
1
Mh
M
2
R
h 1
2,max
2
I
W
2
M min(WR ;WR )
11
2
2
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Adapt cross‐section shape
Similar values of A and h:
• I cross‐section:
W=0,32 Ah
• rect. cross‐section: W=0,167Ah
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Adapt cross‐section shape
Similar values of A and h:
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Adapt cross‐section shape
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beams made of two different materials
dy
E 0 b modulus
E a modulus
E a modulus
Equal forces in the slice dy E ^{0} _{b} bdy = E _{a} b _{1} dy
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beams made of two different materials
E 0 b modulus
E a modulus
E a modulus
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beams made of two different materials
b
b,equ E a
b
int
int E a int
a
a E
a a
EQUIVALENT SECTION
b E 0 b /E a b,equ
E 0 b /E a int
b,int
a,int E a
int
_{a} =E _{a} _{a}
ACTUAL SECTION
IN-PLANE BENDING
• Beams made of two different materials
0
E
E
b
b
b
b
(
ins
tan.
loading or b
)
(
after creep
)
1
E
E
a
a