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of Pentagons and their extensions N K Srinivasan Ph D Introduction In the previous article, I have given a detailed method of constructing pentagons without requiring compass or protractor, using certain relationships from Fibonacci sequence. The Golden ratio [GR] (= 1.618...) gets embedded in the figure of a pentagon. This article explores this approach further, to enable more pentagons to be drawn from one pentagon and also relationship to rhombus with golden ratio as one of the diagonals and further on to a regular hexagon.

Drawing smaller pentagons Let us recall that the Fibonacci sequence is as follows: 0,1,1,2,3,5,8, 13, 21, 34, 55 ...... where the number is generated by adding the previous two numbers, starting with 0 and 1. Further the ratio of one number divided by the previous number in the Fibo sequence tends towards the Golden ratio or 'phi': phi = 1.618 18.... We will denote that phi' = 1/ phi = 0.618.. Note that phi' = phi - 1. We also note that 2 = 1+ Pentagon construction is easy using the side length of a regular pentagon as one of Fibonacci numbers.

Let us draw the pentagon ABCDE with side length as 5 cms. The procedure for drawing this pentagon had been explained in the previous article: "How to construct a pentagon without using a compass or protractor? " by the cuurent author.

We now show how to extend this pentagon to construct smaller pentagons. Draw the five diagonals: AC,BE,CE,DB and DA. Take the diagonal BE. Its length is phi x side = 1.618 x 5= 8 cm or the next number in the Fibo sequence. Consider the point of intersection of any two diagonals: such as F. The two diagonals intersect such that: FE = s , side of the pentagon = 5, and BF = s/phi. This is an important relation: Note that BF = s/phi = 5/1.618 = 3 which is the previous Fibo number to 5. Further FJ = [1/phi][1/phi] = 2, that is two

numbers preceding 5 in the Fibo sequence. Now CH and HD are also equal to 3 cms. CH = HD = 3 . Using this we can costruct another pentagon with side s= 3 cms.. Extend the side BC further and mark the length CK = 3 cms. Likewise extend the side ED further so that DL = 3cms. Join K and L. Now we have a pentagon HCKLD with the side length of 3 only. We can continue this further by drawing another smaller pentagon with s=2 cms. Draw the diagonals CL and KD. The intersecting point is o . Extend CK and DL further such that KP = 2cms and LQ=2cms. Join P and Q. We have now another polygon OKPQL, which has a side length of 2 only.

Thus we can draw a "cascade of pentagons" with smaller sides following the Fibonacci sequence in a 'recursive manner'. I call this "Recursive construction" in geomtery. Similar pentagons can be drawn on other sides of the original pentagon ABCDE. The pentagon IDMNE on the right side is one such smaller pentagon with side of 3 cms. Additional pentagons of the same size. Let us join L and M. We now have another pentagon, extended a bit, FCLME, which is a pentagon of the same size as ABCDE, but rotated and extended.! It is possible to draw five such pentagons on the five sides which forms the diagonals of the new pentagons!!

Rhombus in the pentagon. Pentagons enclose rhombuses (rhombi) inside any pentagon. Inside ABCDE, the origianl pentagon ,we find FCDE as a rhombus with side length same as the pentagon ,that is ,5 cms. Note that this rhombus has two diagonals: CE and FD, such that CE = Phi x s = 5 phi and FD = 1.17 S = 1.17 x 5 cms [which can be derived easily. FR = sqrt { 1-[phi2 /4 ]} and FD = 2 FR .] Area of this rhombus = CE.FD /2 = [1.62x1.17]/2 s2 = 0.956 s2 Area of the pentagon = 1.72 s2

Ratio of pentagon/rhombus = 1.72/ 0.956 = 1.799

[Further , as a check, in a rhombus , 4a2 = p2 + q2 Therefore 4 = (1.62)2 + (1.17)2

= 2.624 + 1.369 = 3.993]

[This rhombus is not a "Golden rhombus" since the two diagonals are not in the golden ratio .p/q = 1.62/1.17 = 1.385]. From Pentagon to Hexagon A hexagon emerges from the two intersecting pentagons: FCLME and ABCDE.The diagonal CE is the diagonal of the hexagon: ABCLME. and CE = phi x side. Note that this is not a regular hexagon and the rhombus CDEF is inside this , with CE as its longer diagonal. This hexagon is formed by attaching together

two trapeziums, ABCE and CLME, derived from the two pentagons. R is the center of this hexagon and CR = phi x side/2 = 8cm/2 = 4. The area of this hexagon can be worked out from the original pentagon. --------------------------------------------