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**Programming HomeWork #3 CFD / Husein Bhinderwala
**

The given system of mass(block of wood), spring and damper(friction) represent an oscillating mechanism. Typically, systems that display oscillatory behaviour have, in their representative differential equation, a second derivative of an unknown function. Geometrically, it represents the slope of the slope of the curve which depicts the original function. In a spring-mass-damper system, the magnitude of force is directly proportional to the displacement of mass where the constant of proportionality is spring stiffness, k. This type of problems are better resolved using the Runge-Kutta method. Eulerian methods depart from the exact solution with time because the error arises from the secant approximation of the derivative. The second derivative was approximated using the first derivative, which itself was approximated! The error hence grows in an Euler method. Also to achieve accuracy by Euler method, the time step would have to be too large for economic amount of computations. The Runge-Kutta method approximates the tangent to the curve with a weighted average of a number secants. The number of secants employed is called the order of the method. The law of diminishing returns applied to Runge-Kutta Method as well and the optimum accuracy-effort ratio is achieved at the fourth order. The exact solution of the Spring-Mass-Damper system is given as follows: The governing equation is given as:m

2 2

+ mgµ

+ kx = 0

(1)

The cases of overdamping and critical-damping can be eliminated since: zeta = 0.1962<1, hence underdamped system. The equation 1 can be written in the following form: mẍ(t) + Cẋ(t) + kx(t) = 0 (2) Assuming the solution has the form a.exp(ST),substituting in 2, we get ( mλ 2 +cλ +k ) a.eλt = 0 (3) The solution to this eqn is :λ=This can be also written as:2

±

√ 2 − 4 2

(4)

λ 1,2 = - ξ w n ± w n �ξ2 − 1 (5)

j (7A) x(t) = − ( a 1 .w n �1 − ξ2 . A = �(0. j(7B) The solution for the spring-mass-damper can be written as:2 2 λ 1 = .ξ w n .1)4 ( )2 (13) and Φ = tan-1 ( ) (14) 1) The graph of the exact solution will be as follows: . cos ( 0 + Φ ) (12) Therefore. w n . sin ( 0 + Φ ) (11) & v 0 = 0 = . A .1 = A . A .ξ w n + w n �1 − ξ2 . sin ( 0 + Φ ) + w d . �1− + a 2 . − sin( w d t + Φ) (9) where. −�1− ) (8) which using the Euler Identity. can be written as x(t) = A. 19 March 2014 For underdamped motion:- where w n = � (6) AND λ 2 = .ξ . w d = w n �1 − 2 (10) Using the given initial conditions x 0 = 0.Wednesday.

hence reducing the no. By observing the comparison given below. the accuracy of the solution decreases and the instability increases. which is often inaccurate. of time steps further. the number of values for a given time decreases. The time step size greatly influences the accuracy of the solution. we can notice that. The springmass-damper system gradually dies down due to the damping factor. .Wednesday. 19 March 2014 2) From the above graphs we notice that as the time step size increases. This results to large extrapolations between values. as we would decrease the no. there would be very less noticeable change in the accuracy of the exact solution and hence the theory of diminishing returns apply here as well. At larger time steps. of solutions.

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