DOE/EIA-0035(2009/02

)

Monthly Energy Review
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Released: February 24, 2009

DOE/EIA-0035(2009/02)

Monthly Energy Review
February 2009

Energy Information Administration
Office of Energy Markets and End Use
U.S. Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585

This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the
U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and
should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization.

Contacts
The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use,
Integrated Energy Statistics Division, Domestic Energy Statistics Team, under the direction of Katherine E. Seiferlein,
202-586-5695 (kitty.seiferlein@eia.doe.gov). Questions and comments specifically related to the Monthly Energy Review
may be addressed to Michelle Burch, 202-586-5850 (michelle.burch@eia.doe.gov).
For assistance in acquiring data, please contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 or
infoctr@eia.doe.gov. Questions about the collection, processing, or interpretation of the information may be directed to the
following subject specialists:

Section

1.

Energy Overview- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dianne R. Dunn

202-586-2792
dianne.dunn@eia.doe.gov

Section

2.

Energy Consumption by Sector- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dianne R. Dunn

202-586-2792
dianne.dunn@eia.doe.gov

Section

3.

Petroleum- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Michael Conner

202-586-1795
michael.conner@eia.doe.gov

Section

4.

Natural Gas- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Amy Sweeney

202-586-2627
amy.sweeney@eia.doe.gov

Section

5.

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development - - Robert F. King

202-586-4787
robert.king@eia.doe.gov

Section

6.

Coal- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mary L. Lilly

202-586-1490
mary.lilly@eia.doe.gov

Section

7.

Electricity- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Ronald S. Hankey

Section

8.

Nuclear Energy- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - John R. Moens

Section

9.

Energy Prices

202-586-2630
ronald.hankey@eia.doe.gov
202-586-1509
john.moens@eia.doe.gov

Petroleum- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Patricia Wells

202-586-4885
patricia.wells@eia.doe.gov

Natural Gas- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Amy Sweeney

202-586-2627
amy.sweeney@eia.doe.gov

Average Retail Prices of Electricity - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Charlene Harris-Russell
202-586-2661
charlene.harris-russell@eia.doe.gov
Cost of Fuel at Electric Generating Plants- - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stephen Scott
Section

10. Renewable Energy- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Louise Guey-Lee

Section

11. International Petroleum- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Patricia Smith

ii

202-586-5140
stephen.scott@eia.doe.gov
202-586-1293
louise.guey-lee@eia.doe.gov

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

202-586-6925
patricia.smith@eia.doe.gov

Contents
Page
Section

1.

Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Section

2.

Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Section

3.

Petroleum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Section

4.

Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Section

5.

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Section

6.

Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Section

7.

Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Section

8.

Nuclear Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Section

9.

Energy Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Section

10.

Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Section

11.

International Petroleum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Appendix

A.

British Thermal Unit Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Appendix

B.

Metric Conversion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other
Physical Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Glossary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

iii

Tables
Section 1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4a
1.4b
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10

Page
Energy Overview
Primary Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Primary Energy Production by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Primary Energy Consumption by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Primary Energy Imports by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Primary Energy Exports by Source and Total Net Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Merchandise Trade Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982-1984) Dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of Gross Domestic Product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Heating Degree-Days by Census Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Cooling Degree-Days by Census Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Section 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Energy Consumption by Sector
Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commercial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Industrial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 3.
3.1
3.2
3.3

Petroleum
Petroleum Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Petroleum Trade
3.3a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.3b Imports and Exports by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.3c Imports From OPEC Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.3d Imports From Non-OPEC Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Petroleum Stocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Petroleum Consumption
3.7a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.7b Industrial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.7c Transportation and Electric Power Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption
3.8a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.8b Industrial Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.8c Transportation and Electric Power Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

3.8

iv

23
25
27
29
31
33

Section 4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Natural Gas
Natural Gas Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Trade by Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas in Underground Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 5.
5.1
5.2
5.3

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Maximum U.S. Active Seismic Crew Counts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

67
68
69
70

Tables
Page
Section 6.
6.1
6.2
6.3

Coal
Coal Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Coal Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Coal Stocks by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Section 7.
7.1
7.2

7.5
7.6

Electricity
Electricity Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Electricity Net Generation
7.2a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.2b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7.2c Commercial and Industrial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation
7.3a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7.3b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
7.3c Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Selected Fuels). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output
7.4a Total (All Sectors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.4b Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.4c Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Selected Fuels). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Electricity End Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Section 8.
8.1

Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Section 9.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

Energy Prices
Crude Oil Price Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor Gasoline Retail Prices, U.S. City Average. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refiner Prices of Residual Fuel Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products for Resale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 Distillate Prices to Residences
9.8a Northeastern States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8b Selected South Atlantic and Midwestern States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8c Selected Western States and U.S. Average. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average Retail Prices of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.3

7.4

9.9
9.10
9.11

117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
128
129
131

Section 10. Renewable Energy
10.1
Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
10.2
Renewable Energy Consumption
10.2a Residential and Commercial Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
10.2b Industrial and Transportation Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
10.2c Electric Power Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
10.3
Fuel Ethanol Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
10.4
Biodiesel Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

v

Tables
Page

vi

Section 11. International Petroleum
11.1
World Crude Oil Production
11.1a OPEC Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1b Persian Gulf Nations, Non-OPEC, and World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2
Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3
Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

148
149
151
153

Appendix A.
A1.
A2.
A3.
A4.
A5.
A6.

British Thermal Unit Conversion Factors
Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Production, Imports, and Exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption and Biofuels Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155
156
157
158
159
160

Appendix B.
B1.
B2.
B3.

Metric Conversion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other Physical Conversion Factors
Metric Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Metric Prefixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Other Physical Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Figures
Section 1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4a
1.4b
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

Page
Energy Overview
Primary Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Primary Energy Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Primary Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Primary Energy Imports and Exports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Primary Energy Net Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Merchandise Trade Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982-1984) Dollars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of Gross Domestic Product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Motor Vehicle Fuel Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Section 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Energy Consumption by Sector
Energy Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residential Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commercial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Industrial Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 3.
3.1
3.2
3.3

Petroleum
Petroleum Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petroleum Trade
3.3a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3b Imports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petroleum Stocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Petroleum Consumption by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by Sector, Selected Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

22
24
26
28
30
32

36
38
40
42
46
48
50
52
56

Section 4.
4.1

Natural Gas
Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Section 5.
5.1

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Section 6.
6.1

Coal
Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Section 7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

Electricity
Electricity Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Electricity Net Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and
Useful Thermal Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Electricity End Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Section 8.
8.1

Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

vii

Figures
Page
Section 9.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

Energy Prices
Petroleum Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average Retail Prices of Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Gas Prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116
127
127
130

Section 10. Renewable Energy
10.1
Renewable Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Section 11. International Petroleum
11.1
World Crude Oil Production
11.1a Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1b By Selected Country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2
Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3
Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

146
147
150
150

1

Energy Overview

The continental United States at night from orbit. Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
satellite imagery; mosaic provided by U.S. Geological Survey.

Figure 1.1

Primary Energy Overview
(Quadrillion Btu)

Consumption, Production, and Imports, 1973-2007
120
100
Consumption

80
Production

60
40

Imports

20
0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Consumption, Production, and Imports, Monthly
10
Consumption

8
Production

6

4
Imports

2

0
J

F M A M J J A
2006

S O N D

J

F M A M J J A
2007

Overview, November 2008

S O N D

F M A M J J A
2008

S O N D

Net Imports, January-November

10

30
27.404
7.900

8

6

J

26.934

25

23.643

20

6.015

15
4
10

2.674

2

5
0.583

0

0
Production

Imports

Exports

Consumption

2006

2007

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Sources: Tables 1.1 and 1.4b.

2

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

2008

Table 1.1 Primary Energy Overview
(Quadrillion Btu)
Production
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Imports

Exports

Stock Change
and Othera

Consumption

....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................
....................................

63.585
61.357
67.232
67.799
70.870
71.319
72.641
72.634
73.041
71.907
71.490
71.892
70.936
70.264
70.384
69.647

14.613
14.032
15.796
11.781
18.817
22.260
23.702
25.215
26.581
27.252
28.973
30.157
29.407
R 31.061
33.543
34.710

2.033
2.323
3.695
4.196
4.752
4.511
4.633
4.514
4.299
3.715
4.006
3.770
3.668
4.054
4.433
4.561

-0.456
-1.067
-1.212
1.107
-.283
2.104
2.466
1.430
-.139
1.373
2.518
-1.952
1.184
.938
.857
.710

75.708
71.999
78.122
76.491
84.652
91.173
94.175
94.765
95.183
96.817
98.975
96.326
97.858
98.209
100.351
100.506

2006 January ................................
February ..............................
March ...................................
April .....................................
May ......................................
June .....................................
July ......................................
August .................................
September ...........................
October ................................
November ............................
December ............................
Total ....................................

R 6.076

2.953
2.632
2.799
2.787
3.037
2.935
3.018
3.152
2.989
2.863
2.712
2.795
34.673

.360
.339
.383
.383
.436
.419
.403
.419
.460
.436
.435
.394
4.868

R .193

R 8.862

R .510

R 8.247

R .198

R 8.633

R -.435

R 7.747

R -.670

R 7.989

R -.343

R 8.171

R .028

R 8.670

R -.075

R 8.758

R -.496

R 7.814

R -.266

R 8.061

R -.019

R 8.082

2.982
2.463
3.046
2.914
3.056
2.871
3.030
3.033
2.877
2.806
R 2.765
2.841
34.685

.447
.349
.420
.416
.448
.423
.498
.475
.436
.439
.559
.538
5.448
.535
.565
.610
.593
.624
.625
R .608
R .586
.519
.590
.583
6.438
4.910
4.474

2007 January ................................
February ..............................
March ...................................
April .....................................
May ......................................
June .....................................
July ......................................
August .................................
September ...........................
October ................................
November ............................
December ............................
Total ....................................

R 5.443
R 6.020
R 5.777
R 6.058
R 5.998
R 6.027

6.099
R 5.782
R 5.900
R 5.824
R 6.050
R 71.054
R 6.152
R 5.486
R 6.045
R 5.770
R 6.089
R 5.964
R 6.017
R 6.142
R 5.782
R 6.000
R 5.938
R 6.090
R 71.473

2008 January ................................
February ..............................
March ...................................
April .....................................
May ......................................
June .....................................
July ......................................
August .................................
September ...........................
October ................................
November ............................
11-Month Total ...................

R 6.244

6.015
67.486

2.930
2.587
2.749
2.760
2.734
2.760
R 2.803
R 2.823
2.434
R 2.827
2.674
30.080

2007 11-Month Total ...................
2006 11-Month Total ...................

65.383
65.004

31.844
31.878

R 5.879
R 6.213
R 6.030
R 6.272
R 6.143
R 6.440
R 6.349
R 5.731
R 6.170

a Calculated as consumption and exports minus production and imports.
Includes petroleum stock change and adjustments; natural gas net storage
withdrawals and balancing item; coal stock change, losses, and unaccounted for;
and fuel ethanol stock change.
R=Revised.
Notes: • See "Primary Energy," "Primary Energy Production," and "Primary
Energy Consumption," in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components

R .405

R 8.856

R -.970

R 99.889

R .606

R 9.294

R 1.220

R 8.819

R -.059

R 8.611

R -.300

R 7.967

R -.646

R 8.052

R -.280

R 8.131

R -.020

R 8.529

R .151

R 8.852

R -.244

R 7.979

-.354
R -.008
R .761
R .826

R 8.013

R 101.537

R .825

R 9.463

R .791

R 8.692

R .303

R 8.655

R -.306

R 7.891

R -.401

R 7.981

R -.152

R 8.125

R -.152

R 8.482

R -.281

R 8.305

R -.235

R 7.412

R -.548

R 7.859

-.207
-.363

7.900
90.765

.064
-1.375

92.382
91.033

R 8.135
R 9.155

due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the
District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Production: Table 1.2. • Imports: Table 1.4a. • Exports:
Table 1.4b. • Consumption: Table 1.3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

3

Figure 1.2

Primary Energy Production
(Quadrillion Btu)

Total, 1973-2007

Total, Monthly

100

8

75

6

50

4

25

2

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Source, 1973-2007

0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

By Source, Monthly
2.5

25

Coal
Coal

2.0

20
Natural Gas

1.5

15

Natural Gas
Crude Oil and NGPLa

Crude Oil and NGPLa

1.0

10

Nuclear Electric Power
Renewable Energy

0.5

5

Renewable Energy
Nuclear Electric Power

0.0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Total, January-November

J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O ND

2006

2007

2008

By Source, November 2008

80
65.004

65.383

67.486

60

Coal

1.948

Natural Gas

1.776

Crude Oil
and NGPLa

40

1.052

Nuclear
Electric Power

20

0.662

Renewable
Energy

0.578

0
2006
a

2007

2008

Natural gas plant liquids.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

4

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html
Source: Table 1.2.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

2.5

Table 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source
(Quadrillion Btu)
Renewable Energya

Fossil Fuels

Total

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Hydroelectric
Powere

Geothermal

Solar/
PV

2.569
2.374
2.254
2.241
2.175
2.442
2.530
2.495
2.420
2.528
2.611
2.547
2.559
2.346
2.466
2.334

58.241
54.733
59.008
57.539
58.560
57.540
58.387
58.857
59.314
57.614
57.366
58.541
56.894
56.157
55.914
55.056

0.910
1.900
2.739
4.076
6.104
7.075
7.087
6.597
7.068
7.610
7.862
8.033
8.143
7.959
8.222
8.160

2.861
3.155
2.900
2.970
3.046
3.205
3.590
3.640
3.297
3.268
2.811
2.242
2.689
2.825
2.690
2.703

0.043
.070
.110
.198
.336
.294
.316
.325
.328
.331
.317
.311
.328
.331
.341
.343

NA
NA
NA
(s)
.060
.070
.071
.070
.070
.069
.066
.065
.064
.064
.065
.066

.918
.819
.907
.892
.928
.898
.917
.910
.876
.918
.888
.929
10.801

.194
.175
.196
.193
.202
.196
.202
.199
.198
.204
.197
.200
2.356

R 4.709

.750
.653
.665
.601
.655
.714
.753
.751
.695
.600
.641
.735
8.214

.272
.246
.244
.283
.306
.295
.252
.216
.171
.169
.201
.214
2.869

.029
.026
.030
.027
.026
.028
.030
.030
.029
.030
.028
.030
.343

.192
.177
.204
.195
.206
.198
.205
.203
.199
.211
.209
.210
2.409

.772
.681
.671
.598
.678
.719
.759
.759
.705
.644
R .677
.751
R 8.414

R .258

.031

R .184

R .027

R .240

R 19.643

.921
.832
.918
.903
.934
.887
.903
.883
.850
.907
.873
.909
10.721

RE 1.758

E .916
E .860

RE 1.801

E .924

RE 1.728

E .898

RE 1.785

E .929

RE 1.764

E .889

RE 1.838

E .919

RE 1.833

E .880

RE 1.585

E .689

RE 1.777

E .835

E 1.776

E .859

E 19.314

E 9.598

.205
.196
.212
.209
.219
.201
.213
.211
.171
.200
.193
2.229

R 4.901

RE 1.668

17.906
17.370

9.812
9.872

2.199
2.156

Coalb

Natural
Gas
(Dry)

Crude
Oilc

NGPLd

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

13.992
14.989
18.598
19.325
22.488
22.130
22.790
23.310
24.045
23.295
22.735
23.547
22.732
22.094
22.852
23.185

22.187
19.640
19.908
16.980
18.326
19.082
19.344
19.394
19.613
19.341
19.662
20.166
19.439
19.691
19.093
18.574

19.493
17.729
18.249
18.992
15.571
13.887
13.723
13.658
13.235
12.451
12.358
12.282
12.163
12.026
11.503
10.963

2006 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
December ..........
Total ..................

2.018
1.822
2.076
1.952
2.040
1.988
1.945
2.061
1.926
2.021
1.975
1.966
23.790

R 1.579

2007 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
December ..........
Total ..................

2.042
1.816
2.002
1.907
1.987
1.960
1.908
2.063
1.895
2.026
1.986
1.910
23.501

2008 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
11-Month Total

2.023
1.918
1.985
1.990
1.980
1.851
2.033
2.060
2.038
2.129
1.948
21.956

2007 11-Month Total
2006 11-Month Total

21.591
21.823

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

R 1.422
R 1.599
R 1.539
R 1.600
R 1.582
R 1.617
R 1.623
R 1.585
R 1.642
R 1.583
R 1.651
R 19.022
R 1.606
R 1.470
R 1.652
R 1.579
R 1.668
R 1.623
R 1.658
R 1.669
R 1.627
R 1.688
R 1.665
R 1.737

Biomass

Total

Total

NA
NA
NA
(s)
.029
.033
.033
.034
.031
.046
.057
.070
.105
.115
.142
.178

1.529
1.499
2.475
3.016
2.735
3.102
3.157
3.111
2.933
2.969
3.010
2.629
2.712
2.815
3.011
3.141

4.433
4.723
5.485
6.185
6.206
6.703
7.167
7.180
6.659
6.683
6.262
5.318
5.899
6.149
6.248
6.431

63.585
61.357
67.232
67.799
70.870
71.319
72.641
72.634
73.041
71.907
71.490
71.892
70.936
70.264
70.384
69.647

.006
.005
.006
.006
.006
.006
.006
.007
.006
.006
.006
.006
.072

.024
.019
.023
.025
.024
.020
.019
.016
.019
.024
.025
.025
.264

.286
.256
.274
.259
.270
.271
.284
.287
.277
.285
.280
.293
3.324

.617
.552
.578
.600
.633
.621
.592
.555
.501
.514
.540
.568
6.872

R 6.076

R 71.054

R .618

R 6.152

R .268

R .510

R 5.486

R .292

R .598

R 6.045

.237
R .258
R .226
R .223
.198
R .146
.147
.156
R .182
R 2.455

.024
.025
.030
R .031
R .029
R .026
R .021
R .027
R .028
R .033
R .031
R .035
R .342

R .298

.029
.028
.028
R .029
.030
.030
.029
.030
.029
.030
R .349

.006
.006
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.006
.006
.080

R .285

R .588

R 5.770

R .293

R .616

R 6.089

R .289

R .578

R 5.964

R .303

R .584

R 6.017

R .303

R .564

R 6.142

R .295

R .505

R 5.782

R .307

R .524

R 6.000

R .305

R 5.938

R 3.560

.527
R .573
R 6.785

.222
.201
.227
.219
.280
.306
.257
.205
.164
.163
.169
2.412

.028
.026
.029
.029
.030
.030
.030
.030
.029
.030
.029
.320

.006
.006
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.006
.076

.037
.032
.041
.045
.044
.043
.032
.026
.024
.041
.044
.409

.311
.293
.312
.308
.323
.318
.335
.340
.326
.333
.330
3.528

.605
.558
.616
.607
.684
.704
.662
.608
.550
.574
.578
6.745

R 6.244

4.776
53.096

.738
.678
.675
.598
.676
.733
.775
.757
.699
.655
.662
7.645

51.507
51.222

7.663
7.478

2.273
2.655

.319
.313

.074
.066

.307
.239

3.240
3.030

6.213
6.303

65.383
65.004

R 4.238
R 4.778
R 4.577
R 4.770
R 4.663
R 4.682

4.792
R 4.585
R 4.785
R 4.643
R 4.746
R 55.968
R 4.762
R 4.295
R 4.776
R 4.583
R 4.795
R 4.667
R 4.674
R 4.819
R 4.571
R 4.832
R 4.734
R 4.766
R 56.274

R 4.643
R 4.922
R 4.825
R 4.912
R 4.706
R 5.003
R 4.984
R 4.482
R 4.941

a Most data are estimates.
See Tables 10.1-10.2c for notes on series
components and estimation.
b Beginning in 1989, includes waste coal supplied. Beginning in 2001, also
includes a small amount of refuse recovery. See Table 6.1.
c Includes lease condensate.
d Natural gas plant liquids.
e Conventional hydroelectric power.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • See "Primary Energy Production" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal

Wind

R .320

R 5.443
R 6.020
R 5.777
R 6.058
R 5.998
R 6.027

6.099
R 5.782
R 5.900
R 5.824
R 6.050

R 6.090
R 71.473

R 5.879
R 6.213
R 6.030
R 6.272
R 6.143
R 6.440
R 6.349
R 5.731
R 6.170

6.015
67.486

sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the
50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Coal: Tables 6.1 and A5. • Natural Gas (Dry): Tables 4.1 and
A4. • Crude Oil and Natural Gas Plant Liquids: Tables 3.1 and A2.
• Nuclear Electric Power: Tables 7.2a and A6 ("Nuclear Plants" heat rate).
• Renewable Energy: Table 10.1.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

5

Figure 1.3

Primary Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

Total, 1973-2007

Total, Monthly

120

12

100

10

80

8

60

6

40

4

20

2

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

0
J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SON D

2006

By Sourcea, 1973-2007

2007

2008

By Sourcea, Monthly

45

4
Petroleum

Petroleum

3
30
Natural Gas

Coal

2
Coal

15

Natural Gas
Nuclear Electric Power

Renewable Energy

1

Nuclear Electric Power
Renewable Energy

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

0
J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A S O ND

2006

2007

2008

By Sourcea, November 2008

Total, January-November
120
100

Petroleum
91.033

92.382

90.765

80

Natural Gas

60

Coal

40

Nuclear
Electric Power

20

Renewable
Energy

0
2006

2007

2008

a
Small quantities of net imports of coal coke and electricity are not shown.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

6

2.976

1.905

1.773

0.662

0.579

0

1

2

3

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Source: Table 1.3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

4

Table 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source
(Quadrillion Btu)
Renewable Energya

Fossil Fuels

Totald

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Hydroelectric
Powere

Geothermal

Solar/
PV

34.840
32.731
34.202
30.922
33.553
34.437
35.673
36.160
36.817
37.838
38.264
38.186
38.227
38.809
40.294
40.393

70.316
65.355
69.826
66.091
72.333
77.258
79.783
80.874
81.370
82.428
84.733
82.903
83.750
84.078
85.830
85.817

0.910
1.900
2.739
4.076
6.104
7.075
7.087
6.597
7.068
7.610
7.862
8.033
8.143
7.959
8.222
8.160

2.861
3.155
2.900
2.970
3.046
3.205
3.590
3.640
3.297
3.268
2.811
2.242
2.689
2.825
2.690
2.703

0.043
.070
.110
.198
.336
.294
.316
.325
.328
.331
.317
.311
.328
.331
.341
.343

NA
NA
NA
(s)
.060
.070
.071
.070
.070
.069
.066
.065
.064
.064
.065
.066

3.361
3.056
3.388
3.212
3.356
3.326
3.401
3.515
3.260
3.402
3.276
3.405
39.958

R 7.492

.750
.653
.665
.601
.655
.714
.753
.751
.695
.600
.641
.735
8.214

.272
.246
.244
.283
.306
.295
.252
.216
.171
.169
.201
.214
2.869

.029
.026
.030
.027
.026
.028
.030
.030
.029
.030
.028
.030
.343

.772
.681
.671
.598
.678
.719
.759
.759
.705
.644
R .677
.751
R 8.414

R .258

.031

R .184

R .027

R .240

Coal

Natural
Gasb

Petroleumc

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

12.971
12.663
15.423
17.478
19.173
20.089
21.002
21.445
21.656
21.623
22.580
21.914
21.904
22.321
22.466
22.797

22.512
19.948
20.235
17.703
19.603
22.671
23.085
23.223
22.830
22.909
23.824
22.773
23.558
22.897
22.931
22.583

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1.910
1.781
1.814
1.603
1.766
1.903
2.102
2.123
1.843
1.840
1.807
1.956
22.447

R 2.219

R 22.224

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 1.991

R 2.535

R 1.835

R 2.632

R 1.795

R 2.181

R 1.665

R 1.853

R 1.775

R 1.595

R 1.947

R 1.591

R 2.083

R 1.699

R 2.134

R 1.944

R 1.908

R 1.626

R 1.832

R 1.663

R 1.801

R 1.875

R 1.984
R 22.751

2.457
R 23.651

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

2.032
1.875
1.810
1.687
1.785
1.941
2.112
2.065
1.864
R 1.762
1.773
20.706

R 2.797

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

20.767
20.491

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

R 2.197
R 2.178
R 1.722
R 1.564
R 1.587
R 1.802
R 1.794
R 1.496
R 1.683
R 1.808
R 2.174

3.363
3.148
3.358
3.250
3.371
3.277
3.389
3.435
3.226
3.339
3.240
3.377
39.773

R 7.038
R 7.387
R 6.540
R 6.689
R 6.822
R 7.308
R 7.434
R 6.612
R 6.938
R 6.891
R 7.539
R 84.690
R 7.893
R 7.616
R 7.333
R 6.770
R 6.744
R 6.821
R 7.169
R 7.515
R 6.764
R 6.834
R 6.921
R 7.821
R 86.200
R 8.109

1.905
21.414

3.276
3.011
3.211
3.106
3.203
3.069
3.148
3.121
2.781
3.179
2.976
34.082

6.655
76.245

.738
.678
.675
.598
.676
.733
.775
.757
.699
.655
.662
7.645

21.194
20.050

36.397
36.553

78.379
77.151

7.663
7.478

R 2.555
R 2.331
R 1.871
R 1.621
R 1.655
R 1.763
R 1.738
R 1.501
R 1.677

R 7.443
R 7.359
R 6.672
R 6.612
R 6.674
R 7.029
R 6.924
R 6.148
R 6.619

a Most data are estimates.
See Tables 10.1-10.2c for notes on series
components and estimation.
b Natural gas only; excludes supplemental gaseous fuels.
See Note 3,
"Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
c Petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil
burned as fuel. Does not include the fuel ethanol portion of motor gasoline—fuel
ethanol is included in "Biomass."
d Includes coal coke net imports. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.
e Conventional hydroelectric power.
f Includes coal coke net imports and electricity net imports, which are not
separately displayed. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.

Biomass

Total

Totalf

NA
NA
NA
(s)
.029
.033
.033
.034
.031
.046
.057
.070
.105
.115
.142
.178

1.529
1.499
2.475
3.016
2.735
3.104
3.159
3.108
2.931
2.967
3.013
2.627
2.706
2.817
3.023
3.154

4.433
4.723
5.485
6.185
6.206
6.705
7.168
7.178
6.657
6.681
6.264
5.316
5.893
6.150
6.261
6.444

75.708
71.999
78.122
76.491
84.652
91.173
94.175
94.765
95.183
96.817
98.975
96.326
97.858
98.209
100.351
100.506

.006
.005
.006
.006
.006
.006
.006
.007
.006
.006
.006
.006
.072

.024
.019
.023
.025
.024
.020
.019
.016
.019
.024
.025
.025
.264

.285
.254
.273
.261
.277
.281
.290
.293
.283
.292
.287
.299
3.374

.615
.550
.576
.602
.640
.630
.598
.561
.507
.521
.547
.574
6.922

R 8.862

R 99.889

R .622

R 9.294

R .271

R .513

R 8.819

R .296

R .601

R 8.611

.237
R .258
R .226
R .223
.198
R .146
.147
.156
R .182
R 2.455

.024
.025
.030
R .031
R .029
R .026
R .021
R .027
R .028
R .033
R .031
R .035
R .342

R .302

.029
.028
.028
R .029
.030
.030
.029
.030
.029
.030
R .349

.006
.006
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.006
.006
.080

R .287

R .590

R 7.967

R .295

R 8.052

R 3.590

.618
R .580
R .587
R .566
R .506
R .528
.529
R .576
R 6.816

.222
.201
.227
.219
.280
.306
.257
.205
.164
.163
.169
2.412

.028
.026
.029
.029
.030
.030
.030
.030
.029
.030
.029
.320

.006
.006
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.007
.006
.076

.037
.032
.041
.045
.044
.043
.032
.026
.024
.041
.044
.409

.312
.295
.310
.313
.324
.323
.337
.341
.331
.338
.330
3.553

.606
.561
.614
.612
.685
.708
.663
.609
.554
.579
.579
6.770

R 9.463

2.273
2.655

.319
.313

.074
.066

.307
.239

3.267
3.075

6.240
6.348

92.382
91.033

Wind

R .292
R .306
R .305
R .295
R .311
R .307
R .323

R 8.247
R 8.633
R 7.747
R 7.989
R 8.171
R 8.670
R 8.758
R 7.814
R 8.061
R 8.082
R 8.856

R 8.131
R 8.529
R 8.852
R 7.979
R 8.013
R 8.135
R 9.155
R 101.537

R 8.692
R 8.655
R 7.891
R 7.981
R 8.125
R 8.482
R 8.305
R 7.412
R 7.859

7.900
90.765

R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes:

See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
• Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Coal: Tables 6.1 and A5. • Natural Gas: Tables 4.1 and A4.
• Petroleum: Table 3.6. • Nuclear Electric Power: Tables 7.2a and A6
("Nuclear Plants" heat rate). • Renewable Energy: Table 10.1. • Net Imports of
Coal Coke and Electricity: Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

7

Figure 1.4a Primary Energy Imports and Exports
(Quadrillion Btu)
Total Imports and Exports, 1973-2007

Total Imports and Exports, Monthly

40

4

30

3

Imports

Imports

20

2

10

1
Exports

Exports

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Imports by Source, 1973-2007

0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2 007
2008

Imports by Source, Monthly

32

3.2
Petroleum

24

2.4
Petroleum

16

1.6

8

0.8
Natural Gas

Natural Gas

Othera

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Othera

0.0
J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O ND

2006

Exports by Source, 1973-2007

2 007

2008

Exports by Source, Monthly

4

0.4

3

0.3

Petroleum
Coalb

2

0.2
Coalb
Petroleum

1

0.1
Natural Gas

Electricity

0
1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Coal, coal coke, fuel ethanol, and electricity.
Includes coal coke.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
b

8

Natural Gas

0.0
1975

a

Electricity

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Sources: Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Figure 1.4b Primary Energy Net Imports
(Quadrillion Btu, Except as noted)
Total, 1973-2007

Total, Monthly

35

3.0

30

2.5

25

2.0

20
1.5
15
1.0

10

0.5

5
0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Sources, 1973-2007

0.0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

By Major Sources, Monthly

25

2.5

20

2.0

15

Crude Oila

1.5

Crude Oila

1.0

10
5

Petroleum Productsb

Petroleum
Productsb

0.5

Natural Gas

Natural Gas

0.0

0
Coal

Coal

-0.5

-5
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D

2005

By Major Sources, November 2008

2006

2007

2008

As Share of Consumption, January-November

2.5

35

2.0

30

30.1

29.2

1.776

26.1

25
Percent

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.234

0.190

0.0

15
10
5

-0.115

-0.5
Coal

20

Natural
Gas

Crude Oil

a

0
Petroleum
Productsb

a
Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Strategic
Petroleum Reserve, which began in 1977.
b
Petroleum products, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, and gasoline
blending components. Does not include fuel ethanol.

2006

2007

2008

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Sources: Tables 1.3, 1.4a, and 1.4b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

9

Table 1.4a Primary Energy Imports by Source
(Quadrillion Btu)
Imports
Petroleum

Coal

Coal
Coke

Natural
Gas

Crude
Oila

Petroleum
Productsb

Total

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

0.003
.024
.030
.049
.067
.237
.203
.187
.218
.227
.313
.495
.422
.626
.682
.762

0.027
.045
.016
.014
.019
.095
.063
.078
.095
.080
.094
.063
.080
.068
.170
.088

1.060
.978
1.006
.952
1.551
2.901
3.002
3.063
3.225
3.664
3.869
4.068
4.104
4.042
4.365
4.450

6.887
8.721
11.195
6.814
12.766
15.669
16.341
17.876
18.916
18.935
19.783
20.348
19.920
21.060
22.082
22.091

6.578
4.227
3.463
3.796
4.351
3.211
3.943
3.864
3.992
4.198
4.749
5.051
4.754
5.159
6.114
7.157

13.466
12.948
14.658
10.609
17.117
18.881
20.284
21.740
22.908
23.133
24.531
25.398
24.674
26.219
28.196
29.248

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
.001
.001
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
.001
.001
.001
.013
.011

0.057
.038
.085
.157
.063
.146
.148
.147
.135
.147
.166
.131
.125
.104
.117
.152

14.613
14.032
15.796
11.781
18.817
22.260
23.702
25.215
26.581
27.252
28.973
30.157
29.407
R 31.061
33.543
34.710

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

.076
.068
.080
.076
.069
.055
.080
.096
.084
.080
.066
.077
.906

.003
.005
.008
.005
.008
.010
.011
.009
.015
.015
.005
.006
.101

.369
.329
.357
.341
.359
.357
.380
.374
.342
.342
.348
.393
4.291

1.811
1.672
1.807
1.769
1.910
1.922
1.896
1.958
1.921
1.873
1.774
1.771
22.085

.681
.545
.530
.582
.676
.574
.625
.688
.611
.536
.505
.531
7.083

2.491
2.216
2.337
2.351
2.586
2.496
2.522
2.646
2.532
2.409
2.279
2.302
29.168

(s)
.002
.003
.003
.002
.005
.009
.011
.008
.007
.005
.004
.062

.013
.012
.013
.012
.013
.013
.016
.016
.007
.009
.010
.012
.146

2.953
2.632
2.799
2.787
3.037
2.935
3.018
3.152
2.989
2.863
2.712
2.795
34.673

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

.071
.066
.082
.067
.067
.076
.084
.093
.087
.072
.072
.070
.909

.006
.003
.003
.004
.006
.007
.003
.005
.005
.005
.007
.008
.061

.403
.382
.412
.397
.390
.391
.429
.437
.370
.356
.349
.407
4.723

1.894
1.510
1.926
1.824
1.916
1.798
1.844
1.914
1.851
1.815
1.796
1.825
21.914

.592
.484
.608
.605
.659
.581
.645
.560
.549
.542
.524
.517
6.867

2.487
1.994
2.533
2.429
2.575
2.379
2.489
2.474
2.400
2.357
2.320
2.342
28.780

.004
.004
.003
.003
.002
.003
.005
.006
.002
.004
.001
.001
.037

.012
.014
.013
.014
.016
.015
.019
.018
.013
.012
.015
.014
.175

2.982
2.463
3.046
2.914
3.056
2.871
3.030
3.033
2.877
2.806
R 2.765
2.841
34.685

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
11-Month Total .....

.060
.065
.066
.075
.068
.082
.064
.079
.069
.073
.075
.775

.007
.006
.009
.011
.007
.013
.010
.009
.006
.008
.005
.089

.395
.355
.373
.329
.303
R .293
R .328
R .334
.320
R .328
E .318
E 3.676

1.855
1.667
1.784
1.781
1.792
1.794
1.874
1.908
1.509
1.876
1.782
19.624

.594
.477
.499
.545
.544
.551
.501
.467
.504
.528
.483
5.691

2.449
2.144
2.283
2.326
2.335
2.346
2.375
2.375
2.013
2.404
2.264
25.315

.002
.002
.001
.005
.003
.006
.005
.007
.009
.002
.001
.042

.017
.016
.016
.014
.018
.021
.021
.020
.017
.012
.011
.183

2.930
2.587
2.749
2.760
2.734
2.760
R 2.803
R 2.823
2.434
R 2.827
2.674
30.080

2007 11-Month Total .....
2006 11-Month Total .....

.838
.829

.053
.095

4.316
3.898

20.089
20.313

6.350
6.552

26.439
26.865

.036
.057

.161
.133

31.844
31.878

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

a Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum
Reserve, which began in 1977.
b Petroleum products, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, and gasoline blending
components. Does not include fuel ethanol.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available

10

Fuel
Ethanol

Electricity

Total

data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Coal: Tables 6.1 and A5. • Coal Coke: 1973-1975—U.S.
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, "Coke and Coal
Chemicals" chapter. 1976-1980—Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy
Data Report, "Coke and Coal Chemicals," annual reports. 1981 forward—EIA,
Quarterly Coal Report, quarterly reports. • Natural Gas: Tables 4.1 and A4.
• Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: Tables 3.1, 10.3, and A2. • Fuel
Ethanol: Table 10.3. • Electricity: Tables 7.1 and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 1.4b Primary Energy Exports by Source and Total Net Imports
(Quadrillion Btu)
Net Importsa

Exports
Petroleum

Coal

Coal
Coke

Natural
Gas

Crude
Oilb

Petroleum
Productsc

Total

Electricity

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

1.425
1.761
2.421
2.438
2.772
2.318
2.368
2.193
2.092
1.525
1.528
1.265
1.032
1.117
1.253
1.273

0.035
.032
.051
.028
.014
.034
.040
.031
.028
.022
.028
.033
.020
.018
.033
.043

0.079
.074
.049
.056
.087
.156
.155
.159
.161
.164
.245
.377
.520
.686
.862
.735

0.004
.012
.609
.432
.230
.200
.233
.228
.233
.250
.106
.043
.019
.026
.057
.067

0.482
.427
.551
1.225
1.594
1.791
1.825
1.872
1.740
1.705
2.048
1.996
2.023
2.124
2.151
2.374

0.486
.439
1.160
1.657
1.824
1.991
2.059
2.100
1.972
1.955
2.154
2.039
2.042
2.151
2.208
2.442

0.009
.017
.014
.017
.055
.012
.011
.031
.047
.049
.051
.056
.054
.082
.078
.068

2.033
2.323
3.695
4.196
4.752
4.511
4.633
4.514
4.299
3.715
4.006
3.770
3.668
4.054
4.433
4.561

12.580
11.709
12.101
7.584
14.065
17.750
19.069
20.701
22.281
23.537
24.967
26.386
25.739
27.007
29.110
30.149

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

.107
.068
.097
.089
.121
.111
.085
.130
.130
.099
.121
.106
1.264

.001
.002
.002
.002
.005
.004
.007
.006
.002
.002
.004
.003
.040

.056
.059
.070
.046
.063
.066
.059
.055
.053
.059
.070
.073
.730

.005
.002
.005
.005
.005
.006
.002
.003
.004
.007
.004
.005
.052

.183
.202
.202
.236
.235
.223
.244
.220
.263
.261
.228
.202
2.699

.188
.204
.208
.240
.240
.229
.246
.223
.267
.267
.232
.207
2.751

.008
.006
.007
.007
.008
.008
.006
.005
.007
.008
.007
.005
.083

.360
.339
.383
.383
.436
.419
.403
.419
.460
.436
.435
.394
4.868

2.593
2.293
2.415
2.405
2.601
2.516
2.615
2.733
2.529
2.427
2.277
2.401
29.805

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

.111
.068
.104
.123
.121
.130
.148
.139
.125
.128
.159
.149
1.507

.003
.002
.004
.003
.003
.001
.005
.002
.002
.006
.002
.004
.036

.070
.057
.078
.051
.063
.058
.071
.062
.066
.064
.087
.102
.830

.002
.004
.006
.003
.006
.009
.005
.008
.006
.002
.003
.004
.058

.256
.213
.221
.231
.250
.221
.264
.257
.229
.234
.301
.271
2.949

.258
.217
.227
.235
.257
.230
.268
.264
.235
.236
.305
.275
3.007

.005
.005
.007
.004
.004
.004
.006
.007
.008
.005
.006
.007
.069

.447
.349
.420
.416
.448
.423
.498
.475
.436
.439
.559
.538
5.448

2.626
2.498
2.608
2.448
2.532
2.558
R 2.442
2.367
2.206
2.303
R 29.238

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
11-Month Total .....

.125
.107
.170
.203
.214
.171
.163
.134
.220
.210
.190
1.907

.003
.004
.001
.004
.004
.004
.005
.008
.004
.007
.004
.046

.112
.103
.105
.079
.074
.066
R .066
R .070
.058
.069
E .084
E .886

.002
.003
.005
.002
.003
.004
.005
.007
.007
.008
.005
.052

.287
.342
.320
.300
.318
.370
.364
.361
.224
.290
.293
3.469

.289
.346
.325
.302
.322
.373
.369
.369
.231
.298
.298
3.522

.006
.005
.009
.005
.010
.011
.006
.005
.006
.007
.007
.077

.535
.565
.610
.593
.624
.625
R .608
R .586
.519
.590
.583
6.438

2.395
2.022
2.139
2.167
2.110
2.135
R 2.194
R 2.237
1.915
R 2.237
2.092
23.643

2007 11-Month Total .....
2006 11-Month Total .....

1.357
1.157

.031
.037

.727
.658

.054
.047

2.677
2.497

2.732
2.544

.062
.078

4.910
4.474

26.934
27.404

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

a Net imports equal imports minus exports.
b Crude oil and lease condensate.
c Petroleum products, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, and gasoline blending

components.
R=Revised. E=Estimate.
Notes: • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available

Total

Total

2.536
R 2.114

data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Coal: Tables 6.1 and A5. • Coal Coke: 1973-1975—U.S.
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, "Coke and Coal
Chemicals" chapter. 1976-1980—Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy
Data Report, "Coke and Coal Chemicals," annual reports. 1981 forward—EIA,
Quarterly Coal Report, quarterly reports. • Natural Gas: Tables 4.1 and A4.
• Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: Tables 3.1 and A2. • Electricity: Tables
7.1 and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

11

Figure 1.5

Merchandise Trade Value
(Billion Nominal Dollarsa)

Imports and Exports, 1974-2008

Imports and Exports, Monthly

2,500

250

2,000

200
Total Imports
Total Imports

1,500

150

1,000

100

Total Exports

Total Exports

500

50

Energy
Imports

Energy
Exports
Energy Imports

Energy Exports

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Trade Balance, 1974-2008

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Trade Balance, Monthly
0

100
0
Energy

-100

-25

Energy

-50

NonEnergy

NonEnergy

-200
-300
-400
-500

Total

-600
-75
Total

-700
-800
-900

-100
1975

a

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

12

J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A S O ND
2006
2007
2008

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Source: Table 1.5.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 1.5 Merchandise Trade Value
(Million Nominal Dollarsa)
Petroleumb
Exports

Imports

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

792
907
2,833
4,707
6,901
6,321
7,984
8,592
6,574
7,118
10,192
8,868
8,569
10,209
13,130
19,155

24,668
25,197
78,637
50,475
61,583
54,368
72,022
71,152
50,264
67,173
119,251
102,747
102,663
132,433
179,266
250,068

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1,701
1,778
2,386
2,531
2,449
2,318
2,445
2,387
3,047
2,650
2,365
2,114
28,171

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................
2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1974 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Energyc
Balance

Total Merchandise

Exports

Imports

-23,876
-24,289
-75,803
-45,768
-54,682
-48,047
-64,038
-62,560
-43,690
-60,055
-109,059
-93,879
-94,094
-122,224
-166,136
-230,913

3,444
4,470
7,982
9,971
12,233
10,358
12,181
12,682
10,251
9,880
13,179
12,494
11,541
13,768
18,642
26,488

25,454
26,476
82,924
53,917
64,661
59,109
78,086
78,277
57,323
75,803
135,367
121,923
115,748
153,298
206,660
289,723

-22,010
-22,006
-74,942
-43,946
-52,428
-48,751
-65,905
-65,595
-47,072
-65,923
-122,188
-109,429
-104,207
-139,530
-188,018
-263,235

18,126
31,557
55,246
-73,765
-50,068
-110,050
-104,309
-114,927
-182,686
-262,898
-313,916
-302,470
-364,056
-392,820
-462,912
-504,242

99,437
108,856
225,566
218,815
393,592
584,742
625,075
689,182
682,138
695,797
781,918
729,100
693,103
724,771
818,775
905,978

103,321
99,305
245,262
336,526
496,088
743,543
795,289
869,704
911,896
1,024,618
1,218,022
1,140,999
1,161,366
1,257,121
1,469,704
1,673,455

-3,884
9,551
-19,696
-117,712
-102,496
-158,801
-170,214
-180,522
-229,758
-328,821
-436,104
-411,899
-468,263
-532,350
-650,930
-767,477

23,245
21,324
22,242
24,086
29,182
27,751
29,530
30,934
26,477
22,671
20,779
21,492
299,714

-21,544
-19,546
-19,856
-21,555
-26,733
-25,433
-27,085
-28,547
-23,430
-20,021
-18,414
-19,378
-271,543

2,263
2,358
3,024
3,150
2,979
2,848
2,832
2,924
3,561
3,172
2,935
2,665
34,711

27,130
24,201
25,025
26,732
31,876
30,176
32,231
33,969
28,757
24,724
23,432
24,248
332,500

-24,867
-21,843
-22,001
-23,582
-28,897
-27,328
-29,399
-31,045
-25,196
-21,552
-20,497
-21,583
-297,789

-44,655
-35,109
-40,175
-40,240
-42,522
-42,537
-48,346
-47,284
-44,865
-50,008
-45,425
-38,348
-519,515

75,040
77,750
91,864
83,097
87,746
90,622
80,023
89,228
88,408
92,468
91,367
89,021
1,036,635

144,562
134,702
154,040
146,919
159,164
160,487
157,768
167,558
158,470
164,028
157,288
148,952
1,853,938

-69,522
-56,952
-62,176
-63,822
-71,419
-69,865
-77,745
-78,329
-70,061
-71,560
-65,922
-59,931
-817,304

2,239
2,006
2,270
2,418
2,566
2,590
2,863
3,003
2,715
2,790
3,882
3,952
33,293

22,693
17,840
23,944
25,189
28,071
27,645
28,578
29,762
28,065
30,728
32,440
32,669
327,620

-20,454
-15,834
-21,674
-22,771
-25,505
-25,055
-25,715
-26,759
-25,350
-27,938
-28,558
-28,717
-294,327

2,833
2,549
2,871
3,167
3,375
3,447
3,517
3,720
3,447
3,384
4,569
4,844
41,725

25,630
20,993
27,170
28,335
31,380
31,110
31,902
32,967
30,514
33,428
35,384
36,173
364,987

-22,797
-18,444
-24,299
-25,168
-28,005
-27,663
-28,385
-29,247
-27,067
-30,044
-30,815
-31,329
-323,262

-42,118
-36,429
-36,552
-39,750
-37,416
-37,677
-46,523
-40,376
-37,637
-45,438
-41,486
-29,817
-471,221

85,918
84,921
100,511
91,665
97,902
99,122
91,857
101,143
98,068
106,563
103,362
101,448
1,162,479

150,833
139,793
161,363
156,583
163,323
164,462
166,765
170,766
162,772
182,044
175,663
162,594
1,956,962

-64,915
-54,873
-60,851
-64,918
-65,421
-65,340
-74,908
-69,623
-64,704
-75,482
-72,301
-61,146
-794,483

3,996
4,668
4,453
4,322
5,098
7,760
7,819
7,467
4,086
4,589
3,857
3,452
61,567

36,383
31,876
33,645
39,242
41,370
46,643
54,451
47,246
37,206
38,673
22,641
20,531
449,907

-32,387
-27,208
-29,192
-34,920
-36,272
-38,883
-46,632
-39,779
-33,120
-34,084
-18,784
-17,079
-388,340

4,948
5,360
5,630
5,749
6,565
9,015
8,982
8,510
5,629
5,897
5,127
4,429
75,841

38,973
35,388
37,118
43,100
44,979
50,351
57,840
50,718
40,277
41,507
24,942
22,728
487,922

-34,025
-30,028
-31,488
-37,351
-38,414
-41,336
-48,858
-42,208
-34,648
-35,610
-19,815
-18,299
-412,081

-33,787
-29,123
-26,966
-33,398
-29,431
-29,927
-36,323
-30,400
-39,320
-38,858
R -30,175
-30,146
-387,853

99,549
105,930
112,085
111,131
114,291
118,184
115,718
118,082
106,699
111,586
R 97,410
89,832
1,300,498

167,362
165,081
170,539
181,880
182,136
189,447
200,899
190,690
180,666
186,054
R 147,400
138,277
2,100,432

-67,812
-59,151
-58,454
-70,749
-67,845
-71,263
-85,181
-72,608
-73,968
-74,468
R -49,990
-48,445
-799,934

a See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
b Crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied propane and butane, and other

mineral fuels.
c Petroleum, coal, natural gas, and electricity.
R=Revised.
Notes: • Monthly data are not adjusted for seasonal variations. • See Note,
"Merchandise Trade Value," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of

Balance

NonEnergy
Balance

Exports

Imports

Balance

components due to independent rounding. • The U.S. import statistics reflect both
government and nongovernment imports of merchandise from foreign countries into
the U.S. customs territory, which comprises the 50 States, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all available
data beginning in 1974.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

13

Figure 1.6

Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982-1984) Dollars

Costs, 1973-2008

Costs, November 2008

25

18

Residential
Electricitya

15.83

15
Dollars per Million Btu

Dollars per Million Btu

20
15
Residential
Heating Oilb

10
Motor Gasolinea

12
9.36

9

8.36
6.28

6

5

3
Residential
Natural Gasa

0
1975

1980

0

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Residential Residential
Heating
Electricitya
Oilb

Residential Electricitya, Monthly

Motor
Gasolinea

Residential
Natural
Gasa

Motor Gasolinea, Monthly
200

8

2008

4

125
100

2007

2008

25
0

0
J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

M

A

M

J

10

2008

150

2007

100

2006

50

0

J

A

S

O

N

D

2008
2007

8

2006

6

4

2

0
J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

Includes taxes.
Excludes taxes.
Notes: • See “Real Dollars” in Glossary. • Because vertical scales

14

F

Residential Natural Gasa, Monthly

Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet

Cents per Gallon

200

J

D

Residential Heating Oilb, Monthly

b

2009

75
50

2
2006

a

2007

150

6
Cents per Gallon

Cents per Kilowatthour

175

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Source: Table 1.6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

N

D

Table 1.6 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982-1984) Dollars
Consumer Price Index,
All Urban Consumersa

Index
1982-1984=100
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Motor Gasolineb

Residential
Heating Oilc

Residential
Natural Gasb

Cents per
Gallon

Dollars per
Million Btu

Cents per
Gallon

Dollars per
Million Btu

Cents per
Thousand
Cubic Feet

Residential
Electricityb

Dollars per
Cents per
Million Btu Kilowatthour

Dollars per
Million Btu

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

44.4
53.8
82.4
107.6
130.7
152.4
156.9
160.5
163.0
166.6
172.2
177.1
179.9
184.0
188.9
195.3

NA
NA
148.2
111.2
93.1
79.1
82.1
80.4
68.4
73.3
90.8
86.4
80.1
89.0
101.8
119.7

NA
NA
11.85
8.89
7.44
6.37
6.61
6.48
5.51
5.91
7.32
6.97
6.46
7.18
8.20
9.64

NA
NA
118.2
97.9
81.3
56.9
63.0
61.3
52.3
52.6
76.1
70.6
62.8
73.6
81.9
105.1

NA
NA
8.52
7.06
5.86
4.10
4.54
4.42
3.77
3.79
5.49
5.09
4.52
5.31
5.91
7.58

290.5
317.8
446.6
568.8
443.8
397.6
404.1
432.4
418.4
401.6
450.6
543.8
438.6
523.4
569.1
650.3

2.85
3.12
4.36
5.52
4.31
3.87
3.93
4.21
4.05
3.91
4.39
5.28
4.26
5.07
5.54
6.32

5.6
6.5
6.6
6.87
5.99
5.51
5.33
5.25
5.07
4.90
4.79
4.84
4.69
4.74
4.74
4.84

16.50
19.07
19.21
20.13
17.56
16.15
15.62
15.39
14.85
14.36
14.02
14.20
13.75
13.89
13.89
14.18

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

198.3
198.7
199.8
201.5
202.5
202.9
203.5
203.9
202.9
201.8
201.5
201.8
201.6

119.0
118.5
122.3
139.0
147.8
146.0
149.7
148.7
130.0
114.9
113.5
117.9
130.7

9.58
9.54
9.85
11.19
11.90
11.75
12.05
11.97
10.46
9.25
9.14
9.49
10.52

117.7
116.4
117.8
120.4
121.9
121.1
120.9
122.6
117.4
114.1
116.3
117.9
117.3

8.49
8.39
8.49
8.68
8.79
8.73
8.72
8.84
8.47
8.23
8.38
8.50
8.46

R 752.4

R 7.32

R 703.6

R 6.84

R 659.2

R 6.41

R 658.6

R 6.41

R 711.6

R 6.92

14.11
14.46
14.48
15.01
15.36
15.67
15.78
15.73
15.80
15.37
14.81
14.29
15.12

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

202.416
203.499
205.352
206.686
207.949
208.352
208.299
207.917
208.490
208.936
210.177
210.036
207.342

114.7
114.6
128.5
140.7
152.7
148.8
144.6
136.3
136.2
136.1
148.4
146.1
137.4

9.23
9.23
10.34
11.33
12.29
11.97
11.64
10.97
10.96
10.95
11.94
11.76
11.06

114.2
117.5
119.3
120.0
119.3
119.6
122.4
120.7
125.1
132.1
144.6
147.5
125.0

8.23
8.47
8.60
8.65
8.60
8.62
8.82
8.70
9.02
9.52
10.43
10.64
9.01

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

211.080
211.693
213.528
214.823
216.632
218.815
219.964
219.086
218.783
216.573
212.425
210.228
215.303

146.7
145.6
154.9
162.5
176.0
188.1
188.3
175.2
171.4
148.9
103.9
82.9
154.1

11.80
11.72
12.46
13.08
14.16
15.13
15.15
14.10
13.79
11.98
8.36
6.67
12.40

2009 January ....................

211.143

87.1

7.01

a Data are U.S. city averages for all items, and are not seasonally adjusted.
b Includes taxes.
c Excludes taxes.

R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available.
Notes: • See "Real Dollars" in Glossary. • Fuel costs are calculated by
using the Urban Consumer Price Index (CPI) developed by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. • Annual averages may not equal average of months due to
independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the

148.6
150.1
162.6
168.7
181.0
192.0
195.4
176.4
167.4
146.3
R 129.9
RE 113.0
NA
NA

10.72
10.82
11.73
12.16
13.05
13.85
14.09
12.72
12.07
10.55
R 9.36
RE 8.15
NA
NA

R 793.5

7.72

R 774.3

R 7.53

R 619.9

R 6.03

R 617.9

R 6.01

R 620.9
R 681.1

6.04
6.63

4.82
4.93
4.94
5.12
5.24
5.35
5.39
5.37
5.39
5.24
5.05
4.88
5.16

R 742.7

7.23

R 772.5

R 7.51

597.3

R 5.80

R 4.97

R 14.57

R 595.1

R 5.78

R 14.24

626.2
R 642.5
R 703.5
R 779.0
R 800.3
R 802.2
R 767.4
R 696.4
R 618.5
579.4
R 629.9

6.09
R 6.24
R 6.84
R 7.57
7.78
R 7.80
R 7.46
R 6.77
R 6.01
R 5.63
R 6.12

4.86
R 5.00
R 5.14
5.18
R 5.32
5.31
R 5.32
R 5.26
R 5.18
5.09
R 4.92
5.13

R 572.8

R 5.57

587.6
607.4
R 665.2
739.5
R 837.7
R 922.4
896.0
820.0
703.2
R 646.3
NA
NA

R 5.71

NA
NA

4.83
4.84
4.93
5.11
5.28
5.39
5.50
5.52
5.46
5.48
R 5.40
NA
NA

14.16
14.18
14.44
14.97
15.46
15.81
16.11
16.19
15.99
16.05
R 15.83
NA
NA

NA

NA

R 5.90
R 6.46

7.19
8.14
R 8.96
R 8.71
R 7.97
R 6.83
R 6.28

NA

R 14.66
R 15.07

15.18
R 15.60
R 15.58
R 15.60
R 15.41
R 15.18
R 14.92
R 14.41

15.04

NA

District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for all
available data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Fuel Prices: Tables 9.4 (All Types), 9.8c, 9.9, and 9.11,
adjusted by the CPI. • Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers: U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, series ID CUUR0000SA0.
• Conversion Factors: Tables A1, A3, A4, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

15

Figure 1.7

Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of Gross Domestic Product, 1973-2007
(Thousand Btu per Chained (2000) Dollar)

20
15
Total

10

Petroleum and Natural Gas

5
Other Energy

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Note: See “Real Dollars” in Glossary.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Source: Table 1.7.

Table 1.7 Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of Gross Domestic Product
Energy Consumption
Petroleum and
Natural Gas

Other
Energya

Total

Billion Chained
(2000) Dollars

Quadrillion Btu
1973 Year
1974 Year
1975 Year
1976 Year
1977 Year
1978 Year
1979 Year
1980 Year
1981 Year
1982 Year
1983 Year
1984 Year
1985 Year
1986 Year
1987 Year
1988 Year
1989 Year
1990 Year
1991 Year
1992 Year
1993 Year
1994 Year
1995 Year
1996 Year
1997 Year
1998 Year
1999 Year
2000 Year
2001 Year
2002 Year
2003 Year
2004 Year
2005 Year
2006 Year
2007 Year

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

57.352
55.187
52.678
55.520
57.053
57.966
57.789
54.438
51.678
48.588
47.275
49.445
48.626
48.787
50.505
52.670
53.813
53.156
52.878
54.240
54.973
56.290
57.108
58.758
59.382
59.647
60.747
62.089
60.959
61.785
61.706
63.226
62.977
R 62.182
R 63.424

18.356
18.804
19.321
20.492
20.947
22.021
23.114
23.684
24.490
24.565
25.763
27.269
27.865
27.969
28.668
30.149
31.131
31.496
31.729
31.716
32.630
32.970
34.064
35.417
35.383
35.536
36.070
36.887
35.367
36.073
36.503
37.125
37.529
37.706
R 38.113

75.708
73.991
71.999
76.012
78.000
79.986
80.903
78.122
76.168
73.153
73.038
76.714
76.491
76.756
79.173
82.819
84.944
84.652
84.607
85.956
87.603
89.260
91.173
94.175
94.765
95.183
96.817
98.975
96.326
97.858
98.209
100.351
100.506
R 99.889
R 101.537

a Coal, coal coke net imports, nuclear electric power, renewable energy,
and electricity net imports.
R=Revised.
Notes: • See "Primary Energy Consumption" and "Real Dollars" in
Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of
Columbia.

16

Gross
Domestic
Product
(GDP)

4,341.5
4,319.6
4,311.2
4,540.9
4,750.5
5,015.0
5,173.4
5,161.7
5,291.7
5,189.3
5,423.8
5,813.6
6,053.7
6,263.6
6,475.1
6,742.7
6,981.4
7,112.5
7,100.5
7,336.6
7,532.7
7,835.5
8,031.7
8,328.9
8,703.5
9,066.9
9,470.3
9,817.0
9,890.7
10,048.8
10,301.0
10,675.8
10,989.5
11,294.8
11,523.9

Energy Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP
Petroleum and
Natural Gas

Other
Energya

Total

Thousand Btu per Chained (2000) Dollar
13.21
12.78
12.22
12.23
12.01
11.56
11.17
10.55
9.77
9.36
8.72
8.51
8.03
7.79
7.80
7.81
7.71
7.47
7.45
7.39
7.30
7.18
7.11
7.05
6.82
6.58
6.41
6.32
6.16
6.15
5.99
5.92
5.73
R 5.51
5.50

4.23
4.35
4.48
4.51
4.41
4.39
4.47
4.59
4.63
4.73
4.75
4.69
4.60
4.47
4.43
4.47
4.46
4.43
4.47
4.32
4.33
4.21
4.24
4.25
4.07
3.92
3.81
3.76
3.58
3.59
3.54
3.48
3.41
3.34
3.31

17.44
17.13
16.70
16.74
16.42
15.95
15.64
15.13
14.39
14.10
13.47
13.20
12.64
12.25
12.23
12.28
12.17
11.90
11.92
11.72
11.63
11.39
11.35
11.31
10.89
10.50
10.22
10.08
9.74
9.74
9.53
9.40
9.15
8.84
8.81

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Sources: • Energy Consumption: Table 1.3. • Gross Domestic
Product: 1973-2004—U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis, Survey of Current Business, August 2008, Table 2A. 2005
forward—U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, BEA
News Release, January 30, 2009, Table 3, which is available at Web site
http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrel/gdpnewsrelease.htm.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Figure 1.8

Motor Vehicle Fuel Rates, 1973-2007
(Miles per Gallon)

25
Passenger Carsa

20
15

Vans, Pickup Trucks, and
Sport Utility Vehicles

10
Trucks

5
0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

a

Motorcycles are included through 1989.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Source: Table 1.8.

Table 1.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Rates
Vans, Pickup Trucks,
and Sport Utility Vehiclesb

Passenger Carsa
Mileage
(miles
per
vehicle)
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007P
a
b
c
d

9,884
9,221
9,309
9,418
9,517
9,500
9,062
8,813
8,873
9,050
9,118
9,248
9,419
9,464
9,720
9,972
a10,157
10,504
10,571
10,857
10,804
10,992
11,203
11,330
11,581
11,754
11,848
11,976
11,831
12,202
12,325
12,460
12,510
12,485
12,293

Fuel
Fuel
Consumption
Rate
(gallons
(miles per
per vehicle)
gallon)
737
677
665
681
676
665
620
551
538
535
534
530
538
543
539
531
a533
520
501
517
527
531
530
534
539
544
553
547
534
555
556
553
567
554
547

13.4
13.6
14.0
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.6
16.0
16.5
16.9
17.1
17.4
17.5
17.4
18.0
18.8
a19.0
20.2
21.1
21.0
20.5
20.7
21.1
21.2
21.5
21.6
21.4
21.9
22.1
22.0
22.2
22.5
22.1
22.5
22.5

Mileage
(miles
per
vehicle)
9,779
9,452
9,829
10,127
10,607
10,968
10,802
10,437
10,244
10,276
10,497
11,151
10,506
10,764
11,114
11,465
11,676
11,902
12,245
12,381
12,430
12,156
12,018
11,811
12,115
12,173
11,957
11,672
11,204
11,364
11,287
11,184
10,920
10,920
10,952

Fuel
Fuel
Consumption
Rate
(gallons
(miles per
per vehicle)
gallon)
931
862
934
934
947
948
905
854
819
762
767
797
735
738
744
745
724
738
721
717
714
701
694
685
703
707
701
669
636
650
697
690
617
612
609

10.5
11.0
10.5
10.8
11.2
11.6
11.9
12.2
12.5
13.5
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.6
14.9
15.4
16.1
16.1
17.0
17.3
17.4
17.3
17.3
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.0
17.4
17.6
17.5
16.2
16.2
17.7
17.8
18.0

Through 1989, includes motorcycles.
Includes a small number of trucks with 2 axles and 4 tires, such as step vans.
Single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, and combination trucks.
Includes buses and motorcycles, which are not shown separately.
P=Preliminary.
Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Trucksc
Mileage
(miles
per
vehicle)
15,370
14,995
15,167
15,438
16,700
18,045
18,502
18,736
19,016
19,931
21,083
22,550
20,597
22,143
23,349
22,485
22,926
23,603
24,229
25,373
26,262
25,838
26,514
26,092
27,032
25,397
26,014
25,617
26,602
27,071
28,093
27,023
26,235
25,231
25,141

All Motor Vehiclesd

Fuel
Fuel
Consumption
Rate
(gallons
(miles per
per vehicle)
gallon)
2,775
2,708
2,722
2,764
3,002
3,263
3,380
3,447
3,565
3,647
3,769
3,967
3,570
3,821
3,937
3,736
3,776
3,953
4,047
4,210
4,309
4,202
4,315
4,221
4,218
4,135
4,352
4,391
4,477
4,642
4,215
4,057
4,385
4,304
4,270

5.5
5.5
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
5.9
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.4
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.7
6.7
6.0
5.9
5.9

Mileage
(miles
per
vehicle)
10,099
9,493
9,627
9,774
9,978
10,077
9,722
9,458
9,477
9,644
9,760
10,017
10,020
10,143
10,453
10,721
10,932
11,107
11,294
11,558
11,595
11,683
11,793
11,813
12,107
12,211
12,206
12,164
11,887
12,171
12,208
12,200
12,082
12,017
11,910

Fuel
Fuel
Consumption
Rate
(gallons
(miles per
gallon)
per vehicle)
850
788
790
806
814
816
776
712
697
686
686
691
685
692
694
688
688
677
669
683
693
698
700
700
711
721
732
720
695
719
718
714
706
698
692

11.9
12.0
12.2
12.1
12.3
12.4
12.5
13.3
13.6
14.1
14.2
14.5
14.6
14.7
15.1
15.6
15.9
16.4
16.9
16.9
16.7
16.7
16.8
16.9
17.0
16.9
16.7
16.9
17.1
16.9
17.0
17.1
17.1
17.2
17.2

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html.
Sources: • Passenger Cars, 1990-1994: U.S. Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics 1998, Table
4-13. • All Other Data: • 1973-1994—Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Table VM-201A. • 1995 forward—FHWA,
Highway Statistics, annual reports, Table VM-1.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

17

Table 1.9 Heating Degree-Days by Census Division
Cumulative
July through January

January
Percent Change

Percent Change

Census Divisions

Normala

2008

2009

Normal
to 2009

2008
to 2009

Normala

2008

2009

Normal
to 2009

2008
to 2009

New England
Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts,
New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont .............

1,246

1,131

1,417

14

25

3,708

3,504

3,898

5

11

Middle Atlantic
New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania ............................

1,158

1,024

1,288

11

26

3,349

2,964

3,459

3

17

East North Central
Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Ohio,
Wisconsin .................................

1,302

1,217

1,468

13

21

3,774

3,478

4,042

7

16

West North Central
Iowa, Kansas,
Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota,
South Dakota ............................

1,390

1,365

1,456

5

7

4,085

3,899

4,218

3

8

South Atlantic
Delaware, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland and
the District of Columbia,
North Carolina,
South Carolina, Virginia,
West Virginia ............................

643

609

669

4

10

1,726

1,504

1,774

3

18

East South Central
Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, Tennessee ............

820

825

822

(s)

(s)

2,230

1,991

2,272

2

14

West South Central
Arkansas, Louisiana,
Oklahoma, Texas .....................

593

582

527

-11

-9

1,498

1,365

1,414

-6

4

Mountain
Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico,
Utah, Wyoming .........................

951

1,009

849

-11

-16

3,098

2,938

2,768

-11

-6

California, Oregon,
Washington ...............................

564

626

477

-15

-24

1,817

1,848

1,571

-14

-15

U.S. Averageb ................................

917

883

953

4

8

2,656

2,455

2,676

1

9

Pacificb

a "Normal" is based on calculations of data from 1971 through 2000.
b Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

(s)=Less than 0.5 percent and greater than -0.5 percent.
Notes: Degree-days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature
used as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Heating
degree-days are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature
falls below 65° F. Cooling degree-days are the number of degrees that the
daily average temperature rises above 65° F. The daily average temperature
is the mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period.
For example, a weather station recording an average daily temperature of 40°
F would report 25 heating degree-days for that day (and 0 cooling
degree-days). If a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of
78° F, cooling degree-days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating degree
days).
Web Pages: • See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for
current data. • See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/overview.html for

18

historical data.
Sources: There are several degree-day databases maintained by the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The information published
here is developed by the National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center,
Camp Springs, MD. The data are available weekly with monthly summaries
and are based on mean daily temperatures recorded at about 200 major
weather stations around the country. The temperature information recorded
at those weather stations is used to calculate statewide degree-day averages
based on population. The State figures are then aggregated into Census
Divisions and into the national average. The population weights currently
used represent resident State population data estimated for the 2000 Census
by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The data
provided here are available sooner than the Historical Climatology Series 5-1
(heating degree-days) developed by the National Climatic Data Center,
Asheville, NC, which compiles data from some 8,000 weather stations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 1.10 Cooling Degree-Days by Census Division
January
Percent Change

Census Divisions

Normala

2008

2009

Normal
to 2009

2008
to 2009

New England
Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts,
New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont .............

0

0

0

NM

NM

Middle Atlantic
New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania ............................

0

0

0

NM

NM

East North Central
Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Ohio,
Wisconsin .................................

0

0

0

NM

NM

West North Central
Iowa, Kansas,
Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota,
South Dakota ............................

0

0

0

NM

NM

South Atlantic
Delaware, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland and
the District of Columbia,
North Carolina,
South Carolina, Virginia,
West Virginia ............................

34

24

19

NM

NM

East South Central
Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, Tennessee ............

8

0

0

NM

NM

West South Central
Arkansas, Louisiana,
Oklahoma, Texas .....................

14

12

6

NM

NM

Mountain
Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico,
Utah, Wyoming .........................

1

0

0

NM

NM

California, Oregon,
Washington ...............................

2

0

0

NM

NM

U.S. Averageb ................................

9

6

4

NM

NM

Pacificb

a "Normal" is based on calculations of data from 1971 through 2000.
b Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

NM=Not meaningful (because "Normal" is less than 100 or ratio is
incalculable).
Notes: Degree-days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature
used as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Cooling
degree-days are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature
rises above 65° F. Heating degree-days are the number of degrees that the
daily average temperature falls below 65° F. The daily average temperature
is the mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period.
For example, if a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of
78° F, cooling degree-days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating
degree-days). A weather station recording an average daily temperature of
40° F would report 25 heating degree-days for that day (and 0 cooling degreedays).
Web Pages: • See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html for

current data. • See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/overview.html for
historical data.
Sources: There are several degree-day databases maintained by the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The information published
here is developed by the National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center,
Camp Springs, MD. The data are available weekly with monthly summaries
and are based on mean daily temperatures recorded at about 200 major
weather stations around the country. The temperature information recorded
at those weather stations is used to calculate statewide degree-day averages
based on population. The State figures are then aggregated into Census
Divisions and into the national average. The population weights currently
used represent resident State population data estimated for the 2000 Census
by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The data
provided here are available sooner than the Historical Climatology Series 5-2
(cooling degree-days) developed by the National Climatic Data Center,
Asheville, NC, which compiles data from some 8,000 weather stations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

19

2007 and 2008: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” FT-900, monthly.

Energy Overview
Note. Merchandise Trade Value. Import data presented
are based on the customs value. That value does not include
insurance and freight and is consequently lower than the
cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) value, which is also
reported by the Bureau of the Census. All export data, and
import data prior to 1981, are on a free alongside ship
(f.a.s.) basis.
“Balance” is exports minus imports; a positive balance
indicates a surplus trade value and a negative balance
indicates a deficit trade value. “Energy” includes mineral
fuels, lubricants, and related material. “Non-Energy Balance”
and “Total Merchandise” include foreign exports (i.e.,
re-exports) and nonmonetary gold and Department of
Defense Grant-Aid shipments. The “Non-Energy Balance”
is calculated by subtracting the “Energy” from the “Total
Merchandise Balance.”
“Imports” consist of government and nongovernment
shipments of merchandise into the 50 States, the District of
Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the
U.S. Foreign Trade Zones. They reflect the total arrival
from foreign countries of merchandise that immediately
entered consumption channels, warehouses, the Foreign
Trade Zones, or the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. They
exclude shipments between the United States, Puerto Rico,
and U.S. possessions, shipments to U.S. Armed Forces and
diplomatic missions abroad for their own use, U.S. goods
returned to the United States by its Armed Forces, and
in-transit shipments.

Table 1.5 Sources
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Foreign Trade Division:
Petroleum Exports

Petroleum Imports
1974-1987: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” FT900, December
issues, 1975-1988.
1988 and 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final
Revisions.
1990-1993: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report.
1994-2006: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” Annual Revision.
2007 and 2008: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” FT-900, monthly.
Energy Exports and Imports
1974-1987: U.S. merchandise trade press releases and
database printouts for adjustments.
1988: January-July, monthly FT-900 supplement, 1989
issues. August-December, monthly FT-900, 1989 issues.
1989: Monthly FT-900, 1990 issues.
1990-1992: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report.
1993-2006: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” Annual Revision.
2007 and 2008: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” FT-900, monthly.
Petroleum, Energy, and Non-Energy Balances
Calculated by the Energy Information Administration.
Total Merchandise
1974-1987: U.S. merchandise trade press releases and
database printouts for adjustments.
1988: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1988 Final
Revisions,” August 18, 1989.
1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1989
Revisions,” July 10, 1990. 1990: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,
1990 Final Report,” May 10, 1991, and “U.S. Merchandise
Trade, December 1992,” February 18, 1993, page 3 .
1991: “U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1992 Final Report,” May
12, 1993.
1992-2006: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” Annual Revision .
2007 and 2008: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” FT-900, monthly.
.

1974-1987: “U.S. Exports,” FT410, December issues.
1988 and 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final
Revisions.
1990-1992: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report.
1993-2006: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and
Services,” Annual Revision.

20

.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

2

Energy Consumption by Sector

Office buildings, industries, residences, and transport systems, Baltimore, Maryland; east view from the inner harbor.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector
(Quadrillion Btu)
Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1973-2007
40

Industrial

30

Transportation

20
Residential

10

Commercial

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, Monthly
4

3

Industrial
Transportation
Residential

2

Commercial

1

0
J

F M A M J

J

A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2006

J A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2007

J A S O N D

2008

By Sector, November 2008
5
Primary Consumption

Total Consumption

4
3.059

3
2.540
2.243

2

1.625

1.486

2.250

1.680

1
0.573
0.345

0
Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Transportation

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.
Source: Table 2.1.

22

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Electric Power

Table 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector
(Trillion Btu)
End-Use Sectors
Residential

Commerciala

Industrialb

Transportation

Electric
Power
Sectorc,d
Balancing
Itemg

Totalh

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

Totalf

Primarye

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

8,250
8,006
7,453
7,161
6,570
6,946
7,471
7,040
6,424
6,784
7,169
6,879
6,938
7,252
7,019
6,941

14,930
14,842
15,787
16,088
17,015
18,578
19,562
19,026
19,021
19,621
20,488
20,106
20,874
21,208
21,178
21,717

4,381
4,023
4,074
3,695
3,858
4,063
4,235
4,257
3,964
4,007
4,227
4,036
4,099
4,239
4,180
4,014

9,507
9,466
10,563
11,444
13,333
14,698
15,181
15,694
15,979
16,384
17,176
17,141
17,367
17,351
17,664
17,875

24,741
21,454
22,610
19,466
21,206
22,746
23,444
23,721
23,211
22,991
22,871
21,836
21,857
21,576
22,455
21,467

32,653
29,447
32,077
28,875
31,894
34,045
34,989
35,288
34,928
34,855
34,758
32,806
32,765
32,650
33,609
32,546

18,576
18,209
19,658
20,041
22,366
23,793
24,384
24,697
25,203
25,894
26,491
26,215
26,787
26,928
27,820
28,280

18,612
18,244
19,696
20,087
22,420
23,849
24,439
24,752
25,258
25,951
26,552
26,278
26,848
27,002
27,899
28,361

19,753
20,307
24,327
26,132
30,660
33,621
34,638
35,045
36,385
37,136
38,214
37,366
38,171
38,218
38,876
39,799

7
1
-1
-4
-9
3
4
6
-3
6
2
-6
5
-3
(s)
6

75,708
71,999
78,122
76,491
84,652
91,173
94,175
94,765
95,183
96,817
98,975
96,326
97,858
98,209
100,351
100,506

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

906
897
813
504
344
270
247
241
255
380
561
798
6,213

2,185
2,012
1,935
1,468
1,394
1,575
1,868
1,853
1,437
1,409
1,594
2,062
R 20,793

493
487
R 443
R 293
225
194
181
186
192
R 252
R 326
R 432
R 3,705

1,575
1,508
1,524
1,335
1,415
R 1,465
1,563
1,558
1,356
1,418
1,428
R 1,583
R 17,725

R 1,870

R 2,739

R 1,857

R 2,747

R 1,705

R 2,587

R 1,769

R 2,732

R 1,762

R 2,714

R 1,736

R 2,714

R 1,838

R 2,808

R 1,793

R 2,672

R 1,864

R 2,776

R 1,846

R 2,725

R 1,865

R 2,744

R 21,623

R 32,532

2,429
2,360
2,449
2,417
2,521
2,536
2,349
2,460
2,336
2,465
R 28,839

3,238
2,998
3,099
2,893
3,210
3,535
3,989
3,960
3,232
3,113
3,020
3,301
39,589

(s)
-1
-2
-3
-1
1
3
3
(s)
-2
-1
2
(s)

R 8,862

R 2,574

2,356
2,148
2,423
2,354
2,443
2,410
2,514
R 2,529
2,343
2,454
2,329
2,458
R 28,760

2,363

R 1,718

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

999
1,098
804
R 549
340
262
244
R 245
249
R 320
R 575
R 940
R 6,625

R 2,379

R 525

R 1,701

R 1,932

R 2,839

R 2,364

R 2,373

R 3,471

R 575

R 1,629

R 1,811

R 2,631

R 2,192

R 3,151

R 1,932

R 447

R 1,543

R 1,836

R 2,718

R -2

R 8,611

R 323

R 1,408

R 1,765

R 2,660

R 2,955

R -2

R 7,967

R 1,399

R 221

R 1,415

R 1,782

R 2,741

R 3,218

R -1

R 8,052

R 1,546

R 1,472

R 1,710

R 2,668

R 3,531

R 1,732

R 2,700

R 1,618

R 1,768

R 2,779

R 1,410

R 1,733

R 2,626

R 1,425

R 1,790

R 2,722

R 1,459

R 1,792

R 2,703

R 1,681

R 1,884

R 2,811

R 18,285

R 21,536

R 32,599

R 40,517

1
3
4
1
-1
-1
R1
R5

R 8,131

R 1,525

R 21,609

189
177
186
186
225
R 340
R 508
R 3,903

2,421
2,384
2,498
2,445
2,543
2,558
2,371
2,458
2,373
R 2,423
R 29,038

R 3,114

R 1,518

2,184
2,413
2,377
R 2,491
R 2,437
2,536
R 2,550
2,364
2,452
2,366
R 2,416
R 28,950

R2
(s)

R 9,294

R 2,368

R 101,537

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
11-Month Total .....

R 1,105

R 2,542

R 583

R 1,763

R 1,925

R 2,822

R 2,327

1,030
842
548
367
277
253
240
R 236
R 350
573
5,821

2,262
R 1,993
1,531
1,388
1,635
R 1,817
1,729
1,445
R 1,377
1,625
19,345

560
467
327
238
R 193
186
182
R 184
R 245
345
3,511

R 1,647

R 1,763

R 2,608

1,578
R 1,427
1,435
1,547
1,608
1,543
1,425
R 1,445
1,486
16,902

R 1,801

R 2,696

R 1,698

R 2,572

R 1,724

R 2,711

R 1,648

R 2,602

R 1,685

R 2,634

R 1,683

R 2,614

R 1,484

R 2,351

R 1,768

R 2,650

1,680
18,859

2,540
28,802

2,168
2,382
2,356
R 2,441
2,332
2,411
R 2,411
2,183
R 2,382
2,243
25,635

2,334
2,175
R 2,389
2,363
2,447
2,339
2,418
R 2,418
2,189
R 2,388
2,250
25,710

3,522
3,170
3,165
2,963
3,212
3,673
3,942
3,787
3,324
3,115
3,059
36,933

2007 11-Month Total .....
2006 11-Month Total .....

5,686
5,416

19,372
18,730

3,395
3,273

16,603
16,144

19,652
19,757

29,787
29,787

26,535
26,302

26,615
26,375

37,110
36,287

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

R 1,757
R 1,893
R 1,571
R 1,408
R 1,601
R 2,240

a Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP)
and commercial electricity-only plants.
b Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and
industrial electricity-only plants.
c Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS
22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to
the public.
d Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
e See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
f Total energy consumption in the end-use sectors consists of primary energy
consumption, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. See Note
2, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of section.

R 2,154

R 3,836
R 4,097
R 3,446

3,227
R 3,063
R 3,407

R 8,247
R 8,633
R 7,747
R 7,989
R 8,171
R 8,670
R 8,758
R 7,814
R 8,061
R 8,082
R 8,856
R 99,889

R 8,819

R 8,529
R 8,852
R 7,979
R 8,013
R 8,135
R 9,155

2

R 9,463

R1

R 8,692

-1
-2
-1
R2
R4
2
1
-2
-1
7

R 8,655

5
-2

92,382
91,033

R 7,891
R 7,981
R 8,125
R 8,482
R 8,305
R 7,412
R 7,859

7,900
90,765

g A balancing item. The sum of primary consumption in the five energy-use
sectors equals the sum of total consumption in the four end-use sectors. However,
total energy consumption does not equal the sum of the sectoral components due
to the use of sector-specific conversion factors for coal and natural gas.
h Primary energy consumption total. See Table 1.3.
R=Revised. (s)=Less than +0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at
end of Section 7. • See Note 1, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end
of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 1.3 and 2.2-2.6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

23

Figure 2.2

Residential Sector Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Sources, 1973-2007
6
Natural Gas

5
4

Electricity

3
2

Petroleum

1
0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Sources, Monthly
1.2
Natural Gas

0.9

0.6

Electricity

0.3
Petroleum

0.0
J

F M A M J

J A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2006

J A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2007

Total, January-November

J A S O N D

2008

By Major Sources, November 2008

24
18.730

19.372

19.345

Natural Gas

0.433

18
Electricity

0.328

12
Petroleum

0.094

6
Renewable

0.046

Energy

0
2006

2007

2008

0.0

0.1

0.2

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.
Source: Table 2.2.

24

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

0.3

0.4

0.5

Table 2.2 Residential Sector Energy Consumption
(Trillion Btu)
Primary Consumptiona
Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Coal
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Natural
Gasc

Petroleum

Total

Geothermal

Solar/
PV

Biomass

Total

Total
Primary

Electricity
Retail
Salesd

Electrical
System
Energy
Lossese

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

94
63
31
39
31
17
17
16
12
14
11
12
12
12
11
8

4,977
5,023
4,825
4,534
4,491
4,954
5,354
5,093
4,646
4,835
5,105
4,889
5,014
5,230
4,986
4,951

2,825
2,495
1,748
1,578
1,407
1,383
1,488
1,428
1,314
1,473
1,563
1,539
1,463
1,539
1,539
1,455

7,896
7,580
6,603
6,151
5,929
6,355
6,859
6,537
5,971
6,322
6,679
6,440
6,489
6,781
6,537
6,414

NA
NA
NA
NA
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
13
14
16

NA
NA
NA
NA
56
65
65
65
65
64
61
60
59
58
59
61

354
425
850
1,010
580
520
540
430
380
390
420
370
380
400
410
450

354
425
850
1,010
641
591
612
503
452
462
490
439
449
471
483
527

8,250
8,006
7,453
7,161
6,570
6,946
7,471
7,040
6,424
6,784
7,169
6,879
6,938
7,252
7,019
6,941

1,976
2,007
2,448
2,709
3,153
3,557
3,694
3,671
3,856
3,906
4,069
4,100
4,317
4,353
4,408
4,638

4,703
4,829
5,885
6,219
7,291
8,075
8,397
8,315
8,741
8,931
9,250
9,127
9,619
9,603
9,750
10,139

14,930
14,842
15,787
16,088
17,015
18,578
19,562
19,026
19,021
19,621
20,488
20,106
20,874
21,208
21,178
21,717

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
6

732
720
641
364
209
145
118
111
128
246
R 424
639
4,476

132
139
129
99
93
84
86
87
86
91
96
116
1,236

864
859
771
463
302
229
205
198
214
338
520
756
5,718

2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
18

6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
67

35
31
35
34
35
34
35
35
34
35
34
35
410

42
38
42
41
42
41
42
42
41
42
41
42
495

906
897
813
504
344
270
247
241
255
380
561
798
6,213

411
357
358
305
321
405
503
512
396
328
324
392
4,611

868
758
763
659
730
900
1,119
1,100
786
701
710
871
9,968

2,185
2,012
1,935
1,468
1,394
1,575
1,868
1,853
1,437
1,409
1,594
2,062
R 20,793

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
6

823
923
632
R 418
221
141
121
115
119
R 178
R 415
R 735
R 4,840

128
132
124
85
71
75
76
83
84
94
114
157
1,222

952
1,055
757
504
R 292
217
197
198
R 203
R 273
529
R 893
R 6,068

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
22

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
74

39
35
39
38
39
38
39
39
38
39
38
39
460

47
43
47
46
47
46
47
47
46
47
46
47
556

999
1,098
804
R 549
340
262
244
R 245
249
R 320
R 575
R 940
R 6,625

427
414
361
308
329
R 401
474
512
442
354
327
R 401
R 4,750

R 953

R 2,379

R 856

R 2,368

R 768

R 1,932

R 661

R 1,518

R 731

R 1,399

R 883

R 1,546

R 1,038

R 1,757

R 1,135

R 1,893

R 880

R 1,571

R 734

R 1,408

R 699

R 1,601

R 899

R 2,240

R 10,234

R 21,609

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
6

R 907

150
144
122
94
81
82
84
79
70
R 85
94
1,083

R 1,057

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
68

39
36
39
38
39
38
39
39
38
39
38
421

47
44
47
46
47
46
47
47
46
47
46
509

1,030
842
548
367
277
253
240
R 236
R 350
573
5,821

456
406
367
316
316
415
491
476
404
330
328
4,305

982
826
785
667
706
943
1,073
1,013
805
697
724
9,219

R 2,542

503
320
231
206
193
191
R 303
528
5,311

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
20

R 1,105

841
672
408
239
149
122
114
120
218
433
4,223

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

6
5

4,106
3,838

1,065
1,120

5,177
4,962

20
17

68
61

421
375

509
453

5,686
5,416

4,350
4,219

9,337
9,094

19,372
18,730

R 985
R 794

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
b Data are estimates. See Table 10.2a for notes on series components.
c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous

fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
d Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
e Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric
power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are
allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total

2,262
R 1,993

1,531
1,388
1,635
R 1,817
1,729
1,445
R 1,377
1,625
19,345

electricity retail sales. See Note 2, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of
section.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • See Note 1, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of
section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 2.6, 3.8a, 4.3, 6.2, 7.6, 10.2a, A4, A5, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

25

Figure 2.3

Commercial Sector Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Sources, 1973-2007
5
Electricity

4
3

Natural Gas

2
1

Petroleum

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Sources, Monthly
0.6
Natural Gas

0.5

Electricity

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Petroleum

0.0
J

F M A M J

J

A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2006

J

A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2007

Total, January-November

J

A S O N D

2008

By Major Sources, November 2008

20
16.144

16.603

16.902

Electricity

0.356

15
Natural Gas

0.279

10
Petroleum

0.049

5
Renewable

0.010

Energy

0
2006

2007

2008

0.0

0.1

0.2

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.
Source: Table 2.3.

26

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

0.3

0.4

0.5

Table 2.3 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption
(Trillion Btu)
Primary Consumptiona
Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Coal
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Natural
Gasc

Petroleumd

Total

Hydroelectric
Powere

Geothermal

Biomass

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

160
147
115
137
124
117
122
129
93
103
92
97
90
82
103
97

2,649
2,558
2,651
2,488
2,682
3,096
3,226
3,285
3,083
3,115
3,252
3,097
3,225
3,274
3,204
3,076

1,565
1,310
1,287
1,045
953
732
751
704
661
661
756
741
680
770
755
721

4,374
4,015
4,053
3,670
3,760
3,945
4,099
4,118
3,837
3,879
4,099
3,935
3,995
4,126
4,062
3,894

NA
NA
NA
NA
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
1
1
1

NA
NA
NA
NA
3
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
9
11
12
14

7
8
21
24
94
113
129
131
118
121
119
92
95
101
105
105

7
8
21
24
98
118
135
138
127
129
128
101
104
113
118
119

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

7
6
6
4
4
5
5
5
4
6
7
8
66

407
400
362
231
R 164
R 137
125
R 129
136
192
R 262
355
R 2,902

69
72
66
48
46
42
41
42
43
45
48
59
620

R 482

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14

9
8
8
8
9
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
102

10
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
117

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

7
7
7
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
7
8
71

R 444
R 491
R 364
R 267
R 173
R 139
R 126
R 131

64
68
66
42
34
37
37
41
41
47
59
86
623

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14

R8
R7
R8

R 98

10
9
10
9
10
R9
10
R9
R9
10
R9
10
R 113

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

7
7
7
5
5
6
5
5
5
6
8
64

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

64
58

131
162
R 264
R 405
R 3,095
R 485

478
434
284
215
184
171
R 176
183
243
317
422
R 3,587
R 516
R 567
R 437
R 314
R 212
R 180
R 168

176
177
R 215
R 330
R 499
R 3,790

8
R8
R8
R8

Electrical
System
Energy
Lossesg

Total

4,381
4,023
4,074
3,695
3,858
4,063
4,235
4,257
3,964
4,007
4,227
4,036
4,099
4,239
4,180
4,014

1,517
1,598
1,906
2,351
2,860
3,252
3,344
3,503
3,678
3,766
3,956
4,062
4,110
4,090
4,198
4,351

3,609
3,845
4,582
5,398
6,615
7,382
7,603
7,935
8,338
8,610
8,993
9,043
9,158
9,023
9,286
9,511

9,507
9,466
10,563
11,444
13,333
14,698
15,181
15,694
15,979
16,384
17,176
17,141
17,367
17,351
17,664
17,875

493
487

348
327
345
329
363
395
428
436
390
372
345
357
4,435

735
694
736
712
827
877
954
936
774
793
757
794
9,586

1,575
1,508
1,524
1,335
1,415
R 1,465
1,563
1,558
1,356
1,418
1,428
R 1,583
R 17,725

R 364
R 344
R 350
R 345
R 370
R 400
R 423
R 445
R 409
R 391
R 361
R 4,560

R 811
R 710
R 746
R 740
R 823
R 882
R 925
R 987
R 815
R 810
R 762
R 811

R 1,701
R 1,629
R 1,543
R 1,408
R 1,415
R 1,472
R 1,525
R 1,618
R 1,410
R 1,425
R 1,459
R 1,681

R 9,823

R 18,285

R 443
R 293

225
194
181
186
192
R 252
R 326
R 432
R 3,705
R 525
R 575
R 447
R 323
R 221

189
177
186
186
225
R 340
R 508
R 3,903

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13

8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
93

9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
107

560
467
327
238
R 193
186
182
R 184
R 245
345
3,511

374
358
354
353
370
414
447
435
415
385
356
4,261

806
728
757
747
827
939
975
926
827
815
785
9,130

R 1,763
R 1,647

263
184
R 137
R 130
129
132
188
279
2,780

551
457
317
228
184
176
172
174
R 236
336
3,403

2,691
2,547

537
561

3,291
3,165

1
1

13
13

90
94

104
107

3,395
3,273

4,198
4,078

9,010
8,793

16,603
16,144

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
b Most data are estimates. See Table 10.2a for notes on series components

and estimation.
c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous
fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
d Does not include the fuel ethanol portion of motor gasoline—fuel ethanol is
included in "Biomass."
e Conventional hydroelectric power.
f Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
g Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric
power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are
allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total

R 583

357

81
78
64
49
39
41
41
38
37
R 43
49
559

466
R 386

R 574

8
R8
R8
R8
R8

Total
Primary

Electricity
Retail
Salesf

1,578
R 1,427

1,435
1,547
1,608
1,543
1,425
R 1,445
1,486
16,902

electricity retail sales. See Note 2, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of
section.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than
-0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • The commercial sector includes commercial combined-heat-andpower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of
Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • See Note 1,
"Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not
equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is
the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 2.6, 3.8a, 4.3, 6.2, 7.6, 10.2a, A4, A5, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

27

Figure 2.4

Industrial Sector Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Sources, 1973-2007
12
Natural Gas

9
Petroleum

6
Electricity

3

Coal
Renewable Energy

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Sources, Monthly
1.0
Petroleum

0.8

0.6

Natural Gas

0.4

Electricity
Renewable Energy

0.2

Coal

0.0
J

F M A M J

J A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2006

J A S O N D

J

F M A M J

2007

Total, January-November

J A S O N D

2008

By Major Sources, November 2008

35
30

29.787

29.787

Petroleum

0.690

28.802

Natural
Gas

25

0.665

20
Electricity

0.268

15
Renewable
Energy

10
5

0.173

Coal

0.150

0
2006

2007

2008

0.0

0.2

0.4

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.
Source: Table 2.4.

28

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

0.6

0.8

1.0

Table 2.4 Industrial Sector Energy Consumption
(Trillion Btu)
Primary Consumptiona
Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Total
Primary

Electricity
Retail
Salesg

Electrical
System
Energy
Lossesh

Totale

Coal

Natural
Gasc

Petroleumd

Totale

Hydroelectric
Powerf

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

4,057
3,667
3,155
2,760
2,756
2,488
2,434
2,395
2,335
2,227
2,256
2,192
2,019
2,041
2,047
1,954

10,388
8,532
8,333
7,032
8,451
9,592
9,901
9,933
9,763
9,375
9,500
8,676
8,845
8,521
8,544
7,911

9,104
8,146
9,525
7,738
8,278
8,613
9,052
9,289
9,114
9,395
9,119
9,217
9,209
9,232
9,865
9,673

23,541
20,359
20,977
17,516
19,490
20,754
21,410
21,663
21,280
21,054
20,941
20,115
20,135
19,845
20,594
19,583

35
32
33
33
31
55
61
58
55
49
42
33
39
43
33
32

NA
NA
NA
NA
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
3
4
4

1,165
1,063
1,600
1,917
1,683
1,935
1,970
1,997
1,873
1,883
1,884
1,684
1,679
1,684
1,824
1,848

1,200
1,096
1,633
1,950
1,716
1,992
2,033
2,058
1,931
1,936
1,930
1,721
1,723
1,731
1,861
1,884

24,741
21,454
22,610
19,466
21,206
22,746
23,444
23,721
23,211
22,991
22,871
21,836
21,857
21,576
22,455
21,467

2,341
2,346
2,781
2,855
3,226
3,455
3,527
3,542
3,587
3,611
3,631
3,400
3,379
3,454
3,473
3,477

5,571
5,647
6,686
6,554
7,461
7,844
8,018
8,024
8,131
8,254
8,256
7,570
7,528
7,620
7,682
7,602

32,653
29,447
32,077
28,875
31,894
34,045
34,989
35,288
34,928
34,855
34,758
32,806
32,765
32,650
33,609
32,546

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

161
159
164
155
157
157
158
158
158
168
161
158
1,914

R 692

R 1,693

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
4

173
152
162
156
160
159
168
168
163
168
164
172
1,966

177
155
164
158
162
161
171
170
165
172
168
175
2,000

R 21,623

279
274
284
279
294
296
303
308
295
291
275
273
3,451

590
582
606
603
669
656
675
662
585
621
604
606
7,459

R 2,739

R 19,623

4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
3
29

R 1,870

R 7,846

838
739
825
748
816
822
780
865
827
855
851
835
9,801

R 32,532

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

157
154
162
154
156
156
153
152
152
158
154
158
1,865

R 736

R 866

R 1,762

R2

R 170

R 1,932

R 281

R 627

R 2,839

R 794

R 1,656

R1

R 552

R 2,631

R 1,669

2
2
2
R1
1
R1
1
1
1
2
R 16

155
167
R 164
R 166
R 161
R 169
R 167
R 162
R 170
R 170
179
R 2,001

R 267

811
796
R 822
764
R 787
R 798
786
805
R 780
R 806
R 9,616

153
R 165
R 162
R 164
R 160
R 168
R 166
R 161
R 169
R 168
R 177
R 1,980

R 1,811

R 696

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
5

R 168

R 707

R 1,836

R 282

R 600

R 2,718

R 1,765

R 284

R 610

R 2,660

R 1,782

R 298

R 661

R 2,741

R 1,710

R 299

R 658

R 2,668

R 1,732

R 304

R 665

R 2,700

R 1,768

R 314

R 2,779

R 1,733

R 298

R 1,790

R 303

R 1,792

R 290

R 1,884

R 286

R 21,536

R 3,507

697
R 594
R 629
R 620
R 641
R 7,555

R 32,599

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

153
151
155
152
154
151
152
155
149
R 156
150
1,678

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
4

167
158
162
163
172
169
177
178
172
177
172
1,867

169
161
165
166
174
170
178
180
173
179
173
1,890

R 1,925

R 613

R 2,822

566
609
593
682
663
651
633
578
599
592
6,779

R 2,608

1,680
18,859

284
279
285
281
305
292
298
297
290
283
268
3,163

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,707
1,757

4
4

1,803
1,794

1,821
1,824

19,652
19,757

3,221
3,178

6,913
6,852

29,787
29,787

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

R 661
R 696
R 641
R 630
R 616
R 623
R 642
R 628
R 657
R 665
R 694

R 650
R 635
R 623
R 625
R 649
R 629
R 657
R 684
R 737
R 8,030
R 785

R 1,563
R 1,692
R 1,547
R 1,607
R 1,601
R 1,565
R 1,668
R 1,627
R 1,692
R 1,677
R 1,690

R 1,601
R 1,616
R 1,549
R 1,563
R 1,602
R 1,571
R 1,620
R 1,623
R 1,704
R 19,536
R 1,756

665
7,462

814
717
741
696
727
682
696
684
572
R 769
690
7,787

1,507
16,969

2
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
18

7,293
7,152

8,810
8,966

17,831
17,933

14
26

R 732
R 732
R 676
R 666
R 636
R 654
R 663
R 588
R 664

R 1,602
R 1,636
R 1,532
R 1,549
R 1,477
R 1,507
R 1,503
R 1,311
R 1,590

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
b Most data are estimates. See Table 10.2b for notes on series components

and estimation.
c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous
fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
d Does not include the fuel ethanol portion of motor gasoline—fuel ethanol is
included in "Biomass."
e Includes coal coke net imports, which are not separately displayed. See
Tables 1.4a and 1.4b.
f Conventional hydroelectric power.
g Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
h Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric
power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are

Geothermal

Biomass

Total

R 1,718
R 1,857
R 1,705
R 1,769
R 1,762
R 1,736
R 1,838
R 1,793
R 1,864
R 1,846
R 1,865

R 1,763
R 1,801
R 1,698
R 1,724
R 1,648
R 1,685
R 1,683
R 1,484
R 1,768

R 2,574
R 2,747
R 2,587
R 2,732
R 2,714
R 2,714
R 2,808
R 2,672
R 2,776
R 2,725
R 2,744

R 2,626
R 2,722
R 2,703
R 2,811

R 2,696
R 2,572
R 2,711
R 2,602
R 2,634
R 2,614
R 2,351
R 2,650

2,540
28,802

allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total
electricity retail sales. See Note 2, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of
section.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • The industrial sector includes industrial combined-heat-and-power
(CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power
Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. • See Note 1, "Energy
Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 1.4a, 1.4b, 2.6, 3.8b, 4.3, 6.2, 7.6, 10.2b, A4, A5, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

29

Figure 2.5

Transportation Sector Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

By Major Sources, 1973-2007
30
25
Petroleum

20
15
10
5
Natural Gas

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Major Sources, Monthly
3.0
2.5

Petroleum

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
Natural Gas

0.0
J

F M A M J J A S O N D
2006

J

F M A M J J
2007

Total, January-November

A S O N D

J

F M A M J J A S O N D
2008

Total, Monthly

30

3.0
26.375

26.615

25.710

25

2.5

20

2.0

15

1.5

10

1.0

5

0.5

0

2006

2008

0.0
2006

2007

2008

J

F

M

A

M

J

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.
Source: Table 2.5.

30

2007

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

J

A

S

O

N

D

Table 2.5 Transportation Sector Energy Consumption
(Trillion Btu)
Primary Consumptiona
Renewable
Energyb

Fossil Fuels
Natural Gasc

Coal
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

(g)
(g)

3
1

Total
Primary

Electricity
Retail
Salese

Electrical
System
Energy
Lossesf

Petroleumd

Total

743
595
650
519
680
724
737
780
666
675
672
658
702
630
603
625

17,831
17,614
19,009
19,471
21,625
22,954
23,565
23,813
24,422
25,098
25,682
25,413
25,913
26,063
26,922
27,309

18,576
18,209
19,658
19,990
22,305
23,678
24,302
24,593
25,088
25,774
26,354
26,071
26,615
26,693
27,525
27,934

NA
NA
NA
51
62
115
82
104
115
120
138
145
172
235
296
346

18,576
18,209
19,658
20,041
22,366
23,793
24,384
24,697
25,203
25,894
26,491
26,215
26,787
26,928
27,820
28,280

11
10
11
14
16
17
17
17
17
17
18
20
19
23
25
26

25
24
27
32
37
39
38
38
38
40
42
43
42
51
55
56

63
62

2,262
2,057
2,329
2,271
2,358
2,320
2,421
2,434
2,257
2,360
2,233
2,349
27,652

2,325
2,119
2,390
2,320
2,402
2,365
2,472
2,485
2,299
R 2,407
2,284
2,410
R 28,277

31
29
33
34
41
45
42
45
44
46
45
48
483

2,356
2,148
2,423
2,354
2,443
2,410
2,514
R 2,529
2,343
2,454
2,329
2,458
R 28,760

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
25

5
4
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
4
5
54

R 72

2,245

R 62

2,303
2,279
2,396
2,342
R 2,433
R 2,440
2,265
2,345
2,255
2,285
27,655

48
43
48
46
50
51
55
55
53
59
58
61
629

R3

R 2,066

2,316
2,141
2,364
2,331
2,441
2,387
2,481
2,495
2,311
R 2,392
2,308
2,354
28,322

R 2,364

R 75

2,184
2,413
2,377
R 2,491
R 2,437
2,536
R 2,550
2,364
2,452
2,366
R 2,416
R 28,950

2
R3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
R 28

6
5
5
R5
5
5
5
5
R5
R5
5
5
R 60

2,264
2,108
2,317
2,287
R 2,369
2,259
2,335
2,332
R 2,104
R 2,300
2,165
24,840

62
60
64
69
72
73
76
79
79
82
78
795

R 2,327

43
48
54
609

2,186
2,037
2,252
2,234
2,322
2,212
2,285
2,282
2,060
R 2,252
2,110
24,231

2,168
2,382
2,356
R 2,441
2,332
2,411
R 2,411
2,183
R 2,382
2,243
25,635

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
24

5
5
5
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
5
51

597
564

25,370
25,303

25,967
25,867

567
435

26,535
26,302

26
23

55
49

R 61
R 48

44
45
51
R 50
42
47
51
61
R 625

52
45
45
48
R 55
46
R 47
53
69
667
78
R 72

66
53
R 47

47
50
R 50

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
b Data are estimates. See Table 10.2b for notes on series components.
c Natural gas only; does not include supplemental gaseous fuels. See Note 3,

"Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
d Does not include the fuel ethanol portion of motor gasoline—fuel ethanol is
included in "Biomass."
e Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
f Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric
power sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are
allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total

Biomass

Total
18,612
18,244
19,696
20,087
22,420
23,849
24,439
24,752
25,258
25,951
26,552
26,278
26,848
27,002
27,899
28,361
2,363
R 2,154

2,429
2,360
2,449
2,417
2,521
2,536
2,349
2,460
2,336
2,465
R 28,839
R 2,373
R 2,192

2,421
2,384
2,498
2,445
2,543
2,558
2,371
2,458
2,373
R 2,423
R 29,038
2,334
2,175
R 2,389

2,363
2,447
2,339
2,418
R 2,418
2,189
R 2,388
2,250
25,710
26,615
26,375

electricity retail sales. See Note 2, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of
section.
g Beginning in 1978, the small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are
reported as industrial sector consumption.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • See Note 1, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of
section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 2.6, 3.8c, 4.3, 6.2, 7.6, 10.2b, A4, A5, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

31

Figure 2.6

Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)

Total, 1973-2007

Total, Monthly

50

5

40

4

30

3

20

2

10

1

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

0
J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A S OND

2006

By Major Sources, 1973-2007

2007

2008

By Major Sources, Monthly
2.5

25
20

2.0
Coal

Coal

15

1.5
Renewable
Energy

10
Natural Gas

Natural
Gas

1.0

Nuclear Electric
Power

5

Nuclear
Electric
Power

0.5
Petroleum

1975

1980

Renewable Energy

Petroleum

0
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

0.0
J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S O ND J F MA M J J A S O ND

2006

Total, January-November
40
36.287

2007

2008

By Major Sources, November 2008
37.110

36.933

Coal

30

Nuclear
Electric
Power

20

Natural
Gas

1.615

0.662

0.473

Renewable
Energy

10

0.272

Petroleum

0.033

0
2006

2007

2008

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html.

32

0.0

0.5

Source: Table 2.6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

1.0

1.5

2.0

Table 2.6

Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption
(Trillion Btu)
Primary Consumptiona
Renewable Energyb

Fossil Fuels

Electricity
Net
Imports

Coal

Natural
Gasc

Petroleum

Total

Nuclear
Electric
Power

1973 Total ......................
1975 Total ......................
1980 Total ......................
1985 Total ......................
1990 Totale ....................
1995 Total ......................
1996 Total ......................
1997 Total ......................
1998 Total ......................
1999 Total ......................
2000 Total ......................
2001 Total ......................
2002 Total ......................
2003 Total ......................
2004 Total ......................
2005 Total ......................

8,658
8,786
12,123
14,542
16,261
17,466
18,429
18,905
19,216
19,279
20,220
19,614
19,783
20,185
20,305
20,737

3,748
3,240
3,778
3,135
3,309
4,302
3,862
4,126
4,675
4,902
5,293
5,458
5,767
5,246
5,595
6,015

3,515
3,166
2,634
1,090
1,289
755
817
927
1,306
1,211
1,144
1,277
961
1,205
1,212
1,235

15,921
15,191
18,534
18,767
20,859
22,523
23,109
23,957
25,197
25,393
26,658
26,348
26,511
26,636
27,112
27,986

910
1,900
2,739
4,076
6,104
7,075
7,087
6,597
7,068
7,610
7,862
8,033
8,143
7,959
8,222
8,160

2,827
3,122
2,867
2,937
3,014
3,149
3,528
3,581
3,241
3,218
2,768
2,209
2,650
2,781
2,656
2,670

43
70
110
198
326
280
300
309
311
312
296
289
305
303
311
309

NA
NA
NA
(s)
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
5
6
6

NA
NA
NA
(s)
29
33
33
34
31
46
57
70
105
115
142
178

3
2
4
14
317
422
438
446
444
453
453
337
380
397
388
406

2,873
3,194
2,982
3,150
3,689
3,889
4,305
4,375
4,032
4,034
3,579
2,910
3,445
3,601
3,503
3,568

49
21
71
140
8
134
137
116
88
99
115
75
72
22
39
84

19,753
20,307
24,327
26,132
30,660
33,621
34,638
35,045
36,385
37,136
38,214
37,366
38,171
38,218
38,876
39,799

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

1,740
1,615
1,644
1,446
1,605
1,740
1,936
1,957
1,681
1,669
1,640
1,789
20,462

326
355
417
437
517
645
885
861
561
540
406
425
6,375

61
50
39
46
44
59
72
86
47
51
48
46
648

2,128
2,020
2,101
1,928
2,166
2,444
2,893
2,904
2,289
2,260
2,094
2,259
27,485

750
653
665
601
655
714
753
751
695
600
641
735
8,214

268
243
242
281
304
293
250
214
169
166
197
211
2,839

26
23
27
24
23
25
27
27
26
27
25
27
306

(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
5

24
19
23
25
24
20
19
16
19
24
25
25
264

37
34
35
30
33
34
36
37
34
34
35
36
412

355
319
327
360
384
373
333
295
248
252
283
299
3,827

5
5
6
5
5
5
10
10
(s)
1
3
8
63

3,238
2,998
3,099
2,893
3,210
3,535
3,989
3,960
3,232
3,113
3,020
3,301
39,589

R 256

27

R 264

R 35

R 328

33
34
R 35
36
R 36
35
R 35
36
37
R 423

325
R 345
R 313
R 307
R 287
R 235
R 241
R 246
R 278
R 3,517

6
10
6
10
12
11
13
12
5
7
9
7
R 107

R 3,471

R 32

24
R 24
26
R 26
R 26
26
27
R 25
27
R 308

24
25
30
R 31
R 29
R 26
R 21
R 27
R 28
R 33
R 31
R 35
R 342

347

R 24

(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
6

R 39

183
R 238
235
R 257
225
R 222
R 197
R 145
146
R 154
R 180
R 2,439

R 40,517

Hydroelectric
Powerd

Geothermal

Solar/
PV

Wind

Biomass

Total

Total
Primary

1,826

R 459

60

R 2,345

R 1,673

R 436

R 88

R 2,197

R 1,629

R 426

R 1,508

R 464

R 1,616

R 520

R 1,786

R 644

R 1,922

R 779

R 1,973

R 993

R 1,751

R 700

R 1,669

R 619

R 1,641

R 459
R 7,012

53
R 50
48
R 58
R 56
R 73
R 50
48
R 31
42
R 657

2,108
R 2,023
R 2,183
R 2,488
R 2,758
R 3,039
R 2,500
R 2,335
R 2,131
R 2,370
R 28,479

772
681
671
598
678
719
759
759
705
644
R 677
751
R 8,414

1,869
1,716
1,649
1,532
1,628
1,783
1,952
1,902
1,709
1,602
1,615
18,958

542
443
474
470
485
685
806
781
616
559
473
6,335

45
37
32
33
34
53
43
39
42
32
33
422

2,455
2,196
2,155
2,036
2,147
2,521
2,800
2,722
2,368
2,193
2,121
25,714

738
678
675
598
676
733
775
757
699
655
662
7,645

219
198
224
217
278
304
256
204
163
162
168
2,393

25
23
26
25
26
26
27
27
26
26
25
282

(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
8

37
32
41
45
44
43
32
26
24
41
44
409

36
33
36
33
32
35
36
36
33
32
34
377

318
286
327
321
382
410
352
294
247
262
272
3,469

11
10
7
9
8
9
15
15
10
6
4
105

3,522
3,170
3,165
2,963
3,212
3,673
3,942
3,787
3,324
3,115
3,059
36,933

18,992
18,673

6,501
5,950

615
603

26,108
25,226

7,663
7,478

2,258
2,628

281
279

6
5

307
239

387
377

3,239
3,528

100
55

37,110
36,287

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

1,817

510

R 20,810

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
11-Month Total .....
2007 11-Month Total .....
2006 11-Month Total .....

a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary.
b See Table 10.2c for notes on series components.
c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous

fuels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4.
d Conventional hydroelectric power.
e Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful thermal

R 25

R 3,151
R 3,114
R 2,955
R 3,218
R 3,531
R 3,836
R 4,097
R 3,446

3,227
R 3,063
R 3,407

output.

The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • See
Note 1, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may
not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic
coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/consump.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 3.8c, 4.3, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2b, 10.2c, A4, A5, and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

33

Energy Consumption by Sector
Note 1. Energy Consumption Data and Surveys. Most
of the data in this section of the Monthly Energy Review
(MER) are developed from a group of energy-related
surveys, typically called "supply surveys," conducted by the
Energy Information Administration (EIA). Supply surveys
are directed to suppliers and marketers of specific energy
sources. They measure the quantities of specific energy
sources produced, or the quantities supplied to the market,
or both. The data obtained from EIA's supply surveys are
integrated to yield the summary consumption statistics
published in this section (and in Section 1) of the MER.
Users of EIA's energy consumption statistics should be
aware of a second group of energy-related surveys, typically
called "consumption surveys." Consumption surveys gather
information on the types of energy consumed by end users
of energy, along with the characteristics of those end users
that can be associated with energy use. For example, the
Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey belongs to the
consumption survey group because it collects information
directly from end users (the manufacturing establishments).
There are important differences between the supply and
consumption surveys that need to be taken into account in
any analysis that uses both data sources. For information on
those differences, see Energy Consumption by End-Use

34

Sector, A Comparison of Measures by Consumption and
Supply Surveys, DOE/EIA-0533, Energy Information
Administration, Washington, DC, April 6, 1990.

Note 2. Electrical System Energy Losses. Electrical
system energy losses are calculated as the difference
between total primary consumption by the electric power
sector (see Table 2.6) and the total energy content of electricity retail sales (see Tables 7.6 and A6). Most of these
losses occur at steam-electric power plants (conventional
and nuclear) in the conversion of heat energy into
mechanical energy to turn electric generators. The loss is
a thermodynamically necessary feature of the steamelectric cycle. Part of the energy input-to-output losses is
a result of imputing fossil energy equivalent inputs for
hydroelectric and other energy sources, since there is no
generally accepted practice for measuring those thermal
conversion rates. In addition to conversion losses, other
losses include power plant use of electricity, transmission
and distribution of electricity from power plants to enduse consumers (also called "line losses"), and unaccounted for electricity. Total losses are allocated to the
end-use sectors in proportion to each sector's share of
total electricity sales. Overall, approximately 67 percent
of total energy input is lost in conversion; of electricity
generated, approximately 5 percent is lost in plant use and
9 percent is lost in transmission and distribution.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

3

Petroleum

.

Oil pumping unit and drilling rig, Texas. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 3.1

Petroleum Overview
(Million Barrels per Day)

Overview, January
25
2007

2008

2009
20.6

20.1

20

19.6

15
12.3

11.9

11.7

10
6.9

6.8

6.8

5

0
Total Field Production

a

Net Imports

Overview, 1973-2008

Products Supplied

Total Field Production, 1973-2008

25

12
Total

10

20

Crude Oilb

Products Supplied

8
15
6

Total Field Productiona

10
4
5

Natural Gas Plant Liquids

2
Net Imports

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Crude Oilb Field Production, 1973-2008

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Total Field Productiona, Monthly
8

12
10

6
8

48 States

c

6

4

4
2
Alaska

2

2007

0
1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Crude oil, including lease condensate, and natural gas plant liquids
field production.
b
Includes lease condensate.
c
United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii.

36

2009

0
1975

a

2008

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.1.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.1 Petroleum Overview
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Field Productiona

Trade

Crude Oilb
48
Statesc

Alaska

Total

NGPLd,e

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

9,010
8,183
6,980
7,146
5,582
5,076
5,071
5,156
5,077
4,832
4,851
4,839
4,761
4,706
4,510
4,314

198
191
1,617
1,825
1,773
1,484
1,393
1,296
1,175
1,050
970
963
984
974
908
864

9,208
8,375
8,597
8,971
7,355
6,560
6,465
6,452
6,252
5,881
5,822
5,801
5,746
5,681
5,419
5,178

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

4,274
4,224
4,293
4,328
4,360
4,379
4,421
4,438
4,382
4,392
4,450
4,381
4,361

832
821
752
800
801
781
681
621
655
714
655
785
741

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

4,348
4,369
4,356
4,441
4,429
4,379
4,305
4,304
4,241
4,342
4,274
4,318
4,342

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................
2009 January ......................

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Total

Importsg

Exportse

Net
Importsh

1,738
1,633
1,573
1,609
1,559
1,762
1,830
1,817
1,759
1,850
1,911
1,868
1,880
1,719
1,809
1,717

10,946
10,007
10,170
10,581
8,914
8,322
8,295
8,269
8,011
7,731
7,733
7,670
7,626
7,400
7,228
6,895

453
460
597
557
683
774
837
850
886
886
948
903
957
974
1,051
989

6,256
6,056
6,909
5,067
8,018
8,835
9,478
10,162
10,708
10,852
11,459
11,871
11,530
12,264
13,145
13,714

231
209
544
781
857
949
981
1,003
945
940
1,040
971
984
1,027
1,048
1,165

6,025
5,846
6,365
4,286
7,161
7,886
8,498
9,158
9,764
9,912
10,419
10,900
10,546
11,238
12,097
12,549

135
32
140
-103
107
-246
-151
143
239
-422
-69
325
-105
56
209
145

18
41
64
200
338
496
528
487
495
567
532
501
527
478
564
513

17,308
16,322
17,056
15,726
16,988
17,725
18,309
18,620
18,917
19,519
19,701
19,649
19,761
20,034
20,731
20,802

5,106
5,045
5,045
5,128
5,161
5,160
5,102
5,059
5,037
5,106
5,105
5,166
5,102

1,682
1,682
1,702
1,737
1,755
1,756
1,759
1,732
1,776
1,773
1,770
1,736
1,739

6,788
6,727
6,747
6,866
6,916
6,915
6,861
6,792
6,814
6,879
6,875
6,903
6,841

1,001
1,028
907
944
979
968
1,000
1,077
1,026
992
959
1,048
994

13,796
13,565
12,904
13,438
14,315
14,253
13,984
14,697
14,491
13,317
13,005
12,721
13,707

1,059
1,276
1,170
1,398
1,350
1,334
1,387
1,255
1,554
1,506
1,353
1,164
1,317

12,737
12,289
11,734
12,039
12,965
12,918
12,596
13,442
12,937
11,810
11,651
11,556
12,390

484
235
-905
311
743
174
457
642
740
-515
-798
-825
60

395
767
316
663
340
353
740
765
522
573
386
463
522

20,436
20,577
20,608
20,201
20,457
20,982
20,740
21,434
20,559
20,769
20,669
20,795
20,687

775
756
750
748
768
717
719
610
642
701
743
738
722

5,123
5,125
5,106
5,189
5,197
5,096
5,024
4,914
4,884
5,043
5,017
5,056
5,064

1,677
1,710
1,776
1,755
1,793
1,780
1,785
1,768
1,793
1,840
1,886
1,828
1,783

6,800
6,835
6,882
6,944
6,990
6,877
6,809
6,682
6,677
6,883
6,902
6,885
6,847

1,035
961
944
948
939
1,007
1,023
1,010
991
983
1,011
1,093
996

13,706
12,173
13,956
13,842
14,204
13,553
13,754
13,634
13,646
12,981
13,188
12,869
13,468

1,446
1,350
1,274
1,360
1,441
1,331
1,506
1,483
1,361
1,325
1,767
1,542
1,433

12,260
10,823
12,682
12,482
12,764
12,222
12,248
12,151
12,285
11,655
11,421
11,327
12,036

146
-2,065
367
540
966
195
125
-574
29
-286
-596
-788
-148

618
625
396
701
894
813
792
608
491
668
604
627
653

20,567
21,309
20,536
20,536
20,620
20,723
20,747
21,025
20,415
20,476
20,535
20,719
20,680

E 4,383
E 4,407
E 4,413
E 4,461
E 4,482
E 4,454
E 4,470
E 4,351
E 3,279
E 3,929
RE 4,210
E 4,276
RE 4,260

E 711
E 706
E 726
E 701
E 685
E 655
E 640
E 544
E 681
E 716
RE 728
E 713
RE 684

E 5,093
E 5,113
E 5,139
E 5,162
E 5,166
E 5,109
E 5,110
E 4,895
E 3,960
E 4,645
RE 4,938
E 4,989
RE 4,944

1,783
1,830
1,847
1,880
1,908
1,810
1,856
1,839
1,537
1,745
R 1,734
E 1,851
RE 1,802

E 6,876
E 6,943
E 6,986
E 7,042
E 7,074
E 6,919
E 6,966
E 6,734
E 5,497
E 6,389
RE 6,673
E 6,840
RE 6,746

1,056
964
930
930
1,011
982
984
1,013
841
979
R 983
E 965
RE 970

13,493
12,604
12,550
13,252
12,862
13,367
13,064
13,060
11,512
13,217
R 12,853
E 12,830
RE 12,892

1,623
2,072
1,823
1,754
1,806
2,165
2,069
2,068
1,338
1,669
R 1,730
E 1,395
RE 1,792

11,869
10,531
10,728
11,498
11,056
11,202
10,995
10,992
10,174
11,548
R 11,123
E 11,435
RE 11,100

483
-506
-285
403
264
406
434
368
-169
220
R 706
E 60
RE 201

795
837
803
702
851
856
902
895
1,115
947
R 929
E 813
RE 870

20,114
19,782
19,732
19,768
19,729
19,553
19,412
19,267
17,796
19,643
R 19,001
E 19,993
RE 19,486

E 4,390

E 685

E 5,075

E 1,746

E 6,821

E 952

E 13,177

E 1,510

E 11,667

E 924

E 1,049

E 19,565

a Crude oil production on leases, and natural gas liquids (liquefied petroleum
gases, pentanes plus, and a small amount of finished petroleum products)
production at natural gas processing plants. Excludes what was previously
classified as "Field Production" of finished motor gasoline, motor gasoline blending
components, and other hydrocarbons and oxygenates; these are now included in
"Adjustments."
b Includes lease condensate.
c United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
d Natural gas plant liquids.
e See Note 6, “Petroleum Data Discrepancies,” at end of section.
f Refinery and blender net production minus refinery and blender net inputs.
See Table 3.2.
g Includes Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. See Table 3.3b
h Net imports equal imports minus exports.
i A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates
an increase. The current month stock change estimate is based on the change
from the previous month’s estimate, rather than the stocks values shown in Table
3.4. Includes crude oil stocks in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, but excludes

Stock
Changei

Adjustmentsj

Petroleum
Products
Supplied

Processing
Gain f

distillate fuel oil stocks in the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. See Table 3.4. Also
see Note 4, “Petroleum New Stock Basis,” at end of section.
j An adjustment for crude oil, finished motor gasoline, motor gasoline blending
components, fuel ethanol, and distillate fuel oil. See EIA, Petroleum Supply
Monthly, Appendix B, Note 3.
R=Revised. E=Estimate.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008
and 2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current
two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy
Review data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

37

Figure 3.2

Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production
(Million Barrels per Day)

Net Inputs and Net Production, 1973-2008

Net Inputs and Net Production, Monthly
20

20

Total Net Production

Total Net Production

15

15

Crude Oil Net Inputsa
Crude Oil Net Inputs

10

Total
Net
Inputs

a

Total
Net
Inputs

10

5

5

Other Net Inputsb
Other Net Inputs

b

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2005

2007

Net Production, Selected Products, 1973-2008

2008

2009

Net Production, Selected Products, Monthly
10

10

Motor Gasolinec

8

8

Motor Gasolinec

6

6

4

Distillate Fuel Oil

4

2

Jet Fueld

Distillate Fuel Oil

2

Residual Fuel Oil

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

Jet Fueld
Residual Fuel Oil

0

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2005

2007

2008

2009

Net Production, Selected Products
10
January 2007
8.3

8.4

January 2008

January 2009

8.4

8

6
4.0

4

4.1

4.3

2

1.5

1.5

1.4
0.7

0
Motor
Gasoline
a

c

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Includes lease condensate.
Natural gas plant liquids and other liquids.
c
Beginning in 1993, includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline.
d
Beginning in 2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only.
b

38

Jet Fuel

d

0.6

0.6

Residual

0.6

0.6

0.5

Propane e

Fuel Oil
e

Includes propylene.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.2.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Refinery and Blender Net Inputsa

Refinery and Blender Net Productionb
LPGc

Crude
Oild

Other
Liquidsf

Total

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuelg

NGPLe

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

12,431
12,442
13,481
12,002
13,409
13,973
14,195
14,662
14,889
14,804
15,067
15,128
14,947
15,304
15,475
15,220

815
710
462
509
467
471
450
416
403
372
380
429
429
419
422
441

155
72
81
681
713
775
843
832
853
927
849
825
941
791
866
1,149

13,401
13,225
14,025
13,192
14,589
15,220
15,487
15,909
16,144
16,103
16,295
16,382
16,316
16,513
16,762
16,811

2,820
2,653
2,661
2,686
2,925
3,155
3,316
3,392
3,424
3,399
3,580
3,695
3,592
3,707
3,814
3,954

859
871
999
1,189
1,488
1,416
1,515
1,554
1,526
1,565
1,606
1,530
1,514
1,488
1,547
1,546

271
234
269
295
404
503
520
565
550
569
583
556
572
570
584
540

375
311
330
391
499
654
662
691
674
684
705
667
671
658
645
573

6,527
6,518
6,492
6,419
6,959
7,459
7,565
7,743
7,892
7,934
7,951
8,022
8,183
8,194
8,265
8,318

971
1,235
1,580
882
950
788
726
708
762
698
696
721
601
660
655
628

2,301
2,097
2,559
2,183
2,452
2,522
2,541
2,671
2,753
2,709
2,705
2,651
2,712
2,780
2,887
2,782

13,854
13,685
14,622
13,750
15,272
15,994
16,324
16,759
17,030
16,989
17,243
17,285
17,273
17,487
17,814
17,800

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

14,805
14,581
14,582
14,928
15,516
15,843
15,702
15,792
15,739
15,008
15,009
15,354
15,242

553
508
448
442
471
466
423
447
498
548
573
637
501

952
1,047
935
1,151
1,523
1,683
1,475
1,519
1,285
1,187
1,122
969
1,238

16,310
16,136
15,965
16,521
17,510
17,992
17,599
17,758
17,521
16,743
16,703
16,959
16,981

3,840
3,941
3,736
3,833
4,105
4,107
4,065
4,234
4,300
4,090
4,070
4,159
4,040

1,515
1,438
1,461
1,447
1,435
1,493
1,540
1,485
1,511
1,490
1,422
1,529
1,481

528
510
485
537
567
543
549
574
560
531
549
581
543

393
487
587
779
856
814
829
860
622
511
393
387
627

8,189
7,969
7,765
8,032
8,613
8,957
8,624
8,610
8,465
8,210
8,335
8,567
8,364

670
635
644
643
580
645
658
652
619
597
624
656
635

2,703
2,694
2,680
2,731
2,900
2,944
2,883
2,993
3,030
2,836
2,818
2,710
2,827

17,311
17,164
16,872
17,465
18,488
18,960
18,599
18,835
18,548
17,735
17,662
18,007
17,975

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

14,992
14,435
14,840
15,045
15,380
15,248
15,671
15,685
15,226
14,933
15,151
15,202
15,156

557
473
463
444
462
457
465
449
496
562
630
600
505

1,039
1,170
1,291
1,362
1,641
1,810
1,410
1,508
1,295
1,263
1,057
1,189
1,337

16,588
16,078
16,594
16,851
17,484
17,514
17,547
17,642
17,017
16,757
16,838
16,991
16,999

4,027
3,883
4,009
4,102
4,142
4,050
4,145
4,244
4,158
4,208
4,278
4,326
4,133

1,480
1,421
1,403
1,368
1,451
1,459
1,484
1,470
1,436
1,446
1,463
1,489
1,448

575
534
563
562
576
568
562
542
560
539
568
595
562

468
502
692
824
882
871
835
810
624
499
393
443
655

8,348
8,012
8,101
8,122
8,491
8,686
8,504
8,547
8,320
8,276
8,353
8,501
8,358

667
650
656
658
647
628
708
698
698
689
694
676
673

2,632
2,571
2,678
2,725
2,809
2,828
2,893
2,883
2,771
2,622
2,668
2,649
2,728

17,622
17,039
17,538
17,800
18,423
18,522
18,569
18,652
18,008
17,740
17,850
18,084
17,994

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

14,799
14,625
14,361
14,799
15,291
15,384
15,236
14,947
12,759
14,551
R 14,605
E 14,509
RE 14,659

540
506
466
453
448
437
439
413
407
568
R 576
F 608
RE 489

1,304
1,398
1,749
2,185
2,012
2,018
2,047
2,045
1,838
2,034
R 1,674
E 1,834
RE 1,846

16,644
16,529
16,576
17,437
17,751
17,839
17,722
17,405
15,004
17,153
R 16,855
F 16,951
RE 16,994

4,110
3,973
3,940
4,287
4,459
4,572
4,509
4,466
3,681
4,437
R 4,490
E 4,544
RE 4,291

1,514
1,447
1,451
1,467
1,536
1,567
1,612
1,584
1,297
1,401
R 1,425
E 1,361
RE 1,472

567
535
526
521
546
544
534
526
419
503
R 515
E 508
RE 521

460
504
674
809
874
867
847
814
511
460
R 369
F 414
RE 634

8,427
8,364
8,230
8,471
8,492
8,375
8,405
8,301
7,631
8,739
R 8,449
E 8,540
RE 8,370

591
645
664
710
734
695
584
579
485
575
R 588
E 555
RE 617

2,598
2,560
2,548
2,623
2,666
2,745
2,751
2,674
2,239
2,519
R 2,516
E 2,503
RE 2,579

17,700
17,493
17,506
18,367
18,761
18,821
18,707
18,418
15,845
18,132
R 17,837
E 17,916
RE 17,964

2009 January ......................

E 14,298

F 583

E 1,519

F 16,400

E 4,288

E 1,417

E 538

F 405

E 8,442

E 558

E 2,242

E 17,352

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a
b
c
d
e
f

See "Refinery and Blender Net Inputs," in Glossary.
See "Refinery and Blender Net Production," in Glossary.
Liquefied petroleum gases.
Includes lease condensate.
Natural gas plant liquids (liquefied petroleum gases and pentanes plus).
Unfinished oils (net), other hydrocarbons, and hydrogen. Beginning in 1981,
also includes aviation and motor gasoline blending components (net). Beginning in
1993, also includes oxygenates (net).
g Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in
2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Other Products."
h Includes propylene.
i Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
j Asphalt and road oil, finished aviation gasoline, kerosene, lubricants,

Propaneh

Total

Motor
Residual
Other
Gasolinei Fuel Oil Productsj

Total

petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, special naphthas, still gas, waxes, and
miscellaneous products. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008 and
2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two
months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated
Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

39

Figure 3.3a Petroleum Trade: Overview
Overview, November 2008

Million Barrels per Day

25

20

19.0

15
12.9
11.1

10
5.8

5
2.3

1.7

0
Imports From
Persian Gulf

Imports From
OPEC

Total
Imports

Imports From OPEC and Persian Gulf
as Share of Total Imports, 1973-2007

Exports

Net

Imports From OPEC and Persian Gulf
as Share of Total Imports, January-November
60

80

OPEC

Persian Gulf
46.4

44.1

60

OPEC
44.4%
(2007)

47.8%
(1973)
40
Persian Gulf

40

20

16.1%
(2007)

20

40.2

Percent

Percent

Products
Supplied

Imports

16.1

18.5

15.9

13.6%
(1973)

0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Net Imports as Share of Products Supplied,
1973-2008

2006

75
57.0%
(2008)

59.6

59.0

59.6

2007

2008

2009

50

Percent

Percent

50

34.8%
(1973)

25

27.3%
(1985)

0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Notes: • OPEC=Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
• Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

40

2008

Net Imports as Share of Products Supplied,
January

75

25

2007

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.3a.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.3a Petroleum Trade: Overview
As Share of
Products Supplied
Imports
From
Persian
Gulfa

Imports
From
OPECb

Imports

Net
Imports

Exports

Products
Supplied

Imports
From
Persian
Gulfa

Imports
From
OPECb

Imports

Thousand Barrels per Day
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

As Share of
Total Imports

Net
Imports

Imports
From
Persian
Gulfa

Imports
From
OPECb

Percent

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

848
1,165
1,519
311
1,966
1,573
1,604
1,755
2,136
2,464
2,488
2,761
2,269
2,501
2,493
2,334

2,993
3,601
4,300
1,830
4,296
4,002
4,211
4,569
4,905
4,953
5,203
5,528
4,605
5,162
5,701
5,587

6,256
6,056
6,909
5,067
8,018
8,835
9,478
10,162
10,708
10,852
11,459
11,871
11,530
12,264
13,145
13,714

231
209
544
781
857
949
981
1,003
945
940
1,040
971
984
1,027
1,048
1,165

6,025
5,846
6,365
4,286
7,161
7,886
8,498
9,158
9,764
9,912
10,419
10,900
10,546
11,238
12,097
12,549

17,308
16,322
17,056
15,726
16,988
17,725
18,309
18,620
18,917
19,519
19,701
19,649
19,761
20,034
20,731
20,802

4.9
7.1
8.9
2.0
11.6
8.9
8.8
9.4
11.3
12.6
12.6
14.1
11.5
12.5
12.0
11.2

17.3
22.1
25.2
11.6
25.3
22.6
23.0
24.5
25.9
25.4
26.4
28.1
23.3
25.8
27.5
26.9

36.1
37.1
40.5
32.2
47.2
49.8
51.8
54.6
56.6
55.6
58.2
60.4
58.3
61.2
63.4
65.9

34.8
35.8
37.3
27.3
42.2
44.5
46.4
49.2
51.6
50.8
52.9
55.5
53.4
56.1
58.4
60.3

13.6
19.2
22.0
6.1
24.5
17.8
16.9
17.3
19.9
22.7
21.7
23.3
19.7
20.4
19.0
17.0

47.8
59.5
62.2
36.1
53.6
45.3
44.4
45.0
45.8
45.6
45.4
46.6
39.9
42.1
43.4
40.7

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

1,994
2,068
1,958
2,361
2,389
2,355
2,078
2,314
2,481
2,132
2,339
2,079
2,211

5,596
5,502
5,088
5,488
5,819
5,691
5,509
5,729
5,842
5,538
5,181
5,221
5,517

13,796
13,565
12,904
13,438
14,315
14,253
13,984
14,697
14,491
13,317
13,005
12,721
13,707

1,059
1,276
1,170
1,398
1,350
1,334
1,387
1,255
1,554
1,506
1,353
1,164
1,317

12,737
12,289
11,734
12,039
12,965
12,918
12,596
13,442
12,937
11,810
11,651
11,556
12,390

20,436
20,577
20,608
20,201
20,457
20,982
20,740
21,434
20,559
20,769
20,669
20,795
20,687

9.8
10.0
9.5
11.7
11.7
11.2
10.0
10.8
12.1
10.3
11.3
10.0
10.7

27.4
26.7
24.7
27.2
28.4
27.1
26.6
26.7
28.4
26.7
25.1
25.1
26.7

67.5
65.9
62.6
66.5
70.0
67.9
67.4
68.6
70.5
64.1
62.9
61.2
66.3

62.3
59.7
56.9
59.6
63.4
61.6
60.7
62.7
62.9
56.9
56.4
55.6
59.9

14.5
15.2
15.2
17.6
16.7
16.5
14.9
15.7
17.1
16.0
18.0
16.3
16.1

40.6
40.6
39.4
40.8
40.7
39.9
39.4
39.0
40.3
41.6
39.8
41.0
40.2

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

2,273
1,643
2,072
2,192
2,148
2,372
2,099
2,171
2,333
2,088
2,281
2,253
2,163

6,074
5,278
6,302
5,950
6,181
6,121
5,759
6,115
6,231
5,619
5,961
6,111
5,980

13,706
12,173
13,956
13,842
14,204
13,553
13,754
13,634
13,646
12,981
13,188
12,869
13,468

1,446
1,350
1,274
1,360
1,441
1,331
1,506
1,483
1,361
1,325
1,767
1,542
1,433

12,260
10,823
12,682
12,482
12,764
12,222
12,248
12,151
12,285
11,655
11,421
11,327
12,036

20,567
21,309
20,536
20,536
20,620
20,723
20,747
21,025
20,415
20,476
20,535
20,719
20,680

11.1
7.7
10.1
10.7
10.4
11.4
10.1
10.3
11.4
10.2
11.1
10.9
10.5

29.5
24.8
30.7
29.0
30.0
29.5
27.8
29.1
30.5
27.4
29.0
29.5
28.9

66.6
57.1
68.0
67.4
68.9
65.4
66.3
64.8
66.8
63.4
64.2
62.1
65.1

59.6
50.8
61.8
60.8
61.9
59.0
59.0
57.8
60.2
56.9
55.6
54.7
58.2

16.6
13.5
14.8
15.8
15.1
17.5
15.3
15.9
17.1
16.1
17.3
17.5
16.1

44.3
43.4
45.2
43.0
43.5
45.2
41.9
44.8
45.7
43.3
45.2
47.5
44.4

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

2,307
2,676
2,518
2,323
2,450
2,392
2,493
2,438
2,091
2,304
R 2,283
NA
NA

6,413
5,850
5,934
6,262
5,926
6,084
6,121
6,390
5,128
5,888
R 5,799
NA
NA

13,493
12,604
12,550
13,252
12,862
13,367
13,064
13,060
11,512
13,217
R 12,853
E 12,830
RE 12,892

1,623
2,072
1,823
1,754
1,806
2,165
2,069
2,068
1,338
1,669
R 1,730
E 1,395
RE 1,792

11,869
10,531
10,728
11,498
11,056
11,202
10,995
10,992
10,174
11,548
R 11,123
E 11,435
RE 11,100

20,114
19,782
19,732
19,768
19,729
19,553
19,412
19,267
17,796
19,643
R 19,001
E 19,993
RE 19,486

11.5
13.5
12.8
11.7
12.4
12.2
12.8
12.7
11.8
11.7
R 12.0
NA
NA

31.9
29.6
30.1
31.7
30.0
31.1
31.5
33.2
28.8
30.0
R 30.5
NA
NA

67.1
63.7
63.6
67.0
65.2
68.4
67.3
67.8
64.7
67.3
R 67.6
E 64.2
RE 66.2

59.0
53.2
54.4
58.2
56.0
57.3
56.6
57.1
57.2
58.8
R 58.5
E 57.2
RE 57.0

17.1
21.2
20.1
17.5
19.0
17.9
19.1
18.7
18.2
17.4
R 17.8
NA
NA

47.5
46.4
47.3
47.3
46.1
45.5
46.9
48.9
44.5
44.5
R 45.1
NA
NA

2009 January ......................

NA

NA

E 13,177

E 1,510

E 11,667

E 19,565

NA

NA

E 67.3

E 59.6

NA

NA

a Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and
the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia).
b See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary.
See Table 3.3c for notes on which countries are included in the data.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Readers of this table may be interested in a feature article, "Measuring
Dependence on Imported Oil," that was published in the August 1995 Monthly
Energy Review. See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/imported_oil.pdf.
• Beginning in October 1977, data include Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports.
See Table 3.3b. • Annual averages may not equal average of months due to
independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 States and the
District of Columbia. U.S. exports include shipments to U.S. territories, and imports

include receipts from U.S. territories.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008
and 2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current
two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy
Review data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

41

Figure 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports
(Million Barrels per Day)
Total, 1973-2008

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products,
January
12

15

10.2

10
Total

10

2007
10.0

2008

2009

9.8

8
6

Crude Oil

5

4

3.5

3.5

3.3

2
Petroleum Products

0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

OPEC and Non-OPEC, 1973-2007

Crude Oil

Petroleum Products

OPEC and Non-OPEC

10

10

8

8

November 2006
November 2007
November 2008

7.8
7.2

Non-OPEC
6.0

6

6

7.1

5.8

5.2

4

4
OPEC

2

2

0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

From Selected OPEC Countries, November 2008
2.8

OPEC

Non-OPEC

From Selected Non-OPEC Countries,
November 2008
2.8
2.532

2.1

2.1
1.514

1.4

1.406

1.4

1.236
0.827
0.677

0.7

0.476

0.7
0.450
0.285

0.0

0.0
Saudi
Arabia

Vene-

Nigeria

Algeria

Iraq

Canada

Mexico

Russia

Brazil

zuela

United
Kingdom

Notes: • OPEC=Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
• Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

42

0.224

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Sources: Tables 3.3b–3.3d.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports and Exports by Type
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Imports
Crude Oila
SPRc,d
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Total

Exports

LPGb
Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuele

Propaneh

Total

Motor
Residual
Gasolinef Fuel Oil

Otherg

Total

Crude
Oila

Petroleum
Products

Total

................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................

––
––
44
118
27
0
0
0
0
8
8
11
16
0
77
52

3,244
4,105
5,263
3,201
5,894
7,230
7,508
8,225
8,706
8,731
9,071
9,328
9,140
9,665
10,088
10,126

392
155
142
200
278
193
230
228
210
250
295
344
267
333
325
329

212
133
80
39
108
106
111
91
124
128
162
148
107
109
127
190

71
60
69
67
115
102
119
113
137
122
161
145
145
168
209
233

132
112
216
187
188
146
166
169
194
182
215
206
183
225
263
328

134
184
140
381
342
265
336
309
311
382
427
454
498
518
496
603

1,853
1,223
939
510
504
187
248
194
275
237
352
295
249
327
426
530

290
144
130
550
705
708
879
945
888
943
938
1,095
1,085
1,087
1,419
1,609

6,256
6,056
6,909
5,067
8,018
8,835
9,478
10,162
10,708
10,852
11,459
11,871
11,530
12,264
13,145
13,714

2
6
287
204
109
95
110
108
110
118
50
20
9
12
27
32

229
204
258
577
748
855
871
896
835
822
990
951
975
1,014
1,021
1,133

231
209
544
781
857
949
981
1,003
945
940
1,040
971
984
1,027
1,048
1,165

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Average ................

0
14
32
33
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8

9,766
9,983
9,750
9,859
10,303
10,712
10,229
10,564
10,710
10,106
9,888
9,555
10,118

552
388
292
297
437
297
361
363
438
307
288
355
365

180
123
118
218
230
190
201
257
234
171
101
197
186

206
206
181
243
174
241
227
265
281
267
215
224
228

287
285
233
366
309
372
350
392
447
382
279
285
332

606
631
554
510
511
407
439
560
376
405
388
324
475

553
458
359
283
308
348
323
348
322
321
292
290
350

1,852
1,697
1,598
1,904
2,216
1,927
2,080
2,213
1,964
1,625
1,769
1,713
1,881

13,796
13,565
12,904
13,438
14,315
14,253
13,984
14,697
14,491
13,317
13,005
12,721
13,707

27
15
29
26
27
33
13
15
21
37
24
27
25

1,032
1,261
1,140
1,372
1,323
1,301
1,374
1,240
1,533
1,469
1,329
1,137
1,292

1,059
1,276
1,170
1,398
1,350
1,334
1,387
1,255
1,554
1,506
1,353
1,164
1,317

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Average ................

0
0
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
52
19
0
7

10,211
9,009
10,380
10,161
10,328
10,015
9,939
10,316
10,307
9,784
10,004
9,835
10,031

352
334
360
323
274
273
335
354
270
288
245
241
304

175
227
249
316
227
215
263
226
202
184
180
136
217

244
213
185
121
146
151
135
164
232
204
200
188
182

319
258
241
189
227
273
221
224
282
256
238
240
247

408
372
361
498
581
441
434
404
478
319
303
351
413

394
314
510
374
360
360
412
344
347
299
397
342
372

1,846
1,660
1,856
1,981
2,207
1,976
2,150
1,765
1,760
1,850
1,821
1,724
1,885

13,706
12,173
13,956
13,842
14,204
13,553
13,754
13,634
13,646
12,981
13,188
12,869
13,468

9
25
34
19
36
52
27
42
34
11
20
20
27

1,436
1,325
1,241
1,341
1,405
1,279
1,479
1,441
1,327
1,314
1,747
1,522
1,405

1,446
1,350
1,274
1,360
1,441
1,331
1,506
1,483
1,361
1,325
1,767
1,542
1,433

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Average ................

0
0
35
17
34
0
0
0
0
0
R0
NA
NA

10,000
9,606
9,618
9,921
9,657
9,994
10,101
10,284
8,407
10,111
R 9,923
E 9,646
RE 9,776

307
248
241
255
188
179
181
109
195
166
R 203
E 200
RE 206

159
101
98
180
140
91
72
76
88
98
R 47
E 62
RE 101

253
205
216
154
159
97
128
185
186
178
R 196
E 236
RE 183

317
278
250
231
206
173
182
300
258
224
R 248
NA
NA

412
354
374
386
383
461
323
205
253
239
R 115
E 174
RE 306

435
308
400
359
350
382
292
332
288
354
R 285
E 402
RE 349

1,863
1,708
1,569
1,919
1,937
2,087
1,913
1,753
2,025
2,024
R 2,031
NA
NA

13,493
12,604
12,550
13,252
12,862
13,367
13,064
13,060
11,512
13,217
R 12,853
E 12,830
RE 12,892

12
20
29
14
19
22
29
40
39
43
R 31
E 28
E 27

1,612
2,052
1,793
1,740
1,787
2,143
2,040
2,028
1,299
1,627
R 1,700
E 1,367
RE 1,764

1,623
2,072
1,823
1,754
1,806
2,165
2,069
2,068
1,338
1,669
R 1,730
E 1,395
RE 1,792

2009 January ..................

NA

E 9,844

E 249

E 53

E 235

E 223

E 483

E 13,177

E 28

E 1,482

E 1,510

a Includes lease condensate.
b Liquefied petroleum gases.
c "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977.

Through 2003, includes crude oil imports by SPR only; beginning in 2004, includes
crude oil imports by SPR, and crude oil imports into SPR by others.
d See Note 6, "Petroleum Data Discrepancies," at end of section.
e Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in
2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Other."
f Finished motor gasoline.
Through 1980, also includes motor gasoline
blending components.
g Asphalt and road oil, finished aviation gasoline, gasoline blending
components, kerosene, lubricants, pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks,
petroleum coke, special naphthas, unfinished oils, waxes, other hydrocarbons and
oxygenates, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 2005, also includes

NA

NA

naphtha-type jet fuel.
h Includes propylene.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. E=Estimate.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008
and 2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two
months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system and Monthly Energy Review
data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

43

Table 3.3c Petroleum Trade: Imports From OPEC Countries
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Algeria

Angolaa

Ecuadorb

Iraq

Kuwaitc

Libya

Nigeria

Saudi
Arabiac

Venezuela

Otherd

Total
OPEC

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

136
282
488
187
280
234
256
285
290
259
225
278
264
382
452
478

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

48
57
27
67
49
b
( )
b
( )
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

4
2
28
46
518
0
1
89
336
725
620
795
459
481
656
531

47
16
27
21
86
218
236
253
301
248
272
250
228
220
250
243

164
232
554
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
56

459
762
857
293
800
627
617
698
696
657
896
885
621
867
1,140
1,166

486
715
1,261
168
1,339
1,344
1,363
1,407
1,491
1,478
1,572
1,662
1,552
1,774
1,558
1,537

1,135
702
481
605
1,025
1,480
1,676
1,773
1,719
1,493
1,546
1,553
1,398
1,376
1,554
1,529

514
832
577
439
199
98
62
64
73
93
72
105
83
61
70
47

2,993
3,601
4,300
1,830
4,296
4,002
4,211
4,569
4,905
4,953
5,203
5,528
4,605
5,162
5,701
5,587

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

713
452
429
543
675
774
743
803
796
817
462
662
657

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

532
446
476
531
666
617
592
620
655
505
573
419
553

78
160
118
225
231
201
155
155
227
239
259
169
185

70
70
42
69
66
144
119
111
73
107
110
67
87

1,227
1,348
1,116
1,098
1,190
1,095
1,073
1,035
1,078
1,088
970
1,068
1,114

1,369
1,451
1,364
1,595
1,492
1,529
1,313
1,514
1,564
1,382
1,507
1,491
1,463

1,566
1,553
1,532
1,400
1,470
1,306
1,469
1,439
1,386
1,356
1,281
1,274
1,419

41
22
10
28
30
26
46
52
63
42
20
71
38

5,596
5,502
5,088
5,488
5,819
5,691
5,509
5,729
5,842
5,538
5,181
5,221
5,517

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

778
555
727
782
744
709
747
827
702
410
447
600
670

574
464
708
514
692
514
404
412
591
342
435
439
508

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

531
314
523
562
341
573
460
520
603
490
508
378
484

172
150
305
135
168
263
202
139
170
157
154
158
181

59
105
150
82
69
172
187
129
74
134
103
141
117

1,136
1,109
1,347
948
964
968
906
1,224
1,181
1,241
1,306
1,271
1,134

1,542
1,163
1,244
1,488
1,614
1,534
1,436
1,499
1,560
1,411
1,620
1,686
1,485

1,195
1,360
1,287
1,412
1,522
1,364
1,399
1,320
1,315
1,388
1,381
1,387
1,361

87
58
11
28
67
24
18
43
35
46
7
50
39

6,074
5,278
6,302
5,950
6,181
6,121
5,759
6,115
6,231
5,619
5,961
6,111
5,980

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
11-Month Average .....

636
384
441
632
620
492
456
530
657
555
677
553

578
350
388
591
476
649
652
495
416
539
450
508

543
780
773
679
583
693
696
663
543
577
476
636

239
266
203
181
263
183
122
203
115
240
292
210

105
87
124
133
111
115
128
113
59
132
79
108

1,191
1,025
1,174
1,221
918
1,020
822
1,166
591
979
827
994

1,503
1,627
1,542
1,462
1,604
1,493
1,675
1,573
1,431
1,487
1,514
1,538

1,290
1,131
1,033
1,189
1,171
1,215
1,340
1,305
1,051
1,162
1,236
1,194

70
14
18
4
19
43
5
47
32
16
20
26

6,413
5,850
5,934
6,262
5,926
6,084
6,121
6,390
5,128
5,888
5,799
5,984

2007 11-Month Average .....
2006 11-Month Average .....

677
657

514
(a)

494
566

183
186

115
89

1,121
1,118

1,466
1,461

1,358
1,433

38
35

5,968
5,544

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

260
186
238
170
162
184
227
298
233
200
229
217
(b)
(b)

a Angola joined OPEC in January 2007. For 1973-2006, Angola is included in
"Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d.
b Ecuador was a member of OPEC from 1973-1992, and rejoined OPEC in
November 2007. For 1993-2007, Ecuador is included in "Total Non-OPEC" on
Table 3.3d.
c Imports from the Neutral Zone are reported as originating in either Saudi
Arabia or Kuwait depending on the country reported to U.S. Customs.
d For all years, includes Indonesia, Iran, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. For
1975-1994, also includes Gabon.
Notes: • See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in
Glossary. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on this table are included on
Table 3.3d. • The country of origin for petroleum products may not be the country
of origin for the crude oil from which the products were produced. For example,

44

refined products imported from West European refining areas may have been
produced from Middle East crude oil. • Includes imports for the Strategic
Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50
States and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.3d Petroleum Trade: Imports From Non-OPEC Countries
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Brazil
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Canada

Colombia

Mexico

Netherlands

Norway

Russiaa

United
Kingdom

U.S. Virgin
Islands

Other

Total
Non-OPEC

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

9
5
3
61
49
8
9
5
26
26
51
82
116
108
104
156

1,325
846
455
770
934
1,332
1,424
1,563
1,598
1,539
1,807
1,828
1,971
2,072
2,138
2,181

9
9
4
23
182
219
234
271
354
468
342
296
260
195
176
196

16
71
533
816
755
1,068
1,244
1,385
1,351
1,324
1,373
1,440
1,547
1,623
1,665
1,662

53
19
2
58
55
15
19
25
31
27
30
43
66
87
101
151

1
17
144
32
102
273
313
309
236
304
343
341
393
270
244
233

26
14
1
8
45
25
25
13
24
89
72
90
210
254
298
410

15
14
176
310
189
383
308
226
250
365
366
324
478
440
380
396

329
406
388
247
282
278
313
300
293
280
291
268
236
288
330
328

1,480
1,052
903
913
1,128
1,233
1,377
1,495
1,640
1,478
1,581
1,631
1,649
1,766
2,008
2,413

3,263
2,454
2,609
3,237
3,721
4,833
5,267
5,593
5,803
5,899
6,257
6,343
6,925
7,103
7,444
8,127

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

106
203
193
169
140
151
281
308
191
222
182
162
193

2,385
2,338
2,288
2,292
2,359
2,303
2,204
2,456
2,340
2,176
2,637
2,461
2,353

195
168
170
176
204
223
156
131
185
133
46
74
155

1,798
1,891
1,801
1,750
1,711
1,855
1,709
1,793
1,569
1,644
1,591
1,366
1,705

217
143
105
161
268
212
197
259
153
116
152
98
174

205
199
209
206
199
140
236
273
159
181
165
178
196

219
304
220
220
621
430
425
485
537
366
223
369
369

223
206
300
315
350
358
340
272
239
195
265
199
272

277
318
309
239
373
273
353
377
396
342
337
334
328

2,575
2,293
2,220
2,422
2,271
2,618
2,573
2,612
2,879
2,404
2,225
2,259
2,446

8,200
8,063
7,816
7,950
8,495
8,562
8,474
8,967
8,648
7,779
7,823
7,500
8,190

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

250
153
234
224
203
161
200
280
232
197
82
178
200

2,529
2,533
2,357
2,498
2,500
2,410
2,386
2,527
2,520
2,429
2,404
2,372
2,455

148
85
121
90
122
164
231
181
186
175
219
130
155

1,566
1,496
1,750
1,572
1,614
1,529
1,611
1,474
1,454
1,417
1,581
1,322
1,532

118
63
160
87
150
171
130
127
136
176
58
157
128

110
131
164
203
234
193
137
112
105
110
100
110
142

347
242
455
556
499
285
534
416
389
452
470
306
414

199
261
292
373
390
345
369
174
185
290
210
238
277

425
312
349
322
287
218
372
320
384
353
414
387
346

1,939
1,620
1,773
1,967
2,025
1,956
2,026
1,910
1,824
1,764
1,689
1,559
1,839

7,632
6,895
7,655
7,892
8,024
7,432
7,995
7,520
7,415
7,362
7,227
6,759
7,489

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
11-Month Average .....

225
172
191
234
335
314
272
208
271
354
285
261

2,586
2,464
2,542
2,534
2,346
2,359
2,390
2,199
2,367
2,587
2,532
2,446

198
240
165
169
278
179
191
257
149
200
176
200

1,307
1,327
1,358
1,364
1,218
1,254
1,290
1,400
1,003
1,433
1,406
1,306

92
141
129
185
192
264
148
143
196
176
137
164

86
100
80
137
183
122
94
84
74
70
114
104

392
451
402
402
441
764
556
490
437
394
450
470

213
155
218
229
237
286
187
222
265
386
224
239

380
351
290
340
340
314
294
298
345
267
338
323

1,600
1,352
1,240
1,395
1,366
1,426
1,520
1,370
1,277
1,462
1,394
1,401

7,079
6,753
6,617
6,990
6,936
7,283
6,943
6,669
6,384
7,329
7,054
6,913

2007 11-Month Average .....
2006 11-Month Average .....

202
195

2,462
2,343

157
162

1,552
1,737

126
181

145
198

424
369

281
279

342
327

1,865
2,464

7,556
8,254

a Through 1992, may include imports from republics other than Russia in the
former U.S.S.R. See "U.S.S.R" in Glossary.
Notes: • See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in
Glossary for membership. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on Table
3.3c are included on this table. • The country of origin for petroleum products may
not be the country of origin for the crude oil from which the products were
produced. For example, refined products imported from West European refining
areas may have been produced from Middle East crude oil. • Includes imports for
the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. • Totals may not
equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic

coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008:
EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

45

Figure 3.4

Petroleum Stocks
(Billion Barrels, Except as Noted)

Overview, 1973-2008

Overview, Monthly
2.0

2.0

Total
Total

1.5

1.5

Crude Oil

1.0

Crude Oil

1.0

0.5

Petroleum Products

0.5

Petroleum Products

0.0

0.0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2005

2007

Total Stocks (Crude Oil and Petroleum Products)

2008

2009

SPR and Non-SPR Crude Oil Stocks, 1973-2008
750

2.0
1.724

1.746

1.677

SPR

Million Barrels

1.5

1.0

500
Non-SPR

250

0.5

0

0.0
January

January

January

2007

2008

2009

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Selected Products
250
227

231

January 2007

219

January 2008

January 2009

Million Barrels

200

150

140

142
130

100
47

50

44

39

39

42

40

42

39

35

0
Motor
Gasoline
a

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Includes propylene.
Notes: • SPR= Strategic Petroleum Reserve. • Because vertical
scales differ, graphs should not be compared. • Stocks are at end of

46

a

Propane

Jet Fuel

Residual
Fuel Oil

period.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.4.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.4 Petroleum Stocks
(Million Barrels)
Crude Oila
SPRc
1973 Year
1975 Year
1980 Year
1985 Year
1990 Year
1995 Year
1996 Year
1997 Year
1998 Year
1999 Year
2000 Year
2001 Year
2002 Year
2003 Year
2004 Year
2005 Year

Non-SPRd,e,f

LPGb
Totale,f

Distillate
Fuel Oilf,g

Jet
Fuelh

Propanef,i

Totalf

Motor
Gasolinef,j

Residual
Fuel Oilf

Otherk

Totalf

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

––
––
108
493
586
592
566
563
571
567
541
550
599
638
676
685

242
271
358
321
323
303
284
305
324
284
286
312
278
269
286
324

242
271
466
814
908
895
850
868
895
852
826
862
877
907
961
1,008

196
209
205
144
132
130
127
138
156
125
118
145
134
137
126
136

29
30
42
40
52
40
40
44
45
41
45
42
39
39
40
42

65
82
65
39
49
43
43
44
65
43
41
66
53
50
55
57

99
125
120
74
98
93
86
89
115
89
83
121
106
94
104
109

209
235
261
223
220
202
195
210
216
193
196
210
209
207
218
208

53
74
92
50
49
37
46
40
45
36
36
41
31
38
42
37

179
188
205
174
162
165
164
169
176
157
164
166
152
147
153
157

1,008
1,133
1,392
1,519
1,621
1,563
1,507
1,560
1,647
1,493
1,468
1,586
1,548
1,568
1,645
1,698

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ...........

683
685
686
688
689
688
688
688
688
689
689
689

323
343
343
348
341
337
332
333
333
339
335
312

1,007
1,027
1,029
1,036
1,029
1,025
1,019
1,021
1,021
1,028
1,023
1,001

139
136
121
116
124
130
138
145
149
143
141
144

44
43
42
41
41
39
40
40
42
42
38
39

48
36
30
35
42
50
58
64
71
72
69
62

95
80
73
82
95
108
120
132
140
141
129
113

220
222
209
207
214
213
209
209
214
205
204
212

41
42
41
39
41
43
43
42
43
42
43
42

166
170
177
179
179
171
174
175
175
169
167
169

1,713
1,719
1,691
1,700
1,724
1,729
1,743
1,763
1,785
1,769
1,745
1,720

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ...........

689
689
689
689
690
690
690
690
693
694
696
697

325
318
331
342
353
354
337
321
311
307
300
286

1,013
1,006
1,019
1,031
1,044
1,044
1,027
1,011
1,004
1,001
995
983

140
124
120
121
125
124
130
135
134
134
135
134

39
39
40
40
41
41
42
41
43
42
40
39

47
30
27
30
37
44
50
55
58
61
60
52

91
70
70
77
91
103
112
122
126
124
112
96

227
215
202
197
203
206
205
194
200
199
205
218

42
36
40
38
37
36
40
36
37
39
39
39

171
176
186
189
183
176
177
177
173
169
164
156

1,724
1,666
1,678
1,694
1,724
1,730
1,733
1,716
1,717
1,708
1,690
1,665

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ...........

698
699
700
701
704
706
707
707
702
702
702
E 702

296
302
313
319
303
295
295
302
303
312
321
E 324

995
1,000
1,013
1,020
1,007
1,001
1,002
1,009
1,006
1,014
R 1,023
E 1,026

130
117
107
106
113
121
130
132
127
127
R 136
E 138

42
40
38
39
40
40
41
41
38
39
R 38
E 37

39
29
26
31
38
43
47
54
59
59
61
E 56

78
66
65
78
92
103
114
128
138
133
R 127
RF 112

231
234
221
210
207
210
206
195
189
195
R 203
E 211

39
39
39
40
41
42
37
39
39
40
R 39
E 34

162
166
169
172
173
170
169
167
168
164
R 168
RE 160

1,677
1,662
1,653
1,665
1,673
1,686
1,699
1,710
1,705
1,712
R 1,733
E 1,718

2009 January ................

E 704

E 347

E 1,051

E 142

E 40

E 44

F 90

E 219

E 35

169

E 1,746

a Includes lease condensate.
b Liquefied petroleum gases.
c "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977.

Crude oil stocks in the SPR include non-U.S. stocks held under foreign or
commercial storage agreements.
d All crude oil stocks other than those in “SPR.”
e Beginning in 1981, includes stocks of Alaskan crude oil in transit. See Note 5,
"Stocks of Alaskan Crude Oil," at end of section.
f See Note 4, "Petroleum New Stock Basis," at end of section.
g Does not include stocks that are held in the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve.
h Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in
2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Other."
i Includes propylene.
j Includes finished motor gasoline, motor gasoline blending components, and
gasohol; excludes oxygenates.
k Asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, aviation gasoline blending
components, kerosene, lubricants, pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks,

petroleum coke, special naphthas, unfinished oils, waxes, other hydrocarbons and
oxygenates, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 2005, also includes
naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. – –=Not applicable.
Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008 and
2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current two
months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated
Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

47

Figure 3.5

Petroleum Products Supplied by Type
(Million Barrels per Day)

Total and Motor Gasoline, 1973-2008

Total, January
24

24

Total

18

20.567

20.114

19.565

2007

2008

2009

18

12

12
Motor Gasoline

6

6

0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Selected Products,1973-2008

Selected Products, Monthly

12

12

9

9

Motor Gasoline
Motor Gasoline

6

6

Distillate Fuel Oil
Distillate Fuel Oil

3

3

Propanea
Jet Fuel

Jet Fuel
Propane

0
1975

1980

1985

a

Residual Fuel Oil

1990

1995

2000

Residual Fuel Oil

0

J FMA M J J A SOND J F MAM J J A SOND J FMA M J J A SOND

2005

2007

2008

2009

Selected Products
12
January 2007
9

8.9

8.8

January 2008

January 2009

8.8

6
4.3

4.2

4.1

3
1.7

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.3
0.8

0.7

0.7

0
Motor
Gasoline
a

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Includes propylene.
Notes: • SPR= Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
• Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

48

Propane a

Jet Fuel

Residual
Fuel Oil

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.5.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.5 Petroleum Products Supplied by Type
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Asphalt
Aviation
and
Road Oil Gasoline
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

LPGa
Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuelb

Kerosene

Propanec

Total

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolined

Petroleum
Coke

Residual
Fuel Oil

Othere

Total

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

522
419
396
425
483
486
484
505
521
547
525
519
512
503
537
546

45
39
35
27
24
21
20
22
19
21
20
19
18
16
17
19

3,092
2,851
2,866
2,868
3,021
3,207
3,365
3,435
3,461
3,572
3,722
3,847
3,776
3,927
4,058
4,118

1,059
1,001
1,068
1,218
1,522
1,514
1,578
1,599
1,622
1,673
1,725
1,655
1,614
1,578
1,630
1,679

216
159
158
114
43
54
62
66
78
73
67
72
43
55
64
70

872
783
754
883
917
1,096
1,136
1,170
1,120
1,246
1,235
1,142
1,248
1,215
1,276
1,229

1,449
1,333
1,469
1,599
1,556
1,899
2,012
2,038
1,952
2,195
2,231
2,044
2,163
2,074
2,132
2,030

162
137
159
145
164
156
151
160
168
169
166
153
151
140
141
141

6,674
6,675
6,579
6,831
7,235
7,789
7,891
8,017
8,253
8,431
8,472
8,610
8,848
8,935
9,105
9,159

261
247
237
264
339
365
379
377
447
477
406
437
463
455
524
515

2,822
2,462
2,508
1,202
1,229
852
848
797
887
830
909
811
700
772
865
920

1,005
1,001
1,581
1,032
1,373
1,381
1,518
1,605
1,508
1,532
1,458
1,481
1,474
1,579
1,657
1,605

17,308
16,322
17,056
15,726
16,988
17,725
18,309
18,620
18,917
19,519
19,701
19,649
19,761
20,034
20,731
20,802

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

295
330
413
513
633
715
662
743
667
592
478
199
521

9
16
22
22
22
18
20
28
18
19
13
13
18

4,159
4,308
4,395
4,065
4,072
4,019
3,950
4,162
4,141
4,315
4,180
4,268
4,169

1,605
1,582
1,560
1,654
1,633
1,704
1,700
1,696
1,608
1,605
1,613
1,631
1,633

76
118
99
83
48
28
38
29
27
30
25
48
54

1,465
1,540
1,299
1,050
993
1,007
970
1,119
1,094
1,216
1,362
1,483
1,215

2,128
2,344
2,157
1,967
1,911
1,901
1,969
2,011
1,937
1,998
2,143
2,182
2,052

119
199
139
151
124
148
134
137
119
164
122
96
137

8,839
8,911
9,054
9,154
9,308
9,478
9,607
9,564
9,236
9,267
9,244
9,338
9,253

490
407
520
442
489
548
492
535
624
514
563
633
522

934
816
786
683
587
618
667
768
538
612
525
732
689

1,783
1,546
1,464
1,467
1,630
1,805
1,502
1,761
1,644
1,654
1,762
1,656
1,640

20,436
20,577
20,608
20,201
20,457
20,982
20,740
21,434
20,559
20,769
20,669
20,795
20,687

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

353
289
370
455
507
637
651
647
606
595
458
348
494

16
13
14
20
17
22
17
21
17
21
15
11
17

4,256
4,582
4,334
4,214
4,068
4,114
4,026
4,146
4,161
4,213
4,074
4,193
4,196

1,616
1,634
1,551
1,647
1,618
1,663
1,664
1,703
1,533
1,637
1,600
1,603
1,622

52
48
35
27
14
15
7
28
32
28
46
58
32

1,694
1,798
1,305
1,070
978
958
969
1,018
1,162
1,157
1,243
1,504
1,235

2,468
2,575
2,113
1,998
1,846
1,924
1,912
1,912
1,925
1,984
2,109
2,287
2,085

151
128
152
144
157
134
147
139
127
150
138
128
142

8,886
9,006
9,178
9,215
9,434
9,491
9,640
9,582
9,254
9,236
9,229
9,251
9,286

435
430
561
437
551
480
420
539
546
437
464
573
490

759
946
723
682
690
733
669
761
674
626
768
665
723

1,574
1,658
1,506
1,696
1,717
1,509
1,593
1,548
1,541
1,549
1,633
1,603
1,593

20,567
21,309
20,536
20,536
20,620
20,723
20,747
21,025
20,415
20,476
20,535
20,719
20,680

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

302
313
295
360
444
581
556
522
536
464
R 308
F 249
RE 411

13
13
13
19
19
16
14
20
16
12
R 16
RF 13
E 15

4,209
4,251
4,140
4,108
3,936
3,728
3,672
3,657
3,740
4,173
R 3,870
E 4,133
RE 3,968

1,546
1,537
1,533
1,592
1,564
1,589
1,541
1,611
1,467
1,403
R 1,439
E 1,432
RE 1,521

31
50
46
25
28
28
29
24
27
17
R 21
RF 55
RE 32

1,620
1,504
1,288
995
928
988
1,017
1,002
856
1,116
R 1,160
E 1,371
RE 1,153

2,333
2,314
2,120
1,855
1,864
1,872
1,932
1,940
1,418
1,860
R 1,868
F 2,241
RE 1,969

132
131
143
144
142
135
137
157
96
147
R 92
RF 113
RE 131

8,814
8,842
9,069
9,117
9,216
9,071
9,072
9,090
8,469
8,986
R 8,889
E 9,033
RE 8,974

501
203
474
482
456
450
522
471
358
466
R 438
F 499
RE 445

672
552
571
684
661
688
687
526
516
592
R 526
E 734
RE 618

1,561
1,576
1,328
1,382
1,398
1,395
1,249
1,247
1,153
1,523
R 1,535
RE 1,491
RE 1,403

20,114
19,782
19,732
19,768
19,729
19,553
19,412
19,267
17,796
19,643
R 19,001
E 19,993
RE 19,486

2009 January ....................

F 216

F 11

E 4,066

E 1,340

F 73

E 1,631

F 2,316

F 118

E 8,789

F 420

E 672

E 1,543

E 19,565

a Liquified petroleum gases.
b Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in

2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Other."
c Includes propylene.
d Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
e Pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery
gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1981, also includes
negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished
oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as
gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned
as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast.
Notes: • Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum

consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables
3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum
Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due
to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District
of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: • 1973-1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum
Statement, Annual, annual reports.

1976-1980:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual
reports. • 1981-2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports. • 2008
and 2009: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the current
two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report data system, Short-Term Integrated
Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

49

Figure 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type
(Quadrillion Btu)
Total, 1973-2008

Total
4

50
40

3.409

3.333

3.242

January

January

January

2007

2008

2009

3

30
2

20
1

10
0

0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

By Product, January 2009
Asphalt and Road Oil
Aviation Gasoline

0.044

0.002

Distillate Fuel Oil

0.734

Jet Fuel
Kerosene

0.236

0.013

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

0.258

Lubricants

0.022

a

Motor Gasoline

1.422

Petroleum Coke

0.078

Residual Fuel Oil
Other

0.131

b

0.302

0.0
a

0.2

0.4

Includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline.
All petroleum not shown above.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
b

50

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Source: Table 3.6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

1.8

Table 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type
(Trillion Btu)
Asphalt
and
Aviation
Road Oil Gasoline
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

LPGa
Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuelb

Kerosene

Propanec

Total

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolined

Petroleum
Coke

Residual
Fuel Oil

Othere

Total

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

1,264
1,014
962
1,029
1,170
1,178
1,176
1,224
1,263
1,324
1,276
1,257
1,240
1,220
1,304
1,323

83
71
64
50
45
40
37
40
35
39
36
35
34
30
31
35

6,575
6,061
6,110
6,098
6,422
6,818
7,175
7,304
7,359
7,595
7,935
8,179
8,028
8,349
8,652
8,755

2,167
2,047
2,190
2,497
3,129
3,132
3,274
3,308
3,357
3,462
3,580
3,426
3,340
3,265
3,383
3,475

447
329
329
236
88
112
128
136
162
151
140
150
90
113
133
144

1,221
1,097
1,059
1,236
1,284
1,534
1,594
1,638
1,568
1,745
1,734
1,598
1,747
1,701
1,791
1,721

1,981
1,807
1,976
2,103
2,059
2,512
2,660
2,690
2,575
2,897
2,945
2,697
2,852
2,747
2,824
2,682

359
304
354
322
362
346
335
354
371
375
369
338
334
309
313
312

12,797
12,798
12,648
13,098
13,872
14,825
15,064
15,254
15,701
16,036
16,155
16,373
16,819
16,981
17,379
17,444

573
542
522
582
745
802
837
829
982
1,048
895
961
1,018
1,000
1,156
1,133

6,477
5,649
5,772
2,759
2,820
1,955
1,952
1,828
2,036
1,905
2,091
1,861
1,605
1,772
1,990
2,111

2,117
2,107
3,275
2,149
2,840
2,834
3,119
3,298
3,093
3,128
2,981
3,056
3,041
3,260
3,429
3,320

34,840
32,731
34,202
30,922
33,553
34,553
35,757
36,266
36,934
37,960
38,404
38,333
38,401
39,047
40,594
40,735

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

61
61
85
102
130
142
136
153
133
122
95
41
1,261

1
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
2
2
33

751
703
794
710
735
702
713
752
724
779
730
771
8,864

282
251
274
281
287
290
299
298
274
282
274
287
3,379

13
19
17
14
8
5
7
5
5
5
4
8
111

174
165
154
121
118
116
115
133
126
145
157
176
1,701

238
237
241
213
214
206
220
225
209
223
232
244
2,701

22
34
26
27
23
27
25
26
22
31
22
18
303

1,430
1,302
1,465
1,433
1,506
1,484
1,554
1,547
1,446
1,499
1,447
1,510
17,622

92
69
97
80
91
99
92
100
113
96
102
118
1,148

182
144
153
129
114
116
130
150
101
119
99
143
1,581

319
263
264
251
282
296
263
298
273
287
311
309
3,416

3,391
3,084
3,420
3,244
3,395
3,369
3,442
3,557
3,302
3,446
3,319
3,451
40,420

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

73
54
76
91
104
127
134
133
121
122
91
72
1,197

3
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
32

769
747
783
736
735
719
727
749
727
761
712
757
8,921

284
259
273
280
284
283
293
299
261
288
272
282
3,358

9
8
6
5
2
3
1
5
5
5
8
10
67

202
193
155
123
116
110
115
121
134
138
143
179
1,729

275
259
235
215
205
207
213
213
207
221
227
255
2,733

28
22
29
26
30
24
28
26
23
28
25
24
313

1,438
1,316
1,485
1,443
1,526
1,486
1,560
1,550
1,449
1,494
1,445
1,497
17,689

81
73
105
79
103
87
78
101
99
82
84
107
1,077

148
167
141
129
135
138
130
148
127
122
145
130
1,659

302
284
270
287
290
246
272
257
253
267
282
299
3,308

3,409
3,190
3,403
3,294
3,417
3,324
3,438
3,484
3,274
3,393
3,293
3,434
40,353

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Total ......................

62
60
61
72
91
116
114
107
107
95
R 61
F 51
RE 998

2
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
F2
E 28

760
718
748
718
711
651
663
660
654
754
R 676
E 746
RE 8,459

272
253
269
271
275
270
271
283
250
247
R 245
E 252
RE 3,157

5
8
8
4
5
5
5
4
5
3
R4
RF 10
RE 66

193
167
153
114
110
114
121
119
98
133
R 134
E 163
RE 1,619

260
241
236
200
208
202
215
216
153
207
R 201
F 249
RE 2,587

25
23
27
26
27
25
26
29
17
28
R 17
F 21
RE 291

1,426
1,338
1,467
1,427
1,491
1,420
1,468
1,471
1,326
1,454
R 1,392
E 1,461
RE 17,142

93
35
88
87
85
81
97
88
65
87
R 79
F 93
RE 980

131
101
111
129
129
130
134
103
97
115
R 99
E 143
RE 1,422

297
287
252
233
245
234
221
228
179
264
R 271
RE 284
RE 2,997

3,333
3,067
3,270
3,170
3,270
3,136
3,217
3,193
2,854
3,255
R 3,047
E 3,313
RE 38,127

2009 January ..................

F 44

F2

E 734

E 236

F 13

E 194

F 258

F 22

E 1,422

F 78

E 131

E 302

E 3,242

a Liquefied petroleum gases.
b Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in

2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Other."
c Includes propylene.
d Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended into
motor gasoline.
e Pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery
gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1981, also includes
negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished
oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as
gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned

as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast.
Notes: • Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum
consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables
3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum
Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due
to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District
of Columbia.
Web Pages:

For all available data beginning in 1973, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
• For related information, see
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html.
Sources: Tables 3.5, A1, and A3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

51

Figure 3.7

Petroleum Consumption by Sector
(Million Barrels per Day)

By Sector, 1973-2007

By Sector, November 2008

16

16
13.399

Transportation

12

12

8

8
Industriala

4.463

4

4
Residential and Commerciala

0

Electric Power

0.659

0.303

Residential

Commerciala

0.177

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Residential and Commercial Sectorsa, Selected
Products, November 2008

Industriala

Transportation

Electric
Power

Industrial Sectora, Selected Products,
November 2008

0.6

1.6

1.478

0.515

1.2
0.4

0.373

0.8
0.2

0.450
0.373

0.4

0.308
0.190

0.034

0.025

0.015

0.0

0.0
Distillate
Fuel Oil

LPG

b

Residual
Fuel Oil

Motor
Kerosene
Gasolinec

Transportation Sector, Selected Products,
November 2008

b

LPG

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Petroleum Asphalt and
Motor
Road Oil Gasolinec
Coke

Electric Power Sector, November 2008
0.10

10
8.674

0.086

0.08

8

0.065

0.06

6

0.04

4
2.880

2

0.026

0.02

1.439
0.328

0.00

0
Motor
Gasolinec

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuel

Residual
Fuel Oil

a
Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of
electricity-only plants.
b
Liquefied petroleum gases.
c
Includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline .

52

Residual
Fuel Oil

Petroleum
Coke

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Sources: Tables 3.7a–3.7c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.7a Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector
Distillate
Fuel Oil
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Total

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Motor
Gasolineb

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

942
850
617
514
460
426
434
411
363
389
424
427
404
425
433
402

110
78
51
77
31
36
43
45
52
54
46
46
29
34
41
40

435
389
242
249
276
306
358
349
329
404
427
406
412
426
401
391

1,487
1,316
910
839
767
767
835
805
744
847
897
879
845
885
875
833

303
276
243
297
252
225
227
209
202
206
230
239
209
226
221
210

31
24
20
16
6
11
10
12
15
13
14
15
8
9
10
10

77
69
43
44
49
54
63
62
58
71
75
72
73
75
71
69

45
46
56
50
58
10
14
22
20
15
23
20
24
32
25
24

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

461
535
433
309
284
265
246
254
272
276
309
388
335

45
71
59
50
28
17
23
17
16
18
15
28
32

361
397
366
333
324
322
334
341
328
339
363
370
348

867
1,003
857
692
637
604
602
612
617
633
688
787
715

260
301
244
174
160
149
138
143
153
156
174
219
189

10
16
13
11
7
4
5
4
4
4
3
7
7

64
70
65
59
57
57
59
60
58
60
64
65
61

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

421
510
447
261
191
222
217
244
260
297
404
597
338

31
28
21
16
8
9
4
17
19
17
27
35
19

418
437
358
339
313
326
324
324
326
336
358
388
353

870
975
826
615
512
557
545
584
605
650
789
1,020
711

237
287
252
147
108
125
122
137
146
167
228
337
191

7
6
5
4
2
2
1
4
4
4
6
8
4

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Month Average ...

569
579
426
330
235
257
244
219
239
R 264
330
335

18
30
27
15
17
17
17
15
16
10
13
18

395
392
359
314
316
317
327
329
240
315
317
329

983
1,001
813
660
568
591
589
563
496
R 590
659
682

321
326
240
186
132
145
137
123
135
R 149
186
189

2007 11-Month Average ...
2006 11-Month Average ...

314
330

18
32

350
346

682
708

177
186

a Commercial
sector
fuel
use,
including
that
at
commercial
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants.
b Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day.
Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total petroleum consumption by all sectors,
see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is
an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term

Petroleum
Coke
NA
NA
NA
NA

Residual
Fuel Oil

Total

0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

290
214
245
99
100
62
60
48
37
32
40
30
35
48
53
50

746
629
606
506
465
361
373
353
332
338
383
376
348
391
380
365

24
25
25
25
26
26
27
26
26
26
26
26
26

(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

45
52
42
30
28
26
24
25
27
27
30
38
33

403
465
389
300
277
262
253
259
268
273
298
355
316

74
77
63
60
55
58
57
57
58
59
63
68
62

25
25
25
25
26
26
27
26
26
26
26
26
26

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

43
52
46
27
19
23
22
25
26
30
41
61
34

385
448
391
262
210
234
229
250
260
286
364
500
318

4
7
6
3
4
4
4
3
4
2
3
4

70
69
63
55
56
56
58
58
42
56
56
58

24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
23
25
25
25

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

58
59
43
34
24
26
25
22
24
R 27
34
34

477
486
378
304
241
256
249
232
229
R 259
303
310

4
7

62
61

26
26

(s)
(s)

32
32

301
312

"petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum
Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section.
• Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

53

Table 3.7b Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Industrial Sectora
Asphalt
and
Road Oil
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolineb

Petroleum
Coke

Residual
Fuel Oil

Otherc

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

522
419
396
425
483
486
484
505
521
547
525
519
512
503
537
546

691
630
621
526
541
532
557
566
570
558
563
611
566
534
570
594

75
58
87
21
6
7
9
9
11
6
8
11
7
12
14
19

902
844
1,172
1,285
1,215
1,527
1,580
1,617
1,553
1,709
1,720
1,557
1,668
1,561
1,647
1,549

88
68
82
75
84
80
78
82
86
87
86
79
78
72
73
72

133
116
82
114
97
105
105
111
105
80
79
155
163
171
195
187

254
246
234
261
325
328
343
331
390
426
361
390
383
375
423
404

809
658
586
326
179
147
146
127
100
90
105
89
83
96
108
123

1,005
1,001
1,581
1,032
1,373
1,381
1,518
1,605
1,508
1,532
1,458
1,481
1,474
1,579
1,657
1,605

4,479
4,038
4,842
4,065
4,304
4,594
4,819
4,953
4,844
5,035
4,903
4,892
4,934
4,903
5,223
5,100

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

295
330
413
513
633
715
662
743
667
592
478
199
521

693
639
729
548
531
451
400
506
586
694
668
682
594

20
31
26
22
13
8
10
8
7
8
7
13
14

1,684
1,854
1,706
1,556
1,512
1,503
1,558
1,591
1,532
1,580
1,695
1,726
1,623

61
102
71
78
64
76
69
70
61
84
63
49
71

189
190
193
196
199
202
205
204
197
198
197
199
198

380
298
427
345
401
446
383
432
529
421
478
548
425

149
131
131
109
93
85
86
91
82
90
83
122
104

1,783
1,546
1,464
1,467
1,630
1,805
1,502
1,761
1,644
1,654
1,762
1,656
1,640

5,252
5,122
5,161
4,833
5,076
5,292
4,875
5,407
5,305
5,321
5,432
5,195
5,189

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

353
289
370
455
507
637
651
647
606
595
458
348
494

769
780
R 653
R 668
R 600
R 530
R 461
R 487
R 589
594
R 499
R 422
R 586

14
13
9
7
4
4
2
8
8
7
12
15
9

1,952
2,037
1,672
1,581
1,460
1,522
1,513
1,512
1,523
1,570
1,669
1,809
1,649

78
66
78
74
81
69
76
72
66
77
71
66
73

190
192
196
197
202
203
206
205
198
197
197
198
198

R 5,398

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Month Average ...

302
313
295
360
444
581
556
522
536
464
308
426

595
594
564
540
482
259
225
232
357
R 609
450
446

8
13
12
7
7
7
8
7
7
5
6
8

1,845
1,830
1,677
1,467
1,475
1,481
1,528
1,535
1,121
1,472
1,478
1,537

68
67
74
74
73
69
71
81
49
75
47
68

2007 11-Month Average ...
2006 11-Month Average ...

508
551

602
586

8
14

1,634
1,614

73
72

a Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power
(CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants.
b Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
c Pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery
gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1981, also includes
negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished
oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as
gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned
as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised.

54

345

R 124

R 351

R 142

R 489

R 120

R 364

R 111

R 342

94

R 457

R 101

R 467

R 97

R 369

493
R 412

90
R 124
R 102
R 110

1,574
1,658
1,506
1,696
1,717
1,509
1,593
1,548
1,541
1,549
1,633
1,603
1,593

188
189
194
195
197
194
194
194
181
192
190
192

423
125
410
415
394
372
455
400
290
394
373
370

101
82
88
103
100
96
102
78
72
R 90
78
90

1,561
1,576
1,328
1,382
1,398
1,395
1,249
1,247
1,153
1,523
1,535
1,395

5,091
4,790
4,642
4,544
4,571
4,455
4,387
4,295
3,766
R 4,823
4,463
4,531

198
197

404
413

111
103

1,593
1,638

5,131
5,189

R 475

109

R 389

R 108

R 397

R 5,528

5,093
R 5,153

5,154
R 4,971
R 4,938
R 5,036
R 5,094
R 5,048
R 5,060
R 5,056
R 5,125

Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total petroleum consumption by all sectors,
see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is
an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term
"petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum
Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section.
• Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.7c Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power Sectors
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
Electric Power Sectora

Transportation Sector
Aviation
Gasoline
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuelb

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolinec

Residual
Fuel Oil

Total

Distillate
Fuel Oild

Petroleum
Coke

Residual
Fuel Oile

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

45
39
35
27
24
21
20
22
19
21
20
19
18
16
17
19

1,045
998
1,311
1,491
1,722
1,973
2,096
2,198
2,263
2,352
2,422
2,489
2,536
2,665
2,783
2,858

1,042
992
1,062
1,218
1,522
1,514
1,578
1,599
1,622
1,673
1,725
1,655
1,614
1,578
1,630
1,679

35
31
13
21
16
13
11
10
13
10
8
10
10
12
14
20

74
70
77
71
80
76
73
78
81
82
81
74
73
68
69
68

6,496
6,512
6,441
6,667
7,080
7,674
7,772
7,883
8,128
8,336
8,370
8,435
8,662
8,733
8,885
8,948

317
310
608
342
443
397
370
310
294
290
386
255
295
249
321
365

9,054
8,951
9,546
9,838
10,888
11,668
11,921
12,099
12,420
12,765
13,012
12,938
13,208
13,321
13,718
13,957

129
107
79
40
45
51
51
52
64
66
82
80
60
76
52
54

7
1
2
3
14
37
36
46
56
51
45
47
80
79
101
111

1,406
1,280
1,069
435
507
247
273
311
456
418
378
437
287
379
382
382

1,542
1,388
1,151
478
566
334
360
410
576
535
505
564
427
534
535
547

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

9
16
22
22
22
18
20
28
18
19
13
13
18

2,712
2,799
2,965
3,001
3,065
3,116
3,119
3,207
3,103
3,158
2,996
2,945
3,017

1,605
1,582
1,560
1,654
1,633
1,704
1,700
1,696
1,608
1,605
1,613
1,631
1,633

20
22
21
19
18
18
19
19
19
19
20
21
20

58
96
67
73
60
72
65
66
58
80
59
47
67

8,626
8,696
8,836
8,933
9,083
9,250
9,375
9,333
9,013
9,043
9,021
9,113
9,029

565
484
523
426
356
328
333
357
296
351
268
451
395

13,594
13,697
13,994
14,128
14,237
14,506
14,630
14,706
14,114
14,274
13,992
14,219
14,178

34
33
24
33
32
38
46
53
27
31
32
34
35

110
108
93
98
88
102
109
102
95
94
85
85
97

175
149
91
117
111
178
225
296
133
144
143
121
157

319
291
208
248
230
317
379
450
255
268
260
240
289

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

16
13
14
20
17
22
17
21
17
21
15
11
17

2,785

24
25
20
19
18
18
18
18
18
19
20
22
20

74
62
74
70
76
65
72
68
62
73
67
62
69

8,671
8,789
8,956
8,993
9,207
9,262
9,407
9,351
9,031
9,013
9,007
9,028
9,062

R 411

R 13,596

45

90

182

317

R 413

R 13,851

R 89

R 79

R 339

R 507

R 391

R 13,947

R 40

R 72

R 380

R 14,236

R 32

R 73

R 420

R 14,493

R 32

R 77

R 418

R 14,645

R 40

R 91

R 374

R 14,740

R 38

R 78

R 390

R 14,775

R 54

R 81

R 390

R 14,184

R 32

R 78

R 359

R 14,242

R 68

R 531

R 14,152

396
406

R 13,921

14,234

36
R 31
R 38
R 42

80
R 78

167
165
143
R 184
R 179
R 244
R 161
R 147
R 72
R 105
R 173

R 279

3,107
R 3,138
R 3,197
R 3,188
R 3,224
R 3,133
3,120
2,912
R 2,800
R 3,039

1,616
1,634
1,551
1,647
1,618
1,663
1,664
1,703
1,533
1,637
1,600
1,603
1,622

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Month Average ...

13
13
13
19
19
16
14
20
16
12
16
16

2,671
2,711
2,883
3,023
3,060
3,019
3,033
3,057
2,981
R 3,130
2,880
2,951

1,546
1,537
1,533
1,592
1,564
1,589
1,541
1,611
1,467
1,403
1,439
1,529

22
22
20
18
18
18
18
19
14
18
18
19

64
64
70
70
69
66
67
76
47
71
45
64

8,601
8,629
8,850
8,897
8,993
8,852
8,853
8,871
8,265
8,769
8,674
8,752

408
322
362
459
446
407
436
321
289
R 400
328
380

13,326
13,298
13,731
14,079
14,170
13,966
13,961
13,974
13,078
R 13,803
13,399
13,711

53
41
27
28
27
49
33
27
28
22
26
33

78
77
63
66
62
79
67
71
68
72
65
70

106
89
78
88
91
159
125
105
131
75
86
103

237
207
168
182
180
286
225
203
227
169
177
206

2007 11-Month Average ...
2006 11-Month Average ...

18
19

3,061
3,024

1,624
1,633

20
20

69
68

9,065
9,022

407
389

14,263
14,174

42
35

78
98

179
160

299
294

R 2,916
R 2,941

a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS
22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to
the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data
are for electric utilities and independent power producers.
b Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in
2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Industrial Sector, Other" on Table 3.7b.
c Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
d Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small
amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
e Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small

R 66

R 269

252
R 316
R 295
R 380
R 271
R 250
R 169
R 223
R 293

amount of fuel oil no. 4.
R=Revised.
Notes: • Transportation sector data are estimates. • For total petroleum
consumption by all sectors, see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5.
Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and is
synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. •
See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of
section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

55

Figure 3.8

Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by Sector, Selected Products
(Quadrillion Btu)

Residential and Commercial Sectorsa, 1973-2007

Residential and Commercial Sectorsa, Monthly
0.20

3

0.15

2

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Distillate Fuel Oil

0.10
Residual
Fuel Oil

1

LPGb

0.05
LPGb

Kerosene

Residual
Fuel Oil

Kerosene

0

0.00

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A S OND J F MA M J J A S OND

2005

Industrial Sectora, 1973-2007

2006

2007

2008

Industrial Sectora, Monthly
0.3

2.5
LPGb

2.0
0.2
LPGb

1.5
Distillate Fuel Oil

1.0
0.1
Asphalt and
Road Oil

0.5

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Asphalt and
Road Oil

0.0

0.0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2005

Transportation Sector, 1973-2007

2006

2007

2008

Transportation Sector, Monthly
1.8

20

Motor Gasolinec

15

Motor Gasolinec

1.2

10
Distillate Fuel Oil

0.6

5

Distillate Fuel Oil
Jet Fuel

Jet Fuel

0.0

0
1975
a

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Includes combined-heat-and-power plants and a small number of
electricity-only plants.
b
Liquefied petroleum gases.
c
Beginning in 1993, includes ethanol blended into motor gasoline.

56

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2006

2007

2008

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html.
Sources: Tables 3.8a-3.8c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial
Sectors (Trillion Btu)
Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector
Distillate
Fuel Oil
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Total

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Motor
Gasolineb

........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

2,003
1,807
1,316
1,092
978
905
926
874
772
828
905
908
860
905
924
854

227
161
107
159
64
74
89
93
108
111
95
95
60
70
85
84

595
528
325
327
365
404
473
461
434
534
564
535
543
564
531
517

2,825
2,495
1,748
1,578
1,407
1,383
1,488
1,428
1,314
1,473
1,563
1,539
1,463
1,539
1,539
1,455

644
587
518
631
536
479
483
444
429
438
491
508
444
481
470
447

65
49
41
33
12
22
21
25
31
27
30
31
16
19
20
22

105
93
57
58
64
71
84
81
77
94
99
94
96
100
94
91

87
89
107
96
111
18
27
43
39
28
45
37
45
60
49
46

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

83
87
78
54
51
46
44
46
48
50
54
70
712

8
11
10
8
5
3
4
3
3
3
3
5
66

40
40
41
36
36
35
37
38
36
38
39
41
458

132
139
129
99
93
84
86
87
86
91
96
116
1,236

47
49
44
30
29
26
25
26
27
28
30
40
401

2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
15

7
7
7
6
6
6
7
7
6
7
7
7
81

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

76
83
81
46
34
39
39
44
45
54
71
108
719

5
5
4
3
1
1
1
3
3
3
5
6
40

47
44
40
36
35
35
36
36
35
37
39
43
463

128
132
124
85
71
75
76
83
84
94
114
157
1,222

43
47
46
26
19
22
22
25
26
30
40
61
405

1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
9

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
11-Month Total .......

103
98
77
58
42
45
44
40
42
R 48
58
653

3
5
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
34

44
41
40
34
35
34
36
37
26
35
34
396

150
144
122
94
81
82
84
79
70
R 85
94
1,083

58
55
43
33
24
25
25
22
24
R 27
32
368

2007 11-Month Total .......
2006 11-Month Total .......

611
642

34
61

420
416

1,065
1,120

345
362

a Commercial
sector
fuel
use,
including
that
at
commercial
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants.
b Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total heat content of petroleum consumption
by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Table
3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption

Petroleum
Coke
NA
NA
NA
NA

Residual
Fuel Oil

Total

0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

665
492
565
228
230
141
137
111
85
73
92
70
80
111
122
116

1,565
1,310
1,287
1,045
953
732
751
704
661
661
756
742
681
771
756
722

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
49

(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

9
9
8
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
7
75

69
72
66
48
46
42
41
42
43
45
48
60
621

8
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
82

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
49

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

8
9
9
5
4
4
4
5
5
6
8
12
79

65
68
66
42
34
37
37
41
42
48
59
86
624

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
8

8
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
70

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
43

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
0
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

11
11
8
6
5
5
5
4
5
R5
6
72

82
78
64
49
40
41
41
38
37
R 43
49
561

8
14

74
73

45
45

(s)
(s)

67
68

539
562

and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a-c and
3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption,"
at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 3.7a, A1, and A3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

57

Table 3.8b Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector
(Trillion Btu)
Industrial Sectora
Asphalt
and
Road Oil

Distillate
Fuel Oil

........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

1,264
1,014
962
1,029
1,170
1,178
1,176
1,224
1,263
1,324
1,276
1,257
1,240
1,220
1,304
1,323

1,469
1,339
1,324
1,119
1,150
1,131
1,187
1,203
1,211
1,187
1,200
1,300
1,204
1,136
1,214
1,264

156
119
181
44
12
15
18
19
22
13
16
23
14
24
28
39

1,233
1,144
1,577
1,690
1,608
2,019
2,089
2,134
2,048
2,256
2,271
2,054
2,200
2,068
2,181
2,047

195
149
182
166
186
178
173
182
191
193
190
174
172
159
161
160

255
223
158
218
185
200
200
212
199
152
150
295
309
324
372
356

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

61
61
85
102
130
142
136
153
133
122
95
41
1,261

125
104
132
96
96
79
72
91
102
125
117
123
1,263

4
5
5
4
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
30

188
187
191
168
169
163
174
178
166
177
183
193
2,136

11
17
13
14
12
14
13
13
11
16
11
9
156

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

73
54
76
91
104
127
134
133
121
122
91
72
1,197

139
127
118
117
108
R 93
83
R 88
103
107
87
76
R 1,246

2
2
2
1
1
1
(s)
1
1
1
2
3
18

217
205
186
170
163
164
168
168
164
175
180
201
2,162

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
11-Month Total .......

62
60
61
72
91
116
114
107
107
95
61
947

107
100
102
94
87
45
41
42
62
R 110
79
870

1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
15

2007 11-Month Total .......
2006 11-Month Total .......

1,125
1,220

1,170
1,140

15
27

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Kerosene

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Residual
Fuel Oil

Otherc

Total

558
540
516
575
714
721
757
727
858
936
796
858
842
825
934
889

1,858
1,509
1,349
748
411
337
335
291
230
207
241
203
190
220
249
281

2,117
2,107
3,275
2,149
2,840
2,834
3,119
3,298
3,093
3,128
2,981
3,056
3,041
3,260
3,429
3,320

9,104
8,146
9,525
7,738
8,278
8,614
9,053
9,290
9,116
9,396
9,120
9,220
9,213
9,237
9,872
9,680

31
28
31
31
32
32
33
33
31
32
31
32
376

71
50
80
62
75
81
72
81
96
79
86
102
934

29
23
25
21
18
16
17
18
16
18
16
24
239

319
263
264
251
282
296
263
298
273
287
311
309
3,416

839
740
826
749
817
823
781
866
828
856
852
836
9,811

15
11
15
13
15
13
14
13
12
15
13
12
161

31
28
32
31
33
32
33
33
31
32
31
32
378

64
59
R 91
66
89
R 70
64
R 85
R 84
69
72
92
R 906

24

R 867

23
21
21
20
18
R 20
18
18
R 23
20
R 252

302
284
270
287
290
246
272
257
253
267
282
299
3,308

812
797
R 823
765
R 788
R 799
787
806
R 781
808
R 9,628

205
191
187
158
164
160
170
171
121
164
159
1,849

13
12
14
13
14
13
13
15
9
14
9
139

30
29
31
30
32
30
31
31
28
31
30
335

79
22
77
75
74
67
85
75
52
74
67
746

20
15
17
19
20
18
20
15
14
17
15
189

297
287
252
233
245
234
221
228
179
264
271
2,713

815
718
743
697
728
684
697
686
573
R 770
691
7,802

1,960
1,943

149
147

346
344

814
832

232
215

3,009
3,107

8,821
8,975

a Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power
(CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants.
b Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
c Pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery
gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in 1981, also includes
negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished
oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as
gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned
as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.
R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.

58

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolineb

Petroleum
Coke

R 25

R 795

Notes: • Data are estimates. • For total heat content of petroleum consumption
by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Table
3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption
and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a-c and
3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption,"
at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 3.7b, A1, and A3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 3.8c Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power
Sectors (Trillion Btu)
Electric Power Sectora

Transportation Sector
Aviation
Gasoline
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Distillate
Fuel Oil

Jet
Fuelb

Liquefied
Petroleum
Gases

Lubricants

Motor
Gasolinec

Residual
Fuel Oil

Total

Distillate
Fuel Oild

Petroleum
Coke

Residual
Fuel Oile

Total

........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

83
71
64
50
45
40
37
40
35
39
36
35
34
30
31
35

2,222
2,121
2,795
3,170
3,661
4,195
4,469
4,672
4,812
5,001
5,165
5,292
5,392
5,666
5,932
6,076

2,131
2,029
2,179
2,497
3,129
3,132
3,274
3,308
3,357
3,462
3,580
3,426
3,340
3,265
3,383
3,475

48
42
17
28
22
17
15
13
17
13
11
13
13
16
18
27

163
155
172
156
176
168
163
172
180
182
179
164
162
150
152
151

12,455
12,485
12,383
12,784
13,575
14,607
14,837
14,999
15,463
15,855
15,960
16,041
16,465
16,597
16,959
17,043

727
711
1,398
786
1,016
911
851
712
674
665
888
586
677
571
740
837

17,831
17,614
19,009
19,471
21,625
23,069
23,647
23,917
24,537
25,218
25,820
25,556
26,084
26,296
27,214
27,644

273
226
169
85
97
108
109
111
136
140
175
171
127
161
111
115

15
2
5
7
30
81
80
102
124
112
99
103
175
175
222
243

3,226
2,937
2,459
998
1,163
566
628
715
1,047
959
871
1,003
659
869
879
876

3,515
3,166
2,634
1,090
1,289
755
817
927
1,306
1,211
1,144
1,277
961
1,205
1,212
1,235

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

1
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
2
2
33

490
457
535
524
553
545
563
579
542
570
524
532
6,414

282
251
274
281
287
290
299
298
274
282
274
287
3,379

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
26

11
16
13
13
11
13
12
12
11
15
11
9
147

1,395
1,271
1,429
1,398
1,469
1,448
1,517
1,510
1,411
1,463
1,412
1,474
17,197

110
85
102
80
69
62
65
70
56
68
51
88
906

2,292
2,084
2,359
2,303
2,396
2,362
2,461
2,475
2,298
2,404
2,276
2,393
28,103

6
5
4
6
6
7
8
9
5
6
6
6
74

21
18
17
18
16
18
20
19
17
17
15
16
214

34
26
18
22
22
34
44
58
25
28
27
24
361

61
50
39
46
44
59
72
86
47
51
48
46
648

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

3
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
32

503
476
531
543
R 567
R 559
R 576
R 582
R 548
563
509
506
R 6,461

284
259
273
280
284
283
293
299
261
288
272
282
3,358

3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
26

14
11
14
13
14
12
13
13
11
14
12
12
152

1,403
1,284
1,449
1,408
1,490
1,450
1,522
1,513
1,414
1,458
1,410
1,461
17,262

17
13
13
13
14
16
R 15
15
14
R 13
12
15
R 171

R 35

60

R 60

R 88

R 32

53

31
28
35
35
48
R 30
29
R 14
20
R 397

R 50

R 657

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
11-Month Total .......

2
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
26

482
458
521
528
553
528
548
552
521
R 565
503
5,758

272
253
269
271
275
270
271
283
250
247
245
2,905

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
22

12
11
13
13
13
12
13
14
8
13
8
131

2007 11-Month Total .......
2006 11-Month Total .......

30
31

5,955
5,883

3,076
3,093

24
23

141
139

a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS
22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to
the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data
are for electric utilities and independent power producers.
b Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in
2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in
"Industrial Sector Other" on Table 3.8b.
c Finished motor gasoline. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended
into motor gasoline.
d Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small
amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
e Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small
amount of fuel oil no. 4.

80

2,289

R 73

R 2,107

R 76

R 2,347

72
82
79
73
76
R 74
70
100
77
R 931

2,321
2,441
2,388
2,481
R 2,489
R 2,312
2,398
2,308
2,341
R 28,221

8
15
7
R6
6
R7
R7
R 10
6
6
5
R7
R 89

1,392
1,306
1,432
1,393
1,455
1,386
1,432
1,435
1,294
1,419
1,358
15,302

79
59
71
87
87
77
85
63
54
78
62
801

2,242
2,091
2,310
2,296
2,387
2,277
2,352
2,352
2,131
R 2,326
2,180
24,945

10
7
5
5
5
9
6
5
5
4
4
64

15
14
12
12
12
14
13
13
12
13
12
141

21
16
15
17
18
30
24
21
25
15
16
217

45
37
32
33
34
53
43
39
42
32
33
422

15,801
15,723

854
818

25,880
25,710

82
67

156
198

376
337

615
603

48
R 58
R 56
R 73
R 50

48
R 31

42

R=Revised.
Notes: • Transportation sector data are estimates. • For total heat content of
petroleum consumption by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum
products supplied in Table 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of
petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption"
in Tables 3.7a-c and 3.8a-c. • See Note 7, "Petroleum Products Supplied and
Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/petro.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 3.7c, A1, and A3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

59

Petroleum
Note 1. Petroleum Survey Respondents. The Energy
Information Administration (EIA) uses a number of sources
and methods to maintain the survey respondent lists. On a
regular basis, survey managers review such industry publications as the Oil & Gas Journal and Oil Daily for information on facilities or companies starting up or closing down
operations. Those sources are augmented by articles in
newspapers, communications from respondents indicating
changes in status, and information received from survey
systems.
To supplement routine frames maintenance and to provide
more thorough coverage, a comprehensive frames investigation is conducted every 3 years. This investigation results in
the reassessment and recompilation of the complete frame
for each survey. The effort also includes the evaluation of
the impact of potential frame changes on the historical time
series of data from these respondents. The results of this
frame study are usually implemented in January to provide a
full year under the same frame.
In 1991, EIA conducted a frame identifier survey of companies that produce, blend, store, or import oxygenates. A
summary of the results from the identification survey was
published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report dated
February 12, 1992, and in the February 1992 issue of the
Petroleum Supply Monthly. In order to continue to provide
relevant information about U.S. and regional gasoline
supply, EIA conducted a second frame identifier survey of
those companies during 1992. As a result, numerous
respondents were added to the monthly surveys effective in
January 1993. See Explanatory Note 7, “Frames Maintenance,” in the Petroleum Supply Monthly.
Note 2. Motor Gasoline. Beginning in January 1981, EIA
expanded its universe to include non-refinery blenders and
separated blending components from finished motor
gasoline as a reporting category. Also, survey forms were
modified to describe refinery operations more accurately.
Beginning with the reporting of January 1993 data, EIA
made adjustments to the product supplied series for finished
motor gasoline. It was recognized that motor gasoline
statistics published by EIA through 1992 were underreported because the reporting system was (1) not collecting
all fuel ethanol blending, and (2) there was a misreporting of
motor gasoline blending components that were blended into
finished gasoline. The adjustments are incorporated into
EIA’s data beginning in January 1993. To facilitate data
analysis across the 1992–1993 period, EIA prepared a table
of 1992 data adjusted according to the 1993 basis. See
Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1993, Table H3.
Note 3. Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils. The requirement to report crude oil in pipelines or burned on leases as
either distillate or residual fuel oil was eliminated. Prior to
60

January 1981, the refinery input of unfinished oils typically
exceeded the available supply of unfinished oils.
That discrepancy was assumed to be due to the redesignation of distillate and residual fuel oils received as such but
used as unfinished oil inputs by the receiving refinery. The
imbalance between supply and disposition of unfinished oils
would then be subtracted from the production of distillate
and residual fuel oils. Two-thirds of that difference was
subtracted from distillate and one-third from residual.
Beginning in January 1981, EIA modified its survey forms
to account for redesignated product and discontinued the
above-mentioned adjustment.
Prior to 1983, crude oil burned on leases and used at pipeline
pump stations was reported as either distillate or residual fuel
oil and was included as product supplied for these products.
Note 4. Petroleum New Stock Basis. In January 1975,
1979, 1981, and 1983, numerous respondents were added to
bulk terminal and pipeline surveys, affecting subsequent
stocks reported and stock change calculations. Using the
expanded coverage (new basis), the end-of-year stocks, in
million barrels, would have been:
Crude Oil: 1982—645 (Total) and 351 (Non-SPR).
Distillate Fuel Oil:
1974—224; 1980—205; and
1982—186.
Jet Fuel (Total): 1974—30; 1980—42; and 1982—39.
Liquefied Petroleum Gases:
1974—113; 1978—136;
1980—128; and 1982—102.
Propane and Propylene: 1978—86; 1980—69; and
1982—57.
Motor Gasoline (Total):
1974—225; 1980—263;
1982—244.
Residual Fuel Oil: 1974—75; 1980—91; and 1982—69.
Total Petroleum:
1974—1,121; 1980—1,425; and
1982—1,461.
Stock change calculations beginning in 1975, 1979, 1981,
and 1983 were made by using new basis stock levels.
In January 1984, changes were made in the reporting of
natural gas liquids. As a result, unfractionated stream is
now reported on a component basis (ethane, propane,
normal butane, isobutane, and pentanes plus). This change
affects stocks reported and stock change calculations.
Under the new basis, 1983 end-of-year stocks, in million
barrels, would have been 108 for liquefied petroleum gases,
and 55 for propane and propylene.
In January 1993, changes were made in the monthly surveys
to begin collecting bulk terminal and pipeline stocks of
oxygenates. This change affected stocks reported and stock
change calculations. However, a new basis stock level was
not calculated for 1992 end-of-year stocks.
Note 5. Stocks of Alaskan Crude Oil. Stocks of Alaskan
crude oil in transit were included for the first time in
January 1981. The major impact of this change is on the
reporting of stock change calculations. Using the expanded

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

coverage (new basis), 1980 end-of-year stocks, in million
barrels, would have been 488 (Total) and 380 (Non-SPR).
Note 6. Petroleum Data Discrepancies. Due to differences internal to EIA data processing systems, some small
discrepancies exist between data in the Monthly Energy
Review (MER) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) and
Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The data that have
discrepancies are footnoted in Section 3 tables. The corresponding PSA/PSM values, in thousand barrels per day, are:
Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, 1976: 1,603; Total
Exports, 1979: 472; Petroleum Products Exports, 1979: 237;
and SPR Crude Oil Imports, 1978: 162.
Note 7. Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum
Consumption. Total petroleum products supplied is the sum
of the products supplied for each petroleum product, crude oil,
unfinished oils, and gasoline blending components. For each
of these, except crude oil, product supplied is calculated by
adding refinery production, natural gas plant liquids production, new supply of other liquids, imports, and stock withdrawals, and subtracting stock additions, refinery inputs, and
exports. Crude oil product supplied is the sum of crude oil
burned on leases and at pipeline pump stations as reported on
Form EIA-813, “Monthly Crude Oil Report.” Prior to 1983,
crude oil burned on leases and used at pipeline pump stations
was reported as either distillate or residual fuel oil and was
included as product supplied for these products. Petroleum
product supplied (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) is an approximation
of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term
“Petroleum Consumption” in Tables 3.7a-c and 3.8a-c.

Tables 3.7a–3.7c Sources
Petroleum consumption data in these tables are derived from
data for “petroleum products supplied” from the following
sources:
1973–1975: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, "Petroleum Statement,
Annual."
1976–1980: EIA, Energy Data Reports, "Petroleum Statement, Annual."
1981–2007: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual.
2008: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly.
Energy-use allocation procedures by individual product are
as follows:
Asphalt and Road Oil—All consumption of asphalt and
road oil is assigned to the industrial sector.
Aviation Gasoline—All consumption of aviation gasoline
is assigned to the transportation sector.
Distillate Fuel Oil—Distillate fuel oil consumption is
assigned to the sectors as follows:

Distillate Fuel Oil Consumed by the Electric Power
Sector—See Table 7.4b. For 1973–1979, electric utility
consumption of distillate fuel oil is assumed to be the
amount of petroleum (minus small amounts of kerosene and
kerosene-type jet fuel deliveries) consumed in gas turbine
and internal combustion plants. For 1980–2000, electric
utility consumption of distillate fuel is assumed to be the
amount of light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 and 2, plus small amounts
of kerosene and jet fuel) consumed.
Distillate Fuel Oil Consumed by the End-Use Sectors,
Annually—The aggregate end-use amount is total distillate fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the
electric power sector. The end-use total consumed annually
is allocated into the individual end-use sectors (residential,
commercial, industrial, and transportation) in proportion to
each sector’s share of sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil
and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-0535),
which is based primarily on data collected by Form
EIA-821, “Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report”
(previously Form EIA-172). Shares for the current year are
based on the most recent Sales report.
Following are notes on the individual sector groupings:
Since 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly
from the Sales reports. Prior to 1979, each year's sales
subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into
residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in
proportion to the 1979 shares.
Since 1979, the commercial sector sales total is directly
from the Sales reports. Prior to 1979, each year's sales
subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into
residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in
proportion to the 1979 shares.
Since 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the
sales for industrial, farm, oil company, off-highway diesel, and
all other uses. Prior to 1979, each year's sales subtotal of the
heating plus industrial category is split into residential,
commercial, and industrial (including farm) in proportion to
the 1979 shares, and this estimated industrial portion is added
to oil company, off-highway diesel, and all other uses.
The transportation sector sales total is the sum of the sales
for railroad, vessel bunkering, on-highway diesel, and
military uses for all years.
Distillate Fuel Oil Consumed by the End-Use Sectors,
Monthly—Residential sector and commercial sector
monthly consumption is estimated by allocating the
annual estimates, which are described above, into the
months in proportion to each month's share of the year's
sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For each month of the current
year, the residential and commercial consumption
increase from the same month in the previous year is
based on the percent increase in that month’s No. 2
heating oil sales from the same month in the previous

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

61

year.) The years’ No. 2 heating oil sales totals are from
the following sources: for 1973–1980, the Ethyl Corporation, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; for 1981 and
1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report
of Heating Oil Sales; and for 1983 forward, EIA, Form
EIA-782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly
Petroleum Product Sales Report," No. 2 Fuel Oil Sales to
End Users and for Resale.
The transportation highway use portion is allocated into
the months in proportion to each month's share of the
year's total sales for highway use as reported by the
Federal Highway Administration's Table MF-25, "Private
and Commercial Highway Use of Special Fuels by
Months." After 1993, the sales-for-highway-use data are
no longer available as a monthly series; the 1993 data are
used for allocating succeeding year's totals into months.
A distillate fuel oil “balance” is calculated as total distillate
fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric
power sector, residential sector, commercial sector, and for
highway use.
Industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated by
multiplying each month’s distillate fuel oil “balance” by the
annual industrial consumption share of the annual distillate
fuel oil “balance.”
Total transportation sector monthly consumption is
estimated as total distillate fuel oil supplied minus the
amount consumed by the residential, commercial, industrial,
and electric power sectors.
Jet Fuel—Through 1982, small amounts of kerosene-type
jet fuel were consumed by the electric power sector.
Kerosene-type jet fuel deliveries to the electric power sector
as reported on the Form FERC-423 (formerly Form
FPC-423) were used as estimates of this consumption.
Through 2004, all remaining jet fuel (kerosene-type and
naphtha-type) is consumed by the transportation sector.
Beginning in 2005, kerosene-type jet fuel is consumed by
the transportation sector; while naphtha-type jet fuel is
classified under “Other Petroleum Products,” which is
assigned to the industrial sector.
Kerosene—Kerosene product supplied is allocated into
the individual end-use sectors (residential, commercial,
and industrial) in proportion to each sector’s share of
sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales
(Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-0535), which is based
primarily on data collected by Form EIA-821, “Annual
Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report” (previously Form
EIA-172).
Since 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly from
the Sales reports. Prior to 1979, each year's sales category
called "heating" is split into residential, commercial, and
industrial in proportion to the 1979 shares.

62

Since 1979, the commercial sector sales total is directly
from the Sales reports. Prior to 1979, each year's sales
category called "heating" is split into residential, commercial, and industrial in proportion to the 1979 shares.
Since 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the
sales for industrial, farm, and all other uses. Prior to 1979,
each year's sales category called "heating" is split into
residential, commercial and industrial in proportion to the
1979 shares, and this estimated industrial (including farm)
portion is added to all other uses.
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)—The annual shares of
LPG's total consumption that are estimated to be used by
each sector are applied to each month's total LPG consumption to create monthly sector consumption estimates. The
annual sector shares are calculated as described below.
Sales of LPG to the residential and commercial sector are
converted from thousand gallons per year to thousand
barrels per year and are assumed to be the annual consumption of LPG by the sector.
The quantity of LPG sold each year for consumption in
internal combustion engines is allocated between the transportation and industrial sectors on the basis of data for
special fuels used on highways published by the U.S.
Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, in Highway Statistics. The allocations of LPG sold
for internal combustion engine use to the transportation
sector range from a low of 20 percent (in 2001) to a high of
73 percent (in 1994).
LPG consumed annually by the industrial sector is estimated
as the difference between LPG total supplied and the
estimated consumption of LPG by the sum of the residential
and commercial sector and the transportation sector. The
industrial sector includes LPG used by chemical plants as
raw materials or solvents and used in the production of
synthetic rubber; refinery fuel use; use as synthetic natural
gas feedstock and use in secondary recovery projects; all
farm use; LPG sold to gas utility companies for distribution
through the mains; and a portion of the use of LPG as an
internal combustion engine fuel.
Sources of the annual sales data for creating annual energy
shares are:
1973–1982: EIA's "Sales of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
and Ethane" reports, based primarily on data collected by
Form EIA-174, “Sales of Liquefied Petroleum Gases.”
1983: End-use consumption estimates for 1983 are based
on 1982 end-use consumption because the collection of data
under Form EIA-174 was discontinued after data year 1982.
1984 forward: American Petroleum Institute (API), "Sales
of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases,"
which is based on an LPG sales survey jointly sponsored
by API, the Gas Processors Association, and the National
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Association. EIA adjusts the data
to remove quantities of pentanes plus and to estimate
withheld values.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Lubricants—The consumption of lubricants is allocated to
the industrial and transportation sectors for all months
according to proportions developed from annual sales of
lubricants to the two sectors from U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Industrial
Reports, "Sales of Lubricating and Industrial Oils and
Greases." The 1973 shares are applied to 1973 and 1974;
the 1975 shares are applied to 1975 and 1976; and the 1977
shares are applied to 1977 forward.
Motor Gasoline—The total monthly consumption of motor
gasoline is allocated to the sectors in proportion to aggregations of annual sales categories created on the basis of the
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration, Highway Statistics, Tables MF-21, MF-24,
and MF-25, as follows:
Commercial sales are the sum of sales for public
non-highway use and miscellaneous and unclassified uses.
Industrial sales are the sum of sales for agriculture,
construction, and industrial and commercial use as classified in the Highway Statistics.
Transportation sales are the sum of sales for highway use
(minus the sales of special fuels, which are primarily diesel
fuel and are accounted for in the transportation sector of
distillate fuel) and sales for marine use.
Petroleum Coke—Portions of petroleum coke are
consumed by the electric power sector (see Table 7.4b) and
the commercial sector (see sources for Table 7.4c). The
remaining petroleum coke is assigned to the industrial sector.
Residual Fuel Oil—Residual fuel oil consumption is
assigned to the sectors as follows:
Residual Fuel Oil Consumed by the Electric Power
Sector—See Table 7.4b. For 1973–1979, electric utility
consumption of residual fuel oil is assumed to be the
amount of petroleum consumed in steam-electric power
plants. For 1980–2000, electric utility consumption of
residual fuel oil is assumed to be the amount of heavy oil
(fuel oil nos. 4, 5, and 6) consumed.
Residual Fuel Oil Consumed by the End-Use Sectors,
Annually—The aggregate end-use amount is total residual
fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the
electric power sector. The end-use total consumed
annually is allocated into the individual end-use sectors
(commercial, industrial, and transportation) in proportion to
each sector’s share of sales as reported in EIA’s Fuel Oil
and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA-535),
which is based primarily on data collected by Form
EIA-821, “Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report”
(previously Form EIA-172). Shares for the current year are
based on the most recent Sales report.

Following are notes on the individual sector groupings:
Since 1979, commercial sales data are directly from the
Sales reports. Prior to 1979, each year's sales subtotal of
the heating plus industrial category is split into commercial and industrial in proportion to the 1979 shares.
Since 1979, industrial sales data are the sum of sales for
industrial, oil company, and all other uses. Prior to 1979,
each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial
category is split into commercial and industrial in
proportion to the 1979 shares, and this estimated industrial portion is added to oil company and all other uses.
Transportation sales are the sum of sales for railroad,
vessel bunkering, and military uses for all years.
Residual Fuel Oil Consumed by the End-Use Sectors,
Monthly—Commercial sector monthly consumption is
estimated by allocating the annual estimates, which are
described above, into the months in proportion to each
month's share of the year's sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For
each month of the current year, the consumption increase
from the same month in the previous year is based on the
percent increase in that month’s No. 2 heating oil sales from
the same month in the previous year.) The years' No. 2
heating oil sales totals are from the following sources: for
1973–1980, the Ethyl Corporation, Monthly Report of
Heating Oil Sales; for 1981 and 1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales; and
for 1983–1996, EIA, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant
Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report," No.
2 Fuel Oil Sales to End Users and for Resale.
A residual fuel oil “balance” is calculated as total residual
fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric
power sector, commercial sector, and by industrial
combined-heat-and-power plants (see sources for Table 7.4c).
Transportation sector monthly consumption is estimated by
multiplying each month’s residual fuel oil “balance” by the
annual transportation consumption share of the annual residual fuel oil “balance.”
Total industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated as
total residual fuel oil supplied minus the amount consumed by
the commercial, transportation, and electric power sectors.
Other Petroleum Products—Consumption of all remaining petroleum products is assigned to the industrial sector.
Other petroleum products include pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery
gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in
1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and
residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other
products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983,
also includes crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005,
also includes naphtha-type jet fuel.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

63

4
Natural Gas
.

Natural gas pipeline, El Paso County, Texas. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 4.1 Natural Gas
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
Overview, 1973-2007

Overview, Monthly

25

3.0

Consumption

Consumption

2.5

20
Dry Production

15

2.0
1.5
Dry
Production

10
1.0
5

Net Imports

0.5

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Consumption by Sector, 1973-2007

Net Imports

0.0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Consumption by Sector, Monthly

12

1.2

Electric
Power

10

Residential

0.9
8

Industrial

Industrial

6

0.6
Residential

4

Electric Power

0.3
2

Commercial

Commercial
Transportation

Transportation

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Underground Storage, End of Year, 1973-2007

0.0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Underground Storage, End of Month
9

8
Total

Total

6
6

Working Gas
4

Base Gas

2

Working Gas

3

Base Gas

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/natgas.html.
Sources: Tables 4.1, 4.3, and 4.4.

66

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 4.1 Natural Gas Overview
(Billion Cubic Feet)
Gross
Withdrawalsa

Marketed
Production
(Wet)b

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

24,067
21,104
21,870
19,607
21,523
23,744
24,114
24,213
24,108
23,823
24,174
24,501
23,941
24,119
23,970
23,457

i22,648
i20,109

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Extraction
Lossc

Dry Gas
Productiond
i21,731
i19,236

20,180
17,270
18,594
19,506
19,812
19,866
19,961
19,805
20,198
20,570
19,885
19,974
19,517
18,927

917
872
777
816
784
908
958
964
938
973
1,016
954
957
876
927
876

R 1,975

R 1,611

R 75

R 1,536

R 1,794

R 1,451
R 1,631

R 1,909

R 1,571

R 1,957

R 1,632

R 1,939

R 1,614

R 1,975

R 1,650

1,989
R 1,946
R 2,026
R 1,974
R 2,056
R 23,535

1,656
R 1,617
R 1,675
R 1,615
R 1,685
R 19,410

68
76
R 73
R 76
75
77
77
R 76
78
75
R 79
906

R 1,383

R 1,994

R 18,504

R 2,034

R 1,637

R 76

R 1,870

R 1,498

R 70

R 2,084

R 1,684

R 78

R 1,984

R 1,609

R 75

R 2,053

R 1,700

R 79

R 2,017

R 1,654

R 77

R 2,050

R 1,690

R 79

R 2,074

R 1,701

R 79

R 2,034

R 1,659

R 77

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 2,118

R 1,720

R 80

2,094
R 2,179
R 24,591

R 1,697

R 79

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

2,196
2,077
2,243
2,133
2,188
2,145
2,218
2,187
1,966
R 2,202
2,207
23,761

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

22,411
21,479

R 1,770

R 82

R 20,019

R 930

E 1,783

E 19,584

75
72
78
76
80
73
77
77
62
R 74
71
814

18,249
17,725

848
827

E 1,693
E 1,828
E 1,756
E 1,814
E 1,788
E 1,864
E 1,859
E 1,601
RE 1,801
E 1,797

Supplemental
Gaseous
Fuelse

Trade
Imports

Exports

Net
Imports

Net
Storage
Withdrawalsf

Balancing ConsumpItemg
tionh

NA
NA
155
126
123
110
109
103
102
98
90
86
68
68
60
64

1,033
953
985
950
1,532
2,841
2,937
2,994
3,152
3,586
3,782
3,977
4,015
3,944
4,259
4,341

77
73
49
55
86
154
153
157
159
163
244
373
516
680
854
729

956
880
936
894
1,447
2,687
2,784
2,837
2,993
3,422
3,538
3,604
3,499
3,264
3,404
3,612

-442
-344
23
235
-513
415
2
24
-530
172
829
-1,166
468
-197
-114
52

-196
-235
-640
-428
307
396
860
871
657
-119
-305
99
44
44
448
232

22,049
19,538
19,877
17,281
j19,174
22,207
22,610
22,737
22,246
22,405
23,333
22,239
23,007
22,277
22,389
22,011

6
6
6
5
4
6
5
6
5
6
6
6
66

360
321
348
332
351
348
371
365
334
334
339
383
4,186

56
59
69
45
63
66
59
55
53
59
70
72
724

305
262
279
287
288
282
312
310
281
275
269
311
3,462

271
495
206
-260
-374
-317
-166
-194
-364
-135
51
351
-436

R 48

R 2,164

R 1,561

6

1,429
R 1,606
R 1,534
R 1,621
R 1,577
R 1,611
R 1,622
R 1,582
R 1,640
R 1,619
R 1,688
R 19,089

R5

6
5
4
5
5
5
5
R5
R6
4
R 63

393
373
402
387
380
381
419
427
361
347
341
397
4,608

69
57
77
51
62
57
71
62
65
64
86
101
822

324
316
325
336
318
324
348
365
296
284
254
295
3,785

E 1,709

E2

E 1,621

E4

E 1,750

E5

E 1,679

E5

E 1,734

E4

E 1,715

E5

E 1,787

E4

E 1,781

E5

111
102
104
78
73
65
R 65
R 70
57
69
E 83
E 878

275
244
260
243
222
220
R 254
R 257
255
R 252
E 227
E 2,709

824
593
219
-190
-402
-339
-342
-350
-300
-242
57
-473

721
652

3,490
3,151

-389
-788

19,403
16,454
17,810
18,599
18,854
18,902
19,024
18,832
19,182
19,616
18,928
19,099
18,591
18,051

R 1,555
R 1,497
R 1,556
R 1,539
R 1,573
R 1,579
R 1,542
R 1,597
R 1,540
R 1,606

E 1,540

E5

RE 1,727

E5

E 1,726

E5

E 18,769

E 49

386
346
364
321
295
285
R 320
R 326
313
R 320
E 310
E 3,587

17,401
16,897

59
60

4,211
3,803

a Gas withdrawn from natural gas and crude oil wells; excludes lease
condensate.
b Gross withdrawals minus repressuring, nonhydrocarbon gases removed, and
vented and flared. See Note 1, "Natural Gas Production," at end of section.
c See Note 2, "Natural Gas Extraction Loss," at end of section.
d Marketed production (wet) minus extraction loss.
e See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of section.
f Net withdrawals from underground storage. For 1980-2007, also includes net
withdrawals of liquefied natural gas in above-ground tanks. See Note 4, "Natural
Gas Storage," at end of section.
g See Note 5, "Natural Gas Balancing Item," at end of section. Since 1980,
excludes transit shipments that cross the U.S.-Canada border (i.e., natural gas
delivered to its destination via the other country).
h See Note 6, "Natural Gas Consumption," at end of section.

R -3

R 2,143

R 79

R 2,125

R 151

R 1,680

R 52

R 1,525

R 40

R 1,550

R 33

R 1,758

R 50

R 1,751

R -4

R 1,461

R -100

R 1,643

R -102

R 1,764

R -154

R 2,121

R 89

R 21,685

R 698

R -120

R 2,470

R 748

R 65

R 2,564

R 56

R 133

R 2,125

R -125

R 56

R 1,806

R -470

81
R 44
R 14
R 35
R8
R -44
-177
R -178
R -83

R 1,554

R 23,047

R -89

R 2,720

R 26

R 2,488

R 35

R 2,270

R 86

R 1,823

R 21

R 1,579

R 13

R 1,613

R 14

R 1,718

R1

R 1,694

R -399
R -322
R -133
R -306
R -263
R 127
R 582
R 193

R 1,552
R 1,656
R 1,894
R 1,585
R 1,622

1,828
R 2,392

R -36

R 1,464

R -106

R 1,634

-159
-195

1,857
20,860

95
243

20,655
19,563

i May include unknown quantities of nonhydrocarbon gases.
j For 1989-1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power

producers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector" on
Table 4.3. See Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989-1992," at end of section.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/natgas.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Imports and Exports: Table 4.2. • Consumption: Table 4.3.
• Balancing Item: Calculated as consumption minus dry gas production,
supplemental gaseous fuels, net imports, and net storage withdrawals. • All Other
Data: 1973-2002—Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual,
annual reports. 2003 forward—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly, January 2009, Table 1.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

67

Table 4.2 Natural Gas Trade by Country
(Billion Cubic Feet)
Imports

Exports

Algeriaa Canadab Egypta Mexicob Nigeriaa Omana
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Qatara

Trinidad
and
Tobagoa Othera,c

Total

Canadab

Japana

Mexicob

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

3
5
86
24
84
18
35
66
69
76
47
65
27
53
120
97

1,028
948
797
926
1,448
2,816
2,883
2,899
3,052
3,368
3,544
3,729
3,785
3,437
3,607
3,700

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
73

2
0
102
0
0
7
14
17
15
55
12
10
2
0
0
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
38
8
50
12
8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
12
3
9
9
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
46
23
35
14
12
3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
51
99
98
151
378
462
439

0
0
0
0
0
0
5
12
17
17
11
2
5
3
36
9

1,033
953
985
950
1,532
2,841
2,937
2,994
3,152
3,586
3,782
3,977
4,015
3,944
4,259
4,341

15
10
(s)
(s)
17
28
52
56
40
39
73
167
189
271
395
358

48
53
45
53
53
65
68
62
66
64
66
66
63
66
62
65

14
9
4
2
16
61
34
38
53
61
106
141
263
343
397
305

77
73
49
55
86
154
153
157
159
163
244
373
516
680
854
729

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
17

320
282
314
273
283
286
313
313
290
296
290
328
3,590

3
5
0
14
20
14
15
9
9
3
17
11
120

1
(s)
1
(s)
(s)
0
0
0
3
1
1
4
13

3
3
0
6
3
6
6
6
6
9
6
3
57

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

30
28
30
36
44
39
33
37
25
25
25
37
389

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

360
321
348
332
351
348
371
365
334
334
339
383
4,186

32
33
37
16
21
23
17
17
23
30
45
47
341

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
5
4
61

18
20
26
24
36
37
37
32
26
25
20
21
322

56
59
69
45
63
66
59
55
53
59
70
72
724

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

3
0
9
24
24
12
0
3
3
0
0
0
77

336
321
309
279
283
291
315
335
318
314
311
372
3,783

9
6
15
14
15
15
12
12
12
3
3
0
115

4
8
6
9
3
4
5
4
2
2
3
4
54

5
6
9
9
15
20
12
15
3
0
0
0
95

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
3
6
3
6
0
0
0
0
18

37
33
54
51
38
30
62
46
24
29
24
21
448

0
0
0
0
0
3
9
6
0
0
0
0
18

393
373
402
387
380
381
419
427
361
347
341
397
4,608

41
34
53
32
35
28
38
28
33
31
58
72
482

5
5
5
4
4
3
4
4
4
2
3
4
47

24
17
19
15
24
26
29
30
28
29
26
25
292

69
57
77
51
62
57
71
62
65
d64
86
101
d822

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

356
322
339
289
259
250
R 285
R 287
274
R 287
E 282
E 3,230

3
0
0
3
3
6
6
3
9
3
9
46

1
0
1
(s)
4
3
4
4
7
R6
E6
E 36

0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
12

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3

25
21
21
26
25
21
25
24
20
24
14
245

0
3
3
0
3
0
0
5
0
0
0
14

386
346
364
321
295
285
R 320
R 326
313
R 320
E 310
E 3,587

68
62
69
46
43
30
R 31
R 29
27
R 36
E 50
E 492

3
3
4
4
5
5
5
6
4
4
4
46

40
37
31
28
25
30
R 30
35
27
R 28
E 28
E 340

111
102
104
78
73
65
R 65
R 70
57
69
E 83
E 878

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

77
17

3,411
3,262

115
108

50
9

95
54

0
0

18
0

427
353

18
0

4,211
3,803

411
294

42
56

266
301

721
652

a

As liquefied natural gas.
By pipeline, except for very small amounts of liquefied natural gas imported
from Canada in 1973, 1977, and 1981 and exported to Mexico beginning in 1998.
See Note 8, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end of section.
c Australia in 1997-2001 and 2004; Brunei in 2002; Equatorial Guinea in 2007;
Indonesia in 1986 and 2000; Malaysia in 1999 and 2002-2005; Norway in 2008;
United Arab Emirates in 1996-2000; and Other (unassigned) in 2004.
d Includes 2 billion cubic feet to Russia.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic feet.
Notes: • See Note 8, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end of section. •
b

68

Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • U.S.
geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/natgas.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • 1973-1987: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form
FPC-14, "Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas."
• 1988-2005: EIA, Natural Gas Annual, annual reports. • 2006 forward: EIA,
Natural Gas Monthly, January 2009, Table 4; and Department of Energy, Office of
Fossil Energy, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports."

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 4.3 Natural Gas Consumption by Sector
(Billion Cubic Feet)
End-Use Sectors
Industrial

Transportation

Other Industrial
Residential

Commerciala

Lease and
Plant Fuel

CHPb

Non-CHPc

Total

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

4,879
4,924
4,752
4,433
4,391
4,850
5,241
4,984
4,520
4,726
4,996
4,771
4,889
5,079
4,869
4,827

2,597
2,508
2,611
2,432
2,623
3,031
3,158
3,215
2,999
3,045
3,182
3,023
3,144
3,179
3,129
2,999

1,496
1,396
1,026
966
1,236
1,220
1,250
1,203
1,173
1,079
1,151
1,119
1,113
1,122
1,098
1,112

(h)
(h)
(h)
(h)
1,055
1,258
1,289
1,282
1,355
1,401
1,386
1,310
1,240
1,144
1,191
1,084

8,689
6,968
7,172
5,901
5,963
6,906
7,146
7,229
6,965
6,678
6,757
6,035
6,267
6,007
6,052
5,514

8,689
6,968
7,172
5,901
i 7,018
8,164
8,435
8,511
8,320
8,079
8,142
7,344
7,507
7,150
7,243
6,597

10,185
8,365
8,198
6,867
8,255
9,384
9,685
9,714
9,493
9,158
9,293
8,463
8,620
8,273
8,341
7,709

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

714
702
626
355
204
141
116
108
125
240
413
624
4,368

397
390
353
226
R 160
134
122
R 126
133
188
256
347
R 2,832

R 96
R 87
R 97
R 93
R 95
R 94
R 96
R 97
R 95
R 98
R 96

91
83
91
84
92
94
103
104
91
97
89
95
1,115

R 488
R 475
R 492
R 449
R 427
R 413
R 408
R 426
R 428
R 446
R 464
R 482

R 579
R 558
R 583
R 533
R 519
R 507
R 511
R 530
R 519
R 543
R 553
R 578

R 674
R 644
R 679
R 626
R 614
R 601
R 608
R 627
R 613
R 641
R 648
R 677

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 802
R 899
R 616

R 432
R 478
R 355
R 261
R 169

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

408
216
137
118
112
R 116
R 174
404
R 715
R 4,717
882

R 1,050

RE 107
RE 101
RE 109
RE 105
RE 109
RE 107
RE 112
RE 111
RE 96
RE 108
E 108
E 1,173

93
83
86
79
84
88
89
92
72
85
80
929

1,092
1,042

960
1,019

145
119
111
117
213
422
4,113

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

4,002
3,745

2,623
2,485

398

R 96
R 79
R 81
R 80
R 84
R 85
R 90

R 1,199

471
454
377
256
179
134
R 127
126
129
183
272
2,708

R 232

R 99
R 91
R 101
R 97
R 101
R 99

135
R 123
127
128
158
R 257
R 395
R 3,017

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

R 819
R 655

R 100
R 1,142

100

R 101
R 99
R 103
R 102
R 106

R 101
R 89
R 89
R 85
R 90

R 5,398

R 6,512

R 7,654

R 523
R 518
R 496
R 457
R 434
R 424
R 418
R 431
R 425
R 448

R 619
R 598
R 577
R 537

R 717
R 688
R 679
R 633
R 619
R 607
R 609
R 633
R 614
R 641
R 667
R 717

Pipelinesd
and Distributione

Vehicle
Fuel

Total

Electric
Power
Sectorf,g

Total

728
583
635
504
660
700
711
751
635
645
642
625
667
591
566
584

NA
NA
NA
NA
(s)
5
6
8
9
12
13
15
15
18
21
23

728
583
635
504
660
705
718
760
645
657
655
640
682
610
587
607

3,660
3,158
3,682
3,044
i 3,245
4,237
3,807
4,065
4,588
4,820
5,206
5,342
5,672
5,135
5,464
5,869

22,049
19,538
19,877
17,281
i 19,174
22,207
22,610
22,737
22,246
22,405
23,333
22,239
23,007
22,277
22,389
22,011

59

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
R 24

61
60
60
47
43
43
49
49
41
46
R 49
60
R 608

318
346
407
426
504
630
864
840
548
528
397
414
6,222

R 2,164
R 2,143
R 2,125
R 1,680
R 1,525
R 1,550
R 1,758
R 1,751
R 1,461
R 1,643
R 1,764
R 2,121

R 70
R 72
R 60

R 648

R 448
R 425
R 416
R 453
R 507
R 628
R 761
R 969
R 683
R 604
R 448
R 498

R 6,841

R 58

58
45
41
41
47
47
39
44
47
58
584
R 68
R 70
R 58

R 21,685
R 2,470
R 2,564
R 2,125
R 1,806
R 1,554
R 1,552
R 1,656
R 1,894
R 1,585
R 1,622

R 521
R 5,574

R 6,625

R 7,823

R 623

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
R 25

R 563
R 529
R 518
R 474
R 457
R 425
R 436
R 443
R 406
R 454

R 656
R 611
R 604
R 554
R 541
R 512
R 525
R 535
R 478
R 539

R 763
R 713
R 713
R 659
R 649
R 619
R 637
R 646
R 573
R 647

540
6,095

648
7,268

3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
28

E 76
RE 70
E 64
E 52
E 45
E 46
E 49
E 48
E 42
RE 47
E 53
E 592

528
432
462
459
473
669
786
762
602
545
462
6,179

R 2,720
R 2,488
R 2,270
R 1,823
R 1,579
R 1,613
R 1,718
R 1,694
R 1,464
R 1,634

461
5,166

RE 74
E 67
E 61
E 49
RE 43
RE 44
E 46
E 46
RE 40
E 44
E 50
E 564

5,054
4,915

6,014
5,934

7,106
6,977

558
527

23
22

581
548

6,344
5,808

20,655
19,563

480

a All
commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Table
7.4c for CHP fuel use.
b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial
electrity-only plants.
c All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Lease and Plant Fuel" and
"CHP."
d Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines, primarily in compressors.
e Natural gas used as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to consumers.
f The
electric
power
sector
comprises
electricity-only
and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
h Included in "Non-CHP."
i For 1989-1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power
producers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector."
See Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989-1992," at end of section.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic
feet.

518

R 509
R 508
R 531
R 514
R 538
R 565
R 611

49

R 41
R 41
R 44
R 51
R 42
R 43

49
65

51
44

R 43
R 46
R 53
R 44
R 45

51
67

1,828

R 2,392
R 23,047

1,857
20,860

Notes: • Data are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous
fuels. • See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at
end of Section 7. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/natgas.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Residential, Commercial, Lease and Plant Fuel, Other Industrial
Total and Pipelines and Distribution:
1973-2002—Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual (NGA), annual reports.
2003
forward—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), January 2009, Table 2.
• Industrial CHP: Table 7.4c. • Vehicle Fuel: 1990 and 1991—EIA, NGA 2000,
(November 2001), Table 95.
1992-1998—"Alternatives to Traditional
Transportation Fuels 1999" (October 1999), Table 10, and "Alternatives to
Traditional Transportation Fuels 2003" (February 2004), Table 10. Data for
compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas in gasoline-equivalent gallons
were converted to cubic feet by multiplying by the motor gasoline conversion factor
(see Table A3) and dividing by the natural gas end-use sectors conversion factor
(see Table A4). 1999-2002—EIA, NGA, annual reports. 2003 forward—EIA, NGM,
January 2009, Table 2. • Electric Power Sector: Table 7.4b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

69

Table 4.4 Natural Gas in Underground Storage
(Volumes in Billion Cubic Feet)
Natural Gas in
Underground Storage,
End of Period

Change in Working Gas
From Same Period
Previous Year

Storage Activity

Base Gas

Working Gas

Totala

Volume

Percent

Withdrawals

Injections

Netb,c

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

2,864
3,162
3,642
3,842
3,868
4,349
4,341
4,350
4,326
4,383
4,352
4,301
4,340
4,303
4,201
4,200

2,034
2,212
2,655
2,607
3,068
2,153
2,173
2,175
2,730
2,523
1,719
2,904
2,375
2,563
2,696
2,635

4,898
5,374
6,297
6,448
6,936
6,503
6,513
6,525
7,056
6,906
6,071
7,204
6,715
6,866
6,897
6,835

305
162
-99
-270
555
-453
19
2
554
-207
-806
1,185
-528
187
133
-61

17.6
7.9
-3.6
-9.4
22.1
-17.4
.9
.1
25.5
-7.6
-31.9
68.9
-18.2
7.9
5.2
-2.3

1,533
1,760
1,910
2,359
1,934
2,974
2,911
2,824
2,379
2,772
3,498
2,309
3,138
3,099
3,037
3,057

1,974
2,104
1,896
2,128
2,433
2,566
2,906
2,800
2,905
2,598
2,684
3,464
2,670
3,292
3,150
3,002

-442
-344
14
231
-499
408
6
24
-526
174
814
-1,156
468
-193
-113
55

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

4,202
4,202
4,197
4,198
4,202
4,215
4,214
4,213
4,215
4,217
4,216
4,211
4,211

2,371
1,886
1,692
1,945
2,310
2,617
2,779
2,969
3,323
3,452
3,407
3,070
3,070

6,573
6,089
5,889
6,143
6,512
6,832
6,993
7,182
7,539
7,669
7,623
7,281
7,281

377
322
407
447
435
419
329
307
391
258
217
435
435

18.9
20.6
31.7
29.8
23.2
19.1
13.4
11.5
13.4
8.1
6.8
16.5
16.5

374
539
331
77
52
62
144
113
37
115
206
443
2,493

110
54
131
332
420
373
305
302
395
246
159
99
2,924

264
485
200
-255
-367
-311
-161
-189
-358
-131
48
343
-431

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 4,216

R 2,383

R 6,599

R 12

R .5

R 683

R 1,652

R 5,867

R -235

R -12.4

R 5,850

7,123
R 7,250
R 7,549
R 7,804
R 7,680
7,113
7,113

-89
R -223
R -129
R -34
R 117
R 52
R -8
R 113
R 35
-191
-191

R -5.3

4,246
R 4,250
R 4,231
R 4,227
R 4,229
R 4,233
R 4,238
4,238
4,234
4,234

1,603
R 1,723
R 2,181
R 2,583
R 2,896
R 3,021
R 3,315
R 3,565
R 3,442
2,879
2,879

-6.2
-6.2

51
R 219
R 273
498
437
397
294
R 371
R 332
R 141
R 63
R 3,133

R 732

R 4,247

740
782
R 270
154
R 38
R 47
84
R 167
73
R 75
R 262
R 632
R 3,325

R 57

R 4,216

R 50
-120
R -460
-389
R -314
R -127
-298
R -257
R 121
569
R 192

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

4,232
4,222
4,221
4,223
4,226
4,230
4,228
4,228
4,231
4,235
4,231
––

2,055
1,465
1,247
1,436
1,836
2,171
2,516
2,867
3,163
3,399
3,346
––

6,287
5,687
5,468
5,659
6,062
6,401
6,745
7,094
7,394
7,634
7,578
––

-324
-184
-356
-284
-342
-409
-377
-151
-153
-168
-96
––

-13.6
-11.1
-22.2
-16.5
-15.7
-15.8
-13.0
-5.0
-4.6
-4.7
-2.8
––

892
649
350
106
56
80
88
91
98
91
251
2,753

68
56
131
295
458
420
430
442
398
334
194
3,225

824
593
219
-190
-402
-339
-342
-350
-300
-242
57
-473

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

––
––

––
––

––
––

––
––

––
––

2,693
2,050

3,069
2,825

-377
-775

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

R 5,969
R 6,432
R 6,814

a For total underground storage capacity at the end of each calendar year, see
Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section.
b For 1980-2007, data differ from those shown on Table 4.1, which includes
liquefied natural gas storage for that period.
c Positive numbers indicate that withdrawals are greater than injections.
Negative numbers indicate that injections are greater than withdrawals. Net
withdrawals or injections may not equal the difference between applicable ending
stocks. See Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section.
R=Revised. – – =Not applicable.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/natgas.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Storage Activity: 1973-1975—Energy Information Administration
(EIA), Natural Gas Annual 1994, Volume 2, Table 9. 1976-1979—EIA, Natural Gas

70

R -11.4
R -5.6
R -1.3
R 4.2
R 1.7

-.2
3.3
R 1.0

Production and Consumption 1979, Table 1. 1980-1995—EIA, Historical Natural
Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000, Table 11. 1996-2002—EIA, Natural Gas Monthly
(NGM), monthly issues. 2003 forward—EIA, NGM, January 2009, Table 6.
• All Other Data: 1973 and 1974—American Gas Association (AGA), Gas Facts,
1972 Data, Table 57, Gas Facts, 1973 Data, Table 57, and Gas Facts, 1974 Data,
Table 40.
1975 and 1976—Federal Energy Administration (FEA), Form
FEA-G318-M-0, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and Federal Power
Commission (FPC), Form FPC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1977 and
1978—EIA, Form FEA-G318-M-0, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FERC-8, "Underground Gas
Storage Report." 1979-1995—EIA, Form EIA-191, "Underground Gas Storage
Report," and FERC, Form FERC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report."
1996-2005—EIA, NGM, monthly issues. 2006 forward—EIA, NGM, January 2009,
Table 6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Natural Gas
Note 1. Natural Gas Production.
Annual data—Final annual data are from the Energy
Information Aministration (EIA) Natural Gas Annual
(NGA).
Estimated monthly data—Data for the two most recent
months presented are estimated. Some of the data for earlier
months are also estimated or computed. For a discussion of
computation and estimation procedures, see the EIA Natural
Gas Monthly (NGM).
Preliminary monthly data—Monthly data are considered
preliminary until after publication of the EIA NGA. Preliminary monthly data are gathered from reports to the Interstate
Oil Compact Commission and the U.S. Minerals Management
Service. Volumetric data are converted, as necessary, to a standard 14.73 psi pressure base. Unless there are major changes,
data are not revised until after publication of the EIA NGA.
Final monthly data—Differences between annual data in
the EIA NGA and the sum of preliminary monthly data
(January–December) are allocated proportionally to the
months to create final monthly data.
Note 2. Natural Gas Extraction Loss. Extraction loss is
the reduction in volume of natural gas resulting from the
removal of natural gas liquid constituents at natural gas
processing plants.
Annual data are from the EIA NGA, where they are estimated on the basis of the type and quantity of liquid products extracted from the gas stream and the calculated volume
of such products at standard conditions. For a detailed explanation of the calculations used to derive estimated extraction
losses, see the EIA NGA.
Preliminary monthly data are estimated on the basis of
extraction loss as an annual percentage of marketed
production. This percentage is applied to each month’s
marketed production to estimate monthly extraction loss.
Monthly data are revised and considered final after the publication of the EIA NGA. Final monthly data are estimated by allocating annual extraction loss data to the months on the basis of
total natural gas marketed production data from the EIA NGA.
Note 3. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels. Supplemental
gaseous fuels are any substances that, introduced into or
commingled with natural gas, increase the volume available for disposition. Such substances include, but are not
limited to, propane-air, refinery gas, coke oven gas, still
gas, manufactured gas, biomass gas, or air or inert gases
added for Btu stabilization.
Annual data beginning with 1980 are from the EIA, NGA.

Unknown quantities of supplemental gaseous fuels are
included in consumption data for 1979 and earlier years.
Monthly data are considered preliminary until after the publication of the EIA NGA. Monthly estimates are based on the
annual ratio of supplemental gaseous fuels to the sum of dry
gas production, net imports, and net withdrawals from storage.
The ratio is applied to the monthly sum of the three elements
to compute a monthly supplemental gaseous fuels figure.
Although the total amount of supplemental gaseous fuels
consumed is known for 1980 forward, EIA estimates the
amount consumed by each energy-use sector. It is
assumed that supplemental gaseous fuels are commingled
with natural gas consumed by the residential, commercial,
other industrial, and electric power sectors, but are not
commingled with natural gas used for lease and plant fuel,
pipelines and distribution, or vehicle fuel. The estimated
consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels by each sector
(residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric
power) is calculated as that sector’s natural gas consumption (see Table 4.3) divided by the sum of natural gas
consumption by the residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors (see Table 4.3). For estimated sectoral consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels
in Btu, the residential, commercial, and other industrial
values in cubic feet are multiplied by the “End-Use
Sectors” conversion factors (see Table A4), and the electric power values in cubic feet are multiplied by the “Electric Power Sector” conversion factors (see Table A4).
Total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption in Btu is
calculated as the sum of the Btu values for the sectors.
Note 4. Natural Gas Storage. Natural gas in storage at
the end of a reporting period may not equal the quantity
derived by adding or subtracting net injections or withdrawals from the quantity in storage at the end of the previous
period. The difference is due to changes in the quantity of
native gas included in the base gas and/or losses in base gas
due to migration from storage reservoirs.
Total underground storage capacity at the end of each
calendar year since 1975 (first year data were available), in
billion cubic feet, was:
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

6,280
6,544
6,678
6,890
6,929
7,434
7,805
7,915
7,985
8,043
8,087

1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

8,145
8,124
8,124
8,120
7,794
7,993
7,932
7,989
8,043
7,953
7,980

1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

8,332
8,179
8,229
8,241
8,415
8,207
8,206
8,255
8,268
. . . 8,330
. . . 8,402

Monthly underground storage data are collected from the
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form
FERC-8 (interstate data) and EIA Form EIA-191 (intrastate

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

71

data). Beginning in January 1991, all data are collected on the
revised Form EIA-191. Injection and withdrawal data from the
FERC-8/EIA-191 survey are adjusted to correspond to data
from Form EIA-176 following publication of the EIA NGA.
The final monthly and annual storage and withdrawal data for
1980–2006 include both underground and liquefied natural gas
(LNG) storage. Annual data on LNG additions and withdrawals are from Form EIA-176. Monthly data are estimated by
computing the ratio of each month’s underground storage additions and withdrawals to annual underground storage additions
and withdrawals and applying the ratio to the annual LNG data.
Note 5. Natural Gas Balancing Item. The balancing item for
natural gas represents the difference between the sum of the
components of natural gas supply and the sum of components
of natural gas disposition. The differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of
conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and
pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and
pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting
and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and
calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the
merger of data reporting systems that vary in scope, format,
definitions, and type of respondents.
The increase of 0.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in the “Balancing
Item” category in 1983, followed by a decline of 0.5 Tcf in
1984, reflected unusually large differences resulting from the
use of the annual billing cycle (essentially December 15
through the following December 14) consumption data in
conjunction with calendar year supply data. Record cold
temperatures during the last half of December 1983 resulted in
a reported 0.3 Tcf increase in net withdrawals from underground storage for peak shaving as compared with the same
period in 1982, but the effect of this cold weather was reflected
primarily in 1984 consumption data. For underground storage
data, see Table F2 in the May 1985 EIA NGM, which was
published in July 1985.
Note 6. Natural Gas Consumption. Consumption includes
use for lease and plant fuel, pipelines and distribution, vehicle

72

fuel, and electric power plants, as well as deliveries to residential, commercial, and other industrial customers.
Final data for series other than “Other Industrial CHP”
and “Electric Power Sector” are from the EIA NGA.
Monthly data are considered preliminary until after publication of the EIA NGA. For more detailed information on
the methods of estimating preliminary and final monthly
data, see the EIA NGM.
Note 7. Natural Gas Consumption, 1989-1992. Prior to
1993, deliveries to nonutility generators were not separately collected from natural gas companies on Form EIA176, “Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas
Supply and Disposition.” As a result, for 1989 through
1992, those volumes are probably included in both the
industrial and electric power sectors and double-counted in
total consumption. In 1993, 0.28 trillion cubic feet was
reported as delivered to nonutility generators.
Note 8. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. The United
States imports natural gas via pipeline from Canada and
Mexico and imports liquefied natural gas (LNG) via tanker
from Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Qatar,
Trinidad and Tobago, and the United Arab Emirates. In
addition, very small amounts of LNG arrived from Canada
in 1973 (667 million cubic feet), 1977 (572 million cubic
feet), and 1981 (6 million cubic feet). The United States
exports natural gas via pipeline to Canada and Mexico and
exports LNG via tanker to Japan. Also, small amounts of
LNG have gone to Mexico since 1998.
Annual and final monthly data are from the annual EIA Form
FPC-14, “Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas,” which requires data to be reported by month for the
calendar year.
Preliminary monthly data are EIA estimates. For a discussion
of estimation procedures, see the EIA NGM. Preliminary data
are revised after the publication of the EIA U.S. Imports and
Exports of Natural Gas.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

5

Crude Oil and Natural Gas
Resource Development

Semisubmersible drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 5.1

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development Indicators

Rotary Rigs in Operation, Monthly

Active Well Service Rig Count, Monthly

2,500

3,000
2008
2008

2,000

2,500

2007

1,500

Number of Rigs

Number of Rigs

2007

2009

1,000

2,000
1,500
1,000

500

500

0
J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

J

F

M

A

M

J

6

35

5

28

4
3

O

N

D

21
14

2008

2007

2009

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

J

D

Wells Drilled by Type

2009

3.0
2.5

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

58

August 2006
August 2007
August 2008

60

53

Number of Crews

2.0

1.2

60

2.6

2.3

1.5

M

70

January 2007
January 2008
January 2009

2.5

F

Maximum U.S. Active Seismic Crew Counts

3.5

1.0

2008

0
J

1.3

1.0

50
40
30
20
13

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

10

12

8
1

0

0.0
Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Dry

Wells

Wells

Wells

Federal and State Jurisdiction waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
All onshore.

74

S

7
2007

0

b

A

2
1

a

J

Footage Drilled, Monthly

Million Feet

Thousand Wells

0

D

Wells Drilled, Monthly

Thousand Wells

2009

48 States,
Onshore

48 States,
Offshorea

0

Alaskab

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/resource.html.
Sources: Tables 5.1-5.3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

0

Table 5.1 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements
(Number of Rigs)
Rotary Rigs in Operationa
By Site
Onshore
1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

By Type
Offshore

Crude Oil

Natural Gas

Totalb

Active
Well Service
Rig Countc

........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

1,110
1,554
2,678
1,774
902
622
671
821
703
519
778
1,003
717
924
1,095
1,287

84
106
231
206
108
101
108
122
123
106
140
153
113
108
97
94

NA
NA
NA
NA
532
323
306
376
264
128
197
217
137
157
165
194

NA
NA
NA
NA
464
385
464
564
560
496
720
939
691
872
1,025
1,184

1,194
1,660
2,909
1,980
1,010
723
779
943
827
625
918
1,156
830
1,032
1,192
1,381

2,008
2,486
4,089
4,716
3,658
3,041
3,445
3,499
3,014
2,232
2,692
2,267
1,830
1,967
2,064
2,222

2006 January ..........................
February ........................
March .............................
April ...............................
May ................................
June ...............................
July ................................
August ...........................
September .....................
October ..........................
November ......................
December ......................
Average ........................

1,396
1,455
1,464
1,502
1,536
1,570
1,587
1,639
1,646
1,644
1,620
1,634
1,559

77
79
88
95
100
95
94
99
93
90
87
84
90

242
209
244
259
261
285
298
316
305
288
288
281
274

1,228
1,321
1,305
1,337
1,373
1,376
1,379
1,417
1,429
1,441
1,414
1,431
1,372

1,473
1,533
1,551
1,597
1,635
1,665
1,681
1,738
1,739
1,734
1,706
1,718
1,649

2,285
2,339
2,342
2,340
2,398
2,382
2,342
2,404
2,380
2,440
2,366
2,351
2,364

2007 January ..........................
February ........................
March .............................
April ...............................
May ................................
June ...............................
July ................................
August ...........................
September .....................
October ..........................
November ......................
December ......................
Average ........................

1,630
1,651
1,667
1,675
1,671
1,692
1,698
1,731
1,718
1,713
1,737
1,749
1,695

84
85
81
75
77
79
79
73
65
49
61
62
72

270
266
282
285
282
283
285
306
302
321
341
338
297

1,440
1,466
1,461
1,461
1,464
1,483
1,486
1,492
1,475
1,435
1,451
1,468
1,466

1,714
1,736
1,749
1,750
1,748
1,771
1,777
1,804
1,783
1,762
1,798
1,811
1,768

2,307
2,401
2,401
2,375
2,387
2,381
2,358
2,408
2,418
2,395
2,408
2,420
2,388

2008 January ..........................
February ........................
March .............................
April ...............................
May ................................
June ...............................
July ................................
August ...........................
September .....................
October ..........................
November ......................
December ......................
Average ........................

1,690
1,709
1,737
1,765
1,794
1,834
1,865
1,920
1,942
1,903
1,872
1,716
1,814

60
56
60
64
68
67
67
67
72
73
63
66
65

321
331
343
358
375
383
380
397
417
422
426
391
379

1,421
1,426
1,444
1,461
1,478
1,510
1,543
1,581
1,585
1,542
1,498
1,380
1,491

1,749
1,765
1,797
1,829
1,863
1,902
1,932
1,987
2,014
1,976
1,935
1,782
1,879

2,476
2,455
2,457
2,498
2,546
2,554
2,567
2,611
2,612
2,591
2,469
2,342
2,515

2009 January ..........................

1,487

66

328

1,215

1,553

2,152

a Rotary rigs in operation are reported weekly. Monthly data are averages of 4or 5-week reporting periods, not calendar months. Multi-month data are averages
of the reported data over the covered months, not averages of the weekly data.
Annual data are averages over 52 or 53 weeks, not calendar years. Published data
are rounded to the nearest whole number.
b Sum of rigs drilling for crude oil, rigs drilling for natural gas, and other rigs (not
shown) drilling for miscellaneous purposes, such as service wells, injection wells,
and stratigraphic tests.
c The number of rigs doing true workovers (where tubing is pulled from the well),
or doing rod string and pump repair operations, and that are, on average, crewed

and working every day of the month.
NA=Not available.
Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/resource.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Rotary Rigs in Operation: By Site–Baker Hughes, Inc., Houston,
Texas, Rotary Rigs Running–by State. By Type–Baker Hughes, Inc., Houston,
Texas, weekly phone recording. • Active Well Service Rig Count: Cameron
International Corporation, Houston, Texas.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

75

Table 5.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells
Wells Drilled
Exploratory
Crude
Oil

Natural
Gas

Dry

Development

Total

Crude
Oil

Natural
Gas

Dry

Total

Total

Crude
Oil

Natural
Gas

Dry

Total

Thousand
Feet

Number
1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Total
Footage
Drilled

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

642
982
1,777
1,680
778
570
489
491
327
196
288
353
255
349
386
515

1,067
1,248
2,099
1,200
812
557
576
561
566
565
657
1,046
843
991
1,653
2,087

5,952
7,129
9,081
8,954
3,648
2,023
1,955
2,108
1,585
1,157
1,333
1,714
1,271
1,285
1,331
1,431

7,661
9,359
12,957
11,834
5,238
3,150
3,020
3,160
2,478
1,918
2,278
3,113
2,369
2,625
3,370
4,033

9,525
15,966
31,182
33,581
11,696
7,345
8,122
10,553
7,229
4,538
7,698
8,452
6,469
7,677
8,290
9,866

5,866
6,879
15,362
13,124
10,296
7,412
8,367
10,874
10,944
11,334
16,278
20,913
16,382
19,596
22,075
25,693

4,368
6,517
11,704
12,257
4,569
2,764
2,915
3,740
3,160
2,360
2,784
2,825
2,435
2,613
2,644
3,081

19,759
29,362
58,248
58,962
26,561
17,521
19,404
25,167
21,333
18,232
26,760
32,190
25,286
29,886
33,009
38,640

10,167
16,948
32,959
35,261
12,474
7,915
8,611
11,044
7,556
4,734
7,986
8,805
6,724
8,026
8,676
10,381

6,933
8,127
17,461
14,324
11,108
7,969
8,943
11,435
11,510
11,899
16,935
21,959
17,225
20,587
23,728
27,780

10,320
13,646
20,785
21,211
8,217
4,787
4,870
5,848
4,745
3,517
4,117
4,539
3,706
3,898
3,975
4,512

27,420
38,721
71,205
70,796
31,799
20,671
22,424
28,327
23,811
20,150
29,038
35,303
27,655
32,511
36,379
42,673

138,223
180,494
316,943
314,409
155,253
116,590
125,971
161,215
137,048
102,594
143,947
179,624
144,640
176,557
202,813
237,214

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

65
51
42
44
61
78
37
62
57
61
60
35
653

176
192
209
167
211
217
223
277
226
250
285
251
2,684

95
112
96
128
138
139
134
142
139
129
119
156
1,527

336
355
347
339
410
434
394
481
422
440
464
442
4,864

952
852
955
950
1,018
1,106
1,105
1,080
1,049
1,090
1,079
1,039
12,275

2,267
2,192
2,456
2,212
2,409
2,571
2,332
2,854
2,553
2,674
2,466
2,314
29,300

307
269
306
299
271
336
301
317
289
336
338
273
3,642

3,526
3,313
3,717
3,461
3,698
4,013
3,738
4,251
3,891
4,100
3,883
3,626
45,217

1,017
903
997
994
1,079
1,184
1,142
1,142
1,106
1,151
1,139
1,074
12,928

2,443
2,384
2,665
2,379
2,620
2,788
2,555
3,131
2,779
2,924
2,751
2,565
31,984

402
381
402
427
409
475
435
459
428
465
457
429
5,169

3,862
3,668
4,064
3,800
4,108
4,447
4,132
4,732
4,313
4,540
4,347
4,068
50,081

21,910
20,559
23,649
21,796
23,801
25,102
22,889
26,300
24,665
26,002
25,427
23,509
285,609

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

59
62
66
60
58
84
83
66
80
79
63
63
823

274
242
313
298
331
290
335
322
302
367
338
303
3,715

122
100
117
128
153
118
133
123
141
159
189
127
1,610

455
404
496
486
542
492
551
511
523
605
590
493
6,148

977
893
990
947
1,034
1,071
1,023
1,051
958
1,132
1,032
1,043
12,151

2,253
2,077
2,298
2,143
2,370
2,555
2,424
2,688
2,462
2,698
2,523
2,275
28,766

295
247
294
250
309
274
311
359
280
339
291
268
3,517

3,525
3,217
3,582
3,340
3,713
3,900
3,758
4,098
3,700
4,169
3,846
3,586
44,434

1,036
955
1,056
1,007
1,092
1,155
1,106
1,117
1,038
1,211
1,095
1,106
12,974

2,527
2,319
2,611
2,441
2,701
2,845
2,759
3,010
2,764
3,065
2,861
2,578
32,481

417
347
411
378
462
392
444
482
421
498
480
395
5,127

3,980
3,621
4,078
3,826
4,255
4,392
4,309
4,609
4,223
4,774
4,436
4,079
50,582

23,821
22,989
25,965
24,272
27,085
26,524
27,168
29,002
26,449
29,383
27,955
27,205
317,818

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

85
85
78
74
106
66
82
84
99
101
93
85
1,038

299
293
267
215
233
253
261
265
256
251
241
228
3,062

145
100
137
142
124
145
143
157
156
154
152
139
1,694

529
478
482
431
463
464
486
506
511
506
486
452
5,794

1,140
1,172
1,173
1,276
1,324
1,370
1,361
1,415
1,507
1,520
1,543
1,426
16,227

2,320
2,197
2,293
2,311
2,443
2,522
2,630
2,775
2,722
2,686
2,574
2,366
29,839

275
274
310
310
305
322
323
347
350
344
341
308
3,809

3,735
3,643
3,776
3,897
4,072
4,214
4,314
4,537
4,579
4,550
4,458
4,100
49,875

1,225
1,257
1,251
1,350
1,430
1,436
1,443
1,499
1,606
1,621
1,636
1,511
17,265

2,619
2,490
2,560
2,526
2,676
2,775
2,891
3,040
2,978
2,937
2,815
2,594
32,901

420
374
447
452
429
467
466
504
506
498
493
447
5,503

4,264
4,121
4,258
4,328
4,535
4,678
4,800
5,043
5,090
5,056
4,944
4,552
55,669

26,434
25,512
27,024
27,858
28,988
29,506
29,912
31,870
32,012
31,768
31,050
28,692
350,626

2009 January ................

74

200

122

396

1,199

2,085

273

3,557

1,273

2,285

395

3,953

24,873

Notes: • Prior to 1990, these well counts include only the original drilling of a
hole intended to discover or further develop already discovered crude oil or natural
gas resources. Other drilling activities, such as drilling an old well deeper, drilling of
laterals from the original well, drilling of service and injection wells, and drilling for
resources other than crude oil or natural gas are excluded. After 1990, a new well
is defined as the first hole in the ground whether it is lateral or not. Due to the
methodology used to estimate ultimate well counts from the available partially
reported data, the counts shown on this page are frequently revised. See Note,

76

"Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells," at end of section.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/resource.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • 1973-1989: Energy Information Administration (EIA) computations
based on well reports submitted to the American Petroleum Institute. • 1990
forward: EIA computations based on well reports submitted to the Information
Handling Services Energy Group, Inc.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 5.3 Maximum U.S. Active Seismic Crew Counts
(Number of Crews)
48 States, Offshorea

48 States, Onshore
Dimensionsc
2
2000 August
2001 August
2002 August
2003 August

3

Alaskab

Dimensionsc
4

Totald

2

3

Dimensionsc
4

Totald

2

3

4

Totald

Total

.................
.................
.................
.................

4
8
7
8

40
32
26
22

1
1
0
0

45
41
33
30

7
7
8
7

7
8
7
4

0
0
0
0

15
15
15
11

0
0
1
1

1
0
1
1

0
0
0
0

1
0
2
2

61
56
50
43

2004 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............

8
8
8
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
9
9

25
27
27
27
26
30
30
31
32
34
33
32

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

33
35
35
36
35
39
38
39
40
42
42
41

5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
2
1
3

5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
10
10
9
9
8
8
8
6
4
5
7

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

43
45
45
45
44
49
48
49
48
48
49
50

2005 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............

8
8
6
8
8
9
8
8
7
6
5
6

33
34
33
30
34
35
34
35
37
39
40
40

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

41
42
39
38
42
44
42
43
44
45
45
46

5
5
6
6
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6

4
4
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

9
9
12
12
13
12
11
11
11
11
11
11

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
2
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
2
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

52
53
51
50
55
57
54
55
56
57
57
58

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............

5
5
4
4
4
9
5
4
4
5
5
5

38
39
42
42
42
35
51
49
51
51
51
50

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

43
44
46
46
46
44
56
53
55
56
56
55

6
6
6
5
5
7
4
3
2
2
3
3

5
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

11
12
12
11
11
12
9
8
7
7
8
8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

55
57
59
58
58
57
66
62
63
64
65
64

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............

3
3
4
4
3
3
2
2
3
4
4
5

51
51
55
55
55
55
57
56
58
60
60
54

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

54
54
59
59
58
58
59
58
61
65
65
60

3
3
3
4
4
3
3
4
3
3
3
4

5
5
5
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
10
10

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
8
8
11
11
10
10
13
12
12
14
15

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

63
63
68
71
70
69
69
71
73
77
79
75

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................

6
6
6
4
4
2
2
2

55
55
54
53
54
56
58
58

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

61
61
60
57
58
58
60
60

4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3

10
11
11
11
11
11
8
8

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

15
16
15
15
15
15
12
12

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

76
77
75
72
73
73
72
72

a Federal and State Jurisdiction waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
b All onshore.
c In two-dimensional (2D) reflection seismic surveying both the sound source and the sound
detectors (numbering up to a hundred or more per shot) are moved along a straight line. The
resultant product can be thought of as a vertical sonic cross-section of the subsurface beneath
the survey line. It is constructed by summing many compressional (pressure) wave reflections
from the various sound source and sound detector locations at the halfway sound path points
beneath each location (common depth point stacking). In three-dimensional (3D) reflection
seismic surveying the sound detectors (numbering up to a thousand or more) are spread out over
an area and the sound source is moved from location to location through the area. The resultant
product can be thought of as a cube of common depth point stacked reflections. Advantages
over 2D include the additional dimension, the fact that many more reflections are available for
stacking at each point, which provides greatly improved resolution of subsurface features, and
elimination of the "ghost" or "side swipe" reflections from nearby offline features that 2D surveys

are prone to (except, of course, along the outer faces of the cube). Four dimensional (4D)
reflection seismic surveying is the exact repetition of a 3D survey at two or more time intervals.
The primary application of 4D is mapping the movement of fluid interfaces in producing oil and
gas reservoirs.
d Includes crews with unknown survey dimension.
Notes: • A "seismic crew" is a group of people, of varying number, engaged in a seismic
surveying job. • "48 States" is the United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. • Data are
reported on the first and fifteenth of each month, except January when they are reported only on
the fifteenth. When semi-monthly values differ for the month, the larger of the two values is
shown here. Consequently, this table reflects the maximum number of crews at work at any time
during the month.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/resource.html for all available data
beginning in March 2000.
Source: World Geophysical News, IHS Energy Group, Denver, CO, used with permission.

Table 5.3 is not updated this month.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

77

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource
Development
Note. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and
Development Wells. Three well types are considered in
the Monthly Energy Review (MER) drilling statistics:
“completed for crude oil,” “completed for natural gas,”
and “dry hole.” Wells that productively encounter both
crude oil and natural gas are categorized as “completed
for crude oil.” Both development wells and exploratory
wells (new field wildcats, new pool tests, and extension
tests) are included in the statistics. All other classes of
wells drilled in connection with the search for producible
hydrocarbons are excluded. If a lateral is drilled at the
same time as the original hole it is not counted separately,
but its footage is included.
Prior to the March 1985 MER, drilling statistics consisted of

78

completion data for the above types and classes of wells
as reported to the American Petroleum Institute (API)
during a given month. Due to time lags between the date
of well completion and the date of completion reporting
to the API, as-reported well completions proved to be an
inaccurate indicator of drilling activity. During 1982, for
example, as-reported well completions rose, while the
number of actual completions fell. Consequently, the
drilling statistics published since the March 1985 MER
are Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates
produced by statistically imputing well counts and
footage based on the partial data available from the API.
These estimates are subject to continuous revision as new
data, some of which pertain to earlier months and years,
become available. Additional information about the EIA
estimation methodology may be found in “Estimating
Well Completions,” a feature article published in the
March 1985 MER.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

6
Coal

Coal yard, Curtis Bay, Maryland. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 6.1

Coal
(Million Short Tons)

Overview, 1973-2008

Overview, Monthly

1,400

120

1,200

100

Production
Production

1,000

80

800

Consumption

60

Consumption

600

40

400

20
Net Exports

200

0

Net Exports

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

-20
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2007
200 8
2009

Consumption by Sector, 1973-2007

Electric Power Sector Consumption, Monthly

1,200

120
100

1,000
Electric Power

800

80

600

60

400

40

200

20

Industrial

2006

2007

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J

2005

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

Stocks, End of Year, 1973-2007

Electric Power Sector Stocks, End of Month

250

180

166
154

Total

150

200

140

120

150
90

Electric Power

100
60

50

Producers and Distributors

30
0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

November

November

November

2006

2007

2008

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/coal.html.
Sources: Tables 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3.

80

2008

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

N

D

Table 6.1 Coal Overview
(Thousand Short Tons)

Productiona

Waste
Coal
Suppliedb

Trade
Imports

Exports

Net Importsc

Stock
Changed

Losses and
Unaccounted
fore

Consumption

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

598,568
654,641
829,700
883,638
1,029,076
1,032,974
1,063,856
1,089,932
1,117,535
1,100,431
1,073,612
1,127,689
1,094,283
1,071,753
1,112,099
1,131,498

NA
NA
NA
NA
3,339
8,561
8,778
8,096
8,690
8,683
9,089
10,085
9,052
10,016
11,299
13,352

127
940
1,194
1,952
2,699
9,473
8,115
7,487
8,724
9,089
12,513
19,787
16,875
25,044
27,280
30,460

53,587
66,309
91,742
92,680
105,804
88,547
90,473
83,545
78,048
58,476
58,489
48,666
39,601
43,014
47,998
49,942

-53,460
-65,369
-90,548
-90,727
-103,104
-79,074
-82,357
-76,058
-69,324
-49,387
-45,976
-28,879
-22,726
-17,970
-20,718
-19,482

(f)
32,154
25,595
-27,934
26,542
-275
-17,456
-11,253
24,228
23,988
-48,309
41,630
10,215
-26,659
-11,462
-9,702

f -17,476

-5,522
10,827
2,796
-1,730
632
1,411
3,678
-4,430
-2,906
938
7,120
4,040
-4,403
6,887
9,092

562,584
562,640
702,730
818,049
904,498
962,104
1,006,321
1,029,544
1,037,103
1,038,647
1,084,095
1,060,146
1,066,355
1,094,861
1,107,255
1,125,978

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

98,621
89,033
101,490
95,413
99,843
97,160
94,994
100,654
94,144
98,808
96,526
96,063
1,162,750

1,278
1,113
1,223
1,137
1,024
1,202
1,298
1,349
1,140
1,213
1,188
1,245
14,409

3,031
2,715
3,211
3,030
2,742
2,185
3,181
3,849
3,370
3,214
2,630
3,089
36,246

4,187
2,656
3,817
3,481
4,736
4,373
3,331
5,093
5,115
3,908
4,768
4,182
49,647

-1,155
60
-606
-451
-1,995
-2,188
-150
-1,244
-1,745
-694
-2,139
-1,093
-13,401

2,671
1,938
6,214
15,539
6,050
2,820
-4,861
-6,661
939
9,325
7,176
1,493
42,642

1,451
37
6,016
1,141
5,332
-944
-3,142
2,221
1,266
-1,197
-1,148
-2,208
8,824

94,621
88,231
89,877
79,419
87,490
94,298
104,145
105,198
91,334
91,199
89,548
96,930
1,112,292

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

99,784
88,580
97,677
93,084
97,038
95,566
93,003
100,627
92,404
98,825
96,910
93,138
1,146,635

937
1,096
1,191
1,087
1,049
1,247
1,255
1,315
1,203
1,254
1,189
1,263
14,087

2,844
2,656
3,285
2,687
2,691
3,027
3,373
3,716
3,470
2,896
2,889
2,812
36,347

4,368
2,685
4,086
4,841
4,747
5,114
5,812
5,471
4,914
5,019
6,245
5,861
59,163

-1,524
-28
-801
-2,154
-2,056
-2,087
-2,438
-1,756
-1,445
-2,123
-3,355
-3,050
-22,816

R -5,583

R 6,042

R 98,738

R -4,877

R 3,555

R 90,970

R 7,109

R 1,938

R 89,019

R 7,902

R 1,575

R 82,540

R 4,435

R 3,585

R 88,010

R -600

R -1,230

R 96,556

R -9,987

R -1,476

R 103,282

R -5,938

R 338

R 105,787

R 1,129

R -3,563

R 94,596

R 8,357

R -1,221

R 90,821

R 5,100

R 334

R 89,310

R -1,237

R -5,781

R 98,369

R 5,812

R 4,096

R 1,127,998

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

98,619
93,555
96,933
97,149
96,585
90,199
99,162
100,458
99,381
103,886
94,991
99,271
1,170,188

1,340
1,208
1,085
1,121
1,190
1,324
1,263
1,287
1,308
F 1,258
RF 1,258
NA
NA

2,381
2,619
2,640
2,985
2,702
3,295
2,569
3,144
2,772
2,921
2,988
R 3,192
R 34,208

4,915
4,205
6,682
7,979
8,394
6,695
6,404
5,264
8,653
8,233
7,460
R 6,636
R 81,519

-2,535
-1,586
-4,041
-4,994
-5,692
-3,401
-3,835
-2,120
-5,881
-5,312
-4,472
R -3,444
R -47,311

R -8,200

R 4,877

-3,392
4,948
6,677
4,725
-4,859
-12,674
-2,476
5,362
R 11,964
R 7,595
NA
NA

3,609
-713
2,940
-1,143
-3,247
4,526
-262
-2,951
R 504
R -3,722
NA
NA

100,746
92,961
89,742
83,660
88,501
96,228
104,738
102,363
92,397
R 87,363
R 87,904
NA
NA

2009 January ................

96,968

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

NA

NA

a Beginning in 2001, includes a small amount of refuse recovery (coal
recaptured from a refuse mine, and cleaned to reduce the concentration of
noncombustible materials).
b Waste coal (including fine coal, coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry
dam, anthracite culm, bituminous gob, and lignite waste) consumed by the electric
power and industrial sectors. Beginning in 1989, waste coal supplied is counted as
a supply-side item to balance the same amount of waste coal included in
"Consumption."
c Net imports equal imports minus exports. Minus sign indicates exports are
greater than imports.
d A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks; a positive value indicates an
increase.
e "Losses and Unaccounted for" is calculated as the sum of production, imports,

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

and waste coal supplied, minus exports, stock change, and consumption.
f In 1973, stock change is included in "Losses and Unaccounted for."
R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast.
Notes: • For methodology used to calculate production, consumption, and
stocks, see Note 1, "Coal Production," Note 2, "Coal Consumption," and Note 3,
"Coal Stocks," at end of section. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from
the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.
See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal
sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the
50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/coal.html for all available data
beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

81

Table 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector
(Thousand Short Tons)
End-Use Sectors
Commercial

Industrial
Other Industrial

Residential
1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

CHPa
g
g
g
g

Otherb

Total

Coke
Plants

CHPc

Non-CHPd

h
h
h
h

Total

Total

Transportation

Total

................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................

4,113
2,823
1,355
1,711
1,345
755
721
711
534
585
454
481
533
551
512
378

( )
( )
( )
( )
1,191
1,419
1,660
1,738
1,443
1,490
1,547
1,448
1,405
1,816
1,917
1,922

7,004
6,587
5,097
6,068
4,189
3,633
3,625
4,015
2,879
2,803
2,126
2,441
2,506
1,869
2,693
2,420

7,004
6,587
5,097
6,068
5,379
5,052
5,285
5,752
4,322
4,293
3,673
3,888
3,912
3,685
4,610
4,342

94,101
83,598
66,657
41,056
38,877
33,011
31,706
30,203
28,189
28,108
28,939
26,075
23,656
24,248
23,670
23,434

( )
( )
( )
( )
27,781
29,363
29,434
29,853
28,553
27,763
28,031
25,755
26,232
24,846
26,613
25,875

68,038
63,646
60,347
75,372
48,549
43,693
42,254
41,661
38,887
36,975
37,177
39,514
34,515
36,415
35,582
34,465

68,038
63,646
60,347
75,372
76,330
73,055
71,689
71,515
67,439
64,738
65,208
65,268
60,747
61,261
62,195
60,340

162,139
147,244
127,004
116,429
115,207
106,067
103,395
101,718
95,628
92,846
94,147
91,344
84,403
85,509
85,865
83,774

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

389,212
405,962
569,274
693,841
782,567
850,230
896,921
921,364
936,619
940,922
985,821
964,433
977,507
1,005,116
1,016,268
1,037,485

562,584
562,640
702,730
818,049
904,498
962,104
1,006,321
1,029,544
1,037,103
1,038,647
1,084,095
1,060,146
1,066,355
1,094,861
1,107,255
1,125,978

2006 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
December ........
Total ................

27
25
25
16
17
18
18
18
15
22
26
30
258

186
169
170
134
139
147
163
163
138
136
159
183
1,886

130
118
118
56
58
61
46
46
39
117
137
158
1,083

316
287
288
189
197
208
208
209
177
254
296
341
2,968

1,879
1,830
2,005
1,862
1,968
1,939
1,933
1,911
1,939
2,094
1,865
1,733
22,957

2,217
2,024
2,115
2,050
2,059
2,104
2,202
2,202
2,061
2,074
2,020
2,136
25,262

2,866
3,023
2,945
2,742
2,735
2,710
2,671
2,675
2,815
3,031
3,048
2,949
34,210

5,083
5,046
5,060
4,792
4,794
4,814
4,872
4,877
4,876
5,105
5,068
5,085
59,472

6,961
6,876
7,065
6,654
6,762
6,753
6,806
6,788
6,815
7,199
6,933
6,818
82,429

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

87,317
81,043
82,499
72,560
80,515
87,319
97,113
98,183
84,327
83,724
82,293
89,742
1,026,636

94,621
88,231
89,877
79,419
87,490
94,298
104,145
105,198
91,334
91,199
89,548
96,930
1,112,292

2007 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
December ........
Total ................

30
29
26
19
19
18
19
20
18
24
29
31
282

R

191
186
171
R 146
R 143
137
R 151
R 162
R 145
R 142
R 169
183
R 1,927

R

149
144
133
R 76
R 74
R 72
R 63
R 67
R 60
R 138
163
177
R 1,317

340
330
303
222
217
210
214
229
206
280
333
360
3,244

1,818
1,730
2,027
1,865
1,950
1,921
1,913
1,883
1,882
1,957
1,810
1,958
22,715

R

2,003
1,876
1,956
R 1,850
R 1,857
R 1,845
R 1,868
R 1,912
R 1,765
R 1,830
R 1,830
R 1,945
R 22,537

R

2,861
2,978
2,904
R 2,832
R 2,827
R 2,862
R 2,721
R 2,657
R 2,803
R 2,919
R 2,915
R 2,799
R 34,078

4,864
4,855
4,859
4,682
4,684
4,707
4,589
4,569
4,568
4,749
4,746
4,744
56,615

6,682
6,585
6,887
6,547
6,634
6,629
6,501
6,452
6,450
6,706
6,556
6,702
79,331

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

91,686
84,026
81,803
R 75,751
R 81,140
R 89,699
R 96,548
R 99,086
R 87,922
R 83,810
R 82,393
R 91,276
R 1,045,141

98,738
90,970
89,019
R 82,540
R 88,010
R 96,556
R 103,282
R 105,787
R 94,596
R 90,821
R 89,310
R 98,369
R 1,127,998

2008 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
11-Month Total

29
27
27
19
19
22
20
20
19
F 22
F 31
E 254

198
185
183
160
163
187
182
188
175
164
179
1,965

136
127
126
54
55
63
44
46
42
F 87
F 174
E 953

333
312
308
214
218
250
227
234
217
F 251
F 353
E 2,917

1,834
1,792
1,910
1,864
1,911
1,805
1,915
2,034
1,818
F 2,011
F 1,884
E 20,779

1,940
1,938
1,925
1,910
2,020
1,951
2,041
1,967
1,987
2,000
1,908
21,589

2,753
2,715
2,744
2,709
2,593
2,653
2,500
2,565
2,513
RE 2,604
E 2,594
E 28,945

4,693
4,654
4,669
4,619
4,613
4,605
4,542
4,533
4,501
RF 4,605
F 4,503
E 50,534

6,527
6,445
6,579
6,483
6,524
6,410
6,457
6,567
6,319
RF 6,616
F 6,387
E 71,313

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

93,856
86,176
82,828
76,945
81,739
89,546
98,035
95,542
85,843
80,475
81,134
952,119

100,746
92,961
89,742
83,660
88,501
96,228
104,738
102,363
92,397
R 87,363
87,904
1,026,603

2007 11-Month Total
2006 11-Month Total

251
229

1,743
1,703

1,141
925

2,884
2,628

20,758
21,224

20,592
23,126

31,279
31,261

51,871
54,387

72,629
75,611

(h)
(h)

953,866
936,894

1,029,629
1,015,362

R

R

R
R

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of
commercial electricity-only plants, such as those at hospitals and universities.
See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of
Section 7.
b All commercial sector fuel use other than that in "Commercial CHP."
c Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial
electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use
Sectors," at end of Section 7.
d All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Coke Plants" and "Industrial
CHP."
e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heatand-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is
to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
f Through 1988, data are for consumption at electric utilities only. Beginning in
1989, data also include consumption at independent power producers.

82

R
R

116
24

Electric
Power
Sectore,f

R
R
R

R
R
R

g Included in "Commercial Other."
h Included in "Industrial Non-CHP."
R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast.
Notes: • CHP monthly values are from Table 7.4c; electric power sector
monthly values are from Table 7.4b; all other monthly values are estimates
derived from collected quarterly and annual data.
See Note 2, "Coal
Consumption," at end of section. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from
the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting
System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not
equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage
is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/coal.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 6.3 Coal Stocks by Sector
(Thousand Short Tons)
End-Use Sectors
Producers
and
Distributors
1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year
Year

Residential
and
Commercial

Industrial
Coke Plants

Othera

Total

Total

Electric
Power
Sectorb,c

Total

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

12,530
12,108
24,379
33,133
33,418
34,444
28,648
33,973
36,530
39,475
31,905
35,900
43,257
38,277
41,151
34,971

290
233
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

6,998
8,797
9,067
3,420
3,329
2,632
2,667
1,978
2,026
1,943
1,494
1,510
1,364
905
1,344
2,615

10,370
8,529
11,951
10,438
8,716
5,702
5,688
5,597
5,545
5,569
4,587
6,006
5,792
4,718
4,842
5,582

17,368
17,326
21,018
13,857
12,044
8,334
8,355
7,576
7,571
7,511
6,081
7,516
7,156
5,623
6,186
8,196

17,658
17,559
21,018
13,857
12,044
8,334
8,355
7,576
7,571
7,511
6,081
7,516
7,156
5,623
6,186
8,196

86,967
110,724
183,010
156,376
156,166
126,304
114,623
98,826
120,501
c 141,604
102,296
138,496
141,714
121,567
106,669
101,137

117,155
140,391
228,407
203,367
201,629
169,083
151,627
140,374
164,602
188,590
140,282
181,912
192,127
165,468
154,006
144,304

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ...........

33,486
34,947
35,113
37,489
34,587
35,307
38,147
35,357
33,170
34,251
35,752
36,548

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2,661
2,708
2,754
2,783
2,811
2,839
2,817
2,795
2,772
2,824
2,876
2,928

5,427
5,272
5,118
5,297
5,476
5,655
5,816
5,977
6,138
6,261
6,383
6,506

8,088
7,980
7,872
8,079
8,287
8,494
8,633
8,772
8,910
9,085
9,259
9,434

8,088
7,980
7,872
8,079
8,287
8,494
8,633
8,772
8,910
9,085
9,259
9,434

105,401
105,986
112,141
125,097
133,841
135,734
127,894
123,884
126,872
134,941
140,442
140,964

146,975
148,913
155,126
170,665
176,715
179,535
174,674
168,013
168,952
178,277
185,453
186,946

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ...........

35,986
34,450
34,007
33,695
33,107
32,484
31,967
30,885
30,090
31,112
32,069
33,977

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2,745
2,561
2,444
2,417
2,391
2,364
2,211
2,091
1,972
1,960
1,948
1,936

6,256
6,006
5,756
5,728
5,700
5,672
5,719
5,765
5,811
5,748
5,686
5,624

9,001
8,568
8,200
8,145
8,091
8,037
7,929
7,856
7,783
7,708
7,634
7,560

9,001
8,568
8,200
8,145
8,091
8,037
7,929
7,856
7,783
7,708
7,634
7,560

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............

28,258
30,009
32,464
33,569
32,047
31,395
29,744
28,019
30,235
F 29,478
F 28,206

1,778
1,620
1,462
1,560
1,658
1,756
1,828
1,899
1,971
F 2,012
F 2,054

5,348
5,073
4,797
4,858
4,919
4,980
5,056
5,132
5,208
RF 5,299
F 5,394

7,126
6,693
6,259
6,418
6,577
6,736
6,884
7,031
7,179
RF 7,311
F 7,448

7,593
7,146
6,697
6,872
7,046
7,220
7,375
7,530
7,685
RF 7,801
F 7,923

F

467
453
438
454
469
484
491
498
506
F 490
F 475
F

a Through 1977, data are for stocks held by the manufacturing and
transportation sectors.
Beginning in 1978, data are for stocks held at
manufacturing plants only.
b The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-andpower (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell
electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
c Through 1998, data are for stocks at electric utilities only. Beginning in 1999,
data also include stocks at independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast.
Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Electric power sector monthly values

R

R

R

R

R

R

136,377
133,468
141,389
R 149,657
R 154,735
R 154,812
R 145,450
R 140,668
R 142,666
R 150,075
R 154,292
R 151,221
148,707
144,011
146,952
152,349
158,422
154,041
142,863
141,957
144,948
157,552
166,298

181,363
176,486
183,595
R 191,498
R 195,933
R 195,333
R 185,346
R 179,409
R 180,538
R 188,895
R 193,995
R 192,758
184,558
181,166
186,113
192,790
197,515
192,656
179,982
177,506
182,868
R 194,832
202,427

are from Table 7.5; producers and distributors monthly values are estimates
derived from collected annual data; all other monthly values are estimates derived
from collected quarterly values. • Data values preceded by "F" are derived from
the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.
See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal
sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the
50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/coal.html for all available data
beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

83

Coal
Note 1. Coal Production. Preliminary monthly estimates
of national coal production are the sum of weekly estimates
developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA)
and published in the Weekly Coal Production report. When
a week extends into a new month, production is allocated on
a daily basis and added to the appropriate month. Weekly
estimates are based on Association of American Railroads
(AAR) data showing the number of railcars loaded with coal
during the week by Class I and certain other railroads.
Prior to 2002, the weekly coal production model converted
AAR data into short tons of coal by using the average
number of short tons of coal per railcar loaded reported in
the “Quarterly Freight Commodity Statistics” from the
Surface Transportation Board. If an average coal tonnage
per railcar loaded was not available for a specific railroad,
the national average was used. To derive the estimate of
total weekly production, the total rail tonnage for the week
was divided by the ratio of quarterly production shipped by
rail and total quarterly production. Data for the corresponding quarter of previous years were used to derive this ratio.
This method ensured that the seasonal variations were
preserved in the production estimates.
Beginning in 2002, the weekly coal production model uses
statistical autoregressive methods to estimate national coal
production as a function of railcar loadings of coal, and
heating degree-days and cooling degree-days. On Thursday
of each week, EIA receives from the AAR data for the
ending previous week. The latest weekly national data for
heating degree-days and cooling degree-days are obtained
from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Prediction Center. The weekly coal model is
run and a national level coal production estimate is obtained.
The weekly coal model is refit every quarter after preliminary coal data is available.
When preliminary quarterly data become available, the
monthly and weekly estimates are adjusted to conform to the
quarterly figure. The adjustment procedure uses State-level
production data and is explained in EIA's Quarterly Coal
Report. Initial estimates of annual production published in
January of the following year are based on preliminary
production data covering the first nine months (three quarters) and weekly/monthly estimates for the fourth quarter.
The fourth quarter estimates may or may not be revised
when preliminary data become available in March of the
following year, depending on the magnitude of the difference between the estimates and the preliminary data. In any
event, all quarterly, monthly, and weekly production figures
are adjusted to conform to the final annual production data
published in the Monthly Energy Review in the fall of the
following year.
Note 2. Coal Consumption. Coal consumption data are
reported by major end-use sector. Forecast data (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted values shown
84

in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) ShortTerm Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA-0202) table titled “U.S.
Coal Supply and Demand: Base Case.” The monthly estimates are based on the quarterly values, which are released
in March, June, September, and December. The estimates
are revised quarterly as collected data become available
from the data sources. Sector-specific information follows:
Residential and Commercial—Coal consumption by the
residential and commercial sectors is reported to EIA for the
two sectors combined; EIA estimates the amount consumed
by the sectors individually. To create the estimates, it is first
assumed that an occupied coal-heated housing unit
consumes fuel at the same Btu rate as an oil-heated housing
unit. Then, for the years in which data are available on the
number of occupied housing units by heating source (1973–
1981 and subsequent odd-numbered years), residential
consumption of coal is estimated by the following steps: a
ratio is created of the number of occupied housing units
heated by coal to the number of occupied housing units
heated by oil; that ratio is then multiplied by the Btu quantity of oil consumed by the residential sector to derive an
estimate of the Btu quantity of coal consumed by the residential sector; and, finally, the amount estimated as the residential sector consumption is subtracted from the residential
and commercial sectors’ combined consumption to derive
the commercial sector’s estimated consumption. The 2005
share is applied to 2006-2008, and the other missing years’
shares are interpolated.
Industrial Coke Plants—Prior to 1980, monthly coke plant
consumption data were taken directly from reported data.
From 1980–1987, coke plant consumption estimates were
derived by proportioning reported quarterly data by using
the ratios of monthly-to-quarterly consumption data in 1979,
the last year in which monthly data were reported. Beginning in January 1988, monthly coke plant consumption estimates are derived from the reported quarterly data by using
monthly ratios of raw steel production data from the American Iron and Steel Institute. The ratios are the monthly raw
steel production from open hearth and basic oxygen process
furnaces as a proportion of the quarterly production from
those kinds of furnaces.
Industrial Other—Prior to 1978, monthly consumption data
for the other industrial sector (all industrial users minus
coke plants) were derived by using reported data to modify
baseline consumption figures from the most recent Bureau
of the Census Annual Survey of Manufactures or Census of
Manufactures. For 1978 and 1979, monthly estimates
were derived from data reported on Forms EIA-3 and EIA6. From 1980–1987, monthly figures were estimated by
proportioning quarterly data by using the ratios of
monthly-to-quarterly consumption data in 1979, the last
year in which monthly data were reported on Form EIA-3.
Quarterly consumption data were derived by adding beginning stocks at manufacturing plants to current receipts and
subtracting ending stocks at manufacturing plants. In this
calculation, current receipts were the greater of either
reported receipts from manufacturing plants (Form EIA-3)

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

or reported shipments to the other industrial sector (Form
EIA-6), thereby ensuring that agriculture, forestry, fishing,
and construction consumption data were included where
appropriate. Starting in 2008, quarterly consumption totals
for other industrial coal include data for manufacturing and
mining only. Over time, surveyed coal consumption data for
agriculture, forestry, fishing and construction dwindled to
about 20,000 to 30,000 tons annually. Therefore, in 2008,
EIA consolidated its programs by eliminating agriculture,
forestry, fishing, and construction as surveyed sectors.
Starting in January 1988, monthly consumption for the
other industrial sector is estimated from reported quarterly
data by using ratios derived from industrial production
indices published by the Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System.
Indices for six major industry
groups are used as the basis for calculating the ratios:
food manufacturing, which is North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) code 333; paper manufacturing, NAICS 322; chemical manufacturing, NAICS 325;
petroleum and coal products, NAICS 324; non-metallic
mineral products manufacturing, NAICS 327; and primary
metal manufacturing, NAICS 331. The monthly ratios are
computed as the monthly sum of the weighted indices as a
proportion of the quarterly sum of the weighted indices by
using the 1977 proportion as the weights.
Electric Power Sector—Monthly consumption data for electric power plants are taken directly from reported data.
Note 3. Coal Stocks. Coal stocks data are reported by
major end-use sector. Forecast data for the most recent
months (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted
values shown in the Energy Information Administration
(EIA) Short-Term Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA-0202) table
titled “U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: Base Case.” The
monthly estimates are based on the quarterly values
(released in March, June, September, and December) or
annual values. The estimates are revised as collected data
become available from the data sources. Sector-specific
information follows.
Producers and Distributors—Prior to 1998, quarterly stocks at
producers and distributors were taken directly from reported
data. Monthly data were estimated by using one-third of the
current quarterly change to indicate the monthly change in
stocks. Beginning in 1998, end-of-year stocks are taken from
reported data. Monthly stocks are estimated by a model.
Residential and Commercial—Prior to 1980, stock estimates for the residential and commercial sector were
taken directly from reported data. From 1980-2007, stock
estimates were not collected. Beginning in 2008, quarterly stocks data are collected on Form EIA-3 (data for
“Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”).
Industrial Coke Plants—Prior to 1980, monthly stocks at
coke plants were taken directly from reported data. From
1980 forward, coke plant stocks are estimated by using onethird of the current quarterly change to indicate the monthly

change in stocks. Quarterly stocks are taken directly from
data reported on Form EIA-5.
Industrial Other—Prior to 1978, stocks for the other industrial sector were derived by using reported data to modify
baseline figures from a one-time Bureau of Mines survey
of consumers. For 1978–1982, monthly estimates were
derived by judgmentally proportioning reported quarterly
data based on representative seasonal patterns of supply
and demand. From 1983 forward, other industrial coal
stocks are estimated as indicated above for coke plants.
Quarterly stocks are taken directly from data reported on
Form EIA-3 and therefore include only manufacturing
industries; data for agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining,
and construction stocks are not available.
Electric Power Sector—Monthly stocks data at electric
power plants are taken directly from reported data.
Note 4. Coal Forecast Values. Data values preceded by
“F” in this section are forecast values. They are derived
from EIA’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System
(STIFS). The model is driven primarily by data and
assumptions about key macroeconomic variables, the world
oil price, and weather. The coal forecast relies on other
variables as well, such as alternative fuel prices (natural gas
and oil) and power generation by sources other than fossil
fuels, including nuclear and hydroelectric power. Each
month, EIA staff review the model output and make
adjustments, if appropriate, based on their knowledge of
developments in the coal industry.
The STIFS model results are published monthly in EIA’s
Short-Term Energy Outlook, which is accessible on the Web
at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html.
Note 5. Additional Coal Information. EIA’s Quarterly
Coal Report provides additional information about coal data
and estimation procedures.

Table 6.1 Sources
Production
1973–September 1977: U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry
Surveys.
October 1977 forward: Energy Information Administration
(EIA), Weekly Coal Production.
Waste Coal Supplied
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility
Power Producer Report.”
1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants.”
2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

85

Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,”
and Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality
Report, Manufacturing and Transformation/Processing Coal
Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”; and, for
forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting
System.
Imports and Exports
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Monthly Reports IM-145 (Imports) and EM-545 (Exports).
Stock Change
Calculated from data in Table 6.3.
Losses and Unaccounted for
Calculated as the sum of production, imports, and waste coal
supplied, minus exports, stock change, and consumption.
Consumption
Table 6.2.

Table 6.2 Sources
Residential and Commercial Total
Coal consumption by the residential and commercial sectors
combined is reported to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA estimates the sectors individually using the
method described in Note 2, “Consumption,” at the end of
Section 6. Data for the residential and commercial sectors
combined are from:
1973–1976: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau
of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook.
January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400,
“Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.”
October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-2, “Monthly Coal
Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.”
1980–1997: EIA, Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,”
quarterly.
1998-2007: DOI, Mine Safety and Health Administration,
Form 7000-2, “Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal
Production.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and
Quality Report, Manufacturing and Transformation/Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal
Users” (data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal
Users”); and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.”
Commercial CHP
Table 7.4c.
Commercial Other
Calculated as “Commercial Total” minus “Commercial CHP.”

86

Industrial Coke Plants
1973–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook
and Minerals Industry Surveys.
October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke and
Coal Chemicals—Monthly/Annual Supplement.”
1981–1984: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke Plant
Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.”
1985 forward:
EIA, Form EIA–5, “Coke Plant
Report—Quarterly”; and, for forecast values, EIA, ShortTerm Integrated Forecasting System.
Other Industrial Total
1973–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and
Minerals Industry Surveys.
October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Monthly Coal
Consumption Report—Manufacturing Plants.”
1980–1997: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and Form EIA-6,
“Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly.
1998-2007: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption Report—Manufacturing Plants,” Form EIA-6A, “Coal
Distribution Report,” annual, and Form EIA-7A, “Coal
Production Report,” annual.
2008: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and
Quality Report, Manufacturing and Transformation/Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal
Users,” and Form EIA-7A, “Coal Production Report,”
annual; and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated
Forecasting System.
Other Industrial CHP
Table 7.4c.
Other Industrial Non-CHP
Calculated as “Other Industrial Total” minus “Other Industrial CHP.”
Transportation
1973–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook.
January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400,
“Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake
Docks.”
October–December 1977: EIA, Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly.
Electric Power
Table 7.4b.

Table 6.3 Sources
Producers and Distributors
1973–1979: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau
of Mines (BOM), Form 6-1419Q, “Distribution of Bituminous Coal and Lignite Shipments.”
1980–1997: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly.
1998-2007: EIA, Form EIA-6A, “Coal Distribution
Report,” annual.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

2008: EIA, Form EIA-7A, “Coal Production Report,”
annual, and Form EIA-8A, “Coal Stocks Report,” annual;
and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.
Residential and Commercial
1973–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook.
January-September 1977:
DOI, BOM, Form 6-1400,
“Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.”
October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-2, “Monthly Coal
Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and
Quality Report, Manufacturing and Transformation/Processing
Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”
(data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”); and,
for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting
System.
Industrial Coke Plants
1973–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and
Minerals Industry Surveys.
October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA-5/5A, “Coke and Coal
Chemicals—Monthly/Annual.”

1981–1984:
EIA, Form EIA 5/5A, “Coke Plant
Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.”
1985 forward:
EIA, Form EIA-5, “Coke Plant
Report—Quarterly”; and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term
Integrated Forecasting System.
Industrial Other
1973–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and
Minerals Industry Surveys.
October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Monthly Coal
Consumption Report—Manufacturing Plants.”
1998-2007: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption Report—Manufacturing Plants.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and
Quality Report, Manufacturing and Transformation/Processing
Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”;
and, for forecast values, EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.
Electric Power
Table 7.5.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

87

7

Electricity

High-tension power lines and towers. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 7.1

Electricity Overview
(Billion Kilowatthours)

Overview, 2007

Net Generation, 2007

5,000

5,000
4,157
3,924

4,000

3,000

3,000

2,000

2,000

1,000

1,000

0
Net
Generation

51

20

Imports

Exports

4,157

4,005

4,000

End
Use

Net Generation by Sector, 1989-2007

143

8

0
Electric
Power

Commercial

Industrial

Total

Net Generation by Sector, Monthly
500

5,000

400

4,000

Totala

Totala

3,000

300

Electric Power

Electric Power

2,000

200

1,000

100
Industrial

Industrial

0

0
1990

1995

2000

J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND J F MA M J J A SOND

2005

End Use, 2007

2006

2007

2008

Trade, 1973-2007
60

5,000
50
4,000

Imports

3,924

3,765

40
3,000
30
2,000

20

1,000

10

Exports

159

0

0
Retail
Salesb
a

Direct
Usec

Total

Includes commercial sector.
Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities
and other energy service providers.
c
See “Direct Use” in Glossary.
b

90

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Source: Table 7.1.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.1 Electricity Overview
(Billion Kilowatthours)
Net Generation
Electric
Power
Sectora
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Commercial
Sectorb

Industrial
Sectorc

Trade

Total

Importsd

Exportsd

Net
Importsd

T&D Lossese
and
Unaccounted
forf

End Use
Retail
Salesg

Direct
Useh

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

1,861
1,918
2,286
2,470
2,901
3,194
3,284
3,329
3,457
3,530
3,638
3,580
3,698
3,721
3,808
3,902

NA
NA
NA
NA
6
8
9
9
9
9
8
7
7
7
8
8

3
3
3
3
131
151
151
154
154
156
157
149
153
155
154
145

1,864
1,921
2,290
2,473
3,038
3,353
3,444
3,492
3,620
3,695
3,802
3,737
3,858
3,883
3,971
4,055

17
11
25
46
18
43
43
43
40
43
49
39
37
30
34
45

3
5
4
5
16
4
3
9
14
14
15
16
16
24
23
20

14
6
21
41
2
39
40
34
26
29
34
22
21
6
11
25

165
180
216
190
203
229
231
224
221
240
244
202
248
228
266
269

1,713
1,747
2,094
2,324
2,713
3,013
3,101
3,146
3,264
3,312
3,421
3,394
3,465
3,494
3,547
3,661

NA
NA
NA
NA
125
151
153
156
161
172
171
163
166
168
168
150

1,713
1,747
2,094
2,324
2,837
3,164
3,254
3,302
3,425
3,484
3,592
3,557
3,632
3,662
3,716
3,811

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

315
295
306
286
318
351
396
394
319
308
297
323
3,908

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8

13
11
12
11
12
12
13
13
12
13
12
13
148

329
307
319
298
331
364
410
408
332
322
309
336
4,065

4
3
4
3
4
4
5
5
2
3
3
4
43

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
24

1
2
2
1
1
1
3
3
(s)
(s)
1
2
18

13
17
19
20
33
32
38
29
3
18
21
26
266

305
281
290
268
287
322
362
369
317
291
277
300
3,670

E 13

147

317
292
302
280
299
334
376
382
329
304
289
313
3,817

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 340

13
11
R 11
11
12
12
13
13
12
12
12
12
R 143

R 26

R 315

RE 14

R 329

R 13

301
R 292
R 275
R 293
R 323
R 353
R 373
R 338
R 308
R 286
R 308
R 3,765

RE 12

R 313

RE 13

R 304

RE 12

R 288

318
350
380
408
R 343
320
R 302
334
R 4,005

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
R8

R 354

RE 13

R 306

RE 13

R 336

RE 14

R 367

RE 15

R 388

RE 13

R 351

RE 13

R 321

RE 13

R 299

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

350
314
313
292
314
361
389
374
326
307
300
3,639

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

3,672
3,585

8
8

R 312
R 308
R 291

422
355
333
314
R 346
R 4,157

3
4
4
4
5
4
R6
5
4
4
4
4
51

2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
20

2
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
1
2
3
2
31

12
11
11
11
11
12
13
12
10
11
10
125

363
326
325
303
326
374
402
387
337
319
311
3,772

5
5
5
4
5
6
6
6
5
4
3
54

2
2
3
1
3
3
2
1
2
2
2
23

3
3
2
3
2
3
4
4
3
2
1
31

R 25

21
219

327
307
296
279
291
329
363
355
325
293
280
3,445

131
136

3,810
3,728

47
39

18
23

29
16

237
240

3,457
3,370

R 323
R 320
R 303
R 330

363
R 393

a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS
22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to
the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data
are for electric utilities and independent power producers.
b Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only
plants.
c Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only
plants. Through 1988, data are for industrial hydroelectric power only.
d Electricity transmitted across U.S. borders. Net imports equal imports minus
exports.
e Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the
point of generation and delivery to the customer). See Note 2, "Electrical System
Energy Losses," at end of Section 2.
f Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error.

R 18
R 18
R 28
R 30
R 30
R 37
R6
R 13
R 18
R 27
R 264

R 10
R 18
R 15
R 24
R 34
R 30
R 23
R3
R 15

E 11
E 12
E 11
E 12
E 12
E 13
E 13
E 12
E 13
E 12
E 13

RE 13

R 321

R 159

R 3,924

RE 14

R 341

RE 13

R 319

RE 13

R 308

RE 12

R 291

RE 13

R 304

RE 13

R 342

RE 14

R 377

RE 14

R 369

RE 11

R 337

RE 12

R 305

E 11

291
3,584

E 139
E 146
E 134

3,603
3,504

g Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers by electric utilities and, beginning
in 1996, other energy service providers.
h Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same
entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a
service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities
that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use.
R=Revised.
E=Estimate.
NA=Not available.
(s)=Less than 0.5 billion
kilowatthours.
Notes: • See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at
end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

91

Figure 7.2

Electricity Net Generation
(Billion Kilowatthours)

Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, 1989-2007

Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, Monthly
200

2,400

Coal
Coal

150

1,800

Natural
Gas

1,200

100

Natural
Gas

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Nuclear Electric Power

600

Hydroelectric
Powera

50
Hydroelectric
Powera

Petroleum

Petroleum

0

0
1990

1995

2000

2005

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, 2007

Electric Power Sector, Major Sources, 2007

2,400

2,400
2,016

1,998

1,800

1,800

1,200

1,200
897

806

815

600

806

600
241

239

105

66

75

0
Coal

Natural
Gas

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Hydro- Non-Hydro Petroelectric Renewable leum
Powera Energy

Commercial Sector, Major Sources, 2007

61

0
Coal

Natural
Gas

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Hydro- Non-Hydro Petroelectric Renewable leum
Powera
Energy

Industrial Sector, Major Sources, 2007

5

100
4.3

4

80

3

60

2

77.6

40

1.6

28.3

1.4

1

20

16.7
9.4

0.2

0
Natural
Gas
a

Waste

Coal

Petroleum

Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric power.
Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste
gases derived from fossil fuels.
C
Conventional hydroelectric power.
b

92

4.2

1.6

0
Natural
Gas

Wood

Coal

Other Petroleum HydroGases b
electric
Power c

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Sources: Tables 7.2a, 7.2b, and 7.2c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.2a Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors)
(Sum of Tables 7.2b and 7.2c; Million Kilowatthours)
Fossil Fuels

Coala

Petroleumb

Natural
Gasc

Renewable Energy

Other
Gasesd

Nuclear
Electric
Power

Hydroelectric
Pumped
Storagee

Conventional
Hydroelectric
Power

Biomass

Woodf

Wasteg

Geothermal

Solar/PVh

Wind

Totali

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total k .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

847,651
852,786
1,161,562
1,402,128
1,594,011
1,709,426
1,795,196
1,845,016
1,873,516
1,881,087
1,966,265
1,903,956
1,933,130
1,973,737
R 1,978,301
R 2,012,873

314,343
289,095
245,994
100,202
126,621
74,554
81,411
92,555
128,800
118,061
111,221
124,880
94,567
119,406
R 121,145
R 122,225

340,858
299,778
346,240
291,946
372,765
496,058
455,056
479,399
531,257
556,396
601,038
639,129
691,006
649,908
R 710,100
R 760,960

NA
NA
NA
NA
10,383
13,870
14,356
13,351
13,492
14,126
13,955
9,039
11,463
15,600
R 15,252
R 13,464

83,479
172,505
251,116
383,691
576,862
673,402
674,729
628,644
673,702
728,254
753,893
768,826
780,064
763,733
788,528
781,986

(j)
(j)
(j)
(j)
-3,508
-2,725
-3,088
-4,040
-4,467
-6,097
-5,539
-8,823
-8,743
-8,535
-8,488
-6,558

275,431
303,153
279,182
284,311
292,866
310,833
347,162
356,453
323,336
319,536
275,573
216,961
264,329
275,806
268,417
270,321

130
18
275
743
32,522
36,521
36,800
36,948
36,338
37,041
37,595
35,200
38,665
37,529
R 38,117
R 38,856

198
174
158
640
13,260
20,405
20,911
21,709
22,448
22,572
23,131
14,548
15,044
15,812
R 15,421
R 15,420

1,966
3,246
5,073
9,325
15,434
13,378
14,329
14,726
14,774
14,827
14,093
13,741
14,491
14,424
14,811
14,692

NA
NA
NA
11
367
497
521
511
502
495
493
543
555
534
575
550

6
2,789
3,164
3,234
3,288
3,026
4,488
5,593
6,737
10,354
11,187
14,144
17,811

1,864,057
1,920,755
2,289,600
2,473,002
3,037,988
3,353,487
3,444,188
3,492,172
3,620,295
3,694,810
3,802,105
3,736,644
3,858,452
3,883,185
3,970,555
4,055,423

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 169,236

R 6,136

R 43,807

R 1,157

R 47,409

R 1,114

R 1,270

R 4,013

R 54,922

R 1,234

R 3,201

R 1,344

R 141,426

R 4,690

R 56,091

R 1,180

R 2,980

R 1,227

R 157,010

R 4,420

R 65,586

R 1,295

R 3,039

R 169,693

R 5,766

R 81,060

R 1,167

R 187,821

R 7,002 R 108,094

R 1,267

R 189,455

R 8,360 R 106,592

R 1,292

R 161,590

R 4,645

R 72,673

R 1,153

R 161,390

R 4,893

R 70,640

R 1,185

R 159,440

R 4,747

R 53,440

R 1,065

R 173,509

R 4,570

R 56,128

R 1,068

R 64,166 R 816,441

R 14,177

27,437
24,762
24,625
28,556
30,818
29,757
25,439
21,728
17,201
17,055
20,272
21,596
289,246

R 3,051

R 161,325

-533
-447
-435
-587
-444
-423
-638
-695
-629
-507
-553
-667
-6,558

R 1,388

R 4,923

71,912
62,616
63,721
57,567
62,776
68,391
72,186
72,016
66,642
57,509
61,392
70,490
787,219

R 3,422

R 158,616

R 38,762

1,371
1,328
R 1,399
R 1,389
R 1,308
R 1,332
R 1,359
R 1,382
R 16,099

1,230
1,111
1,261
1,129
1,096
1,199
1,261
1,289
1,219
1,275
1,207
1,290
14,568

13
20
33
52
71
70
62
83
54
32
16
3
508

2,383
1,922
2,359
2,472
2,459
2,052
1,955
1,655
1,879
2,442
2,540
2,472
26,589

328,658
307,333
318,730
297,858
330,616
364,260
410,421
407,763
332,055
321,567
309,159
336,283
4,064,702

-572
-447
-458
-374
-547
-523
-595
-651
R -743
R -760
R -662
R -565
R -6,896

R 26,045

R 3,536

R 1,371

R 1,296

R 353,531

R 3,015

R 1,200

R 1,122

R 2,520

R 323,230

R 24,163

R 3,106

R 1,373

R 1,204

R 3,047

R 320,471

R 23,891

R 3,055

R 1,254

R 1,158

R 3,172

R 303,129

R 26,047

R 3,081

R 1,349

R 1,155

R 2,952

R 330,203

R 22,817

R 3,213

R 1,392

R 1,238

R 2,620

R 362,755

R 22,478

R 3,434

R 1,443

R 1,250

R 2,158

R 393,226

R 19,941

R 3,426

R 1,440

R 1,255

R 2,699

R 421,797

R 14,743

R 3,290

R 1,400

R 1,218

R 2,867

R 355,394

R 14,796

R 3,246

R 1,426

R 1,265

R 3,377

R 332,615

R 15,682

R 3,273

R 1,425

R 1,211

R 3,095

R 314,103

R 18,342

R 3,339

R 1,452

R 1,266

R 3,490

R 346,290

R 247,510 R 39,014

R 16,525

R 14,637

13
19
48
54
84
84
86
75
68
R 49
R 24
R5
R 612

R 2,452

R 18,567

R 1,990,511

R 3,134
R 3,444
R 3,478
R 3,260
R 3,213
R 3,182
R 3,358

NA
NA
NA

R 175,739

R 5,994

R 61,475

R 1,154

R 163,603

R 8,884

R 57,622

R 981

R 159,811

R 5,416

R 56,204

R 1,234

R 146,250

R 5,080

R 60,153

R 1,163

R 157,513

R 4,873

R 66,470

R 1,175

R 173,513

R 5,777

R 81,511

R 1,154

R 185,054

R 5,494

R 97,483

R 1,154

R 190,135

R 7,187 R 121,338

R 1,132

R 169,391

R 4,936

R 88,532

R 1,120

R 162,234

R 4,747

R 78,358

R 1,134

R 159,382

R 3,136

R 60,637

R 1,031

R 4,215

R 66,808

R 1,022

R 65,739 R 896,590

R 13,453

74,006
65,225
64,305
57,301
65,025
68,923
R 72,739
72,751
R 67,579
61,690
R 64,899
71,983
R 806,425

72,090
59,902
60,904
60,870
61,350
84,075
99,535
98,034
77,490
72,515
61,461
808,226

1,249
1,126
1,611
1,460
1,358
1,323
1,437
1,440
791
771
686
13,253

70,686
64,936
64,683
57,281
64,794
70,268
74,266
72,573
67,003
62,793
63,408
732,692

-754
-375
-522
-98
-587
-372
-799
-648
-513
-497
-492
-5,657

22,358
20,234
22,907
22,106
28,239
30,803
25,873
20,651
16,530
16,436
17,081
243,220

3,337
3,075
3,165
2,940
3,013
3,166
3,349
3,390
3,167
3,001
3,157
34,760

1,371
1,220
1,374
1,465
1,472
1,462
1,434
1,425
1,303
1,291
1,296
15,112

1,187
1,075
1,218
1,200
1,254
1,261
1,281
1,267
1,225
1,242
1,206
13,414

15
33
75
87
96
120
105
99
86
56
26
798

3,737
3,275
4,103
4,487
4,450
4,349
3,236
2,599
2,391
4,164
4,408
41,199

363,268
325,906
324,706
303,455
325,697
373,632
402,139
386,760
336,584
318,613
311,146
3,771,908

829,782
760,313

12,431
13,108

734,442
716,729

-6,331
-5,891

229,168
267,650

35,675
35,404

15,072
14,716

13,371
13,278

606
505

30,960
24,117

3,810,454
3,728,419

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 2,016,456

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

182,579
167,000
161,102
147,249
156,098
171,287
187,377
181,313
162,207
152,925
155,002
1,824,137

4,449
3,627
3,111
3,248
3,264
4,982
4,132
3,726
4,114
3,164
3,172
40,990

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,842,626
1,817,002

61,524
59,596

R 173,830

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil.
c Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
d Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
e Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping.
f Wood and wood-derived fuels.
g Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
h Solar thermal and photovoltaic energy.

R 34,450 R 4,156,745

i Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur,
miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste
(municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
j Included in "Conventional Hydroelectric Power."
k Through 1988, all data except hydroelectric are for electric utilities only;
hydroelectric data through 1988 include industrial plants as well as electric utilities.
Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producers,
commercial plants, and industrial plants.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See sources for Tables 7.2b and 7.2c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

93

Table 7.2b Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector
(Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours)
Fossil Fuels

Coala
1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Totalk ..................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................
2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

847,651
852,786
1,161,562
1,402,128
1,572,109
1,686,056
1,771,973
1,820,762
1,850,193
1,858,618
1,943,111
1,882,826
1,910,613
1,952,714
R 1,957,188
R 1,992,054
167,478

R 157,015
R 159,589
R 139,730
R 155,290

167,907

R 185,951
R 187,576
R 159,899
R 159,674
R 157,817
R 171,810

R 1,969,737
R 174,253
R 162,199
R 158,273
R 144,799
R 155,991
R 171,994
R 183,483
R 188,516
R 167,888
R 160,696
R 157,936
R 172,361

Renewable Energy
Hydroelectric
Pumped
Storagee

Conventional
Hydroelectric
Power

Biomass

Petroleumb

Natural
Gasc

314,343
289,095
245,994
100,202
118,864
68,146
74,783
86,479
122,211
111,539
105,192
119,149
89,733
113,697
R 114,678
R 116,482

340,858
299,778
346,240
291,946
309,486
419,179
378,757
399,596
449,293
472,996
517,978
554,940
607,683
567,303
R 627,172
R 683,829

NA
NA
NA
NA
621
1,927
1,341
1,533
2,315
1,607
2,028
586
1,970
2,647
R 3,568
R 3,777

83,479
172,505
251,116
383,691
576,862
673,402
674,729
628,644
673,702
728,254
753,893
768,826
780,064
763,733
788,528
781,986

(j)
(j)
(j)
(j)
-3,508
-2,725
-3,088
-4,040
-4,467
-6,097
-5,539
-8,823
-8,743
-8,535
-8,488
-6,558

272,083
300,047
276,021
281,149
289,753
305,410
341,159
350,648
317,867
314,663
271,338
213,749
260,491
271,512
265,064
267,040

130
18
275
743
7,032
7,597
8,386
8,680
8,608
8,961
8,916
8,294
9,009
9,528
R 9,736
R 10,570

198
174
158
640
11,500
17,986
17,816
18,485
19,233
19,493
20,307
12,944
13,145
13,808
R 13,062
R 13,031

1,966
3,246
5,073
9,325
15,434
13,378
14,329
14,726
14,774
14,827
14,093
13,741
14,491
14,424
14,811
14,692

NA
NA
NA
11
367
497
521
511
502
495
493
543
555
534
575
550

6
2,789
3,164
3,234
3,288
3,026
4,488
5,593
6,737
10,354
11,187
14,144
17,811

1,860,710
1,917,649
2,286,439
2,469,841
2,901,322
3,194,230
3,284,141
3,329,375
3,457,416
3,529,982
3,637,529
3,580,053
3,698,458
3,721,159
3,808,360
3,902,192

R 5,690
R 36,949
R 4,525
R 41,294
R 3,623
R 48,453
R 4,349
R 50,050
R 4,075
R 58,635
R 5,428
R 74,184
R 6,648 R 100,469
R 7,970
R 98,905
R 4,290
R 65,916
R 4,596
R 63,532
R 4,394
R 46,950
R 4,122
R 49,080
R 59,708 R 734,417

R 343
R 302
R 349
R 344
R 414
R 375
R 378
R 412
R 335
R 331
R 331
R 340

71,912
62,616
63,721
57,567
62,776
68,391
72,186
72,016
66,642
57,509
61,392
70,490
787,219

-533
-447
-435
-587
-444
-423
-638
-695
-629
-507
-553
-667
-6,558

27,067
24,469
24,402
28,361
30,628
29,571
25,216
21,546
16,996
16,774
19,903
21,320
286,254

925
862
899
R 685
R 759
841
919
976
R 871
R 850
852
902
R 10,341

R 1,193
R 1,094
R 1,187
R 1,053

1,150
1,173
1,191
R 13,927

1,230
1,111
1,261
1,129
1,096
1,199
1,261
1,289
1,219
1,275
1,207
1,290
14,568

13
20
33
52
71
70
62
83
54
32
16
3
508

2,383
1,922
2,359
2,472
2,459
2,052
1,955
1,655
1,879
2,442
2,540
2,472
26,589

315,254
295,333
306,041
285,788
317,522
351,360
396,263
393,589
319,181
308,218
296,571
322,957
3,908,077

74,006
65,225
64,305
57,301
65,025
68,923
R 72,739
72,751
R 67,579
61,690
R 64,899
71,983
R 4,042 R 806,425

-572
-447
-458
-374
-547
-523
-595
-651
R -743
R -760
R -662
R -565
R -6,896

R 25,853
R 18,420
R 23,969
R 23,694
R 25,867
R 22,690
R 22,387
R 19,865
R 14,666
R 14,696
R 15,554
R 18,180

R 1,145
R 845
R 839
R 727
R 793

R 1,184
R 1,037
R 1,182
R 1,081
R 1,165
R 1,209
R 1,248
R 1,253
R 1,220
R 1,228
R 1,225
R 1,262

R 14,294

R 1,296
R 1,122
R 1,204
R 1,158
R 1,155
R 1,238
R 1,250
R 1,255
R 1,218
R 1,265
R 1,211
R 1,266

R 14,637

13
19
48
54
84
84
86
75
68
R 49
R 24
R5
R 612

R 2,452
R 2,520
R 3,047
R 3,172
R 2,952
R 2,620
R 2,158
R 2,699
R 2,867
R 3,377
R 3,095
R 3,490

R 339,968
R 311,810
R 308,331
R 291,254
R 317,826
R 350,339
R 379,914
R 407,865
R 342,713
R 319,830
R 301,907
R 333,586

R 5,574
R 53,809
R 8,427
R 51,626
R 4,988
R 50,026
R 4,673
R 54,126
R 4,475
R 59,991
R 5,417
R 74,888
R 5,142
R 90,157
R 6,815 R 113,395
R 4,650
R 81,511
R 4,446
R 71,321
R 2,835
R 54,031
R 3,864
R 59,872
R 61,306 R 814,752

Other
Gasesd

Nuclear
Electric
Power

R 4,254
R 375
R 312
R 345
R 315
R 316
R 331
R 339
R 341
R 322
R 379
R 332
R 337

Woodf

Wasteg

1,171
1,155

R 1,216
R 1,210
R 1,134

Geothermal

Solar/PVh

Wind
NA
NA
NA

Totali

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 1,998,390

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

181,028
165,575
159,462
145,680
154,468
169,699
185,646
179,666
160,600
151,409
153,672
1,806,905

4,167
3,392
2,875
3,018
3,084
4,734
3,886
3,499
3,855
2,947
2,977
38,435

64,786
53,263
54,764
55,010
55,083
77,466
92,214
90,835
71,985
65,959
55,433
736,798

475
400
540
475
507
414
447
440
187
215
161
4,261

70,686
64,936
64,683
57,281
64,794
70,268
74,266
72,573
67,003
62,793
63,408
732,692

-754
-375
-522
-98
-587
-372
-799
-648
-513
-497
-492
-5,657

22,101
19,942
22,611
21,857
28,003
30,684
25,771
20,554
16,447
16,354
16,979
241,304

968
881
910
777
758
851
952
982
920
757
958
9,714

1,186
1,043
1,193
1,250
1,254
1,241
1,219
1,222
1,117
1,131
1,124
12,981

1,187
1,075
1,218
1,200
1,254
1,261
1,281
1,267
1,225
1,242
1,206
13,414

15
33
75
87
96
120
105
99
86
56
26
798

3,737
3,275
4,103
4,487
4,450
4,349
3,236
2,599
2,391
4,164
4,408
41,199

350,160
313,948
312,571
291,818
313,748
361,315
388,813
373,684
325,842
307,067
300,396
3,639,363

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,826,029
1,797,927

57,442
55,586

754,880
685,337

3,705
3,914

734,442
716,729

-6,331
-5,891

227,663
264,934

9,793
9,440

13,033
12,737

13,371
13,278

606
505

30,960
24,117

3,671,757
3,585,120

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil.
c Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
d Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
e Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping.
f Wood and wood-derived fuels.
g Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
h Solar thermal and photovoltaic energy.
i Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur,

94

888

R 939
R 962
R 906
R 868
R 882
R 918

R 245,843 R 10,711

R 34,450 R 4,005,343

miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste
(municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
j Included in "Conventional Hydroelectric Power."
k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilites and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes:

The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals
may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic
coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.2c Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors
(Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours)
Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb

Biomass
Coalc
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Wastef

NA
NA
NA
NA
3,272
5,162
5,249
4,725
4,879
4,607
4,262
4,434
4,310
3,899
R 3,969
R 4,249

NA
NA
NA
NA
812
1,519
2,176
2,342
2,335
2,393
1,985
1,007
1,053
1,289
R 1,562
R 1,657

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Other
Gasesh

Hydroelectric
Poweri

NA
NA
NA
NA
5,837
8,232
9,030
8,701
8,748
8,563
7,903
7,416
7,415
7,496
8,270
8,492

NA
NA
NA
NA
21,107
22,372
22,172
23,214
22,337
21,474
22,056
20,135
21,525
19,817
R 19,773
R 19,466

NA
NA
NA
NA
7,169
6,030
6,260
5,649
6,206
6,088
5,597
5,293
4,403
5,285
R 5,967
R 5,368

NA
NA
NA
NA
60,007
71,717
71,049
75,078
77,085
78,793
78,798
79,755
79,013
78,705
R 78,959
R 72,882

NA
NA
NA
NA
9,641
11,943
13,015
11,814
11,170
12,519
11,927
8,454
9,493
12,953
R 11,684
R 9,687

3,347
3,106
3,161
3,161
2,975
5,304
5,878
5,685
5,349
4,758
4,135
3,145
3,825
4,222
3,248
3,195

NA
NA
NA
NA
25,379
28,868
28,354
28,225
27,693
28,060
28,652
26,888
29,643
27,988
R 28,367
R 28,271

NA
NA
NA
NA
949
900
919
882
880
686
839
596
846
715
R 797
R 733

3,347
3,106
3,161
3,161
130,830
151,025
151,017
154,097
154,132
156,264
156,673
149,175
152,580
154,530
153,925
144,739

R 1,639

R 419

R 6,536

R 814

R 55

R 368

R 5,815

R 811

R 2,187

R 46

R 1,635

R 360

R 6,133

R 885

R 2,301

R 44

R 1,608

R 320

R 5,734

R 836

R 2,293

R 43

R 1,621

R 6,586

R 881

R 2,278

R 51

R 6,493

R 793

R 2,291

R 43

R 7,187

R 889

R 2,523

R 50

R 7,249

R 880

R 2,500

R 48

R 6,388

R 818

R 2,388

R 44

R 6,716

R 855

R 2,361

R 48

R 6,142

R 734

R 2,328

R 50

R 6,690

R 728

R 2,454

R 52

R 19,464

329
R 325
R 336
R 373
R 344
R 286
R 338
R 424
R 4,223

R 77,669

R 9,923

357
281
210
185
182
177
220
182
202
279
358
266
2,899

R 2,495

R 1,488

R 28,400

R 572

12,720
11,357
12,046
11,445
12,380
12,176
13,375
13,394
12,193
12,645
11,906
12,617
148,254

Totalg

Biomass
Woodj

Wastef

Totalk

....................
....................
....................
....................
...................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

NA
NA
NA
NA
796
998
1,051
1,040
985
995
1,097
995
992
1,206
R 1,340
R 1,353

NA
NA
NA
NA
589
379
369
427
383
434
432
438
431
423
R 499
375

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 118

R 27

322

R 141

R 113

R 30

R 300

R 130

R 101

R 31

R 336

R 113

R 88

R 21

R 307

R 131

R 99

R 16

R 365

R 150

R 114

R 14

R 383

R 131

R 127

R 17

R 438

R 132

R 129

437
369
392
R 348
358
R 4,355

R 131

R 1,310

17
R 12
11
15
24
R 235

R 1,599

684
643
643
625
713
724
783
780
682
704
682
709
8,371

R 120

R 27

R 318

R 131

R 669

R 1,367

R 394

R 7,348

R 779

R 180

R 2,390

R 56

R 12,894

R 120

R 44

R 309

R 109

R 641

R 1,283

R 412

R 5,686

R 669

R 138

R 2,169

R 53

R 10,779

R 115

R 24

R 323

R 128

R 659

R 1,423

R 404

R 5,855

R 889

R 183

R 2,266

R 63

R 11,481

R 100

R 16

R 319

R 127

R 639

R 1,350

R 391

R 5,708

R 848

R 185

R 2,327

R 45

R 11,236

R 108

R9

R 341

R 138

R 680

R 1,414

R 390

R 6,137

R 859

R 168

R 2,287

R 46

R 11,697

R 112

R 11

R 374

R 136

R 707

R 1,407

R 349

R 6,249

R 823

R 121

R 2,325

R 47

R 11,709

R 116

R8

R 419

R 146

R 763

R 1,455

R 344

R 6,907

R 815

R 89

R 2,494

R 49

R 12,550

R 127

R 13

R 434

R 774

R 1,492

R 358

R 7,510

R 791

R 76

R 2,463

R 50

R 13,157

R 113

R7

R 364

R 684

R 1,389

R 278

R 6,657

R 798

R 76

R 2,383

R 46

R 11,997

R 107

R7

R 374

R 706

R 1,431

R 294

R 6,663

R 755

R 97

R 2,376

R 12,080

R 115

R6

R 335

R 667

R 1,332

R 295

R 6,270

R 699

R 123

R 2,390

R 686

R 1,350

R 6,590

R 686

R 154

R 2,419

R 8,273

R 16,694

334
R 4,243

R 77,580

R 9,411

R 1,590

R 28,287

56
R 61
R 57
R 631

R 143,128

R 102
R 97
R 110
R 113

R 129
R 135
R 136
R 140

R 1,673
R 1,743
R 1,749
R 1,589
R 1,619
R 1,512
R 1,586

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 119

R 17

R 347

R 1,371

R 189

R 4,257

136
R 134
R 142
R 139
R 133
R 1,599

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

170
141
122
143
147
114
128
121
112
105
102
1,406

14
11
7
4
4
11
12
8
8
7
10
96

407
381
380
324
313
331
383
391
352
349
327
3,939

128
112
126
153
152
155
146
144
133
114
125
1,488

787
708
680
704
702
695
745
736
678
635
626
7,696

1,380
1,284
1,518
1,426
1,483
1,474
1,602
1,525
1,494
1,411
1,227
15,826

268
224
230
225
176
238
234
220
251
210
185
2,460

6,898
6,257
5,760
5,535
5,954
6,279
6,938
6,808
5,153
6,207
5,701
67,490

775
726
1,071
985
851
909
991
1,000
604
556
525
8,992

251
285
285
234
226
113
97
97
82
79
100
1,850

2,368
2,192
2,254
2,161
2,254
2,313
2,395
2,407
2,245
2,242
2,198
25,030

57
66
55
62
66
65
69
58
52
46
47
643

12,321
11,251
11,455
10,933
11,247
11,622
12,582
12,340
10,064
10,911
10,124
124,850

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,253
1,197

173
211

3,911
3,997

1,466
1,459

7,588
7,661

15,344
17,878

3,909
3,799

70,991
70,979

8,726
9,195

1,436
2,633

25,868
25,946

574
520

131,110
135,637

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only
plants.
b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only
plants.
c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil.
e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
g Includes a small amount of conventional hydroelectric power, other gases,
wood, and other, which are not separately displayed.

R 11,528
R 12,018

h Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
i Conventional hydroelectric power.
j Wood and wood-derived fuels.
k Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur,
miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste
(municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at
end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

95

Figure 7.3

Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation

Coal by Sector, 1989-2007

Petroleum by Sector, 1989-2007
300

1.2
Totala
Electric Power

Million Barrels

Billion Short Tons

0.9

0.6

200
Totala

Electric Power

100

0.3
Industrial

Industrial

0

0.0
1990

1995

2000

1990

2005

2000

2005

Other Gasesb by Sector, 1989-2007

Natural Gas by Sector, 1989-2007

250

8

200

6
Totala

Trillion Btu

Trillion Cubic Feet

1995

4
Electric Power

2

150

Totala

100

Industrial

50
Industrial

Electric Power

0

0
1990

1995

2000

2005

Wood by Sector, 1989-2007

1990

1995

2000

2005

Waste by Sector, 1989-2007
400

750

Total

300

Totala
Trillion Btu

Trillion Btu

500

Industrial

Electric Power

200

250
100
Industrial

Commercial

Electric Power

0

0
1990
a

1995

2000

2005

Includes commercial sector.
Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste
gases derived from fossil fuels.
b

96

1990

1995

2000

2005

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Sources: Tables 7.3a, 7.3b, and 7.3c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.3a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation:
Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.3b and 7.3c)
Petroleum
Coala
Thousand
Short Tons

Distillate
Fuel Oilb

Residual
Fuel Oilc

Other
Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass
Petroleum
Cokee

Totale

Natural
Gasf

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total k .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

389,212
405,962
569,274
693,841
792,457
860,594
907,209
931,949
946,295
949,802
994,933
972,691
987,583
1,014,058
R 1,020,523
R 1,041,448

47,058
38,907
29,051
14,635
18,143
19,615
20,252
20,309
25,062
25,951
31,675
31,150
23,286
29,672
R 20,163
R 20,651

513,190
467,221
391,163
158,779
190,849
95,507
106,055
118,741
172,728
158,187
143,381
165,312
109,235
142,518
R 142,088
R 141,518

NA
NA
NA
NA
437
680
1,712
237
549
974
1,450
855
1,894
2,947
R 2,856
R 2,968

507
70
179
231
1,914
3,355
3,322
4,086
4,860
4,552
3,744
3,871
6,836
6,303
R 7,677
R 8,330

562,781
506,479
421,110
174,571
218,997
132,578
144,626
159,715
222,640
207,871
195,228
216,672
168,597
206,653
R 203,494
R 206,785

3,660
3,158
3,682
3,044
3,692
4,738
4,312
4,565
5,081
5,322
5,691
5,832
6,126
5,616
R 5,675
R 6,036

NA
NA
NA
NA
112
133
159
119
125
126
126
97
131
156
R 135
R 110

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 87,623
R 81,312
R 82,816
R 72,931
R 80,865
R 87,668
R 97,472
R 98,555
R 84,668
R 84,086
R 82,548
R 90,011

R 1,089
R 982
R 804
R 1,028
R 1,031
R 1,172
R 1,481
R 1,669
R 832
R 984
R 996
R 1,107

R 5,602
R 4,320
R 2,931
R 3,651
R 3,495
R 5,405
R 7,007
R 9,219
R 4,061
R 4,519
R 4,382
R 3,881

R 184
R 144
R 188
R 144
R 206
R 193
R 224
R 286
R 187
R 137
R 124
R 157

R 709
R 628
R 596
R 605
R 569
R 634
R 693
R 661
R 594
R 596
R 529
R 549

R 10,420
R 8,586
R 6,902
R 7,845
R 7,579
R 9,939
R 12,178
R 14,480
R 8,049
R 8,619
R 8,146
R 7,892

R 337
R 365
R 426
R 442
R 526
R 650
R 885
R 862
R 568
R 550
R 416
R 435

R9
R9

R 1,030,556

R 13,174

R 58,473

R 2,174

R 7,363

R 110,634

R 207
R 412
R 299
R 255
R 261
R 219
R 201
R 268
R 206
R 211
R 175
R 204

R 585
R 470
R 475
R 466
R 506
R 579
R 519
R 540
R 493
R 446
R 431
R 528

1
3
8
442
480
513
484
475
490
496
486
605
519
R 344
R 355

2
2
2
7
211
316
324
339
332
332
330
228
257
249
R 230
R 230

R 10
R 10
R 11
R9
R 10
R 11
R9
R 10
R8
R9

R 31
R 28
R 29
R 25
R 27
R 28
R 31
R 31
R 30
R 29
R 29
R 31

R 21
R 19
R 20
R 18
R 20
R 20
R 21
R 21
R 20
R 20
R 20
R 21

R 6,462

R 115

R 350

R 241

R 10,349
R 14,934
R 9,270
R 8,584
R 8,288
R 9,916
R 9,556
R 12,271
R 8,484
R 8,143
R 5,456
R 7,362

R 476
R 442
R 433
R 471
R 528
R 648
R 782
R 992
R 705
R 626
R 469
R 517

R 10
R8
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10
R9
R9

R 33
R 28
R 29
R 27
R 28
R 29
R 31
R 30
R 30
R 29
R 29
R 31

R 20
R 18
R 20
R 19
R 20
R 21
R 21
R 21
R 21

(s)

NA
NA
NA
NA
36
42
37
36
36
41
46
160
191
193
R 183
R 173
14
R 13
R 15
R 14
R 15

14
15
15
14
R 15
R 14
14
R 172

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 91,776
R 84,100
R 81,932
R 75,918
R 81,309
R 89,846
R 96,727
R 99,245
R 88,089
R 83,995
R 82,495
R 91,363

R 1,445
R 2,502
R 1,262
R 1,036
R 1,243
R 1,202
R 1,720
R 985
R 1,147
R 955
R 1,213

R 5,770
R 9,671
R 5,333
R 5,028
R 4,462
R 5,561
R 5,559
R 7,585
R 4,830
R 4,555
R 2,172
R 3,307

R 1,046,795

R 15,683

R 63,833

R 2,917

R 6,036

R 112,615

R 7,089

R 115

R 353

R 245

14
13
14
14
14
R 15
14
R 14
13
R 15
R 168

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

94,185
86,377
83,143
77,293
82,141
89,895
98,434
95,936
86,173
80,843
81,383
955,801

1,697
1,216
853
854
852
1,492
1,083
875
927
700
790
11,340

3,376
2,747
2,456
2,680
2,891
4,864
3,985
3,348
3,928
2,400
2,682
35,357

297
213
224
165
167
243
162
151
197
132
154
2,105

500
465
404
417
397
492
435
461
426
464
407
4,869

7,868
6,500
5,551
5,787
5,897
9,062
7,404
6,681
7,183
5,553
5,661
73,146

556
461
483
483
498
689
813
789
623
573
485
6,454

14
13
15
10
10
11
12
13
9
9
8
125

41
45
38
36
38
38
37
39
36
34
37
420

19
18
20
20
21
21
21
21
20
19
19
221

13
12
14
13
13
14
14
14
12
12
12
142

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

955,432
940,545

14,470
12,067

60,526
54,591

2,713
2,017

5,509
6,813

105,252
102,742

6,572
6,026

106
106

323
319

223
220

153
158

973

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal
combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also include
small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1973-1979, data are for steam plant use of
petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel
oil no. 4.
d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, and waste oil.
e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

21
R 21
R 22

14
R 13

tire-derived fuels).
j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous
technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial
plants.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Data also include
fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a small number of electric utility
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See sources for Tables 7.3b and 7.3c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

97

Table 7.3b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation:
Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.3a)
Petroleum
Coala
Thousand
Short Tons

Distillate
Fuel Oilb

Residual
Fuel Oilc

Other
Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass
Petroleum
Cokee

Totale

Natural
Gasf

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Trillion Btu

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total k .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

389,212
405,962
569,274
693,841
781,301
847,854
894,400
919,009
934,126
937,888
982,713
961,523
975,251
1,003,036
R 1,012,459
R 1,033,567

47,058
38,907
29,051
14,635
16,394
18,066
18,472
18,646
23,166
23,875
29,722
29,056
21,810
27,441
R 18,793
R 19,450

513,190
467,221
391,163
158,779
183,285
88,895
98,795
112,423
165,875
151,921
138,047
159,150
104,577
137,361
R 138,831
R 138,337

NA
NA
NA
NA
25
441
567
130
411
514
403
374
1,243
1,937
R 2,511
R 2,591

507
70
179
231
1,008
2,452
2,467
3,201
3,999
3,607
3,155
3,308
5,705
5,719
R 7,135
R 7,877

562,781
506,479
421,110
174,571
204,745
119,663
130,168
147,202
209,447
194,345
183,946
205,119
156,154
195,336
R 195,809
R 199,760

3,660
3,158
3,682
3,044
3,147
4,094
3,660
3,903
4,416
4,644
5,014
5,142
5,408
4,909
R 5,075
R 5,485

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 86,975
R 80,730
R 82,175
R 72,287
R 80,213
R 86,997
R 96,767
R 97,842
R 84,028
R 83,427
R 81,951
R 89,410

R 1,039
R 923
R 732
R 979
R 985

R 160
R 123
R 168
R 125
R 162
R 150
R 178
R 211
R 138
R 118
R 109
R 141

R 668
R 590
R 558
R 568
R 532
R 593
R 654
R 622
R 555
R 564
R 493
R 508

R 9,889
R 8,099
R 6,417
R 7,432
R 7,151
R 9,508

R 1,426
R 1,620
R 799
R 947
R 946
R 1,054

R 5,350
R 4,102
R 2,729
R 3,486
R 3,342
R 5,265
R 6,864
R 9,070
R 3,906
R 4,382
R 4,203
R 3,648

R 11,738
R 14,009
R 7,619
R 8,269
R 7,722
R 7,381

R 290
R 322
R 380
R 400
R 477
R 602
R 832
R 808
R 522
R 500
R 371
R 386

R2
R2
R2
R2
R3
R2
R2
R3
R2
R2
R2
R2

R 15
R 14
R 14
R 10
R 12
R 13
R 14
R 15
R 14
R 13
R 14

R 18
R 17
R 18
R 16
R 18
R 18
R 19
R 19
R 18
R 18
R 18
R 18

R 1,022,802

R 12,578

R 56,347

R 1,783

R 6,905

R 105,235

R 5,891

R 28

R 163

R 216

R 18
R 13
R 13

R 18
R 16
R 18
R 17
R 18
R 19
R 19
R 19
R 19
R 19
R 19
R 20

1,128

NA
NA
NA
NA
6
18
16
14
23
14
19
9
25
30
R 27
R 24

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 91,344
R 83,698
R 81,459
R 75,471
R 80,840
R 89,381
R 96,243
R 98,751
R 87,625
R 83,515
R 82,082
R 90,937

R 1,391
R 2,431
R 1,212
R 934
R 993
R 1,203
R 1,170
R 1,678
R 950
R 1,099
R 919
R 1,155

R 5,545
R 9,420
R 5,111
R 4,847
R 4,329
R 5,444
R 5,450
R 7,475
R 4,737
R 4,460
R 2,078
R 3,175

R 189
R 398
R 271
R 185
R 179
R 170
R 158
R 218
R 189
R 191
R 161
R 189

R 546
R 431
R 435
R 424
R 461
R 532
R 473
R 493
R 453
R 407
R 385
R 485

R 9,853
R 14,405
R 8,769
R 8,087
R 7,804
R 9,475
R 9,142
R 11,835
R 8,138
R 7,783
R 5,081
R 6,942

R 421
R 399
R 389
R 427
R 481
R 600
R 729
R 935
R 654
R 576
R 422
R 468

R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2
R2

R 1,041,346

R 15,135

R 62,072

R 2,496

R 5,523

R 107,316

R 6,502

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

93,520
85,846
82,438
76,580
81,365
89,173
97,664
95,218
85,472
80,093
80,789
948,156

1,642
1,171
823
834
827
1,451
1,024
830
843
681
762
10,887

3,189
2,530
2,332
2,599
2,818
4,757
3,878
3,263
3,830
2,323
2,580
34,099

269
193
175
136
139
213
146
133
158
107
135
1,804

472
439
380
383
374
461
407
432
399
432
381
4,560

7,458
6,090
5,228
5,485
5,654
8,727
7,080
6,387
6,826
5,272
5,383
69,590

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

950,409
933,392

13,980
11,524

58,898
52,699

2,307
1,642

5,038
6,398

100,374
97,854

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal
combustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also include
small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1973-1979, data are for steam plant use of
petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel
oil no. 4.
d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, and waste oil.
e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

98

Otherj

1
(s)
3
8
106
106
117
117
125
125
126
116
141
156
R 150
R 166

14

12
R 12

2
2
2
7
180
282
280
292
287
290
294
205
224
216
R 206
R 205

NA
NA
NA
NA
(s)
2
2
1
2
1
1
109
137
136
R 131
R 116
10
9
10
R9
10
10
11
R 10
10
R9
R9
10
R 117
R 10

9
10
R9
R 10
R 10
R 10
R 10

R 27

14
14
R 14
14
13
R 14
R 14
R 165

R 221

R 10
R 117

500
409
437
436
449
640
758
734
580
521
437
5,900

3
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
2
3
2
32

15
14
15
12
12
13
14
14
13
11
14
147

17
16
18
18
19
19
19
19
18
17
17
197

10
9
11
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
108

6,034
5,505

25
25

150
149

202
198

106
107

10
R 10

9

tire-derived fuels).
j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous
technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Data also include
fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a small number of electric utility
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. • The electric power sector comprises
electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22
category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the
public. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.3c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation:
Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.3a)
Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb
Biomass

1989 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Biomass

Wastef

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Trillion
Btu

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

Woodh

Wastef

Otheri

Trillion Btu

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

414
417
569
656
630
440
481
514
532
477
582
R 377
R 377

1,165
953
649
645
790
802
931
823
1,023
834
894
R 766
R 585

18
28
43
42
39
41
39
37
36
33
38
R 33
R 34

9
15
21
31
34
32
33
26
15
18
19
R 19
R 20

9,707
10,740
12,171
12,153
12,311
11,728
11,432
11,706
10,636
11,855
10,440
R 7,687
R 7,504

8,688
13,299
12,265
13,813
11,723
12,392
12,595
10,459
10,530
11,608
10,424
R 6,919
R 6,440

444
517
601
610
623
625
639
640
654
685
668
R 566
R 518

83
104
114
143
105
102
112
107
88
106
127
R 108
R 85

267
335
373
394
367
349
364
369
370
464
362
R 194
R 189

15
16
13
13
14
13
8
10
7
15
13
R5
R5

37
36
40
35
36
35
39
45
44
43
46
R 41
R 46

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 32

R 36

R3

R 495

R 44

R7

R 16

R

R 39

R2

R 552

R 448

R 40

R7

R 14

R

R 27

R 41

R3

R 614

R 444

R 43

R8

R 15

R

R 24

R 29

R2

R 620

R 384

R 40

R7

R 15

R

R 26

R 24

R3

R 626

R 403

R 46

R8

R 15

R

R 30

R 23

R3

R 642

R 407

R 45

R7

R 15

R

R 33

R 27

R3

R 672

R 412

R 50

R8

R 16

R

R 33

R 26

R3

R 680

R 445

R 50

R8

R 16

R

R 27

R 19

R3

R 613

R 411

R 44

R7

R 16

R

R 26

R 17

R3

R 634

R 334

R 46

R7

R 16

R

R 29

R 22

R3

R 568

R 401

R 43

R6

R 16

R

R 31

R 31

R3

R 571

R 479

R 46

R7

R 16

R

R 347

R 333

R 35

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
R 21

R 616

R 30

R 7,408

R 5,066

R 536

R 87

R 187

R 32

R 38

R3

2

R 400

R 458

R 53

R7

R 16

R

R 32

R 51

R2

R1

R 371

R 477

R 41

R6

R 14

R

R 31

R 34

R3

R 442

R 467

R 42

R8

R 15

R

R 27

R 22

R3

R 420

R 475

R 41

R8

R 15

R

R 28

R 15

R3

R 441

R 469

R 44

R8

R 15

R

R 29

R 16

R3

R 436

R 425

R 45

R8

R 15

R

R 30

R 12

R3

R 454

R 402

R 49

R8

R 16

R

R 33

R 20

R3

R 462

R 417

R 54

R7

R 16

R

R 30

R 11

R3

R 433

R 335

R 48

R7

R 16

R

R 28

R 10

R3

R 452

R 349

R 47

R7

R 16

R

R 16

R

R 395

R 400

R 47

R7

R 16

R

R 5,089

R 5,041

R 554

R 88

R 188

R4

R 41

R4

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

R3
R4
R4
R4
R3
R4
R4
R4
R4
R4
R4

R3

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 31

R 20

R3

R 361

R 258

R 34

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
R 19

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

53
50
41
44
46
33
37
35
33
29
30
430

22
17
12
9
9
20
18
12
12
10
14
154

4
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
34

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
20

612
480
664
669
730
689
734
683
669
721
564
7,215

388
393
310
294
233
314
306
282
345
272
265
3,402

53
49
43
45
46
47
52
52
39
49
45
519

11
10
11
7
7
8
9
9
7
7
6
93

26
31
24
24
26
25
23
24
23
23
23
272

(s)
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
5

2
2
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
24

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

330
316

238
302

31
32

18
19

4,693
6,837

4,640
4,586

507
490

81
81

172
170

4
3

37
41

R 30

R9

R3

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only
plants.
b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only
plants.
c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil.
e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous

R 383

R 366

R 44

R7

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

R 45

3
R3
R4
R3
R3
R4
R3
R4

3
R4

3
R4

technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity. Through 1988,
data are not available. • See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into
Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1989.
Sources: • 1989-1997: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-867,
"Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998-2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B,
"Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001-2003: EIA, Form EIA-906,
"Power Plant Report." • 2004-2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report,"
and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008: EIA, Form
EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

99

Figure 7.4

Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation
and Useful Thermal Output

Coal by Sector, 1989-2007

Petroleum by Sector, 1989-2007
360

1.2
Totala

270

Electric Power
Million Barrels

Billion Short Tons

0.9

0.6

Totala

180
Electric Power

90

0.3

Industrial
Industrial

0

0.0
1990

1995

2000

1990

2005

1995

2000

2005

Other Gasesb by Sector, 1989-2007

Natural Gas by Sector, 1989-2007

400

10

Totala

Trillion Cubic Feet

8

300
Industrial
Trillion Btu

Totala

6
4

200

Electric Power

100
2

Industrial
Electric Power

0

0
1990

1995

2000

1990

2005

Wood by Sector, 1989-2007

Total

Industrial
Trillion Btu

Quadrillion Btu

a

400

1.2

0.8

0.4

300
Electric Power

200
100

Commercial

Industrial

Electric Power

0.0

0
1990

1995

2000

2005

Includes commercial sector.
Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste
gases derived from fossil fuels.

100

2005

500
Total

b

2000

Waste by Sector, 1989-2007

1.6

a

1995

1990

1995

2000

2005

Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Sources: Tables 7.4a, 7.4b, and 7.4c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.4a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation
and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.4b and 7.4c)
Petroleum
Coala
Thousand
Short Tons

Distillate
Fuel Oilb

Residual
Fuel Oilc

Other
Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass
Petroleum
Cokee

Totale

Natural
Gasf

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

Woodh

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total k .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

389,212
405,962
569,274
693,841
811,538
881,012
928,015
952,955
966,615
970,175
1,015,398
991,635
1,005,144
1,031,778
1,044,798
1,065,281

47,058
38,907
29,051
14,635
20,194
21,697
22,444
22,893
30,006
30,616
34,572
33,724
24,749
31,825
23,520
24,446

513,190
467,221
391,163
158,779
209,314
112,168
124,607
134,623
189,267
172,319
156,673
177,137
118,637
152,859
157,478
156,915

NA
NA
NA
NA
1,332
1,322
2,468
526
1,230
1,812
2,904
1,418
3,257
4,576
4,764
4,270

507
70
179
231
2,832
4,590
4,596
6,095
6,196
5,989
4,669
4,532
7,353
7,067
8,721
9,113

562,781
506,479
421,110
174,571
244,998
158,140
172,499
188,517
251,486
234,694
217,494
234,940
183,409
224,593
229,364
231,193

3,660
3,158
3,682
3,044
4,346
5,572
5,178
5,433
6,030
6,305
6,677
6,731
6,986
6,337
6,727
R 7,021

NA
NA
NA
NA
288
313
346
307
334
350
356
263
278
294
R 353
348

1
0
3
8
1,256
1,382
1,389
1,397
1,349
1,352
1,380
1,182
1,287
1,266
1,360
1,353

2
2
2
7
257
374
392
407
404
400
401
263
289
293
R 282
289

NA
NA
NA
NA
86
97
91
103
95
101
109
229
252
262
R 254
R 237

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

89,720
83,236
84,783
74,743
82,713
89,570
99,478
100,548
86,525
85,934
84,472
92,060
1,053,783

1,233
1,141
992
1,147
1,148
1,273
1,589
1,785
919
1,069
1,113
1,245
14,655

6,950
5,469
4,009
4,533
4,324
6,146
7,784
10,004
4,877
5,317
5,356
5,077
69,846

317
249
318
224
308
286
328
430
280
193
208
254
3,396

819
731
703
708
668
740
803
762
697
690
630
670
8,622

12,597
10,516
8,835
9,444
9,121
11,403
13,715
16,030
9,563
10,030
9,828
9,924
131,005

415
434
503
515
602
R 729
973
951
645
631
491
515
R 7,404

28
27
30
29
31
28
30
31
28
29
26
25
341

128
111
116
109
112
113
121
120
116
118
115
121
1,399

27
24
25
23
26
24
26
26
24
25
26
26
300

R 20
R 18
R 21
R 20
R 21
R 21
R 21
R 21
R 20
R 21
R 20
R 21

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 93,880
R 86,088
R 83,929
R 77,747
R 83,140
R 91,682
R 98,568

R 334
R 517
R 404
R 394
R 424
R 322
R 304
R 391
R 279
R 306
R 257
R 304

R 686
R 571
R 577
R 564
R 607
R 686
R 636
R 666

R 12,390
R 17,455
R 11,250
R 10,371
R 9,911
R 11,416
R 10,953
R 13,881
R 9,789
R 9,416
R 6,706
R 8,852

30
R 25
R 28
R 28
R 28
R 27
R 27
R 28
R 27
R 28
R 25
R 27

R 118
R 105
R 111
R 112
R 110
R 108
R 114
R 111
R 108
R 111
R 111
R 118

R 27
R 24
R 28
R 23
R 25
R 24
R 25
R 25
R 24
R 26
R 26
R 26

R 21
R 18
R 20
R 20

R 1,069,606

R 17,042

R 7,045
R 11,358
R 6,575
R 6,066
R 5,254
R 6,330
R 6,194
R 8,347
R 5,443
R 5,162
R 2,765
R 4,078
R 74,616

R 550
R 510
R 502
R 538
R 596
R 719
R 857

R 101,160
R 89,833
R 85,782
R 84,392
R 93,404

R 1,580
R 2,727
R 1,385
R 1,088
R 1,198
R 1,334
R 1,272
R 1,814
R 1,049
R 1,244
R 1,041
R 1,308

R 329

R 1,336

R 304

R 239

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

95,994
88,299
84,936
79,014
83,923
91,684
100,259
97,698
88,004
82,639
83,221
975,673

1,765
1,274
913
911
907
1,551
1,143
940
981
777
862
12,024

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

976,201
961,723

15,734
13,410

R 247

20
R 20
R 20
R 21
R 19
R 20
R 19
R 21

R 4,237

604
R 541
R 529
R 632
R 7,299

R 132,389

R 1,077
R 779
R 700
R 539
R 594
R 7,962

3,953
3,140
2,957
3,033
3,222
5,280
4,411
3,728
4,401
2,677
3,016
39,817

401
312
321
234
229
311
236
217
279
195
198
2,934

599
561
532
507
498
586
525
522
490
560
480
5,860

9,116
7,530
6,853
6,713
6,847
10,072
8,413
7,493
8,113
6,449
6,476
84,075

626
520
554
543
562
761
880
860
678
636
546
7,166

30
28
34
28
29
26
29
28
22
22
18
294

107
100
97
99
101
103
108
107
103
104
101
1,131

24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
24
23
24
272

15
14
16
16
15
16
16
16
15
14
14
166

70,538
64,769

3,932
3,142

6,667
7,952

123,538
121,081

7,368
6,889

302
316

1,218
1,278

278
274

218
226

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small
amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small
amount of fuel oil no. 4.
d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, and waste oil.
e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

tire-derived fuels).
j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous
technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial
plants.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful thermal
output. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See sources for Tables 7.4b and 7.4c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

101

Table 7.4b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation
and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.4a)
Petroleum
Coala
Thousand
Short Tons

Distillate
Fuel Oilb

Residual
Fuel Oilc

Other
Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Biomass
Petroleum
Cokee

Totale

Natural
Gasf

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

389,212
405,962
569,274
693,841
782,567
850,230
896,921
921,364
936,619
940,922
985,821
964,433
977,507
1,005,116
1,016,268
1,037,485

47,058
38,907
29,051
14,635
16,567
18,553
18,780
18,989
23,300
24,058
30,016
29,274
21,876
27,632
19,107
19,675

513,190
467,221
391,163
158,779
184,915
90,023
99,951
113,669
166,528
152,493
138,513
159,504
104,773
138,279
139,816
139,409

NA
NA
NA
NA
26
499
653
152
431
544
454
377
1,267
2,026
2,713
2,685

507
70
179
231
1,008
2,674
2,642
3,372
4,102
3,735
3,275
3,427
5,816
5,799
7,372
8,083

562,781
506,479
421,110
174,571
206,550
122,447
132,593
149,668
210,769
195,769
185,358
206,291
156,996
196,932
198,498
202,184

3,660
3,158
3,682
3,044
3,245
4,237
3,807
4,065
4,588
4,820
5,206
5,342
5,672
5,135
5,464
5,869

NA
NA
NA
NA
11
24
20
24
29
19
25
15
33
41
R 58
84

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

87,317
81,043
82,499
72,560
80,515
87,319
97,113
98,183
84,327
83,724
82,293
89,742
1,026,636

1,045
933
741
984
990
1,131
1,431
1,628
802
951
951
1,060
12,646

5,431
4,184
2,821
3,522
3,427
5,342
6,963
9,164
3,987
4,469
4,293
3,741
57,345

164
128
199
132
168
154
183
218
142
121
114
146
1,870

685
607
576
585
545
610
673
634
572
580
509
525
7,101

10,065
8,282
6,640
7,565
7,308
9,676
11,943
14,181
7,791
8,441
7,901
7,573
107,365

318
346
407
426
504
630
864
840
548
528
397
414
6,222

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 91,686
R 84,026
R 81,803
R 75,751
R 81,140
R 89,699
R 96,548
R 99,086
R 87,922
R 83,810
R 82,393
R 91,276

R 1,408
R 2,499
R 1,235
R 962
R 1,000
R 1,211
R 1,176
R 1,684
R 955
R 1,105
R 928
R 1,164

R 5,633
R 9,495
R 5,164
R 4,936
R 4,425
R 5,531
R 5,534
R 7,570
R 4,822
R 4,554
R 2,163
R 3,259

R 199
R 426
R 277
R 190
R 187
R 175
R 161
R 230
R 194
R 196
R 166
R 192

R 559
R 442
R 448
R 437
R 474
R 547
R 486
R 505
R 471
R 421
R 398
R 496

R 10,035
R 14,630
R 8,914
R 8,274
R 7,984
R 9,652
R 9,303
R 12,009
R 8,325
R 7,960
R 5,246
R 7,098

R 448
R 425
R 416
R 453
R 507
R 628
R 761
R 969
R 683
R 604
R 448
R 498

R 1,045,141

R 15,327

R 63,086

R 2,594

R 5,685

R 109,431

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

93,856
86,176
82,828
76,945
81,739
89,546
98,035
95,542
85,843
80,475
81,134
952,119

1,656
1,193
832
837
832
1,461
1,027
835
847
685
769
10,973

3,276
2,575
2,425
2,635
2,819
4,758
3,879
3,263
3,937
2,324
2,592
34,482

284
211
201
154
155
229
160
148
178
120
148
1,988

483
449
392
398
385
472
416
437
407
445
393
4,678

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

953,866
936,894

14,163
11,587

59,827
53,604

2,402
1,723

5,188
6,575

102

Wastei

Otherj

Trillion Btu

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total k .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 2000, electric utility data also include small
amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small
amount of fuel oil no. 4.
d Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, and waste oil.
e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).

Woodh

1
3
8
129
125
138
137
137
138
134
126
150
167
165
185

2
2
2
7
188
296
300
309
308
315
318
211
230
230
223
221

5
5
5
5
6
5
5
6
5
5
5
5
65

17
15
16
12
13
15
16
17
15
15
15
16
182

20
18
19
17
19
19
20
20
19
19
20
20
231

10
9
10
10
10
11
11
11
10
10
10
11
125

R 19
R 15

15
15
14
15
R 16
16
15
R 15
15
16
R 186

R 20
R 17
R 20
R 18

R9
R 10

R 20

R 10
R 10

R 6,841

6
5
5
5
5
R5
R5
R5
5
6
5
6
R 61

21
21
20
R 20
21
R 21
R 237

11
11
10
R 10
10
R 11
R 124

7,630
6,225
5,417
5,616
5,732
8,807
7,146
6,432
7,000
5,353
5,473
70,831

528
432
462
459
473
669
786
762
602
545
462
6,179

7
7
8
7
7
6
6
6
4
5
3
66

17
16
16
14
13
15
16
16
15
13
15
166

19
17
20
19
20
20
20
20
18
18
19
211

11
10
11
10
10
11
11
11
10
10
10
115

102,333
99,792

6,344
5,808

56
59

170
166

217
211

113
114

(s)

20

NA
NA
NA
NA
(s)
2
2
1
2
1
1
113
143
140
138
123

11
10

j Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous
technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful thermal
output.

The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals
may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic
coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.4c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation
and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.4a)
Commercial Sectora

Industrial Sectorb
Biomass

Biomass

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

1,125
1,191
1,419
1,660
1,738
1,443
1,490
1,547
1,448
1,405
1,816
1,917
1,922

1,967
2,056
1,245
1,246
1,584
1,807
1,613
1,615
1,832
1,250
1,449
2,009
1,630

30
46
78
82
87
87
84
85
79
74
58
72
R 68

22
28
40
53
58
54
54
47
25
26
29
34
34

24,867
27,781
29,363
29,434
29,853
28,553
27,763
28,031
25,755
26,232
24,846
26,613
25,875

25,685
36,392
34,448
38,661
37,265
38,910
37,312
30,520
26,817
25,163
26,212
28,857
27,380

914
1,055
1,258
1,289
1,282
1,355
1,401
1,386
1,310
1,240
1,144
1,191
1,084

195
275
290
325
283
305
331
331
248
245
253
R 295
264

926
1,125
1,255
1,249
1,259
1,211
1,213
1,244
1,054
1,136
1,097
1,193
1,166

35
41
38
39
41
42
31
35
27
34
34
24
34

85
86
95
89
102
93
99
108
101
92
103
R 94
R 94

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

186
169
170
134
139
147
163
163
138
136
159
183
1,886

121
137
126
77
51
51
55
58
49
44
64
102
935

5
5
5
5
5
R6
7
7
6
6
5
6
R 68

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
36

2,217
2,024
2,115
2,050
2,059
2,104
2,202
2,202
2,061
2,074
2,020
2,136
25,262

2,411
2,098
2,070
1,802
1,762
1,677
1,717
1,791
1,722
1,545
1,863
2,249
22,706

91
83
91
84
92
94
103
104
91
97
89
95
1,115

23
22
25
24
24
23
25
25
23
24
21
20
277

112
96
100
97
98
98
105
103
100
103
100
105
1,216

3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
33

R8

R 102

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 191

R 113

6

3

R 2,003

R 2,242

R 96

24

R 99

R5

R9

R 186

R 198

R5

R2

R 1,876

R 2,627

R 79

R 20

R 90

R5

R8

R5

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
R 31

R 1,956

R 2,233

R 81

R 23

R 95

R5

R8

R 1,850

R 2,039

R 80

R 23

R 96

R3

R8

R 1,857

R 1,901

R 84

R 23

R 96

R2

R8

R 1,845

R 1,726

R 85

R 22

R 93

R2

R8

R 1,868

R 1,627

R 90

R 22

R 98

R2

R8

R 1,912

R 1,832

R 101

R 23

R 95

R2

R9

R 1,765

R 1,436

R 89

R 92

R2

R8

R 1,830

R 1,431

R 89

R 96

R 1,435

R 85

R 1,945

R 1,679

R 90

R 22,537

R 22,207

R 1,050

R 1,148

3
3
3
R 36

R9

R 1,830

23
R 22
R 20
R 22
R 268

R 98

1989 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Wastef

Coalc

Petroleumd

Natural
Gase

Trillion
Btu

Thousand
Short Tons

Thousand
Barrels

Billion
Cubic Feet

Other
Gasesg

Woodh

Wastef

Otheri

Trillion Btu

R7
R9
R8
R9
R8
R9
R8
R8
R9
R9
R9

171

R 103

R 146

R 58

R 143

R 26

137
R 151
R 162
R 145
R 142
R 169
183
R 1,927

R 37

R 752

5
5
R6
R7
R7
R6
R6
6
R6
R 70

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

198
185
183
160
163
187
182
188
175
164
179
1,965

64
52
39
26
21
41
42
26
26
32
37
407

6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
57

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
32

1,940
1,938
1,925
1,910
2,020
1,951
2,041
1,967
1,987
2,000
1,908
21,589

1,421
1,252
1,396
1,071
1,094
1,225
1,226
1,035
1,087
1,064
966
12,837

93
83
86
79
84
88
89
92
72
85
80
929

23
21
26
21
21
20
23
23
18
17
15
228

90
85
81
85
88
88
92
91
88
90
86
964

3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
29

3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
34

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,743
1,703

677
833

64
62

28
33

20,592
23,126

20,528
20,457

960
1,019

246
256

1,046
1,111

33
30

89
93

R 23
R 41
R 28
R 25
R 24
R 75

a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only
plants.
b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only
plants.
c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal
synfuel.
d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil.
e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels.
f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
g Blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactured and waste gases
derived from fossil fuels.
h Wood and wood-derived fuels.
i Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous

R 95
R 102

R8
R8

technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste
from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels).
R=Revised.
Notes: • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful thermal
output. Through 1988, data are not available. • See Note, "Classification of Power
Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of
components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1989.
Sources: • 1989-1997: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-867,
"Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998-2000: EIA, Form EIA-860B,
"Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001-2003: EIA, Form EIA-906,
"Power Plant Report." • 2004-2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report,"
and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008: EIA, Form
EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report."

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

103

Figure 7.5

Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector

Coal, 1973-2007

Coal, Monthly
175

200

Million Short Tons

Million Short Tons

150

100

50

150

2008

125

2007
2006

100
75
50
25
0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

J

2005

Total Petroleum, 1973-2007

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

A

S

O

N

D

Total Petroleum, Monthly

150

70
60
50

100

Million Barrels

Million Barrels

2006

50

2007
2008

40
30
20
10

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Coal and Petroleum Stocks, 1973-2007

J

M

A

M

J

J

Petroleum by Major Type, End of Month

4

36
Coal

Million Barrels

27

COALcOC

2

November 2006
November 2007
November 2008

28

3
Quadrillion Btu

F

1

25
22
18 18

18

17

9
Petroleum
4

0
1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by five.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

104

4

0
1975

a

3

Residual

Distillate

Petroleum

Fuel Oil

Fuel Oil

Cokea

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Sources: Tables 7.5, A1, and A5 (column 6).

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.5 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector
Petroleum
Coala

Distillate Fuel Oilb

Residual Fuel Oilc

Other Liquidsd

Thousand Barrels

Thousand Short Tons

Petroleum Cokee

Totale

Thousand Short Tons

Thousand Barrels

1973 Year .............................
1975 Year .............................
1980 Year .............................
1985 Year .............................
1990 Year .............................
1995 Year .............................
1996 Year .............................
1997 Year .............................
1998 Year .............................
1999 Year f ...........................
2000 Year ............................
2001 Year .............................
2002 Year .............................
2003 Year .............................
2004 Year .............................
2005 Year .............................

86,967
110,724
183,010
156,376
156,166
126,304
114,623
98,826
120,501
141,604
102,296
138,496
141,714
121,567
106,669
101,137

10,095
16,432
30,023
16,386
16,471
15,392
15,216
15,456
16,343
17,995
15,127
20,486
17,413
19,153
19,275
18,778

79,121
108,825
105,351
57,304
67,030
35,102
32,473
33,336
37,451
34,256
24,748
34,594
25,723
25,820
26,596
27,624

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
800
779
879
1,012

312
31
52
49
94
65
91
469
559
372
211
390
1,711
1,484
937
530

90,776
125,413
135,635
73,933
83,970
50,821
48,146
51,138
56,591
54,109
40,932
57,031
52,490
53,170
51,434
50,062

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ...................

105,401
105,986
112,141
125,097
133,841
135,734
127,894
123,884
126,872
134,941
140,442
140,964

18,413
18,393
18,346
18,156
18,156
18,199
18,044
18,093
18,024
17,852
17,987
18,013

31,748
31,335
31,881
30,641
32,462
31,503
30,198
27,979
29,456
28,367
28,292
28,823

1,058
1,075
1,087
1,101
1,094
1,082
1,081
1,082
1,343
1,330
1,336
1,380

587
633
700
650
684
665
615
580
647
736
771
674

54,151
53,966
54,813
53,148
55,132
54,110
52,401
50,056
52,059
51,228
51,472
51,583

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ...................

R 136,377

R 17,306

R 27,138

R 1,406

R 699

R 49,346

R 133,468

R 17,036

R 23,516

R 1,379

R 723

R 45,546

R 141,389

R 16,876

R 23,089

R 1,336

R 636

R 44,480

R 149,657

R 16,789

R 23,918

R 1,338

R 669

R 45,389

R 154,735

R 16,782

R 26,022

R 1,379

R 660

R 47,481

R 154,812

R 17,109

R 26,240

R 1,384

R 543

R 47,445

R 145,450

R 17,264

R 25,650

R 1,433

R 631

R 47,504

R 140,668

R 17,276

R 24,513

R 1,488

R 562

R 46,087

R 142,666

R 17,590

R 25,272

R 1,484

R 543

R 47,059

R 150,075

R 17,920

R 23,809

R 1,521

R 45,973

R 154,292

R 18,261

R 24,941

R 1,515

R 151,221

R 18,395

R 24,136

R 1,902

545
R 612
R 554

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................

148,707
144,011
146,952
152,349
158,422
154,041
142,863
141,957
144,948
157,552
166,298

18,927
19,593
16,851
16,355
16,229
15,663
15,955
15,851
15,949
16,211
16,604

23,674
23,926
22,893
24,238
23,336
23,866
23,068
22,917
22,325
22,365
22,017

1,422
1,459
1,412
1,449
1,446
1,449
1,445
1,445
1,436
1,506
1,514

590
551
676
744
787
755
818
786
760
760
867

46,973
47,730
44,537
45,761
44,945
44,754
44,558
44,145
43,509
43,881
44,469

a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite.
b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2 and 4. For 1973-1979, data are for gas turbine and internal

combustion plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also
include small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel.
c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1973-1979, data are for steam plant stocks of
petroleum. For 1980-2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel
oil no. 4.
d Jet fuel and kerosene. Through 2003, data also include a small amount of
waste oil.
e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5.
f Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1999, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes:

The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Stocks

R 47,777
R 47,203

are at end of period. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to
independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of
Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • 1973-September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-4,
"Monthly Power Plant Report." • October 1977-1981: Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission, Form FPC-4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." • 1982-1988: Energy
Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report."
• 1989-1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form
EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." • 1998-2000: EIA, Form
EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001-2003: Form EIA-906, "Power Plant
Report"; • 2004-2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and Form
EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." • 2008: EIA, Form EIA-923,
"Power Plant Operations Report."

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

105

Figure 7.6

Electricity End Use
(Billion Kilowatthours)

Electricity End Use Overview, 1989-2007

Retail Salesa by Sector, November 2008

5,000

125

4,000

100

104.2
96.2

Total

78.6

3,000
Retail Sales

75

a

2,000

50

1,000

25
Direct Useb

0
1990

1995

2000

Retail Salesa by Sector, 1973-2007

0.6

0

2005

Residential

Commercial

c

Industrial

Transportation d

Retail Salesa by Sector, Monthly
175

1,500
Residential

Residential

150
125

1,000

Industrial
Commercialc

100
Industrial

75
500

Commercialc

50
25
Transportation d

Transportation d

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Retail Salesa Total, January-November

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Retail Salesa Total, Monthly

4,000

400
3,370

3,457

3,445

3,000

300

2,000

200

1,000

100
2006

0
2007

2008

Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities
and other energy service providers.
b
See “Direct Use” in Glossary.
c
Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities .

106

2008

0
2006

a

2007

J

F

M

A

M

J

d

J

A

S

O

N

D

Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways.
Note: Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html.
Source: Table 7.6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 7.6 Electricity End Use
(Million Kilowatthours)
Discontinued
Retail Sales Series

Retail Salesa
Transportationd

Residential

Commercialb

Industrialc

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

579,231
588,140
717,495
793,934
924,019
1,042,501
1,082,512
1,075,880
1,130,109
1,144,923
1,192,446
1,201,607
1,265,180
1,275,824
1,291,982
1,359,227

E 444,505
E 468,296

E 3,087
E 2,974

558,643
689,121
838,263
953,117
980,061
1,026,626
1,077,957
1,103,821
1,159,347
1,190,518
1,204,531
1,198,728
1,230,425
1,275,079

686,085
687,680
815,067
836,772
945,522
1,012,693
1,033,631
1,038,197
1,051,203
1,058,217
1,064,239
996,609
990,238
1,012,373
1,017,850
1,019,156

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

120,419
104,511
104,955
89,374
94,000
118,815
147,338
150,064
116,072
96,246
94,843
114,882
1,351,520

101,933
95,713
101,115
96,551
106,442
115,785
125,541
127,655
114,231
109,000
101,104
104,673
1,299,744

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 125,286
R 121,464
R 105,695
R 90,282
R 96,389
R 117,418
R 139,027
R 150,101
R 129,512
R 103,754
R 95,905
R 117,408
R 1,392,241

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Total
Retail Salese

Direct Usef

Total
End Useg

Commercial
(Old) h

Other
(Old) i

3,244
4,147
4,751
4,975
4,923
4,907
4,962
5,126
5,382
5,724
5,517
6,810
7,224
7,506

1,712,909
1,747,091
2,094,449
2,323,974
2,712,555
3,013,287
3,101,127
3,145,610
3,264,231
3,312,087
3,421,414
3,394,458
3,465,466
3,493,734
3,547,479
3,660,969

NA
NA
NA
NA
124,529
150,677
152,638
156,239
160,866
171,629
170,943
162,649
166,184
168,295
168,470
150,016

1,712,909
1,747,091
2,094,449
2,323,974
2,837,084
3,163,963
3,253,765
3,301,849
3,425,097
3,483,716
3,592,357
3,557,107
3,631,650
3,662,029
3,715,949
3,810,984

388,266
403,049
488,155
605,989
751,027
862,685
887,445
928,633
979,401
1,001,996
1,055,232
1,083,069
1,104,497
––
––
––

59,326
68,222
73,732
87,279
91,988
95,407
97,539
102,901
103,518
106,952
109,496
113,174
105,552
––
––
––

81,865
80,207
83,264
81,696
86,179
86,630
88,880
90,285
86,364
85,337
80,653
79,937
1,011,298

649
615
636
587
577
609
627
630
615
602
582
627
7,358

304,866
281,046
289,970
268,208
287,198
321,840
362,387
368,634
317,282
291,186
277,182
300,119
3,669,919

E 12,574
E 11,257
E 11,903
E 11,322
E 12,283
E 12,101
E 13,281
E 13,296
E 12,077
E 12,522
E 11,808
E 12,501

317,440
292,304
301,873
279,531
299,481
333,941
375,668
381,930
329,360
303,708
288,990
312,620
3,816,845

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

R 106,667
R 100,756
R 102,640
R 101,051
R 108,559
R 117,352
R 123,923
R 130,475
R 119,898
R 114,481
R 104,603
R 105,909

R 82,384
R 78,392
R 82,582
R 83,361
R 87,241
R 87,572
R 89,017
R 92,115
R 87,428
R 88,896
R 85,118
R 83,725

R 766
R 719
R 743
R 646
R 611
R 665
R 675
R 673
R 687
R 652
R 673
R 663

R 315,104
R 301,331
R 291,660
R 275,341
R 292,800
R 323,007
R 352,642
R 373,365
R 337,525
R 307,783
R 286,299
R 307,704

R 329,370
R 313,344
R 304,431
R 287,831
R 305,819
R 336,067
R 366,645
R 388,019
R 350,864
R 321,231
R 299,127
R 321,067

R 1,336,315

R 1,027,832

R 8,173

R 3,764,561

RE 14,266
RE 12,012
RE 12,770
RE 12,491
RE 13,019
RE 13,060
RE 14,003
RE 14,654
RE 13,339
RE 13,449
RE 12,828
RE 13,363
R 159,254

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

290,931
3,584,175

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

3,602,747
3,504,225

––
––

––
––

146,927

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

133,623
119,138
107,602
92,513
92,559
121,758
144,003
139,511
118,343
96,607
96,153
1,261,810

109,646
105,045
103,826
103,506
108,472
121,321
130,907
127,484
121,521
112,892
104,245
1,248,865

83,368
81,678
83,585
82,281
89,497
85,618
87,370
87,189
84,899
83,007
78,610
927,102

693
668
634
614
596
622
644
640
625
628
616
6,978

327,330
306,528
295,647
278,913
291,124
329,319
362,925
354,824
325,388
293,134
279,623
3,444,755

RE 13,788
RE 12,579
RE 12,764
RE 12,240
RE 12,569
RE 12,956
RE 14,017
RE 13,755
RE 11,299
RE 12,144
E 11,308
E 139,419

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

1,274,833
1,236,638

1,230,407
1,195,071

944,107
931,360

7,509
6,730

3,456,856
3,369,800

E 145,891
E 134,425

a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and,
beginning in 1996, other energy service providers.
b Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting,
interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities.
c Industrial sector. Through 2002, excludes agriculture and irrigation; beginning
in 2003, includes agriculture and irrigation.
d Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways.
e The sum of "Residential," "Commercial," "Industrial," and "Transportation."
f Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same
entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a
service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities
that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use.
g The sum of "Total Retail Sales" and "Direct Use."

R 3,923,814
R 341,118
R 319,107
R 308,411
R 291,153
R 303,693
R 342,275
R 376,942
R 368,579
R 336,687
R 305,279

h "Commercial (Old)" is a discontinued series—data are for the commercial
sector, excluding public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and
other sales to public authorities.
i "Other (Old)" is a discontinued series—data are for public street and highway
lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to public authorities, agriculture and
irrigation, and transportation including railroads and railways.
R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable.
Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

107

and service) by Canada from the United States.

Electricity
Note. Classification of Power Plants Into EnergyUse Sectors. The Energy Information Administration
(EIA) classifies power plants (both electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power plants) into energy-use sectors
based on the North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS), which replaced the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system in 1997. Plants with a NAICS
code of 22 are assigned to the Electric Power Sector.
Those with NAICS codes beginning with 11 (agriculture,
forestry, fishing, and hunting); 21 (mining, including oil
and gas extraction); 23 (construction); 31–33 (manufacturing); 2212 (natural gas distribution); and 22131 (water
supply and irrigation systems) are assigned to the Industrial Sector. Those with all other codes are assigned to the
Commercial Sector. Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric
Generator Report,” asks respondents to indicate the
primary purpose of the facility by assigning a NAICS code
from the list at:

Imports and Exports, Electricity Trade with
Mexico, 1990 Forward
DOE, Fossil Energy, Office of Fuels Programs, Form
FE-781R, “Annual Report of International Electrical
Export/Import Data.” For 2001 forward, data from the
California Independent System Operator were used in
combination with the Form FE-781R values to estimate
electricity trade with Mexico.

T&D Losses and Unaccounted for
Calculated as the sum of total net generation and imports
minus end use and exports.

End Use
Table 7.6.

Table 7.2b Sources

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/forms/eia860/eia860.doc .

Table 7.1 Sources
Net Generation, Electric Power Sector
Table 7.2b.

Net Generation, Commercial and Industrial Sectors
Table 7.2c.

Imports and Exports, Electricity Trade With
Canada and Mexico, 1973 –1989
1973–September 1977:
Unpublished Federal Power
Commission data.
October 1977–1980: Unpublished Economic Regulatory
Administration (ERA) data.
1981: Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy
Emergency Operations, “Report on Electric Energy
Exchanges with Canada and Mexico for Calendar Year
1981,” April 1982 (revised June 1982).
1982 and 1983: DOE, ERA, Electricity Exchanges Across
International Borders.
1984–1986: DOE, ERA, Electricity Transactions Across
International Borders.
1987 and 1988: DOE, ERA, Form ERA-781R, “Annual
Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.”
1989: DOE, Fossil Energy, Form FE-781R, “Annual
Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data.”

Imports and Exports, Electricity Trade with
Canada, 1990 Forward
National Energy Board of Canada, data for total sales (firm
and interruptible; which exclude non-revenue, inadvertent,
and service) from Canada to the United States, and data for
total purchases (which exclude non-revenue, inadvertent,
108

1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1982–1988: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report–Nonutility.”
2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations
Report.”

Table 7.2c Sources
Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power, 1973–1988
1973–September 1977:
Federal Power Commission
(FPC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for
plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts,
and FPC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial Electric Generating
Capacity,” for all other plants.
October 1977–1978: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10
megawatts, and FERC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial
Electric Generating Capacity,” for all other plants.
1979:
FERC, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10
megawatts, and Energy Information Administration (EIA)
estimates for all other plants.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

1980–1988: Estimated by EIA as the average generation
over the 6-year period of 1974–1979.

2008: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations
Report.”

All Data, 1989 Forward
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power
Producer Report.”
1998–2000:
EIA, Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric
Generator Report—Nonutility.”
2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations
Report.”

Table 7.3b Sources
1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1982–1988: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power
Plant Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual
Nonutility Power Producer Report.”
1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator
Report–Nonutility.”
2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report.”
2008: EIA, Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations
Report.”

Table 7.6 Sources
Retail Sales, Residential and Industrial
1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue
and Income.”
October 1977–February 1980: Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC), Form FPC-5, “Monthly Statement of
Electric Operating Revenue and Income.”
March 1980–1982: FERC, Form FPC-5, "Electric Utility
Company Monthly Statement."
1983: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form
EIA-826, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement.”
1984–1993: EIA, Form EIA-861, “Annual Electric Utility
Report.”
1994 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February
2009, Table 5.1.

Retail Sales, Commercial
1973–2002: Estimated by EIA as the sum of “Commercial
(Old)” and the non-transportation portion of “Other (Old).”
See estimation methodology at
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf.

2003 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February
2009, Table 5.1.

Retail Sales, Transportation
1973–2002: Estimated by EIA as the transportation portion
of “Other (Old).”
See estimation methodology at
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf.

2003 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February
2009, Table 5.1.

Direct Use, Annual

Table 7.4b Sources
1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1982–1988: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.”
1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power
Plant Report,” and Form EIA-867, “Annual
Nonutility Power Producer Report.”
1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA-759, “Monthly Power Plant
Report,” and Form EIA-860B, “Annual Electric Generator
Report–Nonutility.”
2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report,”
and Form EIA-920, “Combined Heat and Power Plant
Report.”

1989–1994: EIA, Form EIA-867, “Annual Nonutility Power
Producer Report.”
1995–2007: EIA, Electric Power Annual 2007, January
2009, Table 7.2.

Direct Use, Monthly
Annual shares are calculated as annual direct use divided by
annual commercial and industrial net generation (on Table
7.1). Then monthly direct use estimates are calculated as
the annual share multiplied by the monthly commercial and
industrial net generation values. For 2008, the 2007 annual
share is used.

Discontinued Retail Sales Series Commercial (Old)
and Other (Old) 1973–2002:
See sources for
“Residential” and “Industrial.”

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

109

8
Nuclear Energy

Site of Shippingport atomic power station, the first commercial nuclear power plant in the United States (rectangular reactor building
and foreground); background, Beaver Valley 1 and 2 nuclear power plants and Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant (southwestern
Pennsylvania). Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 8.1

Nuclear Energy Overview

Operable Units, End of Year, 1973-2007
125

Number of Units

100
Peak: 112 units
(1990)

104 units
(2007)

75
50
42 units
(1973)

25
0

1975

1980

1985

1990

Electricity Net Generation, 1973-2007

2000

2005

Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation,
1973-2007

5

25

4

20
Total

3

Percent

Trillion Kilowatthours

1995

2
1

15
10
5

Nuclear Electric Power

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Capacity Factor, Monthly

90

120

60

61.392

63.408

80
Percent

Billion Kilowatthours

100
64.899

30

60
40
20

0

2006

2008

0
November
2006

November
2007

November

J

F

M

A

M

J

2008

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/nuclear.html.
Sources: Tables 7.1 and 8.1.

112

2007

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

J

A

S

O

N

D

Table 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview

1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Total
Operable
Unitsa,b

Net Summer
Capacity of
Operable Unitsb,c

Nuclear Electricity
Net Generation

Number

Million Kilowatts

Million Kilowatthours

Nuclear Share
of Electricity
Net Generation

Capacity Factord
Percent

..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................

42
57
71
96
112
109
109
107
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

22.683
37.267
51.810
79.397
99.624
99.515
100.784
99.716
97.070
97.411
97.860
98.159
98.657
99.209
99.628
99.988

83,479
172,505
251,116
383,691
576,862
673,402
674,729
628,644
673,702
728,254
753,893
768,826
780,064
763,733
788,528
781,986

4.5
9.0
11.0
15.5
19.0
20.1
19.6
18.0
18.6
19.7
19.8
20.6
20.2
19.7
19.9
19.3

53.5
55.9
56.3
58.0
66.0
77.4
76.2
71.1
78.2
85.3
88.1
89.4
90.3
87.9
90.1
89.3

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Total ..........................

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334
100.334

71,912
62,616
63,721
57,567
62,776
68,391
72,186
72,016
66,642
57,509
61,392
70,490
787,219

21.9
20.4
20.0
19.3
19.0
18.8
17.6
17.7
20.1
17.9
19.9
21.0
19.4

96.3
92.9
85.4
79.7
84.1
94.7
96.7
96.5
92.3
77.0
85.0
94.4
89.6

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Total ..........................

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

R

100.266
100.266
100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266

74,006
65,225
64,305
57,301
65,025
68,923
R 72,739
72,751
R 67,579
61,690
R 64,899
71,983
R 806,425

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Month Total .........

104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104

R

2007 11-Month Total .........
2006 11-Month Total .........

104
104

R
R

R

20.9
20.2
20.1
R 18.9
19.7
19.0
18.5
17.2
19.0
18.5
20.7
20.8
19.4

R

R

R

R

R

R

100.266
100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
R 100.266
100.266
100.266

70,686
64,936
64,683
57,281
64,794
70,268
74,266
72,573
67,003
62,793
63,408
732,692

19.5
19.9
19.9
18.9
19.9
18.8
18.5
18.8
19.9
19.7
20.4
19.4

100.266
100.334

734,442
716,729

19.3
19.2

R

a Total of nuclear generating units holding full-power licenses, or equivalent
permission to operate, at end of period. See Note 1, "Operable Nuclear Reactors,"
at end of section. For additional information on nuclear generating units, see
Annual
Energy
Review
2007,
June
2008,
Table
9.1,
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/nuclear.html.
b At end of period.
c For the definition of "Net Summer Capacity," see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity,"
at end of section.
d For an explanation of the method of calculating the capacity factor, see Note

99.2
96.8
86.2
R 79.4
R 87.2
R 95.5
R 97.5
R 97.5
R 93.6
R 82.7
R 89.9
R 96.5
R 91.8
94.8
93.1
86.7
R 79.3
R 86.9
R 97.3
R 99.6
R 97.3
R 92.8
R 84.2
87.8
90.9
R
R

91.4
89.1

2, "Nuclear Capacity," at end of section.
R=Revised.
Notes: • For a discussion of nuclear reactor unit coverage, see Note 1,
"Operable Nuclear Reactors," at end of section.
• Nuclear electricity net
generation totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/nuclear.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

113

Nuclear Energy

time of summer peak demand. Auxiliary power of a typical
nuclear power plant is about 5 percent of gross generation.

Note 1. Operable Nuclear Reactors. A reactor is
generally defined as operable while it possessed a full-power
license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its
predecessor the Atomic Energy Commission, or equivalent
permission to operate, at the end of the year or month
shown. The definition is liberal in that it does not exclude
units retaining full-power licenses during long, non-routine
shutdowns that for a time rendered them unable to generate
electricity. Examples are:

(b) Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating
(DER)—The nominal net electrical output of a unit,
specified by the utility and used for plant design.

(a) In 1985 the five then-active Tennessee Valley Authority
(TVA) units (Browns Ferry 1, 2, and 3, and Sequoyah 1 and
2) were shut down under a regulatory forced outage. All
five units were idle for several years, restarting in 2007,
1991, 1995, 1988, and 1988, respectively and were counted
as operable during the shutdowns.
(b) Shippingport was shut down from 1974 through 1976
for conversion to a light-water breeder reactor, but is
counted as operable from 1957 until its retirement in 1982.
(c) Calvert Cliffs 2 was shut down in 1989 and 1990 for
replacement of pressurizer heater sleeves but is counted as
operable during those years.
Exceptions to the definition are Shoreham and Three Mile
Island 2. Shoreham was granted a full-power license in April
1989, but was shut down two months later and never
restarted. In 1991, the license was changed to Possession
Only. Although not operable at the end of the year,
Shoreham is counted as operable during 1989. A major
accident closed Three Mile Island 2 in 1979, and although
the unit retained its full-power license for several years, it is
considered permanently shut down since that year.

The monthly capacity factors are calculated as the monthly
nuclear electricity net generation divided by the maximum
possible nuclear electricity net generation for that month. The
maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation is the
number of hours in the month (assuming 24-hour days, with
no adjustment for changes to or from Daylight Savings Time)
multiplied by the net summer capacity of operable nuclear
generating units at the end of the month. That fraction is then
multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Annual capacity
factors are calculated as the annual nuclear electricity net
generation divided by the annual maximum possible nuclear
electricity net generation (the sum of the monthly values for
maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation).

Table 8.1 Sources
Total Operable Units and Net Summer Capacity of
Operable Units
1973-1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily
DOE, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, “U.S. Central
Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant
Milestones.”
1983 forward: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” and
monthly updates as appropriate. For a list of currently
operable units, see:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/operational.xls.

Note 2. Nuclear Capacity. Nuclear generating units may
have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the
following:

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation and Nuclear Share of
Electricity Net Generation
See Table 7.2a.

(a) Net Summer Capacity—The steady hourly output that
generating equipment is expected to supply to system load,
exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the

Capacity Factor
Calculated by EIA using the method described above in
Note 2.

114

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

9

Energy Prices

Figure 9.1

Petroleum Prices

Crude Oil Prices, 1973-2007

Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost, Monthly
150

80

Nominal Dollars per Barrel

100

2007

a

60

a

Nominal Dollars per Barrel

2008

125

40
Composite Refiner
Acquisition

20

75
2006

50
25

Domestic First
Purchase Price

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Nominal Centsb per Gallon (Excluding Taxes)

Refiner Prices to End Users: Motor Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, and Jet Fuel, Monthly
450
400
350
Finished
Motor Gasoline

300
250
200
150

Kerosene-Type
Jet Fuel

No. 2
Diesel Fuel

100
50
0
J

F M A M J

J A S O N D J

F M A M J

2006

J A S O N D J

F M A M J

2007

J A S O N D

2008

Nominal Centsb per Gallon (Excluding Taxes)

Refiner Prices to End Users: No. 2 Fuel Oil, Propane, and Residual Fuel, Monthly
450
400
350
300
250

No. 2 Fuel Oil

200
150
100

Residual Fuel Oil

50
0
J

a

F M A M J J A S O N D J
2006

F M A M J J A S O N D J
2007

See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary.
See “Nominal Price” in Glossary.
Note: • Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
b

116

Propane
(Consumer Grade)

F M A M J J A S O N D
2008

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html.
Sources: Tables 9.1, 9.5, and 9.7.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.1 Crude Oil Price Summary
(Nominal Dollarsa per Barrel)
Refiner Acquisition Costb
Domestic First
Purchase Pricec

F.O.B. Cost
of Importsd

Landed Cost
of Importse

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

3.89
7.67
21.59
24.09
20.03
14.62
18.46
17.23
10.87
15.56
26.72
21.84
22.51
27.56
36.77
50.28

f 5.21
11.18
32.37
25.84
20.37
15.69
19.32
16.94
10.76
16.47
26.27
20.46
22.63
25.86
33.75
47.60

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

57.85
55.69
55.64
62.52
64.40
64.65
67.71
67.21
59.37
53.26
52.42
55.03
59.69

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................
2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a
b
c
d
e
f

Domestic

Imported

Composite

f 6.41
12.70
33.67
26.67
21.13
16.78
20.31
18.11
11.84
17.23
27.53
21.82
23.91
27.69
36.07
49.29

E 4.17

E 4.08

E 4.15

8.39
24.23
26.66
22.59
17.33
20.77
19.61
13.18
17.90
29.11
24.33
24.65
29.82
38.97
52.94

13.93
33.89
26.99
21.76
17.14
20.64
18.53
12.04
17.26
27.70
22.00
23.71
27.71
35.90
48.86

10.38
28.07
26.75
22.22
17.23
20.71
19.04
12.52
17.51
28.26
22.95
24.10
28.53
36.98
50.24

53.93
51.34
54.67
62.09
62.95
61.44
65.67
62.68
54.63
50.64
51.48
52.82
57.03

55.49
53.25
56.59
63.40
64.64
64.42
67.88
65.14
57.20
52.83
53.01
54.53
59.11

60.22
58.97
58.48
64.06
67.11
67.76
70.55
70.48
62.51
56.67
55.36
57.81
62.62

55.85
52.80
55.31
62.41
64.39
63.79
67.99
66.45
57.29
52.70
52.70
54.97
59.02

57.33
54.82
56.38
62.98
65.34
65.13
68.86
67.77
58.92
54.04
53.61
55.98
60.24

49.32
52.94
54.95
58.20
58.90
62.35
69.23
67.77
73.27
79.32
87.16
85.28
66.52

48.11
51.97
55.46
59.53
60.72
64.38
69.30
66.69
72.21
78.51
83.75
82.85
66.36

50.53
54.04
57.42
60.99
62.92
66.26
70.51
69.07
73.92
79.45
84.89
84.28
67.97

53.10
55.72
57.86
61.13
62.04
64.95
72.08
71.57
75.84
82.20
89.25
88.98
69.65

49.57
53.77
56.31
60.45
61.55
65.24
70.75
68.28
72.34
78.61
85.53
83.21
67.04

50.77
54.45
56.84
60.68
61.71
65.14
71.24
69.46
73.54
79.87
86.78
85.29
67.94

87.06
89.41
98.44
106.64
118.55
127.47
128.08
112.83
98.50
73.22
R 53.70
NA

83.43
87.81
96.42
104.20
115.02
123.62
122.12
108.10
R 91.65
R 63.29
R 44.73
NA

86.61
90.67
100.03
108.47
119.55
125.93
124.30
109.64
R 92.31
R 66.20
R 48.16
NA

89.57
92.25
99.87
108.46
119.75
129.45
131.47
118.32
103.73
81.03
R 61.74
E 44.30

84.82
87.41
97.03
104.94
116.55
126.22
127.77
111.21
96.38
70.84
R 49.10
E 35.43

86.48
89.07
98.01
106.21
117.64
127.32
129.03
113.71
98.91
74.22
R 53.32
E 39.82

See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
See Note 4, "Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs," at end of section.
See Note 1, "Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices," at end of section.
See Note 2, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section.
See Note 3, "Crude Oil Landed Costs," at end of section.
Based on October, November, and December data only.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate.
Notes: • Values for Domestic First Purchase Price and Refiner Acquisition Cost
for the current two months and for F.O.B. and Landed Costs of Imports for the

current three months are preliminary. • F.O.B. and landed costs through 1980
reflect the period of reporting; prices since then reflect the period of loading.
• Annual averages are the averages of the monthly prices, weighted by volume.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the
Virgin Islands, and all U.S. Territories and Possessions.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

117

Table 9.2 F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries
(Nominal Dollarsa per Barrel)
Selected Countries

Venezuela

Total
OPECc

Total
Non-OPECc

Angola

Colombia

Mexico

Nigeria

1973 Averaged .................
1975 Average ..................
1980 Average ..................
1985 Average ..................
1990 Average ..................
1995 Average ..................
1996 Average ..................
1997 Average ..................
1998 Average ..................
1999 Average ..................
2000 Average ..................
2001 Average ..................
2002 Average ..................
2003 Average ..................
2004 Average ..................
2005 Average ..................

W
10.97
33.45
26.30
20.23
16.58
20.71
18.81
12.11
17.46
27.90
23.25
24.09
28.22
37.26
52.48

W

W

20.75
16.73
21.33
18.85
12.56
17.20
29.04
24.25
24.64
28.89
37.73
51.89


11.44
31.06
25.33
19.26
15.64
19.14
16.72
10.49
15.89
25.39
18.89
21.60
24.83
31.55
43.00

7.81
11.82
35.93
28.04
22.46
17.40
21.27
19.43
12.97
17.32
28.70
24.85
25.38
29.40
38.71
55.95

3.25
10.87
28.17
22.04
20.36
W
19.28
15.16
8.87
17.65
24.62
18.98
23.92
25.03
34.08
47.96



34.36
27.64
23.43
16.94
19.43
18.59
12.52
19.14
27.21
23.30
24.50
28.76
37.30
54.48

5.39
11.04
24.81
23.64
19.55
13.86
17.73
15.33
9.31
14.33
24.45
18.01
20.13
23.81
31.78
46.39

3.68
10.88
28.92
23.31
18.54
W
19.22
15.24
9.09
17.15
24.72
18.89
23.38
25.17
33.08
47.21

5.43
11.34
32.21
25.67
20.40
15.36
18.94
16.26
10.20
15.90
25.56
19.73
22.18
25.36
33.95
49.60

4.80
10.62
32.85
25.96
20.32
16.02
19.65
17.51
11.21
16.84
26.77
21.04
22.93
26.21
33.58
45.79

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

59.28
57.55
60.07
W
66.95
67.10
70.81
68.94
56.89
54.00
57.67
58.28
62.23

60.78
53.07
54.10
62.26
66.17
63.43
69.24
65.45
55.49
52.38
56.16
53.99
59.77

50.21
48.33
50.16
57.12
55.62
55.07
60.24
59.97
52.01
47.64
48.13
50.09
52.91

63.73
60.20
64.05
71.85
70.83
69.96
75.63
72.67
62.74
58.62
61.20
62.24
65.69

W
W
W
W
65.35
65.87
W
54.21
53.27
52.19
48.43
52.76
56.09

W
W
63.13
W
68.98
69.34
W

W
W
W
W
66.03

52.56
50.93
56.29
62.93
61.70
60.87
64.60
60.48
52.02
48.97
48.54
49.13
55.80

52.65
53.66
55.84
61.12
63.45
63.99
61.76
56.14
52.13
50.62
49.57
51.89
56.02

56.14
54.39
58.34
65.06
65.31
64.69
67.61
62.58
55.87
52.73
53.07
54.26
59.18

52.32
49.19
51.87
59.75
60.81
59.04
64.23
62.76
53.58
48.86
50.26
51.68
55.35

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Average ..................

52.04
55.18
60.34
65.45
65.85
69.63
74.18
68.38
75.62
80.20
90.85
88.27
67.80

48.98
57.10
58.44
58.26
62.06
67.21
70.77
70.46
70.66
79.10
W
90.11
67.93

43.27
47.47
50.21
54.36
55.60
59.91
64.61
61.80
65.95
72.04
79.13
80.49
61.35

56.03
58.32
64.88
69.72
71.40
75.55
79.08
74.08
80.10
88.88
94.71
96.18
76.64

W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
86.74
81.45
W

53.57

62.04
W
W
W
76.35
W
W
W
W
W
69.96

44.79
49.80
52.01
56.48
57.47
61.01
66.02
63.79
68.99
74.87
83.61
80.57
64.10

50.06
52.43
56.22
58.82
63.71
65.45
70.75
70.97
77.63
85.03
84.11
81.14
69.93

50.92
53.84
57.79
62.32
63.77
67.05
72.04
68.86
75.30
82.10
87.15
86.61
69.58

45.31
49.98
52.91
56.42
57.78
61.12
66.48
64.18
68.38
73.38
80.07
77.78
62.69

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................

88.77
93.84
101.34
110.80
119.61
130.72
127.19
107.58
92.42
R 62.08
W

80.54
83.63
99.67
106.06
117.49
125.58
122.27
108.36
95.87
61.83
39.65

80.10
80.49
87.52
94.12
103.53
116.15
123.19
108.45
92.26
R 64.40
42.46

93.26
98.72
107.04
114.87
127.35
140.01
134.58
117.21
95.68
R 67.28
53.29

88.52
W
W
W
123.98
125.58
110.61
107.54
82.23
R 67.00
W

80.49
83.93
90.35
97.26
107.89
119.60
123.18
110.20
92.76
R 60.35
41.41

83.79
94.10
101.74
113.04
121.13
124.37
110.34
105.06
82.02
R 62.21
45.64

85.41
91.81
100.22
108.47
118.23
126.49
121.93
108.99
91.11
R 62.89
45.00

80.72
83.19
92.14
98.94
111.30
120.48
122.37
107.17
R 92.25
R 63.70
44.46

a See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and

the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia).
c See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary.
On this table, "Total OPEC" for all years includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela;
for 1973-1992 and again beginning in 2008, also includes Ecuador (although
Ecuador rejoined OPEC in November 2007, on this table Ecuador is included in
"Total Non-OPEC" for 2007); for 1974-1995, also includes Gabon (although Gabon
was a member of OPEC for only 1975-1994); and beginning in 2007, also includes
Angola. Data for all countries not included in "Total OPEC" are included in "Total
Non-OPEC."
d Based on October, November, and December data only.
R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of
individual company data.

118

United
Kingdom

Persian
Gulf
Nationsb

Saudi
Arabia


W



W
W
W
W
W

Notes: • The Free on Board (F.O.B.) cost at the country of origin excludes all
costs related to insurance and transportation. See "F.O.B." in Glossary, and Note
2, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section. • Values for the current two months
are preliminary. • Prices through 1980 reflect the period of reporting; prices since
then reflect the period of loading. • Annual averages are averages of the monthly
prices, including prices not published, weighted by volume. • Cargoes that are
purchased on a "netback" basis, or under similar contractual arrangements
whereby the actual purchase price is not established at the time the crude oil is
acquired for importation into the United States, are not included in the published
data until the actual prices have been determined and reported. • U.S. geographic
coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.3 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries
(Nominal Dollarsa per Barrel)
Selected Countries

Venezuela

Total
OPECc

Total
Non-OPECc

Angola

Canada

Colombia

Mexico

Nigeria

1973 Averaged ...............
1975 Average ................
1980 Average ................
1985 Average ................
1990 Average ................
1995 Average ................
1996 Average ................
1997 Average ................
1998 Average ................
1999 Average ................
2000 Average ................
2001 Average ................
2002 Average ................
2003 Average ................
2004 Average ................
2005 Average ................

W
11.81
34.76
27.39
21.51
17.66
21.86
20.24
13.37
18.37
29.57
25.13
25.43
30.14
39.62
54.31

5.33
12.84
30.11
25.71
20.48
16.65
19.94
17.63
11.62
17.54
26.69
20.72
22.98
26.76
34.51
44.73

W

W

22.34
17.45
22.02
19.71
13.26
18.09
29.68
25.88
25.28
30.55
39.03
53.42


12.61
31.77
25.63
19.64
16.19
19.64
17.30
11.04
16.12
26.03
19.37
22.09
25.48
32.25
43.47

9.08
12.70
37.15
28.96
23.33
18.25
21.95
20.64
14.14
17.63
30.04
26.55
26.45
31.07
40.95
57.55

5.37
12.50
29.80
24.72
21.82
16.84
20.49
17.52
11.16
17.48
26.58
20.98
24.77
27.50
37.11
50.31



35.68
28.36
22.65
17.91
20.88
20.64
13.55
18.26
29.26
25.32
26.35
30.62
39.28
55.28

5.99
12.36
25.92
24.43
20.31
14.81
18.59
16.35
10.16
15.58
26.05
19.81
21.93
25.70
33.79
47.87

5.91
12.64
30.59
25.50
20.55
16.78
20.45
17.44
11.18
17.37
26.77
20.73
24.13
27.54
36.53
49.68

6.85
12.70
33.56
26.86
21.23
16.61
20.14
17.73
11.46
16.94
27.29
21.52
23.83
27.70
36.84
51.36

5.64
12.70
33.99
26.53
20.98
16.95
20.47
18.45
12.22
17.51
27.80
22.17
23.97
27.68
35.29
47.31

2006 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Average ................

61.35
61.48
62.44
70.68
68.62
68.64
72.89
71.47
60.38
57.25
59.49
60.46
64.85

47.43
44.72
46.59
56.61
63.47
61.14
64.69
63.77
55.22
47.83
47.83
50.91
53.90

61.95
55.99
55.89
64.06
68.80
66.06
70.94
66.67
57.25
55.50
56.06
56.91
62.13

51.30
49.48
51.05
58.02
56.37
55.91
61.26
60.78
52.78
48.33
48.91
50.93
53.76

65.91
63.03
67.04
73.72
72.93
72.70
77.43
74.94
65.21
60.90
62.88
63.94
68.26

56.23
56.26
58.89
62.92
65.10
66.49
65.50
62.11
56.29
54.00
52.57
54.05
59.19

67.33
63.01
65.21
71.35
71.29
71.12
74.59
W
W
59.70
58.67
58.69
67.44

53.93
52.97
57.70
63.81
62.63
62.65
66.19
62.15
53.94
50.74
50.75
50.95
57.37

55.70
55.16
57.98
62.49
64.26
65.81
65.62
62.11
55.80
53.48
52.43
53.95
58.92

58.10
56.72
60.38
65.76
66.09
67.16
69.21
65.49
57.86
54.98
54.77
56.21
61.21

53.18
50.14
52.74
60.99
63.14
62.03
66.52
64.81
56.59
50.89
51.44
52.92
57.14

2007 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............
December ..............
Average ................

53.12
57.78
61.91
67.78
67.51
72.40
76.73
70.28
77.76
81.92
92.56
90.96
71.27

46.86
50.25
52.58
54.60
56.46
57.54
62.66
64.10
66.76
67.36
76.60
69.62
60.38

52.22
59.08
59.37
61.77
63.70
67.87
73.15
72.72
77.32
79.74
80.74
94.68
70.91

44.32
48.45
51.07
55.16
56.40
60.68
65.46
62.52
66.55
72.68
79.70
81.53
62.31

58.55
61.16
66.47
71.15
72.99
77.15
80.84
76.67
81.96
90.13
95.54
97.88
78.01

51.21
54.94
58.22
61.53
66.15
69.53
72.37
74.11
80.60
84.73
86.92
83.72
70.78

56.59
59.30
65.96
65.92
W
W
77.73
W
79.48
81.77
W
94.58
72.47

47.20
51.97
54.34
58.67
60.17
63.24
67.95
65.64
70.64
76.74
85.23
82.55
66.13

50.65
54.18
57.49
60.98
65.02
68.18
71.29
72.79
78.56
84.29
86.17
84.00
69.83

52.81
56.06
59.60
63.73
66.38
69.58
73.63
71.73
77.37
83.58
88.53
88.30
71.14

47.56
51.69
54.71
57.43
58.91
61.65
66.95
65.76
69.42
73.62
80.39
79.02
63.96

2008 January ..................
February ................
March .....................
April .......................
May ........................
June .......................
July ........................
August ...................
September .............
October ..................
November ..............

93.21
97.58
106.19
117.34
127.06
133.08
129.91
110.00
94.05
R 64.35
W

77.83
81.37
93.33
103.08
111.83
119.80
122.83
110.63
96.38
R 69.52
49.53

85.22
85.20
102.88
105.95
118.42
127.35
126.22
113.17
97.72
R 62.09
42.15

81.28
81.33
88.54
95.31
104.42
117.29
124.28
109.61
93.58
R 66.16
43.14

96.81
101.23
109.73
118.07
130.93
142.39
137.22
123.02
98.82
R 72.80
58.98

92.42
97.64
108.26
118.50
127.77
125.91
116.22
104.42
R 80.75
R 63.58
51.49

W
W
W
W
128.95
W
W
104.13
R 88.13
R 69.17
60.68

83.23
86.22
93.59
100.57
111.77
122.65
124.91
111.78
95.67
R 62.47
44.00

89.70
96.02
105.39
115.52
125.36
125.61
116.43
103.92
R 80.80
R 62.86
49.60

89.61
94.64
103.94
112.31
123.28
128.45
124.27
109.56
R 90.45
R 65.58
49.23

82.10
85.13
94.65
103.20
114.83
122.78
124.33
109.74
R 94.43
R 66.91
47.16

a See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and

the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia).
c See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary.
On this table, "Total OPEC" for all years includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela;
for 1973-1992 and again beginning in 2008, also includes Ecuador (although
Ecuador rejoined OPEC in November 2007, on this table Ecuador is included in
"Total Non-OPEC" for 2007); for 1974-1995, also includes Gabon (although Gabon
was a member of OPEC for only 1975-1994); and beginning in 2007, also includes
Angola. Data for all countries not included in "Total OPEC" are included in "Total
Non-OPEC."
d Based on October, November, and December data only.
R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of
individual company data.
Notes: • See "Landed Costs" in Glossary, and Note 3, "Crude Oil Landed

United
Kingdom

Persian
Gulf
Nationsb

Saudi
Arabia

Costs," at end of section. • Values for the current two months are preliminary. •
Prices through 1980 reflect the period of reporting; prices since then reflect the
period of loading. • Annual averages are averages of the monthly prices, including
prices not published, weighted by volume. • Cargoes that are purchased on a
"netback" basis, or under similar contractual arrangements whereby the actual
purchase price is not established at the time the crude oil is acquired for importation
into the United States, are not included in the published data until the actual prices
have been determined and reported. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 States
and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • October 1973-September 1977: Federal Energy Administration,
Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing Report." • October 1977-December 1977:
Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing
Report." • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 22. • 2008:
EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 22.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

119

Table 9.4 Motor Gasoline Retail Prices, U.S. City Average
(Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Including Taxes)
Leaded
Regular

Unleaded
Regular

Unleaded
Premiumb

All Typesc

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

38.8
56.7
119.1
111.5
114.9
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
124.5
120.2
116.4
114.7
123.1
123.4
105.9
116.5
151.0
146.1
135.8
159.1
188.0
229.5

NA
NA
NA
134.0
134.9
133.6
141.3
141.6
125.0
135.7
169.3
165.7
155.6
177.7
206.8
249.1

NA
NA
122.1
119.6
121.7
120.5
128.8
129.1
111.5
122.1
156.3
153.1
144.1
163.8
192.3
233.8

2006 January ....................................
February ..................................
March .......................................
April .........................................
May ..........................................
June .........................................
July ..........................................
August .....................................
September ...............................
October ....................................
November ................................
December ................................
Average ..................................

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

231.5
231.0
240.1
275.7
294.7
291.7
299.9
298.5
258.9
227.2
224.1
233.4
258.9

252.1
251.9
260.3
296.7
316.9
313.9
321.9
320.7
281.9
249.3
245.9
255.0
280.5

235.9
235.4
244.4
280.1
299.3
296.3
304.6
303.3
263.7
231.9
228.7
238.0
263.5

2007 January ....................................
February ..................................
March .......................................
April .........................................
May ..........................................
June .........................................
July ..........................................
August .....................................
September ...............................
October ....................................
November ................................
December ................................
Average ..................................

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

227.4
228.5
259.2
286.0
313.0
305.2
296.1
278.2
278.9
279.3
306.9
302.0
280.1

250.1
250.9
281.8
309.3
334.8
328.1
320.0
301.8
302.1
303.7
330.7
326.4
303.3

232.1
233.3
263.9
290.9
317.6
310.0
301.3
283.3
283.9
284.3
311.8
306.9
284.9

2008 January ....................................
February ..................................
March .......................................
April .........................................
May ..........................................
June .........................................
July ..........................................
August .....................................
September ...............................
October ....................................
November ................................
December ................................
Average ..................................

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

304.7
303.3
325.8
344.1
376.4
406.5
409.0
378.6
369.8
317.3
215.1
168.9
326.6

329.1
327.2
350.2
369.0
400.3
431.9
435.0
404.5
394.0
343.2
243.3
195.1
351.9

309.6
308.3
330.7
349.1
381.3
411.5
414.2
383.8
374.9
322.5
220.8
174.2
331.7

2009 January ....................................

NA

178.7

203.6

183.8

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
b The 1981 average (available in Web file) is based on September through

December data only.
c Also includes types of motor gasoline not shown separately.
NA=Not available.
Notes: • See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section. • In
September 1981, the Bureau of Labor Statistics changed the weights used in the
calculation of average motor gasoline prices. From September 1981 forward,
gasohol is included in the average for all types, and unleaded premium is weighted

120

more heavily. • Geographic coverage for 1973-1977 is 56 urban areas.
Geographic coverage for 1978 forward is 85 urban areas.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Monthly Data: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Consumer Prices: Energy. • Annual Data: 1973—Platt’s Oil Price
Handbook and Oilmanac, 1974, 51st Edition. 1974 forward—calculated by the
Energy Information Administration as the simple averages of monthly data.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.5 Refiner Prices of Residual Fuel Oil
(Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Residual Fuel Oil
Sulfur Content Less
Than or Equal to 1 Percent

Residual Fuel Oil
Sulfur Content
Greater Than 1 Percent

Average

Sales for
Resale

Sales to
End Users

Sales for
Resale

Sales to
End Users

Sales for
Resale

Sales to
End Users

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

29.3
60.8
61.0
47.2
38.3
45.6
41.5
29.9
38.2
62.7
52.3
54.6
72.8
76.4
111.5

31.4
67.5
64.4
50.5
43.6
52.6
48.8
35.4
40.5
70.8
64.2
64.0
80.4
83.5
116.8

24.5
47.9
56.0
37.2
33.8
38.9
36.6
26.9
32.9
51.2
42.8
50.8
58.8
60.1
84.2

27.5
52.3
58.2
40.0
37.7
43.3
40.3
28.7
36.2
56.6
49.2
54.4
65.1
69.2
97.4

26.3
52.8
57.7
41.3
36.3
42.0
38.7
28.0
35.4
56.6
47.6
53.0
66.1
68.1
97.1

29.8
60.7
61.0
44.4
39.2
45.5
42.3
30.5
37.4
60.2
53.1
56.9
69.8
73.9
104.8

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

125.8
122.2
121.8
120.2
125.9
125.3
128.4
130.9
111.8
107.7
115.9
113.3
120.2

134.6
137.8
136.0
139.7
143.5
148.1
145.1
145.1
132.4
120.1
117.6
119.9
134.2

110.2
115.3
116.0
115.8
122.1
113.6
115.8
119.2
104.1
98.5
95.9
96.3
108.5

117.6
119.4
119.3
123.5
127.9
123.2
123.3
125.5
111.8
105.9
105.3
105.3
117.3

118.2
119.4
119.2
118.0
124.3
116.9
119.5
124.6
107.3
102.5
102.5
104.3
113.6

123.9
125.2
125.0
127.5
131.7
128.6
127.8
130.3
116.0
109.3
108.7
109.9
121.8

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

101.5
117.2
117.1
124.4
131.1
135.7
146.1
143.6
147.4
164.7
183.9
194.8
140.6

117.2
121.4
122.1
125.8
135.9
142.1
153.9
158.4
161.0
166.1
183.2
194.8
143.6

93.0
100.0
100.8
108.4
120.0
124.3
132.1
132.6
133.7
147.5
169.2
169.0
131.4

100.6
108.2
111.4
118.2
128.1
132.5
138.3
141.9
141.0
154.2
179.6
179.7
135.0

97.6
107.3
107.6
115.0
123.8
128.0
137.8
136.7
139.3
153.6
174.2
176.5
135.0

105.8
112.6
115.0
120.9
130.0
135.7
141.5
146.2
145.0
157.3
180.3
184.2
137.4

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................

195.8
187.0
195.6
213.9
232.2
257.8
283.3
254.6
217.5
R 157.4
102.6

203.9
200.3
204.7
221.9
234.8
265.7
294.5
NA
266.6
216.6
161.2

166.2
162.5
171.7
182.3
197.4
218.2
254.2
244.5
218.0
R 160.3
97.1

178.2
171.9
188.1
190.4
206.9
233.3
265.7
255.4
230.0
R 175.9
105.5

178.0
171.4
176.9
188.0
203.0
227.4
263.6
248.6
217.9
R 159.2
100.0

186.0
180.1
193.4
198.3
213.2
243.3
272.4
269.4
241.2
R 185.9
120.6

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate
consumers. Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers,
including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and
commercial consumers. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Prices
prior to 1983 are Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6,

"Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50
States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 16.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 16.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

121

Table 9.6 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products for Resale
(Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Finished
Motor
Gasolineb

Finished
Aviation
Gasoline

KeroseneType
Jet Fuel

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

43.4
94.1
83.5
78.6
62.6
71.3
70.0
52.6
64.5
96.3
88.6
82.8
100.2
128.8
167.0

53.7
112.8
113.0
106.3
97.5
105.5
106.5
91.2
100.7
133.0
125.6
114.6
128.8
162.7
207.6

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

174.9
166.0
187.1
219.7
226.3
227.9
239.5
226.0
180.0
164.1
166.7
172.8
196.9

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................
2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Kerosene

No. 2
Fuel
Oil

No. 2
Diesel
Fuel

Propane
(Consumer
Grade)

38.6
86.8
79.4
77.3
53.9
64.6
61.3
45.0
53.3
88.0
76.3
71.6
87.1
120.8
172.3

40.4
86.4
87.4
83.9
58.0
71.4
65.3
46.5
55.0
96.9
82.1
75.2
95.5
127.1
175.7

36.9
80.3
77.6
69.7
51.1
63.9
59.0
42.2
49.3
88.6
75.6
69.4
88.1
112.5
162.3

36.5
80.1
77.2
69.4
53.8
65.9
60.6
44.4
54.6
89.8
78.4
72.4
88.3
118.7
173.7

23.7
41.5
39.8
38.6
34.4
46.1
41.6
28.8
34.2
59.5
54.0
43.1
60.7
75.1
93.3

218.7
209.6
228.2
265.6
274.3
274.6
287.3
284.1
231.9
212.0
213.9
217.2
249.0

182.4
182.5
185.9
203.1
213.1
213.2
217.3
221.5
194.7
181.3
177.4
190.6
196.1

191.7
184.7
197.9
218.2
NA
219.4
225.8
229.3
203.7
193.5
194.4
200.7
200.7

175.6
171.1
179.1
197.2
201.4
198.4
199.9
206.2
179.7
171.6
169.9
175.3
183.4

181.0
180.6
190.1
212.2
218.6
218.7
225.1
234.0
191.1
182.7
186.7
188.6
201.2

104.4
97.5
96.7
102.3
102.9
106.7
110.8
111.3
103.2
100.3
101.3
103.3
103.1

157.0
171.7
199.5
226.4
249.5
236.1
230.7
215.2
219.5
221.8
245.8
235.8
218.2

204.3
218.7
246.1
277.9
304.7
292.4
299.8
282.8
283.0
276.9
302.0
292.7
275.8

172.7
176.6
184.6
202.1
207.9
211.4
216.7
215.1
225.6
235.3
265.6
265.5
217.1

180.6
194.2
194.3
204.8
207.8
215.7
226.1
222.2
245.0
252.5
285.4
282.5
224.9

161.2
172.9
178.1
191.0
194.9
201.4
207.1
202.1
213.3
226.0
256.9
257.0
207.2

169.5
182.4
197.9
211.6
210.1
214.7
222.0
219.3
232.2
242.6
269.8
259.9
220.3

99.5
103.3
104.9
106.7
111.2
109.4
115.9
116.7
124.8
135.2
147.1
146.1
119.4

239.5
243.6
264.0
285.8
317.2
341.7
334.8
307.9
300.0
R 214.9
139.3

295.5
297.8
324.9
346.8
375.1
401.8
394.6
373.7
370.4
R 279.0
214.0

266.3
267.3
310.5
332.0
364.2
391.2
397.8
339.3
327.8
R 256.9
197.4

283.2
284.2
328.0
354.3
376.8
397.3
398.0
345.6
336.5
R 268.1
234.0

256.6
260.9
297.6
319.4
353.8
376.0
380.2
328.7
300.0
R 240.0
194.7

258.1
273.8
315.9
335.8
371.2
385.9
387.6
333.9
316.0
R 251.6
195.6

148.3
143.1
146.0
152.7
163.7
177.1
183.3
166.5
156.4
R 124.2
100.8

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section.

R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate
consumers. Sales to end users are shown in Table 9.7; they are sales made
directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture,
industry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial consumers. • Values
for the current month are preliminary. • Prices prior to 1983 are Energy

122

Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum
Prices," at end of section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District
of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 4.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 4.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.7 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users
(Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Finished
Motor
Gasolineb

Finished
Aviation
Gasoline

KeroseneType
Jet Fuel

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

48.4
103.5
91.2
88.3
76.5
84.7
83.9
67.3
78.1
110.6
103.2
94.7
115.6
143.5
182.9

51.6
108.4
120.1
112.0
100.5
111.6
112.8
97.5
105.9
130.6
132.3
128.8
149.3
181.9
223.1

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

187.2
183.3
198.3
233.1
245.8
243.6
252.8
248.6
207.6
178.9
178.8
186.8
212.8

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................
2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

Kerosene

No. 2
Fuel
Oil

No. 2
Diesel
Fuel

Propane
(Consumer
Grade)

38.7
86.8
79.6
76.6
54.0
65.1
61.3
45.2
54.3
89.9
77.5
72.1
87.2
120.7
173.5

42.1
90.2
103.0
92.3
58.9
74.0
74.5
50.1
60.5
112.3
104.5
99.0
122.4
116.0
195.7

40.0
78.8
84.9
73.4
56.2
67.3
63.6
48.2
55.8
92.7
82.9
73.7
93.3
117.3
170.5

37.7
81.8
78.9
72.5
56.0
68.1
64.2
49.4
58.4
93.5
84.2
76.2
94.4
124.3
178.6

33.5
48.2
71.7
74.5
49.2
60.5
55.2
40.5
45.8
60.3
50.6
41.9
57.7
83.9
108.9

239.1
232.4
247.4
286.9
301.3
305.7
310.3
305.8
253.2
238.5
235.3
234.9
268.2

184.2
185.5
187.5
204.8
215.6
215.9
217.8
222.9
199.8
183.2
179.9
193.5
199.8

225.1
219.1
236.7
251.6
255.3
246.9
NA
NA
251.3
255.5
241.4
NA
224.4

188.4
185.5
193.0
208.3
212.4
209.6
214.2
221.2
191.3
190.3
192.1
198.5
198.2

186.3
188.5
196.1
216.9
229.3
228.1
231.7
241.7
209.0
191.1
192.3
197.0
209.6

NA
138.8
NA
129.7
129.4
131.3
136.8
136.8
126.6
131.0
130.8
138.4
135.8

179.1
184.2
213.8
240.5
266.9
256.9
248.8
232.0
233.7
235.0
261.4
255.2
234.5

217.9
228.5
262.7
296.9
309.6
297.8
305.3
282.3
290.0
285.5
306.7
297.5
284.9

175.8
179.0
187.2
203.9
210.5
213.2
218.5
216.0
225.0
237.7
268.4
268.5
216.5

194.4
NA
232.5
236.1
W
W
236.2
246.7
267.3
280.1
319.7
330.3
226.3

189.4
203.1
205.0
210.3
208.3
210.2
217.6
215.0
231.6
NA
277.3
277.0
224.1

183.0
189.8
205.6
220.2
218.5
222.6
230.1
228.2
238.1
249.9
278.2
269.7
226.7

NA
155.3
NA
127.2
129.8
130.9
127.8
138.9
142.8
155.5
180.6
NA
148.9

257.3
256.9
278.4
298.4
331.6
357.9
356.7
327.8
320.7
R 253.4
161.5

304.5
307.0
337.0
359.7
382.7
396.5
395.5
379.2
383.6
R 297.5
223.0

268.6
269.4
311.9
333.3
365.9
393.3
400.9
342.6
326.5
R 260.3
198.8

331.3
334.6
358.2
376.5
393.4
416.2
438.5
404.8
402.8
R NA
308.8

279.2
288.8
323.2
340.6
375.4
391.4
393.9
339.9
327.5
R 269.0
229.3

268.8
280.5
325.5
345.3
380.8
400.3
402.2
357.7
332.6
R 278.7
214.6

216.0
NA
180.9
NA
181.1
179.3
205.5
190.6
192.4
R 176.3
165.2

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
b See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of
individual company data.
Notes: • Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers,
including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and
residential and commercial consumers. Sales for resale are shown in Table 9.6;
they are sales made to purchasers other than ultimate consumers. • Values for

the current month are preliminary. • Prices prior to 1983 are Energy Information
Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of
section. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 2.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 2.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

123

Table 9.8a No. 2 Distillate Prices to Residences: Northeastern States
(Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Maine

New
Hampshire

Vermont

Massachusetts

Rhode
Island

Connecticut

New
York

New
Jersey

Pennsylvania

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

48.6
96.3
99.7
98.9
78.7
97.2
94.2
78.8
81.3
129.7
121.7
112.9
131.4
151.1
198.6

50.3
100.4
102.4
102.8
77.9
94.0
94.2
78.8
77.0
128.1
125.6
111.9
131.2
149.7
197.2

50.8
101.5
107.7
107.0
85.3
96.9
98.7
87.3
85.4
125.5
126.1
117.2
130.9
150.5
198.7

48.8
97.8
107.0
108.4
84.4
97.6
96.0
81.8
83.6
127.3
122.1
114.1
138.6
155.9
206.4

50.7
101.1
106.7
108.6
87.4
98.6
98.9
86.8
85.8
125.9
123.6
112.4
134.4
151.1
200.0

50.1
98.3
108.0
109.8
86.4
98.6
96.3
83.1
85.2
129.1
123.9
111.8
135.5
151.8
201.2

50.1
98.2
111.3
112.5
95.5
106.3
106.5
94.8
96.9
144.2
136.3
121.8
143.6
162.7
210.5

49.6
97.9
105.9
108.7
88.8
102.4
103.3
89.2
91.3
140.4
131.4
122.0
148.9
166.2
216.6

48.8
96.4
102.3
102.6
82.6
95.3
95.0
81.4
81.5
122.4
115.9
106.4
130.4
148.9
197.4

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Average ..............

224.7
223.8
226.1
232.7
236.4
243.7
243.7
243.1
234.4
226.2
227.6
233.5
229.4

222.0
220.4
221.0
229.0
235.8
239.9
242.1
244.9
239.6
231.0
231.4
234.3
228.3

229.7
227.8
229.8
236.7
240.5
247.6
255.9
260.5
254.3
252.4
253.1
256.6
240.8

235.0
230.9
234.6
245.7
251.4
248.6
246.2
248.0
235.6
227.2
228.5
232.7
235.5

234.5
231.4
236.6
243.9
248.3
246.2
247.4
246.4
232.7
227.9
231.2
234.3
236.0

229.5
229.1
234.4
238.4
242.1
244.9
244.7
249.1
243.7
235.7
238.8
240.2
235.7

242.6
240.5
243.3
250.9
258.0
253.8
256.7
258.7
248.7
241.2
243.8
247.2
245.8

247.1
243.6
247.0
254.6
256.4
257.9
255.7
261.7
249.0
237.3
238.8
247.7
246.7

226.7
223.5
227.0
233.5
236.7
238.7
234.8
239.6
227.8
222.3
228.0
231.0
228.6

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Average ..............

229.5
234.7
239.7
243.7
241.7
241.3
247.6
250.9
258.2
272.1
293.1
299.9
254.0

234.5
232.6
242.3
244.4
242.5
239.7
239.2
239.0
249.4
264.8
289.3
301.4
253.5

252.6
257.5
259.3
260.6
257.1
253.1
258.9
255.7
262.6
269.8
293.7
302.4
267.9

227.7
237.0
242.5
245.6
245.8
246.2
256.9
251.6
259.8
272.6
303.2
311.1
257.6

226.9
236.7
242.5
247.6
247.2
247.6
255.1
252.3
263.7
276.0
308.1
313.5
260.2

238.4
242.4
246.3
249.8
250.5
251.8
256.2
250.9
261.3
276.9
301.3
305.5
261.5

238.6
249.7
251.6
254.8
257.1
263.1
269.1
260.5
269.6
282.8
309.1
315.5
267.4

236.2
247.2
253.2
256.1
256.6
253.8
258.6
258.2
267.8
281.2
316.8
326.1
266.4

224.7
234.7
237.0
239.0
241.7
241.5
242.8
238.1
249.4
261.6
294.6
300.9
250.8

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............

303.5
304.1
330.2
346.9
NA
419.2
429.0
395.8
374.5
R 320.6
277.2

302.6
302.9
329.2
345.5
381.2
421.2
437.7
399.7
370.2
R 325.9
280.0

309.5
310.5
337.1
357.5
391.3
425.2
448.4
417.6
393.3
R 347.5
311.6

314.3
320.3
353.4
370.8
397.9
429.4
437.8
389.2
362.7
R 307.0
263.5

317.3
320.2
349.5
368.7
394.9
419.5
428.0
384.2
357.5
R 300.9
266.0

309.1
312.4
336.2
349.4
380.6
411.2
419.4
NA
367.5
R 322.2
290.3

321.8
324.4
351.2
363.4
393.8
416.1
428.9
388.9
371.2
R 329.4
288.6

332.7
335.3
369.3
385.8
414.0
447.7
455.9
403.2
377.7
R 321.0
278.2

305.7
309.7
340.4
355.3
385.1
416.4
432.6
NA
356.9
R 310.1
275.1

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • States are grouped in Tables 9.8a, 9.8b, and 9.8c by geographic
region of the country. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Prices
prior to 1983 are Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6,

124

"Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 15.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 15.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.8b No. 2 Distillate Prices to Residences: Selected South Atlantic
and Midwestern States (Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Delaware

District
of
Columbia

Maryland

Virginia

West
Virginia

Ohio

Michigan

Indiana

Illinois

Wisconsin

Minnesota

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

47.8
95.4
104.6
105.8
87.0
98.4
98.4
85.8
88.4
127.0
123.4
116.4
143.3
157.0
207.5

50.7
102.6
114.3
107.8
101.0
117.8
117.4
102.2
101.1
W
143.1
W
W
W
W

49.2
97.9
108.8
111.9
93.6
106.3
105.7
90.2
90.7
135.1
134.2
120.1
145.5
163.2
212.7

49.1
98.5
106.3
110.6
84.4
95.2
94.8
85.6
87.0
126.9
120.2
105.7
131.1
146.2
204.4

46.2
92.2
98.0
99.1
81.5
96.0
96.2
81.8
78.9
125.1
113.9
105.4
130.4
149.3
204.3

47.4
91.9
99.7
98.1
80.8
92.1
91.3
76.7
82.0
122.0
116.0
105.8
128.4
147.5
200.9

47.9
97.8
102.1
100.9
86.0
97.7
94.2
80.4
88.3
NA
NA
110.9
132.1
153.9
205.3

48.5
99.6
99.1
99.3
81.6
91.2
86.5
74.8
79.3
120.7
113.3
102.5
120.2
153.7
201.7

46.5
95.8
97.5
96.1
78.5
89.3
87.0
73.5
71.6
109.5
112.1
97.5
119.8
140.5
202.1

44.7
91.5
98.3
94.2
81.2
89.9
93.3
80.1
84.7
117.1
118.0
107.3
126.9
146.5
199.3

47.8
99.9
101.9
101.4
80.1
90.9
89.9
73.8
77.4
115.6
112.2
105.1
121.8
143.3
198.7

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Average ..............

238.4
234.7
238.4
241.8
244.5
246.4
240.6
240.5
234.3
229.4
235.3
242.7
238.1

W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W

243.1
243.0
242.8
248.5
224.5
214.3
218.7
222.3
246.9
237.8
242.0
244.9
239.8

233.9
230.6
231.6
233.7
237.2
232.4
232.4
232.6
219.8
213.0
214.1
215.5
226.8

227.1
224.4
226.5
233.4
233.9
230.3
235.0
241.9
220.2
215.7
220.9
223.4
226.1

219.0
219.1
224.9
237.2
240.8
239.7
240.9
248.0
222.8
217.3
219.9
222.0
224.4

222.7
224.0
229.1
241.6
249.4
249.6
258.0
265.9
234.6
228.7
235.5
238.4
232.9

222.4
221.7
228.0
238.1
246.4
249.5
256.9
264.9
227.5
227.2
232.8
236.4
231.7

221.5
221.2
225.2
237.3
246.7
250.3
251.2
262.8
230.8
227.6
233.2
236.8
231.2

219.2
219.1
224.8
237.3
246.7
246.7
258.2
268.8
232.9
226.1
232.1
235.0
229.7

210.5
212.2
219.7
230.6
241.8
251.4
265.3
276.7
232.9
221.8
229.7
228.2
226.8

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Average ..............

234.6
247.7
249.6
246.6
245.6
NA
246.4
245.1
252.6
270.7
302.8
320.0
258.4

W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W

240.3
246.9
251.3
251.7
256.2
255.4
258.7
258.8
266.1
283.0
312.4
322.1
266.8

211.4
214.1
226.8
224.4
223.8
232.7
236.6
236.2
245.6
266.3
295.5
300.2
240.7

212.9
223.3
229.9
229.2
228.3
236.2
241.2
240.9
253.5
266.7
300.3
306.2
247.8

209.2
221.6
231.8
236.4
230.0
238.2
244.1
247.7
257.3
273.5
308.7
307.0
249.4

221.1
227.2
247.3
258.4
247.6
245.6
254.2
257.3
266.8
280.1
310.3
304.0
258.8

218.2
228.4
242.6
255.5
246.0
246.7
255.2
258.5
263.7
280.8
313.3
309.6
255.7

221.7
222.3
236.4
246.8
239.7
243.3
252.0
256.2
258.9
275.0
307.5
303.9
252.8

219.9
224.0
239.1
254.2
249.5
251.7
254.8
261.7
271.8
281.4
310.3
306.9
257.1

216.9
224.8
241.5
251.7
251.9
249.9
258.6
262.6
273.4
282.6
305.0
296.4
258.7

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............

321.5
325.9
354.8
362.7
390.3
423.1
434.5
389.8
362.1
R 314.7
268.0

W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W

326.1
330.4
355.1
367.1
402.7
424.5
441.4
408.7
382.7
R 329.0
286.5

306.4
314.8
340.6
352.7
384.8
412.5
412.3
376.4
355.7
R 315.4
266.7

311.1
316.1
347.8
363.7
391.5
424.9
430.2
385.6
363.6
R 310.8
275.2

304.9
318.4
355.2
372.8
407.4
418.4
415.5
379.8
367.7
R 303.1
250.7

304.6
317.1
359.1
370.8
399.7
421.7
417.8
373.9
365.8
R 308.0
248.4

306.3
312.4
345.2
364.5
408.7
427.4
426.3
379.7
368.8
R 309.8
251.5

300.5
310.0
357.4
368.5
405.0
NA
401.1
NA
360.0
R 303.9
251.4

303.7
311.0
350.7
365.3
395.2
NA
398.6
366.3
359.7
312.2
252.0

297.1
311.1
352.8
370.8
399.7
417.2
416.1
379.5
365.8
R 312.3
252.8

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of
individual company data.
Notes: • States are grouped in Tables 9.8a, 9.8b, and 9.8c by geographic
region of the country. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Prices
prior to 1983 are Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6,

"Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 15.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 15.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

125

Table 9.8c No. 2 Distillate Prices to Residences: Selected Western States
and U.S. Average (Nominal Centsa per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)
Idaho

Washington

Oregon

Alaska

U.S.
Average

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

43.6
91.6
97.2
97.4
83.9
93.3
95.3
78.4
76.2
117.0
103.8
91.9
118.8
149.5
212.3

48.6
100.8
101.1
102.9
96.2
108.0
113.9
97.8
106.5
144.5
133.6
120.4
148.7
174.9
238.5

45.8
97.3
97.1
97.0
89.4
98.9
103.1
86.1
93.8
136.8
121.1
106.0
130.3
159.4
214.6

53.2
97.8
108.3
110.1
83.4
90.9
97.3
85.2
96.6
133.7
137.7
108.7
124.3
152.4
206.1

49.0
97.4
105.3
106.3
86.7
98.9
98.4
85.2
87.6
131.1
125.0
112.9
135.5
154.8
205.2

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

217.9
222.4
228.1
242.2
270.1
267.4
266.2
297.4
269.7
235.8
243.2
257.9
239.1

249.6
253.7
272.8
276.5
298.7
291.4
287.2
293.0
274.0
248.0
270.3
284.6
268.1

220.4
218.3
237.6
251.9
272.5
NA
262.2
282.1
239.3
225.1
254.9
259.3
241.1

218.3
223.0
224.9
234.1
260.4
261.0
258.1
266.3
261.3
228.1
224.2
235.7
239.5

233.4
231.2
235.3
242.7
246.8
245.7
246.0
249.9
238.3
230.2
234.3
238.0
236.5

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

228.4
224.9
241.7
254.1
NA
253.0
257.9
257.3
263.6
287.0
321.3
302.5
259.8

262.7
262.7
270.0
281.2
282.4
274.4
275.3
276.2
284.6
321.5
345.9
335.7
290.9

230.9
224.3
228.2
231.5
237.4
NA
NA
NA
250.7
298.0
319.5
304.5
250.0

226.0
220.9
224.0
238.1
244.9
247.7
252.7
256.3
255.8
276.3
303.2
301.1
251.8

231.1
239.1
244.9
248.0
248.0
249.2
254.9
250.9
260.9
275.9
304.0
309.8
259.2

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................

296.0
305.7
348.7
375.5
399.8
417.8
421.6
384.4
358.3
R 312.7
R 244.2
NA

329.1
339.8
382.3
404.2
432.0
454.5
452.5
412.4
382.3
R 327.9
R 284.2
NA

301.2
312.9
351.4
374.7
398.9
423.5
429.5
383.7
355.2
R 300.7
R 242.5
NA

301.3
308.4
337.7
365.8
399.9
430.9
446.5
422.1
389.7
NA
R 260.6
NA

313.7
317.8
347.3
362.3
392.0
420.2
429.8
386.5
366.2
R 316.9
R 275.9
E 237.6

1978 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate.
Notes: • States are grouped in Tables 9.8a, 9.8b, and 9.8c by geographic
region of the country. • Values for the current month are preliminary. • Prices
prior to 1983 are Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6,

126

"Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of section.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1978.
Sources: • 1978-2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 15.
• 2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009, Table 15.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Figure 9.2

Average Retail Prices of Electricity
(Nominal Centsa per Kilowatthour)

By Sector, 1973-2007

By Sector, Monthly

14

14
Transportation

12

12

10

Residential

10
Commercial

Commercial

Residential

8

Transportation

8

Otherb

6

Industrial

6
Industrial

4

4

2

2

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

a

See “Nominal Price” in Glossary.
Public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to
public authorities, agricultural and irrigation, and transportation including railroads and railways.

b

0
J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008
Note: • Includes taxes.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html.
Source: Table 9.9.

Figure 9.3 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants
(Nominal Dollarsa per Million Btu, Including Taxes )
Costs, 1973-2007

Costs, Monthly

12

20

10

Residual Fuel Oil

15
8
Natural Gas

6

10

Residual Fuel Oil

4
Natural Gas

5
2

Coal

Coal

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D

2006
a

See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary.
Note: • Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

2007

2008

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html.
Source: Table 9.10.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

127

Table 9.9 Average Retail Prices of Electricity
(Nominal Centsa per Kilowatthour, Including Taxes)
Residential

Commercialb

Industrialc

Transportationd

Othere

Total

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

2.5
3.5
5.4
7.39
7.83
8.40
8.36
8.43
8.26
8.16
8.24
8.58
8.44
8.72
8.95
9.45

2.4
3.5
5.5
7.27
7.34
7.69
7.64
7.59
7.41
7.26
7.43
7.92
7.89
8.03
8.17
8.67

1.3
2.1
3.7
4.97
4.74
4.66
4.60
4.53
4.48
4.43
4.64
5.05
4.88
5.11
5.25
5.73

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
7.54
7.18
8.57

2.1
3.1
4.8
6.09
6.40
6.88
6.91
6.91
6.63
6.35
6.56
7.20
6.75
––
––
––

2.0
2.9
4.7
6.44
6.57
6.89
6.86
6.85
6.74
6.64
6.81
7.29
7.20
7.44
7.61
8.14

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

9.55
9.80
9.87
10.32
10.61
10.85
10.96
10.94
10.94
10.58
10.18
9.84
10.40

8.87
9.14
9.06
9.17
9.22
9.88
9.97
10.04
9.89
9.51
9.24
9.08
9.46

5.78
5.98
5.88
5.93
6.00
6.41
6.61
6.65
6.37
6.16
6.04
6.00
6.16

8.75
9.18
9.06
8.97
9.12
9.82
10.30
10.20
10.11
10.02
9.40
9.56
9.54

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

8.31
8.49
8.44
8.56
8.71
9.30
9.55
9.58
9.32
8.89
8.63
8.55
8.90

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

R 10.06
R 9.89
R 10.27
R 10.63

R 6.13
R 6.16
R 6.22

R 10.14
R 10.07
R 9.90
R 9.77
R 9.50
R 9.42
R 9.65

6.19
R 6.27
R 6.59
R 6.71
6.84
R 6.52
R 6.46
R 6.28
R 6.26
R 6.39

R 8.92
R 9.38
R 11.04
R 9.42
R 9.84
R 9.88
R 10.57
R 9.98
R 9.76
R 9.61
R 8.76
R 9.19
R 9.70

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

R 8.71

R 11.09
R 11.07
R 11.07
R 10.96
R 10.82
R 10.70
R 10.33
R 10.65

R 9.12
R 9.34
R 9.35
R 9.38
R 9.51
R 9.95

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
11-Month Average .....

10.20
10.24
10.52
10.97
11.43
11.80
12.09
12.10
11.94
11.86
11.47
11.35

9.53
9.51
9.67
9.77
10.06
10.88
11.08
11.07
10.77
10.49
10.13
10.32

6.27
6.38
6.51
6.71
6.77
7.42
7.75
7.61
7.36
7.24
7.06
7.02

10.09
11.14
10.96
10.49
11.10
11.79
12.19
12.58
13.16
10.91
10.61
11.36

––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

8.98
8.96
9.09
9.26
9.49
10.33
10.68
10.63
10.31
10.02
9.73
9.81

2007 11-Month Average .....
2006 11-Month Average .....

10.68
10.45

9.67
9.49

6.40
6.18

9.74
9.54

––
––

9.15
8.93

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

10.77

a See "Nominal Price" in Glossary.
b Commercial sector. For 1973-2002, prices exclude public street and highway

lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities.
c Industrial sector. For 1973-2002, prices exclude agriculture and irrigation.
d Transportation sector, including railroads and railways.
e Public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to
public authorities, agriculture and irrigation, and transportation including railroads
and railways.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable.
Notes: • Beginning in 2003, the category "Other" has been replaced by
"Transportation," and the categories "Commercial" and "Industrial" have been
redefined. • Prices are calculated by dividing revenue by sales. Revenue may not
correspond to sales for a particular month because of energy service provider
billing and accounting procedures. That lack of correspondence could result in
uncharacteristic increases or decreases in the monthly prices. • Prices include
State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, customer service charges,
environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other

128

8.74
R 8.80
R 8.82
R 8.96
R 9.45
R 9.64

9.68
R 9.43
R 9.17
R 8.94

8.91
R 9.13

miscellaneous charges applied to end-use customers during normal billing
operations. Prices do not include deferred charges, credits, or other adjustments,
such as fuel or revenue from purchased power, from previous reporting periods.
• See Note 7, "Electricity Retail Prices," at end of section for plant coverage, and
for information on preliminary and final values. • Geographic coverage is the 50
States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • 1973-September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC-5,
"Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • October
1977-February 1980: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form
FPC-5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • March
1980-1982: FERC, Form FERC-5, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement."
• 1983: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-826, "Electric Utility
Company Monthly Statement." • 1984-1992: EIA, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric
Utility Report." • 1993 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February 2009,
Table 5.3.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.10 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants
(Nominal Dollarsa per Million Btu, Including Taxes)
Petroleum
Coal

Residual Fuel Oilb

Distillate Fuel Oilc

Petroleum Coke

Totald

Natural Gase

All Fossil Fuelsf

1973 Average ....................
1975 Average ....................
1980 Average ....................
1985 Average ....................
1990 Average ....................
1995 Average ....................
1996 Average ....................
1997 Average ....................
1998 Average ....................
1999 Average ....................
2000 Average ....................
2001 Average ....................
2002 Averageg ...................
2003 Average ....................
2004 Average ....................
2005 Average ....................

0.41
.81
1.35
1.65
1.45
1.32
1.29
1.27
1.25
1.22
1.20
1.23
1.25
1.28
1.36
1.54

0.79
2.01
4.27
4.24
3.32
2.59
3.03
2.79
2.08
2.44
4.29
3.73
3.73
4.66
4.73
7.06

NA
NA
NA
NA
5.38
3.99
4.87
4.49
3.30
4.03
6.65
6.30
5.34
6.82
8.02
11.72

NA
NA
NA
NA
.80
.65
.78
.91
.71
.65
.58
.78
.78
.72
.83
1.11

0.80
2.02
4.35
4.32
3.35
2.57
3.03
2.73
2.02
2.36
4.18
3.69
3.34
4.33
4.29
6.44

0.34
.75
2.20
3.44
2.32
1.98
2.64
2.76
2.38
2.57
4.30
4.49
3.56
5.39
5.96
8.21

0.48
1.04
1.93
2.09
1.69
1.45
1.52
1.52
1.44
1.44
1.74
1.73
1.86
2.28
2.48
3.25

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

1.67
1.68
1.71
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.68
1.70
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.69
1.69

8.10
7.80
7.98
6.81
8.01
8.08
8.14
8.41
7.62
7.00
7.22
7.28
7.85

13.68
11.69
12.39
14.48
14.77
14.45
13.23
15.52
10.86
12.06
12.33
12.90
13.28

1.10
1.17
1.20
1.26
1.33
1.32
1.39
1.47
1.49
1.34
1.51
1.42
1.33

7.03
5.44
5.11
4.91
6.43
6.41
6.68
7.38
5.95
5.05
5.90
6.20
6.23

9.11
7.84
7.17
7.13
6.75
6.47
6.48
7.33
6.17
5.51
7.28
7.43
6.94

3.10
2.95
2.86
2.90
2.94
3.05
3.36
3.54
2.90
2.65
2.89
2.95
3.02

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

R 1.74

R 7.25

R 11.87

1.54

R 5.78

R 6.81

R 2.94

1.75
R 1.76
R 1.77
R 1.77
1.77
R 1.76
R 1.77
R 1.77
R 1.77
1.78
1.82
R 1.77

R 7.25

R 11.95

R 1.64

R 6.63

R 7.87

R 3.23

7.08
R 7.91
R 8.41
R 8.90
R 8.87
R 9.21
R 8.98
R 9.88
R 11.60
R 11.64
R 8.64

R 12.85

R 1.50

R 6.21

R 14.04

R 1.53

R 6.64

R 14.65

R 1.51

R 7.16

R 14.79

R 1.57

R 7.75

R 15.24

R 1.43

R 6.83

R 15.25

R 1.54

R 8.05

R 15.68

R 1.55

R 7.37

R 16.61

R 1.37

R 7.39

R 18.86

R 1.47

R 8.48

R 18.65

R 1.45

R 8.14

R 14.85

R 1.51

R 7.17

7.44
7.54
7.73
7.60
R 6.87
R 6.62
R 6.12
R 6.78
7.11
7.68
R 7.11

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Month Average ...

1.92
1.88
1.94
1.97
2.05
2.09
2.10
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.15
2.06

13.01
13.18
13.97
13.48
13.83
16.69
18.88
18.34
15.36
14.55
9.76
15.05

18.56
18.96
19.15
21.94
24.84
25.74
27.42
24.84
23.00
19.44
15.42
21.77

1.48
1.61
1.54
1.61
1.78
1.82
1.77
2.42
2.17
2.14
2.05
1.85

10.24
10.97
9.53
10.83
11.76
14.37
14.38
14.14
12.30
10.36
7.57
11.70

8.18
8.62
9.29
9.96
10.70
12.21
11.90
9.11
7.87
6.76
6.49
9.34

3.67
3.63
3.80
4.06
4.28
5.46
5.52
4.51
3.91
3.46
3.24
4.17

2007 11-Month Average ...
2006 11-Month Average ...

1.76
1.69

8.51
7.89

14.55
13.32

1.51
1.32

7.11
6.23

7.06
6.90

3.22
3.03

a See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
b For 1973-2001, electric utility data are for heavy oil (fuel oil nos. 5 and 6, and

small amounts of fuel oil no. 4).
c For 1973-2001, electric utility data are for light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 and 2).
d Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other
petroleum, and waste oil. For 1973-1982, data do not include refined motor oil,
bunker oil, and liquefied petroleum gases. For 1973-1989, data do not include
petroleum coke.
e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. For
1973-2000, data also include a small amount of blast furnace gas and other gases
derived from fossil fuels.
f Weighted average of costs shown under "Coal," "Petroleum," and "Natural

3.00
R 3.18
R 3.30
R 3.44
R 3.41
R 3.50
R 3.11
R 3.13
R 3.07
R 3.28
R 3.23

Gas."
g Through 2001, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 2002, data also
include independent power producers, and electric generating plants in the
commercial and industrial sectors. See Note 8, "Costs of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at
Electric Generating Plants," at end of section for plant coverage.
R=Revised. NA=Not available.
Notes: • Receipts are purchases of fuel. • Yearly costs are averages of
monthly values, weighted by quantities in Btu. • Geographic coverage is the 50
States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

129

Figure 9.4

Natural Gas Prices
(Nominal Dollarsa per Thousand Cubic Feet)

Selected Prices, 1973-2007
10
8
6
4

City Gate
Wellhead

2
0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Consuming Sectors, 1973-2007
14
12
10
8
Residentialb

6
4

Industrialb

2

Commercialb

Electric Powerb

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Consuming Sectors, Monthly
25

20
Residentialb

15
Commercialb

10

Industrialb
Electric Powerb

5

0
J

a
b

F M A M J J
2006

A S O N D

See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary.
Includes taxes.

130

J

F M A M J J A S O N D
2007

J

F M A M J J A S O N D
2008

Note: • Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html.
Source: Table 9.11.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 9.11 Natural Gas Prices
(Nominal Dollarsa per Thousand Cubic Feet)
Consuming Sectorsb
Residential

Commercialc

Industriald

Electric Powere

Wellhead
Price

City
Gate
Price

Pricef

Percentage
of Sectorg

Pricef

Percentage
of Sectorg

Pricef

Percentage
of Sectorg

Pricef

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

0.22
.44
1.59
2.51
1.71
1.55
2.17
2.32
1.96
2.19
3.68
4.00
2.95
4.88
5.46
7.33

NA
NA
NA
3.75
3.03
2.78
3.34
3.66
3.07
3.10
4.62
5.72
4.12
5.85
6.65
8.67

1.29
1.71
3.68
6.12
5.80
6.06
6.34
6.94
6.82
6.69
7.76
9.63
7.89
9.63
10.75
12.70

NA
NA
NA
NA
99.2
99.0
99.0
98.8
97.7
95.2
92.6
92.4
97.9
97.5
97.7
98.2

0.94
1.35
3.39
5.50
4.83
5.05
5.40
5.80
5.48
5.33
6.59
8.43
6.63
8.40
9.43
11.34

NA
NA
NA
NA
86.6
76.7
77.6
70.8
67.0
66.1
63.9
66.0
77.4
78.2
78.0
82.1

0.50
.96
2.56
3.95
2.93
2.71
3.42
3.59
3.14
3.12
4.45
5.24
4.02
5.89
6.53
8.56

NA
NA
NA
68.8
35.2
24.5
19.4
18.1
16.1
18.8
19.8
20.8
22.7
22.1
23.7
24.1

0.38
.77
2.27
3.55
2.38
2.02
2.69
2.78
2.40
2.62
4.38
4.61
d3.68
5.57
6.11
R 8.45

92.1
96.1
96.9
94.0
76.8
71.4
68.4
68.0
63.7
58.3
50.5
40.2
83.9
91.2
89.8
R 89.1

2006 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

R 8.01

10.80
9.34
8.81
8.29
7.99
7.39
7.40
8.10
7.68
6.42
8.47
8.66
8.61

R 14.92

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
98.1

R 14.16

93.9
95.5
94.7
94.7
93.0
93.8
92.9
91.9
93.6
92.0
93.9
93.7
93.4

2007 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
December ....................
Average ......................

R 5.83

R 6.37

7.89
8.59
8.81
R 8.20
R 8.37
R 8.42
R 7.98
R 7.47
R 6.97
R 7.39
R 8.07
8.13
R 8.12

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
E 97.9

2008 January ........................
February ......................
March ...........................
April .............................
May ..............................
June .............................
July ..............................
August .........................
September ...................
October ........................
November ....................
11-Month Average .....

E 6.99

R 8.35

R 12.09

E 7.55

R 8.86

E 8.29

R 9.46

E 8.27

8.96
7.88
7.75
9.31

12.44
12.97
R 14.29
16.02
R 18.33
R 20.29
19.63
17.94
15.23
13.73
13.90

6.32
6.36

8.12
8.60

13.19
13.93

1973 Average
1975 Average
1980 Average
1985 Average
1990 Average
1995 Average
1996 Average
1997 Average
1998 Average
1999 Average
2000 Average
2001 Average
2002 Average
2003 Average
2004 Average
2005 Average

2007 11-Month Average .....
2006 11-Month Average .....

R 6.85
R 6.43
R 6.37
R 6.23
R 5.77
R 5.91
R 6.55

6.06
5.09
R 6.71
6.76
R 6.39
R 6.91
R 6.78
R 6.37
R 6.85
R 6.72
R 6.32
R 5.87
R 5.42
R 5.90
R 6.58
R 6.97

E 8.94

R 9.87

E 9.81

R 10.99

E 10.82

R 11.78

E 10.62

R 12.42

E 8.32

R 10.13

E 7.27
E 6.36
E 5.97

R 13.98
R 13.17
R 13.27
R 14.41
R 15.07
R 15.72
R 16.18
R 15.71
R 12.51
R 12.45
R 12.53
R 13.73

12.09
R 12.11

12.86
R 13.28
R 14.63
R 16.23
R 16.67
R 16.68
R 16.00
R 14.55
R 13.00

12.17
R 13.06

Percentage
of Sectorg

84.0
84.2

R 10.85

R 23.7

R 9.38

R 23.8

R 84.0

R 8.24

R 23.9

R 80.9

R 7.93

R 23.5

R 78.5

R 7.63

R 23.8

R 75.8

R 6.92

R 23.4

R 74.4

R 6.78

R 23.7

R 72.5

R 7.36

R 23.7

R 74.7

R 7.21

R 22.1

R 77.3

R 22.9

R 80.8

5.62
7.74
8.23
R 7.87

R 23.4

9.15
8.00
7.36
7.32
6.89
6.69
6.69
7.56
6.27
5.76
7.48
7.57
7.11

R 11.15

R 83.2

R 7.35

R 22.8

R 7.08

R 93.0

R 11.21

R 83.9

R 8.25

R 23.0

R 8.18

R 92.3

R 11.79

R 83.5

R 8.43

R 22.4

7.64

R 93.8

R 11.49

R 81.2

8.14

R 22.4

R 7.77

R 94.2

R 11.48

R 8.10

R 23.3
R 23.9

R 7.50

R 22.2

R 6.72

R 22.3

R 6.28

R 21.3

R 7.06

R 21.4

R 7.87

R 20.9

7.99

R 21.5

R 7.68

R 22.3

7.96
7.80
R 7.03
R 6.83
R 6.33
R 7.00
R 7.28
7.93
7.31

R 93.2

R 7.92

R 11.32

77.9
R 76.2
R 74.3
R 72.5
R 72.5
R 74.7
R 79.7
R 82.5
R 80.5

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

R 11.01

R 78.9

R 8.21

R 11.32

R 78.5

8.92

R 11.77

R 9.64

11.82
11.46
12.09

78.4
R 75.4
R 71.3
R 70.5
R 66.7
R 65.2
65.3
68.8
73.8
74.5

8.08
7.20
9.76

20.5
20.4
21.3
21.8
21.3
R 20.8
20.7
20.3
R 18.6
18.8
19.4
20.4

8.48
8.90
9.56
10.27
10.96
12.60
12.16
9.33
8.03
6.83
6.66
9.59

99.6
101.9
99.7
100.8
99.3
98.3
97.1
97.8
99.5
99.4
99.1
99.1

NA
NA

11.34
12.05

80.1
80.5

7.63
7.84

22.4
23.4

7.27
7.07

92.1
93.4

a See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary.
b See Note 9, "Natural Gas Prices," at end of section.
c Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP)

and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power Plants
Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7.
d Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and
industrial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into
Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7.
e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-andpower (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell
electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Through 2001, data are for electric
utilities only; beginning in 2002, data also include independent power producers.
See Note 8 at end of section for plant coverage.
f Includes taxes.

12.95
12.07
11.57
R 11.61
11.09
10.98
11.20
11.16
R 10.05
11.05
11.61
R 12.00

R 11.86
R 11.61
R 11.16

10.90
R 10.90
R 11.19

11.02

R 12.40

13.23
R 14.39
R 15.45
R 14.04
R 13.00

R 80.3

82.6

R 10.04
R 11.35
R 12.08

13.07
9.95
R 8.92

R 23.0

23.5

R 93.0
R 91.7
R 89.0
R 92.0
R 91.8
R 93.1
R 92.9
R 92.2

g The percentage of the sector’s consumption in Table 4.3 for which price data
are available. For details on how the percentages are derived, see Table. 9.11
Sources at end of section.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate.
Notes: • Prices are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental
gaseous fuels. • Prices are intended to include all taxes. See Note 9, "Natural
Gas Prices," at end of section. • Wellhead annual and year-to-date prices are
simple averages of the monthly prices; all other annual and year-to-date prices are
volume-weighted averages of the monthly prices. • Geographic coverage is the 50
States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/prices.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

131

Energy Prices
Note 1. Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices. The
average domestic first purchase price represents the average
price at which all domestic crude oil is purchased. Prior to
February 1976, the price represented an estimate of the average of posted prices; beginning with February 1976, the
price represents an average of actual first purchase prices.
The data series was previously called “Actual Domestic
Wellhead Price.”
Note 2. Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs. F.O.B. literally means
“Free on Board.” It denotes a transaction whereby the seller
makes the product available with an agreement on a given
port at a given price; it is the responsibility of the buyer to
arrange for the transportation and insurance.
Note 3. Crude Oil Landed Costs. The landed cost of
imported crude oil from selected countries does not represent the total cost of all imported crude. Prior to April 1975,
imported crude costs to U.S. company-owned refineries in
the Caribbean were not included in the landed cost, and
costs of crude oil from countries that export only small
amounts to the United States were also excluded. Beginning
in April 1975, however, coverage was expanded to include
U.S. company-owned refineries in the Caribbean. Landed
costs do not include supplemental fees.
Note 4. Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs. Beginning with January 1981, refiner acquisition costs of crude
oil are from data collected on Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-14, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost
Report.” Those costs were previously published from data
collected on Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA)
Form ERA-49, “Domestic Crude Oil Entitlements Program
Refiners Monthly Report.” Form ERA-49 was discontinued
with the decontrol of crude oil on January 28, 1981. Crude
oil purchases and costs are defined for Form EIA-14 in
accordance with conventions used for Form ERA-49. The
respondents for the two forms are also essentially the same.
However, due to possible different interpretations of the
filing requirements and a different method for handling
prior period adjustments, care must be taken when comparing the data collected on the two forms.
The refiner acquisition cost of crude oil is the average price
paid by refiners for crude oil booked into their refineries in
accordance with accounting procedures generally accepted
and consistently and historically applied by the refiners
concerned. Domestic crude oil is that oil produced in the
United States or from the outer continental shelf as defined in
43 USC Section 1331. Imported crude oil is either that oil
reported on Form ERA-51, “Transfer Pricing Report,” or any
crude oil that is not domestic oil. The composite cost is the
weighted average of domestic and imported crude oil costs.
Crude oil costs and volumes reported on Form ERA-49
excluded unfinished oils but included the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Crude oil costs and volumes reported
132

on Federal Energy Administration (FEA) Form FEA-P110M-1, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report,” included
unfinished oils but excluded SPR. Imported averages
derived from Form ERA-49 exclude oil purchased for SPR,
whereas the composite averages derived from Form ERA-49
include SPR. None of the prices derived from Form EIA-14
include either unfinished oils or SPR.
Note 5. Motor Gasoline Prices. Several different series of
motor gasoline prices are published in this section. U.S. city
average retail prices of motor gasoline are calculated
monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the development of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). These prices
include all Federal, State, and local taxes paid at the time of
sale. From 1974-1977, prices were collected in 56 urban
areas. From 1978 forward, prices are collected from a new
sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to
represent all urban consumers-about 80 percent of the total
U.S. population. The service stations are selected initially,
and on a replacement basis, in such a way that they represent the purchasing habits of the CPI population. Service
stations in the current sample include those providing all
types of service (i.e., full-, mini-, and self-serve).
Refiner prices of finished motor gasoline for resale and to
end users are determined by the EIA in a monthly survey of
refiners and gas plant operators (Form EIA-782A). The
prices do not include any Federal, State, or local taxes paid
at the time of sale. Estimates of prices prior to January 1983
are based on Form FEA-P302-M-1/EIA-460, “Petroleum
Industry Monthly Report for Product Prices,” and also
exclude all Federal, State, or local taxes paid at the time of
sale. Sales for resale are those made to purchasers who are
other-than-ultimate consumers. Sales to end users are sales
made directly to the consumer of the product, including bulk
consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and utilities) and
residential and commercial consumers.
Note 6. Historical Petroleum Prices. Starting in January
1983, Form EIA-782, “Monthly Petroleum Product Sales
Report,” replaced 10 previous surveys. Every attempt was
made to continue the most important price series. However,
prices published through December 1982 and those
published since January 1983 do not necessarily form
continuous data series due to changes in survey forms, definitions, instructions, populations, samples, processing
systems, and statistical procedures. To provide historical
data, continuous series were generated for annual data
1978–1982 and for monthly data 1981 and 1982 by estimating the prices that would have been published had Form
EIA-782 survey and system been in operation at that time.
This form of estimation was performed after detailed adjustment was made for product and sales type matching and for
discontinuity due to other factors. An important difference
between the previous and present prices is the distinction
between wholesale and resale and between retail and end
user. The resale category continues to include sales among
resellers. However, sales to bulk consumers, such as utility,
industrial, and commercial accounts previously included in

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

the wholesale category, are now counted as made to end
users. The end-user category continues to include retail
sales through company-owned and operated outlets but
also includes sales to the bulk consumers such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities. Additional information may be found in “Estimated Historic Time Series for
the EIA-782,” a feature article by Paula Weir, printed in
the December 1983 [3] Petroleum Marketing Monthly,
published by EIA.
Note 7. Electricity Retail Prices. Average annual retail
prices of electricity have the following plant coverage:
Through 1979, annual data are for Classes A and B
privately owned electric utilities only. For 1980-1982,
annual data are for selected Class A utilities whose electric
operating revenues were $100 million or more during the
previous year. For 1983, annual data are for a selected
sample of electric utilities. Beginning in 1984, data are for
a census of electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, annual
data also include energy service providers selling to retail
customers.
Average monthly retail prices of electricity have the
following plant coverage: Through 1985, monthly data are
derived from selected privately owned electric utilities
and, therefore, are not national averages. Beginning in
1986, monthly data are based on a sample of publicly and
privately owned electric utilities. Beginning in 1996,
monthly data also include energy service providers selling
to retail customers.
Preliminary monthly data are from Form EIA-826,
"Monthly Electric Sales and Revenue Report With State
Distributions Report," which is a monthly collection of
data from approximately 450 of the largest publicly and
privately owned electric utilities as well as a census of
energy service providers with retail sales in deregulated
States; a model is then applied to the collected data to estimate for the entire universe of U.S. electric utilities.
Preliminary annual data are the sum of the monthly revenues divided by the sum of the monthly sales. When final
annual data become available each year from Form EIA861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report," their ratios
to the preliminary Form EIA-826 values are used to derive
adjusted final monthly values.
Note 8. Costs of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants. Data for 1973–1982 cover all regulated electric
generating plants at which the generator nameplate capacity of all steam-electric units combined totaled 25 megawatts or greater. From 1974–1982, peaking units were
included in the data and counted towards the
25-megawatt-or-greater total. Data for 1983–1990 cover
all regulated electric generating plants at which the
generator nameplate capacity of all steam-electric units
combined totaled 50 megawatts or greater. Data for
1991–2001 cover all regulated electric generating plants at
which the generator nameplate capacity of all steamelectric units and combined-cycle units together totaled 50

megawatts or greater. Data for 2002 forward cover the
aforementioned regulated generating plants plus unregulated generating plants (independent power producers, as
well as combined-heat-and-power generating plants and
electricity-only plants in the commercial and industrial
sector) whose total facility fossil-fueled nameplate generating capacity is 50 or more megawatts, regardless of unit
type.
Note 9. Natural Gas Prices. Natural gas prices are
intended to include all taxes. Instructions on the data
collection forms specifically direct that all Federal, State,
and local taxes, surcharges, and/or adjustments billed to
consumers are to be included. However, sales and other
taxes itemized on more than 3,000 consumers’ bills are
sometimes excluded by the reporting utilities. Deliveredto-consumers prices for 1987 forward represent natural
gas delivered and sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power consumers. They do not include
the price of natural gas delivered to industrial and
commercial consumers on behalf of third parties.
Volumes of natural gas delivered on behalf of third parties
are included in the consumption data shown in Table 4.3.
Additional information is available in the EIA Natural Gas
Monthly, Appendix C.

Table 9.1 Sources
Domestic First Purchase Price
1973–1976: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau
of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook, “Crude Petroleum and
Petroleum Products” chapter.
1977: Federal Energy Administration, based on Form FEAP124, “Domestic Crude Oil Purchaser’s Monthly Report.”
1978–2007: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table 1.
2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009,
Table 1.
F.O.B. and Landed Cost of Imports
October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.”
October–December 1977: EIA, Form FEA-F701-M-0,
“Transfer Pricing Report.”
1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table
1.
2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009,
Table 1.
Refiner Acquisition Cost
1973: EIA estimates. The domestic price was derived by
adding estimated transportation costs to the reported domestic first purchase price. The imported price was derived by
adding an estimated ocean transport cost to the average
“Free Alongside Ship” value published by the U.S. Bureau
of the Census.
1974–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook, “Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products” chapter.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

133

1977: January–September, FEA, based on Form FEAP110-M-1, “Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report.”
October–December, EIA, based on Form FEA-P110-M-1,
“Refiners’ Monthly Cost Allocation Report.”
1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table
1.
2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009,
Table 1.

Table 9.2 Sources
October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer Pricing Report.”
October 1977–December 1977:
Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Form FEA-F701-M-0, “Transfer
Pricing Report.”
1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, Table
21.
2008: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 2009,
Table 21.

Electric Power Sector Price
1973–1998: EIA, NGA 2000, Table 96.
1999–2002: EIA, NGM, October 2004, Table 4.
2003-2007: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form
FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for
Electric Utility Plants,” and EIA, Form EIA-423 “Monthly
Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Report.”
2008: Form EIA-923, ”Power Plant Operations Report.”
Percentage of Residential Sector
1989–2006: EIA, Form EIA-176, “Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition.”
2007: Estimated by EIA as the average of the three previous annual values.
Percentage of Commercial Sector
1987–2002: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Calculated as the
total amount of natural gas delivered to commercial
consumers minus the amount delivered for the account of
others, and then divided by the total amount delivered to
commercial consumers.
2003 forward: EIA, NGM, January 2009, Table 3.

Table 9.10 Sources
1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form
FPC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for
Electric Utility Plants.”
October 1977–December 1977: Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission, Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost
and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants.”
1978 and 1979: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Form FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of
Fuels for Electric Utility Plants.”
1980–1989: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, May issues.
1990–2000: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, March 2003,
Table 26.
2001-2007: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, October 2008,
Table 4.1; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form
FERC-423, “Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels
for Electric Utility Plants”; and EIA, Form EIA-423,
“Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants
Report.”
2008: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, February 2009, Table
4.1; and Form EIA-923, ”Power Plant Operations Report.”

Table 9.11 Sources
All Prices Except Electric Power
1973–2002: Energy Information Administration (EIA),
Natural Gas Annual (NGA), annual reports.
2003 forward: EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), January
2009, Table 3.

134

Percentage of Industrial Sector
1982–2002: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Calculated as the
total amount of natural gas delivered to industrial consumers
minus the amount delivered for the account of others, and then
divided by the total amount delivered to industrial consumers.
2003 forward: EIA, NGM, January 2009, Table 3.
Percentage of Electric Power Sector
1973–2001: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural
gas receipts by electric utilities reported on Form FERC423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quantity of Fuels for
Electric Utility Plants" (and predecessor forms) divided
by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric
power sector (for 1973-1988, see Monthly Energy Review,
Table 7.3b; for 1989-2001, see Monthly Energy Review,
Table 7.4b).
2002-2007: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural
gas receipts by electric utilities and independent power
producers reported on Form FERC-423, "Monthly Report
of Cost and Quantity of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants,"
and EIA-423, “Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for
Electric Plants Report,” divided by the quantity of natural
gas consumed by the electric power sector (see Monthly
Energy Review, Table 7.4b).
2008: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas
receipts by electric utilities and independent power producers
reported on Form EIA-923, “Power Plant Operations Report,”
divided by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector (see Monthly Energy Review, Table 7.4b).

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

10
Renewable Energy

Grand Coulee Dam, Washington State. Source: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

Figure 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption
(Quadrillion Btu)
Total and Major Sources, 1973-2007
8
Total

6

4

Biomassb

2

Hydroelectric Powera
Otherc

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

By Source, 2007

1995

2000

2005

By Sector, 2007

3

4
3.5

2.5

3

2.1

2
2.0

2
1.0

1

1
0.4

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.6

0.1

0

0.1

0
Hydro- Wood b Bioelectric
fuelsb

Waste b Geo-

Wind b Solar/

thermalb

Residential Commercial

Industrial Transportation Electric
Power

PVb

a

Power

Compared With Other Resources, 1973-2007

Compared With Other Resources, 2007
100

100

86.2

80

80

Fossil Fuels

60

60

40

40

20

Nuclear
Electric
Power

20
Renewable Energy

a

1980

1985

1990

Conventional hydroelectric power.
See Table 10.1 for definition.
c
Geothermal, solar/PV, and wind.
b

136

1995

2000

6.8

Fossil

Nuclear

Renewable

Fuels

Electric
Power

Energy

0

0
1975

8.4

2005

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.
Sources: Tables 1.3, 10.1, and 10.2a-c.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 10.1 Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source
(Trillion Btu)
Productiona
Biomass

Consumption

Biofuelsb

Totalc

Total
Renewable
Energyd

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

NA
NA
NA
93
111
200
143
190
206
215
238
260
315
412
501
582

1,529
1,499
2,475
3,016
2,735
3,102
3,157
3,111
2,933
2,969
3,010
2,629
2,712
2,815
3,011
3,141

4,433
4,723
5,485
6,185
6,206
6,703
7,167
7,180
6,659
6,683
6,262
5,318
5,899
6,149
6,248
6,431

2,861
3,155
2,900
2,970
3,046
3,205
3,590
3,640
3,297
3,268
2,811
2,242
2,689
2,825
2,690
2,703

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

56
53
59
55
59
62
63
66
65
67
67
72
745

286
256
274
259
270
271
284
287
277
285
280
293
3,324

617
552
578
600
633
621
592
555
501
514
540
568
6,872

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

73
68
75
74
80
80
85
88
87
92
93
97
993

R 298
R 268
R 292
R 285
R 293
R 289
R 303
R 303
R 295
R 307
R 305
R 320

R 618
R 510
R 598
R 588
R 616
R 578
R 584
R 564
R 505
R 524

527

147
156

R 573

R 182

R 3,560

R 6,785

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

101
96
110
108
118
113
123
129
123
128
128
1,277

311
293
312
308
323
318
335
340
326
333
330
3,528

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

896
673

3,240
3,030

1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Biomass
Hydroelectric
Powere

Biofuelsk

Total

2
2
2
236
408
531
577
551
542
540
511
364
402
401
389
403

NA
NA
NA
93
111
202
145
187
205
213
241
258
309
414
513
595

1,529
1,499
2,475
3,016
2,735
3,104
3,159
3,108
2,931
2,967
3,013
2,627
2,706
2,817
3,023
3,154

4,433
4,723
5,485
6,185
6,206
6,705
7,168
7,178
6,657
6,681
6,264
5,316
5,893
6,150
6,261
6,444

36
32
34
32
35
33
35
35
33
34
34
35
407

55
51
58
57
65
71
69
72
71
75
73
78
795

285
254
273
261
277
281
290
293
283
292
287
299
3,374

615
550
576
602
640
630
598
561
507
521
547
574
6,922

37

R 302
R 271
R 296
R 287
R 295
R 292
R 306
R 305
R 295
R 311
R 307
R 323

R 622
R 513
R 601
R 590

R 420

78
71
79
76
82
83
88
90
87
96
95
100
1,024

R 3,590

R 576
R 6,816

175
165
166
165
170
170
177
176
169
173
168
1,873

34
33
35
35
35
35
36
35
33
33
34
378

102
98
108
112
119
118
124
130
128
133
129
1,302

312
295
310
313
324
323
337
341
331
338
330
3,553

606
561
614
612
685
708
663
609
554
579
579
6,770

1,960
1,985

384
372

924
717

3,267
3,075

6,240
6,348

Solar/
PVg

Windh

Woodi

43
70
110
198
336
294
316
325
328
331
317
311
328
331
341
343

NA
NA
NA
(s)
60
70
71
70
70
69
66
65
64
64
65
66

NA
NA
NA
(s)
29
33
33
34
31
46
57
70
105
115
142
178

1,527
1,497
2,474
2,687
2,216
2,370
2,437
2,371
2,184
2,214
2,262
2,006
1,995
2,002
2,121
2,156

272
246
244
283
306
295
252
216
171
169
201
214
2,869

29
26
30
27
26
28
30
30
29
30
28
30
343

6
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
6
6
72

24
19
23
25
24
20
19
16
19
24
25
25
264

194
170
182
172
177
176
186
186
179
184
179
186
2,172

R 258
R 184
R 240

31
R 27

24
25
30
R 31
R 29
R 26
R 21
R 27
R 28
R 33
R 31
R 35
R 342

R 187
R 167
R 180
R 178
R 178
R 175
R 183
R 180
R 174
R 180
R 177
R 187

R 2,455

29
28
28
R 29
30
30
29
30
29
30
R 349

6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
80

R 2,146

605
558
616
607
684
704
662
608
550
574
578
6,745

222
201
227
219
280
306
257
205
164
163
169
2,412

28
26
29
29
30
30
30
30
29
30
29
320

6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
76

37
32
41
45
44
43
32
26
24
41
44
409

6,213
6,303

2,273
2,655

319
313

74
66

307
239

237
R 258
R 226
R 223

198
R 146

Geothermalf

Total
Renewable
Energy

a Production equals consumption for all renewable energy sources except
biofuels.
b Total biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel.
c Wood and wood-derived fuels, biomass waste, fuel ethanol, and biodiesel.
d Hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar/photovoltaic, wind, and biomass.
e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the
fossil-fueled plants heat rate).
f Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the geothermal
energy plants heat rate), and geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.
g Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu
using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate), and solar thermal direct use energy.
h Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants
heat rate).
i Wood and wood-derived fuels.
j Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,

Wastej

R 33

37
33
R 34
R 34
R 35
R 35
R 34
R 36
R 35
R 36

618
R 580
R 587
R 566
R 506
R 528

529

agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
k Fuel ethanol and biodiesel consumption, plus losses and co-products from the
production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Most data for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation
sectors are estimates. See notes and sources for Tables 10.2a and 10.2b. • See
Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of section.
• Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
• Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: Tables 10.2a-c, 10.3, and 10.4.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

137

Table 10.2a Renewable Energy Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors
(Trillion Btu)
Commercial Sectora

Residential Sector
Biomass
Geothermalb
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Solar/
PVc

Biomass

Woodd

Total

Hydroelectric
Powere

Geothermalb

Woodd

Wastef

Fuel
Ethanolg

Total

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

NA
NA
NA
NA
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
13
14
16

NA
NA
NA
NA
56
65
65
65
65
64
61
60
59
58
59
61

354
425
850
1,010
580
520
540
430
380
390
420
370
380
400
410
450

354
425
850
1,010
641
591
612
503
452
462
490
439
449
471
483
527

NA
NA
NA
NA
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
1
1
1

NA
NA
NA
NA
3
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
9
11
12
14

7
8
21
24
66
72
76
73
64
67
71
67
69
71
70
70

NA
NA
NA
NA
28
40
53
58
54
54
47
25
26
29
34
34

NA
NA
NA
(s)
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1

7
8
21
24
94
113
129
131
118
121
119
92
95
101
105
105

7
8
21
24
98
118
135
138
127
129
128
101
104
113
118
119

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
18

6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
67

35
31
35
34
35
34
35
35
34
35
34
35
410

42
38
42
41
42
41
42
42
41
42
41
42
495

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
5
5
5
6
65

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
36

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

9
8
8
8
9
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
102

10
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
117

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
22

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
74

39
35
39
38
39
38
39
39
38
39
38
39
460

47
43
47
46
47
46
47
47
46
47
46
47
556

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
14

R6

3
R2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
R 31

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
2

R8

5
R6
5
R6
5
5
R6
5
R6
5
6
65

R 98

10
9
10
9
10
R9
10
R9
R9
10
R9
10
R 113

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
20

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
68

39
36
39
38
39
38
39
39
38
39
38
421

47
44
47
46
47
46
47
47
46
47
46
509

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
59

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
32

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
2

8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
93

9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
107

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

20
17

68
61

421
375

509
453

1
1

13
13

60
59

28
33

1
1

90
94

104
107

a Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP)
and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power Plants
Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7.
b Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.
c Solar thermal direct use energy, and photovoltaic electricity net generation
(converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate). Includes a small amount
of commercial sector use.
d Wood and wood-derived fuels.
e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the
fossil-fueled plants heat rate).
f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes

138

R7
R8

8
R8
R8
R8
R8

8
R8
R8
R8

non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
g The ethanol portion of motor fuels (such as E10) consumed by the commercial
sector.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are estimates, except for commercial sector hydroelectric power
and waste. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 10.2b Renewable Energy Consumption: Industrial and Transportation Sectors
(Trillion Btu)
Industrial Sectora

Transportation Sector

Biomass
Hydroelectric
Powerb
1973 Total
1975 Total
1980 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Geothermalc

Woodd

Wastee

Fuel
Ethanolf

Biomass
Losses
and Coproductsg

Total

Total

Fuel
Ethanolh

Biodieseli

Total

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

35
32
33
33
31
55
61
58
55
49
42
33
39
43
33
32

NA
NA
NA
NA
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
3
4
4

1,165
1,063
1,600
1,645
1,442
1,652
1,683
1,731
1,603
1,620
1,636
1,443
1,396
1,363
1,476
1,452

NA
NA
NA
230
192
195
224
184
180
171
145
129
146
142
132
148

NA
NA
NA
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
5
6
7

NA
NA
NA
41
48
86
61
81
88
92
101
110
133
174
210
241

1,165
1,063
1,600
1,917
1,683
1,935
1,970
1,997
1,873
1,883
1,884
1,684
1,679
1,684
1,824
1,848

1,200
1,096
1,633
1,950
1,716
1,992
2,033
2,058
1,931
1,936
1,930
1,721
1,723
1,731
1,861
1,884

NA
NA
NA
51
62
115
82
104
115
120
138
144
171
233
292
334

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1
1
2
4
12

NA
NA
NA
51
62
115
82
104
115
120
138
145
172
235
296
346

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
3
29

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
4

137
119
125
121
124
122
130
129
125
128
125
130
1,515

12
11
12
11
12
11
12
12
11
12
12
12
140

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10

23
22
24
22
24
25
25
27
26
27
27
29
301

173
152
162
156
160
159
168
168
163
168
164
172
1,966

177
155
164
158
162
161
171
170
165
172
168
175
2,000

29
27
31
32
38
42
39
41
41
43
43
45
451

2
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
32

31
29
33
34
41
45
42
45
44
46
45
48
483

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R2
R1

R 123
R 112
R 120
R 120
R 120
R 117
R 123
R 119
R 116
R 120
R 119

R 15
R 14
R 15

R 170

126

13
R 152

28
26
29
29
31
31
32
33
33
35
36
37
381

153

R 1,435

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12

R 168

2
2
2
R1
1
R1
1
1
1
2
R 16

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
5

R 1,980

155
167
R 164
R 166
R 161
R 169
R 167
R 162
R 170
R 170
179
R 2,001

44
40
44
42
45
46
48
48
47
53
52
56
566

4
3
4
4
5
5
7
7
7
6
5
5
62

48
43
48
46
50
51
55
55
53
59
58
61
629

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

2
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
18

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
4

114
107
105
109
113
112
116
115
112
115
109
1,227

13
13
12
12
12
12
13
12
12
12
12
135

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
16

39
37
43
41
45
43
47
49
47
49
49
490

167
158
162
163
172
169
177
178
172
177
172
1,867

169
161
165
166
174
170
178
180
173
179
173
1,890

56
54
58
63
65
65
67
70
71
74
70
714

6
6
6
7
7
8
9
9
8
8
8
81

62
60
64
69
72
73
76
79
79
82
78
795

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

14
26

4
4

1,309
1,385

139
128

11
9

344
272

1,803
1,794

1,821
1,824

510
406

57
29

567
435

12
R 12
R 11
R 12
R 12
R 11

13
R 12

a Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and
industrial electricity-only plants. See Note, "Classification of Power Plants Into
Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7.
b Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the
fossil-fueled plants heat rate).
c Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.
d Wood and wood-derived fuels.
e Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and
tire-derived fuels).
f The ethanol portion of motor fuels (such as E10) consumed by the industrial
sector.
g Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel.
Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the

R 165
R 162
R 164
R 160
R 168
R 166
R 161
R 169
R 168
R 177

production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel—these are included in the industrial sector
consumption statistics for the appropriate energy source.
h The ethanol portion of motor fuels (such as E10 and E85) consumed by the
transportation sector.
i "Biodiesel" is any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel substitute, additive, or
extender. See "Biodiesel" in Glossary.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Data are estimates, except for industrial sector hydroelectric power in
1973-1978 and 1989 forward. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to
independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of
Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

139

Table 10.2c Renewable Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector
(Trillion Btu)
Hydroelectric
Powera

Biomass
Geothermalb

Solar/PVc

Windd

Woode

Wastef

Total

Total

1973 Total ....................
1975 Total ....................
1980 Total ....................
1985 Total ....................
1990 Total g .................
1995 Total ....................
1996 Total ....................
1997 Total ....................
1998 Total ....................
1999 Total ....................
2000 Total ....................
2001 Total ....................
2002 Total ....................
2003 Total ....................
2004 Total ....................
2005 Total ....................

2,827
3,122
2,867
2,937
3,014
3,149
3,528
3,581
3,241
3,218
2,768
2,209
2,650
2,781
2,656
2,670

43
70
110
198
326
280
300
309
311
312
296
289
305
303
311
309

NA
NA
NA
(s)
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
5
6
6

NA
NA
NA
(s)
29
33
33
34
31
46
57
70
105
115
142
178

1
(s)
3
8
129
125
138
137
137
138
134
126
150
167
165
185

2
2
2
7
188
296
300
309
308
315
318
211
230
230
223
221

3
2
4
14
317
422
438
446
444
453
453
337
380
397
388
406

2,873
3,194
2,982
3,150
3,689
3,889
4,305
4,375
4,032
4,034
3,579
2,910
3,445
3,601
3,503
3,568

2006 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

268
243
242
281
304
293
250
214
169
166
197
211
2,839

26
23
27
24
23
25
27
27
26
27
25
27
306

(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
5

24
19
23
25
24
20
19
16
19
24
25
25
264

17
15
16
12
13
15
16
17
15
15
15
16
182

20
18
19
17
19
19
20
20
19
19
20
20
231

37
34
35
30
33
34
36
37
34
34
35
36
412

355
319
327
360
384
373
333
295
248
252
283
299
3,827

2007 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
December ............
Total ....................

R 256

27

R 39

347

R 15

R 17

R 32

R 264

15
15
14
15
R 16
16
15
R 15
15
16
R 186

R 20

R 35

R 328

20

33
34

R 345

R 20

R 35

R 313

21
21
20
R 20
21
R 21
R 237

36

R 307

R 36

R 287

26
27
R 25
27
R 308

24
25
30
R 31
R 29
R 26
R 21
R 27
R 28
R 33
R 31
R 35
R 342

R 20

R 24

(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
6

R 19

183
R 238
235
R 257
225
R 222
R 197
R 145
146
R 154
R 180
R 2,439

35
R 35
36
37
R 423

R 235

R 3,517

2008 January ................
February ..............
March ...................
April .....................
May ......................
June .....................
July ......................
August .................
September ...........
October ................
November ............
11-Month Total ...

219
198
224
217
278
304
256
204
163
162
168
2,393

25
23
26
25
26
26
27
27
26
26
25
282

(s)
(s)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(s)
8

37
32
41
45
44
43
32
26
24
41
44
409

17
16
16
14
13
15
16
16
15
13
15
166

19
17
20
19
20
20
20
20
18
18
19
211

36
33
36
33
32
35
36
36
33
32
34
377

318
286
327
321
382
410
352
294
247
262
272
3,469

2007 11-Month Total ...
2006 11-Month Total ...

2,258
2,628

281
279

6
5

307
239

170
166

217
211

387
377

3,239
3,528

R 25

24
R 24

26
R 26
R 26

a Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the
fossil-fueled plants heat rate).
b Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the geothermal
energy plants heat rate).
c Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu
using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate).
d Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants
heat rate).
e Wood and wood-derived fuels.
f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste,
agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.
Through 2000, also includes
non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and

140

R 18

325

R 241
R 246
R 278

tire-derived fuels).
g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are
for electric utilities and independent power producers.
R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes:

The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and
combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose
primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Totals
may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic
coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: • Biomass: Table 7.4b. • All Other Data: Tables 7.2b and A6.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview

1981 Total
1985 Total
1990 Total
1995 Total
1996 Total
1997 Total
1998 Total
1999 Total
2000 Total
2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Feedstocka

Losses
and Coproductsb

TBtu

TBtu

Net Importsc

Production
Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

Mbbl

Stocksd

TBtu

Mbbl

Stock Changee
Mbbl

TBtu

Consumption
Mbbl

MMgal

TBtu

................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................

13
93
111
200
143
190
206
215
238
259
313
410
497
570

6
41
48
86
61
81
88
92
101
110
133
174
210
241

1,978
14,693
17,802
32,325
23,178
30,674
33,453
34,881
38,627
42,028
50,956
66,772
81,058
92,961

83
617
748
1,358
973
1,288
1,405
1,465
1,622
1,765
2,140
2,804
3,404
3,904

7
52
63
114
82
109
118
123
137
149
180
236
287
329

NA
NA
NA
387
313
85
66
87
116
315
306
292
3,542
3,234

NA
NA
NA
1
1
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1
1
1
13
11

NA
NA
NA
2,186
2,065
2,925
3,406
4,024
3,400
4,298
6,200
5,978
6,002
5,563

NA
NA
NA
-207
-121
860
481
618
-624
898
1,902
-222
24
-439

NA
NA
NA
-1
(s)
3
2
2
-2
3
7
-1
(s)
-2

1,978
14,693
17,802
32,919
23,612
29,899
33,038
34,350
39,367
41,445
49,360
67,286
84,576
96,634

83
617
748
1,383
992
1,256
1,388
1,443
1,653
1,741
2,073
2,826
3,552
4,059

7
52
63
117
84
106
117
122
139
147
175
238
299
342

2006 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
December ........
Total ................

55
52
57
53
56
58
60
63
62
64
64
69
712

23
22
24
22
23
25
25
26
26
27
27
29
301

8,935
8,463
9,333
8,663
9,086
9,531
9,791
10,235
10,088
10,512
10,442
11,215
116,294

375
355
392
364
382
400
411
430
424
442
439
471
4,884

32
30
33
31
32
34
35
36
36
37
37
40
412

132
610
894
905
682
1,550
2,637
3,102
2,268
2,044
1,376
1,208
17,408

(s)
2
3
3
2
5
9
11
8
7
5
4
62

6,099
7,268
8,626
8,990
7,767
6,675
7,706
9,133
9,725
9,723
9,232
8,760
8,760

536
1,169
1,358
364
-1,223
-1,092
1,031
1,427
592
-2
-491
-472
3,197

2
4
5
1
-4
-4
4
5
2
(s)
-2
-2
11

8,531
7,904
8,869
9,204
10,991
12,173
11,397
11,910
11,764
12,558
12,309
12,895
130,505

358
332
372
387
462
511
479
500
494
527
517
542
5,481

30
28
31
33
39
43
40
42
42
44
44
46
462

2007 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
December ........
Total ................

70
65
71
70
75
75
78
81
80
85
87
91
930

28
26
29
29
31
31
32
33
33
35
36
37
380

11,621
10,795
11,892
11,716
12,573
12,553
13,083
13,581
13,402
14,221
14,568
15,258
155,263

488
453
499
492
528
527
549
570
563
597
612
641
6,521

41
38
42
41
44
44
46
48
47
50
52
54
549

1,077
1,010
720
733
663
922
1,533
1,586
610
998
393
212
10,457

4
4
3
3
2
3
5
6
2
4
1
1
37

8,656
8,765
8,539
8,807
8,966
9,171
9,866
11,011
11,555
11,449
11,218
10,535
10,535

-104
109
-226
268
159
205
695
1,145
544
-106
-231
-683
1,775

(s)
(s)
-1
1
1
1
2
4
2
(s)
-1
-2
6

12,802
11,696
12,838
12,181
13,077
13,270
13,921
14,022
13,468
15,325
15,192
16,153
163,945

538
491
539
512
549
557
585
589
566
644
638
678
6,886

45
41
45
43
46
47
49
50
48
54
54
57
580

2008 January ............
February ..........
March ...............
April .................
May ..................
June .................
July ..................
August .............
September .......
October ............
November ........
11-Month Total

95
90
104
101
111
105
114
120
115
120
120
1,195

39
37
43
41
45
43
47
49
47
49
49
488

15,818
15,025
17,387
16,868
18,543
17,544
19,042
20,059
19,197
20,048
20,054
199,585

664
631
730
708
779
737
800
842
806
842
842
8,383

56
53
62
60
66
62
67
71
68
71
71
706

495
483
368
1,451
866
1,571
1,360
1,931
2,466
615
278
11,884

2
2
1
5
3
6
5
7
9
2
1
42

10,674
10,465
11,391
11,539
12,044
12,304
13,186
14,882
15,994
15,192
15,227
15,227

f165
-209
926
148
505
260
882
1,696
1,112
-802
35
4,718

1
-1
3
1
2
1
3
6
4
-3
(s)
17

16,148
15,717
16,829
18,171
18,904
18,855
19,520
20,294
20,551
21,465
20,297
206,751

678
660
707
763
794
792
820
852
863
902
852
8,684

57
56
60
64
67
67
69
72
73
76
72
732

2007 11-Month Total
2006 11-Month Total

838
644

343
272

140,005
105,079

5,880
4,413

495
372

10,245
16,200

36
57

11,218
9,232

2,458
3,669

9
13

147,792
117,610

6,207
4,940

523
416

a Total corn and other biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol.
b Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol. Does not include

natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of fuel
ethanol—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the
appropriate energy source.
c Fuel ethanol imports only. Data for fuel ethanol exports are not available.
d Stocks are at end of period.
e A negative number indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number
indicates an increase.
f Derived from preliminary December 2007 stock value, not final December
2007 stock value shown in column 8.
NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Mbbl = thousand barrels. MMgal = million U.S. gallons. TBtu = trillion
Btu. • Through 1980, data are not available. For 1981-1992, data are estimates.
Beginning in 1993, only data for feedstock and losses and co-products are
estimates. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 1981.
Sources: (Note: For production, net imports, stocks, stock change, and
consumption, data in thousand barrels are converted to million gallons by
multiplying by 0.042; and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the
approximate heat content of fuel ethanol—see Table A3.) • Feedstock:
Calculated as fuel ethanol production in thousand barrels multiplied by the

approximate heat content of fuel ethanol feedstock—see Table A3. • Losses and
Co-products: Calculated as fuel ethanol feedstock minus fuel ethanol production.
• Production: 1981-1992—Fuel ethanol production is equal to fuel ethanol
consumption—see sources for "Consumption." 1993-2004—Calculated as fuel
ethanol consumption plus fuel ethanol stock change minus fuel ethanol net imports.
These data differ slightly from the original production data from Energy Information
Administration (EIA), Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report," and predecessor
form, which were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with the final
balance. 2005 forward—EIA, Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report."
• Net Imports, Stocks, and Stock Change: 1992-2007—EIA, Petroleum Supply
Annual (PSA), annual reports. 2008—EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM),
monthly reports. • Consumption: 1981-1989—EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels
Consumption 1990, Table 10; and EIA, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and
Alternate Fuels (CNEAF), estimates. 1990-1992—EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass
Energy Consumption 1992, Table D2; and EIA, CNEAF, estimates.
1993-2004—EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as ten percent
of oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2), plus fuel ethanol
refinery input (Table 16). 2005-2007—EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 1 and 15.
Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus
finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and
blender net inputs (Table 15). 2008—EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Tables 1 and 27.
Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus
finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and
blender net inputs (Table 27).

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

141

Table 10.4 Biodiesel Overview

2001 Total
2002 Total
2003 Total
2004 Total
2005 Total

Feedstocka

Losses and
Co-productsb

Trillion Btu

Trillion Btu

Productionc
Thousand Barrels

Million Gallons

Trillion Btu

........................
........................
........................
........................
........................

1
1
2
4
12

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

204
250
338
666
2,162

9
10
14
28
91

1
1
2
4
12

2006 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

2
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
32

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

312
269
368
385
531
612
540
689
598
549
520
590
5,963

13
11
15
16
22
26
23
29
25
23
22
25
250

2
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
32

2007 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
December ................
Total ........................

4
3
4
4
5
5
7
7
7
6
5
6
63

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

692
564
775
765
958
943
1,237
1,298
1,224
1,188
993
1,026
11,662

29
24
33
32
40
40
52
55
51
50
42
43
490

4
3
4
4
5
5
7
7
7
6
5
5
62

2008 January ....................
February ..................
March .......................
April .........................
May ..........................
June .........................
July ..........................
August .....................
September ...............
October ....................
November ................
11-Month Total .......

7
6
6
7
7
8
9
9
8
8
8
82

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
1

1,208
1,030
1,168
1,258
1,250
1,509
1,605
1,588
1,527
1,469
1,481
15,094

51
43
49
53
52
63
67
67
64
62
62
634

6
6
6
7
7
8
9
9
8
8
8
81

2007 11-Month Total .......
2006 11-Month Total .......

58
29

1
(s)

10,637
5,373

447
226

57
29

a Total vegetable oil and other biomass inputs to the production of biodiesel.
b Losses and co-products from the production of biodiesel. Does not include

natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of
biodiesel—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the
appropriate energy source.
c Production of biofuels for use as diesel fuel substitutes or additives. Biodiesel
consumption equals biodiesel production.
(s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.
Notes: • Through 2000, data are not available. Beginning in 2001, data are
estimates. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent
rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html for all available
data beginning in 2001.
Sources: • Feedstock: Calculated as biodiesel production in thousand barrels
multiplied by the approximate heat content of biodiesel feedstock—see Table A3.
• Losses and Co-products: Calculated as biodiesel feedstock minus biodiesel
production.
• Production:
2001-2005—U.S. Department of Agriculture,

142

Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program records. Annual data are
derived from quarterly data. Monthly data are estimated by dividing the annual
data by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days
in the month. 2006—U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
"M311K - Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks," Table 3A, data for
soybean oil consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). In addition, the Energy
Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting,
estimates that 14.4 million gallons of yellow grease were consumed in methyl
esters (biodiesel). EIA assumes that 7.65 pounds of vegetable oil are needed to
make one gallon of biodiesel. 2007 and 2008—U.S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census, "M311K - Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and
Stocks," Table 3A, data for all fats and oils consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel).
EIA assumes that 7.65 pounds of vegetable oil are needed to make one gallon of
biodiesel. (Note: For production, data in thousand barrels are converted to million
gallons by multiplying by 0.042; and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by
the approximate heat content of biodiesel — see Table A3.)

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Commercial Sector, Hydroelectric Power

Renewable Energy
Note. Renewable Energy Production and Consumption. In Table 10.1, renewable energy consumption
consists of: conventional hydroelectricity net generation
(converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate);
geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu
using the geothermal plants heat rate), and geothermal
heat pump and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal
and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to
Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate), and solar
thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation
(converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate);
wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass
waste (municipal solid waste from biogenic sources,
landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and
other biomass) consumption; fuel ethanol and biodiesel
consumption; and losses and co-products from the
production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Production is
assumed to equal consumption for all renewable energy
sources except biofuels (biofuels production comprises
biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and
biodiesel).

Table 10.2a Sources
Residential Sector, Geothermal
Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly
estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the
number of days in the year and then multiplying by the
number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the
current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Residential Sector, Solar/PV
Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Coal,
Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF), estimates
based on Form EIA-63A, “Annual Solar Thermal Collector
Manufacturers Survey,” and Form EIA-63B, “Annual
Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey.” Monthly
estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the
number of days in the year and then multiplying by the
number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the
current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

EIA, Monthly Energy Review (MER), Tables 7.2a–7.2c and
A6. Calculated as total conventional hydroelectric power
minus conventional hydroelectric power in the electric
power and industrial sectors, multiplied by the fossil-fueled
plants heat rate.

Commercial Sector, Geothermal
Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly
estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the
number of days in the year and then multiplying by the
number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the
current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Commercial Sector, Wood
1973–1979:
EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy
Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.
1980–1983:
EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy
Consumption 1980-1983, Table ES1.
1984: EIA, CNEAF, estimate.
1985–1988: Values interpolated.
1989 forward: EIA, MER, Tables 7.4a–c; and EIA,
CNEAF, estimates based on Form EIA-871, “Commercial
Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.” Data for wood
consumption at commercial combined-heat-and-power
(CHP) plants are calculated as total wood consumption at
electricity-only and CHP plants (MER, Table 7.4a) minus
wood consumption in the electric power sector (MER, Table
7.4b) and at industrial CHP plants (MER, Table 7.4c).
Annual estimates for wood consumption at other commercial plants are based on Form EIA-871 (the annual estimate
for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year);
monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual
estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Commercial Sector, Biomass Waste
EIA, MER, Table 7.4c.

Commercial Sector, Fuel Ethanol

Residential Sector, Wood

EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7a, and 10.3. Calculated as
commercial sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7a)
divided by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table
3.5), and then multiplied by fuel ethanol consumption
(Table 10.3).

1973–1979:
EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy
Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

Table 10.2b Sources

1980 forward: EIA, Form EIA-457, “Residential Energy
Consumption Survey”; and EIA, CNEAF, estimates based
on Form EIA-457 and regional heating degree-day data.
Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual
estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual
estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power
Energy Information Administration (EIA), MER Tables 7.2c
and A6.

Industrial Sector, Geothermal
Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly
estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the
number of days in the year and then multiplying by the

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

143

number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the
current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Industrial Sector, Wood
1973–1979: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.
1980–1983: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983, Table ES1.
1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990,
Table 1.
1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.
1987: EIA, Estimates of Biofuels Consumption in the United
States During 1987, Table 2.
1988: Value interpolated.
1989 forward: EIA, MER, Table 7.4c; and EIA, Office of
Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF),
estimates based on Form EIA-846, “Manufacturing Energy
Consumption Survey.” Data for wood consumption at
industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants are from
MER, Table 7.4c. Annual estimates for wood consumption
at other industrial plants are based on Form-EIA-846 (the
annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of
the previous year); monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year
and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Industrial Sector, Biomass Waste
1981: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990,
Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector
waste consumption.
1982 and 1983: EIA, CNEAF, estimates for total waste
consumption; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are
calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power
sector waste consumption.
1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990,
Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are

144

calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power
sector waste consumption.
1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.
1987: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990,
Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector
waste consumption.
1988: Value interpolated.
1989 forward: EIA, MER, Table 7.4c; and EIA, CNEAF,
estimates based on information presented in Government
Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and
Methane Recovery Yearbook, and information provided by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill
Methane Outreach Program. Data for waste consumption at
industrial CHP plants are from MER, Table 7.4c. Annual
estimates for waste consumption at other industrial plants are
based on the non-EIA sources listed above (the annual
estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year); monthly estimates are created by dividing the
annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then
multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Industrial Sector, Fuel Ethanol
EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7b, and 10.3. Calculated as industrial sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7b) divided
by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table 3.5), and
then multiplied by fuel ethanol consumption (Table 10.3).

Industrial Sector, Losses and Co-products
EIA, MER, Tables 10.3 and 10.4.

Transportation Sector, Fuel Ethanol
EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7c, and 10.3. Calculated as transportation sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7c)
divided by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table 3.5),
and then multiplied by fuel ethanol consumption (Table
10.3).

Transportation Sector, Biodiesel
EIA, MER, Table 10.4. Transportation sector biodiesel
consumption is set equal to biodiesel production.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

11
International Petroleum

Drilling rig, Gansu Province, People’s Republic of China. Source: U.S. Department of Energy.

Figure 11.1a World Crude Oil Production Overview
(Million Barrels per Day)
World Production, 1973-2007

World Production, Monthly
80

80

World

World

60

60

40

40

Non-OPEC
Non-OPEC

OPEC
OPEC

20

20

Persian Gulf Nations

Persian Gulf Nations

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Selected Producers, 1973-2007

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

Selected Producers, Monthly
12

12

Russia
Saudi
Arabia

9

9
Saudi Arabia

United
States

6

6

Russia

United States
Iran

Iran

3

3

China

0

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Notes: • OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
• The Persian Gulf Nations are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Production from the Neutral Zone
between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia is included in “Persian Gulf Nations. ”

146

China

J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D
2006
2007
2008

• Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/inter.html.
S ources: Tables 11.1a and 11.1b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Figure 11.1b World Crude Oil Production by Selected Country
(Million Barrels per Day)

2.675
2.683

Selected Non-OPEC Countries

Canada

3.727
3.859

China
0.609
0.570

Egypt

2.901
2.711

Mexico

2.287
2.276

Norway

9.425
9.359

Russia
1.456
1.307

United Kingdom

5.017
4.938

United States
1.852
1.874

Algeria

1.940
1.990

Angola
0.518
0.502

Ecuador

0.960
0.990

Indonesia

3.900
4.000

Iran

OPEC Countries

November 2007
November 2008

2.253
2.359

Iraq

2.520
2.486

Kuwait
1.740
1.700

Libya

2.400
2.180

Nigeria
0.883
0.885

Qatar

9.000
8.959

Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates

2.242
2.561

Venezuela

2.440
2.350

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Note: OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/inter.html.
Sources: Tables 11.1a and 11.1b.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

147

Table 11.1a World Crude Oil Production: OPEC Members
(Thousand Barrels per Day)

Iran

Iraq

Kuwaita

Libya

Nigeria

United
Arab
Emirates

Venezuela

Total
OPECb

Angola

............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............

1,097
983
1,106
1,037
1,175
1,202
1,242
1,277
1,246
1,202
1,254
1,310
1,306
1,611
1,677
1,797

162
165
150
231
475
646
709
714
735
745
746
742
896
903
1,052
1,250

209
161
204
281
285
392
396
388
375
373
395
412
393
411
528
532

1,339
1,307
1,577
1,325
1,462
1,503
1,547
1,520
1,518
1,472
1,428
1,340
1,249
1,155
1,096
1,067

5,861
5,350
1,662
2,250
3,088
3,643
3,686
3,664
3,634
3,557
3,696
3,724
3,444
3,743
4,001
4,139

2,018
2,262
2,514
1,433
2,040
560
579
1,155
2,150
2,508
2,571
2,390
2,023
1,308
2,011
1,878

3,020
2,084
1,656
1,023
1,175
2,057
2,062
2,007
2,085
1,898
2,079
1,998
1,894
2,136
2,376
2,529

2,175
1,480
1,787
1,059
1,375
1,390
1,401
1,446
1,390
1,319
1,410
1,367
1,319
1,421
1,515
1,633

2,054
1,783
2,055
1,495
1,810
1,993
2,001
2,132
2,153
2,130
2,165
2,256
2,118
2,275
2,329
2,627

570
438
472
301
406
442
510
550
696
665
737
714
679
715
783
835

7,596
7,075
9,900
3,388
6,410
8,231
8,218
8,362
8,389
7,833
8,404
8,031
7,634
8,775
9,101
9,550

1,533
1,664
1,709
1,193
2,117
2,233
2,278
2,316
2,345
2,169
2,368
2,205
2,082
2,348
2,478
2,535

3,366
2,346
2,168
1,677
2,137
2,750
2,938
3,280
3,167
2,826
3,155
3,010
2,604
2,335
2,557
2,565

31,000
27,096
26,960
16,693
23,955
27,042
27,566
28,812
29,885
28,696
30,408
29,499
27,641
29,136
31,504
32,938

2006 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
December ..........
Average ............

1,825
1,825
1,825
1,825
1,785
1,795
1,805
1,805
1,835
1,835
1,805
1,805
1,814

1,420
1,420
1,420
1,420
1,320
1,285
1,460
1,460
1,438
1,376
1,452
1,484
1,413

553
551
528
546
547
536
543
544
533
519
511
516
536

1,045
1,050
1,043
1,035
1,038
1,027
1,020
1,015
1,005
985
985
985
1,019

4,100
4,050
4,000
4,000
3,950
4,030
4,035
4,035
4,035
4,060
4,020
4,020
4,028

1,603
1,803
1,903
1,903
1,903
2,153
2,203
2,203
2,153
2,103
2,003
2,003
1,996

2,600
2,550
2,525
2,525
2,525
2,550
2,550
2,550
2,550
2,550
2,500
2,450
2,535

1,650
1,650
1,680
1,690
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,650
1,650
1,681

2,560
2,410
2,370
2,370
2,370
2,465
2,380
2,430
2,430
2,530
2,480
2,480
2,440

835
835
835
835
835
835
855
885
885
885
845
835
850

9,400
9,500
9,350
9,350
9,200
9,100
9,300
9,300
9,000
8,800
8,800
8,750
9,152

2,602
2,602
2,602
2,602
2,602
2,602
2,702
2,702
2,702
2,702
2,602
2,602
2,636

2,540
2,540
2,540
2,540
2,540
2,540
2,440
2,490
2,490
2,490
2,490
2,490
2,511

32,733
32,786
32,621
32,641
32,315
32,618
32,992
33,119
32,756
32,535
32,143
32,070
32,610

2007 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
December ..........
Average ............

1,838
1,833
1,829
1,825
1,821
1,828
1,828
1,824
1,831
1,842
1,852
1,852
1,834

1,584
1,600
1,640
1,679
1,695
1,680
1,710
1,730
1,791
1,889
1,940
1,986
1,744

517
507
482
502
512
515
510
508
517
514
518
532
511

988
984
969
965
965
958
953
952
950
960
960
960
964

4,040
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,900
3,912

1,753
2,003
2,053
2,103
2,103
2,003
2,053
1,903
2,203
2,303
2,253
2,303
2,086

2,450
2,420
2,420
2,420
2,420
2,420
2,445
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,520
2,550
2,464

1,680
1,680
1,680
1,680
1,680
1,680
1,700
1,700
1,720
1,740
1,740
1,740
1,702

2,365
2,390
2,275
2,400
2,240
2,230
2,380
2,380
2,380
2,330
2,400
2,430
2,350

835
825
825
825
825
835
865
865
865
869
883
888
851

8,750
8,600
8,600
8,600
8,600
8,600
8,600
8,600
8,800
8,800
9,000
9,100
8,722

2,613
2,573
2,612
2,611
2,611
2,610
2,610
2,659
2,709
2,711
2,242
2,659
2,603

2,380
2,383
2,445
2,445
2,444
2,444
2,444
2,444
2,440
2,440
2,440
2,440
2,433

31,794
31,698
31,730
31,954
31,816
31,704
31,998
31,965
32,606
32,798
32,648
33,339
32,174

2008 January ..............
February ............
March .................
April ...................
May ....................
June ...................
July ....................
August ...............
September .........
October ..............
November ..........
11-Mo. Avg. ......

1,866
1,866
1,865
1,875
1,875
1,874
1,874
1,874
1,874
1,874
1,874
1,872

1,992
1,997
2,003
2,009
2,015
2,013
2,009
1,937
1,871
R 1,990
1,990
1,984

520
519
508
510
499
495
498
R 503
R 498
497
502
504

929
985
975
964
965
965
978
978
978
990
990
972

4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,100
4,100
4,100
4,100
4,000
4,037

2,153
2,303
2,303
2,303
2,453
2,453
2,505
2,456
2,328
2,328
2,359
2,359

2,550
2,600
2,600
2,600
2,600
2,607
2,614
2,622
2,629
2,629
2,486
2,594

1,740
1,740
1,740
1,718
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,745
1,745
1,700
1,721

2,230
2,100
2,330
2,130
2,060
2,140
2,120
2,216
2,210
2,185
2,180
2,173

892
916
920
934
938
942
947
951
955
925
885
928

9,200
9,200
9,200
9,100
9,400
9,450
9,700
9,600
9,400
9,400
8,959
9,330

2,709
2,709
2,710
2,710
2,710
2,710
2,710
2,711
2,711
2,661
2,561
2,692

2,440
2,440
2,430
2,420
2,410
2,400
2,390
2,380
2,370
2,360
2,350
2,399

33,221
33,374
33,584
33,274
33,625
33,750
34,146
R 34,028
33,668
R 33,683
32,835
33,566

2007 11-Mo. Avg. ......
2006 11-Mo. Avg. ......

1,832
1,815

1,722
1,406

509
537

964
1,022

3,913
4,029

2,066
1,995

2,456
2,543

1,698
1,684

2,342
2,436

847
852

8,686
9,190

2,597
2,639

2,432
2,512

32,066
32,660

Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average

a Except for the period from August 1990 through May 1991, includes about
one-half of the production in the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone. Kuwaiti
Neutral Zone output was discontinued following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on
August 2, 1990, but was resumed in June 1991. In November 2008, Neutral Zone
production by both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia totaled about 525 thousand barrels
per day.
b See “Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)” in Glossary.
On Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in
all years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Ecuador
rejoined OPEC in 2007, and is thus included in "Total OPEC" and excluded from

148

Qatar

Saudi
Arabiaa

Algeria
1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Ecuador

Indonesia

"Total Non-OPEC" for all years.
R=Revised.
Notes: • Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural gas
plant liquids. • Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average to
the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the preliminary
monthly data are not available.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/inter.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

Table 11.1b World Crude Oil Production: Persian Gulf Nations, Non-OPEC,
and World (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Selected Non-OPECa Producers
Persian
Gulf
Nationsb
1973
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average

Canada

China

Egypt

Mexico

Norway

Former
U.S.S.R.

Russia

United
Kingdom

United
States

Total
NonOPECa

World

....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................

20,668
18,934
17,961
9,630
15,278
17,208
17,367
18,095
19,337
18,667
19,892
19,098
17,794
19,063
20,787
21,501

1,798
1,430
1,435
1,471
1,553
1,805
1,837
1,922
1,981
1,907
1,977
2,029
2,171
2,306
2,398
2,369

1,090
1,490
2,114
2,505
2,774
2,990
3,131
3,200
3,198
3,195
3,249
3,300
3,390
3,409
3,485
3,609

165
235
595
887
873
920
922
856
834
852
768
720
715
713
673
658

465
705
1,936
2,745
2,553
2,618
2,855
3,023
3,070
2,906
3,012
3,127
3,177
3,371
3,383
3,334

32
189
486
773
1,630
2,766
3,091
3,142
3,011
3,019
3,222
3,226
3,131
3,042
2,954
2,698

8,324
9,523
11,706
11,585
10,975
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
––

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
5,995
5,850
5,920
5,854
6,079
6,479
6,917
7,408
8,132
8,805
9,043

2
12
1,622
2,530
1,820
2,489
2,568
2,518
2,616
2,684
2,275
2,282
2,292
2,093
1,845
1,649

9,208
8,375
8,597
8,971
7,355
6,560
6,465
6,452
6,252
5,881
5,822
5,801
5,746
5,681
5,419
5,178

24,679
25,732
32,598
37,273
36,537
35,343
36,186
36,932
37,081
37,226
38,087
38,602
39,520
40,299
40,989
40,799

55,679
52,828
59,558
53,966
60,492
62,385
63,752
65,744
66,966
65,922
68,495
68,101
67,162
69,434
72,493
73,737

2006 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

21,175
21,375
21,250
21,250
21,050
21,305
21,680
21,710
21,360
21,135
20,805
20,695
21,232

2,595
2,504
2,411
2,531
2,341
2,336
2,512
2,543
2,601
2,602
2,658
2,669
2,525

3,670
3,662
3,710
3,680
3,712
3,700
3,716
3,660
3,649
3,650
3,672
3,592
3,673

654
657
651
663
655
607
620
630
640
660
615
619
639

3,372
3,311
3,350
3,370
3,329
3,287
3,232
3,252
3,258
3,173
3,163
2,978
3,256

2,657
2,620
2,610
2,407
2,535
2,365
2,571
2,430
2,338
2,380
2,466
2,508
2,491

























9,030
9,040
9,150
9,170
9,190
9,260
9,240
9,330
9,350
9,450
9,320
9,420
9,247

1,707
1,639
1,597
1,590
1,500
1,392
1,453
1,202
1,354
1,482
1,504
1,472
1,490

5,106
5,045
5,045
5,128
5,161
5,160
5,102
5,059
5,037
5,106
5,105
5,166
5,102

40,939
40,797
40,798
40,866
40,753
40,358
41,004
40,557
40,633
41,195
41,218
41,071
40,850

73,673
73,583
73,419
73,507
73,068
72,976
73,997
73,677
73,390
73,730
73,362
73,141
73,461

2007 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
December ..................
Average ....................

20,476
20,356
20,445
20,494
20,494
20,403
20,508
20,462
21,012
21,118
20,833
21,434
20,672

2,549
2,586
2,701
2,605
2,582
2,485
2,599
2,795
2,689
2,657
R 2,675
2,469
2,616

3,811
3,739
3,685
3,749
3,781
3,826
3,643
3,746
3,716
3,722
3,727
3,607
3,729

616
614
612
609
649
679
679
679
679
609
609
609
637

3,143
3,148
3,182
3,182
3,110
3,206
3,166
2,843
3,161
2,995
2,901
2,954
3,082

2,431
2,454
2,391
2,427
2,181
1,921
2,327
2,135
2,190
2,273
2,287
2,235
2,270

























9,420
9,460
9,473
9,369
9,390
9,440
9,460
9,390
9,520
9,500
9,425
9,400
9,437

1,513
1,654
1,565
1,572
1,580
1,495
1,484
1,228
1,389
1,556
1,456
1,493
1,498

5,123
5,125
5,106
5,189
5,197
5,096
5,024
4,914
4,884
5,043
5,017
5,056
5,064

40,998
41,348
41,241
41,263
40,926
40,642
40,869
40,256
40,420
40,891
40,750
40,496
40,838

72,791
73,047
72,971
73,217
72,741
72,345
72,866
72,221
73,025
73,689
73,398
73,835
73,012

2008 January ......................
February ....................
March .........................
April ...........................
May ............................
June ...........................
July ............................
August .......................
September .................
October ......................
November ..................
11-Mo. Avg. ..............

21,538
21,763
21,768
21,682
22,136
22,197
22,610
22,474
22,157
22,077
21,284
21,974

R

2,528
2,561
R 2,653
R 2,528
R 2,453
R 2,486
R 2,672
R 2,688
R 2,570
R 2,616
2,683
2,586

3,744
3,747
3,769
3,751
3,811
3,884
3,808
3,774
3,788
3,850
3,859
3,799

609
605
601
597
593
589
606
622
638
634
570
606

2,957
2,929
2,847
2,767
2,798
2,839
2,782
2,759
2,722
2,757
2,711
2,806

2,209
2,176
2,209
2,111
2,247
2,002
2,302
2,057
2,057
2,241
2,276
2,172























9,359
9,362
9,334
9,296
9,315
9,334
9,344
9,409
9,406
9,430
9,359
9,359

1,463
1,489
1,453
1,499
1,486
1,364
1,303
1,096
1,394
1,337
1,307
1,380

2007 11-Mo. Avg. ..............
2006 11-Mo. Avg. ..............

20,601
21,282

2,630
2,512

3,740
3,680

640
641

3,094
3,281

2,273
2,489

––
––

9,441
9,231

1,498
1,492

a See “Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)” in Glossary.
On Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in
all years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Ecuador
rejoined OPEC in 2007, and is thus included in "Total OPEC" and excluded from
"Total Non-OPEC" for all years.
b Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and
the Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia).
R=Revised. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. E=Estimate.
Notes: • Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural gas

E

R

R

E

R

R

5,093
5,113
E 5,139
E 5,162
E 5,166
E 5,109
E 5,110
E 4,895
E 3,960
E 4,645
E 4,938
E 4,940
5,065
5,096

40,672
40,692
R 40,654
R 40,448
R 40,493
R 40,350
R 40,686
R 39,712
39,157
R 40,120
40,523
40,319
40,870
40,830

73,892
74,067
74,238
R 73,721
R 74,118
R 74,100
R 74,832
R 73,740
R 72,825
R 73,803
73,358
73,885
R

72,936
73,491

plant liquids. • Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average to
the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the preliminary
monthly data are not available. • Data for countries may not sum to World totals
due to independent rounding. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 States and the
District of Columbia.
Web Page: See http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/inter.html for all available
data beginning in 1973.
Sources: See end of section.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

149

Figure 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries
(Million Barrels per Day)
Overview, 1973-2007

OECD Total, October

90

60

75

49.470

49.657

2006

2007

47.692

World

60

40

OECD

45

30

20
United States

15
OECD Europe
Japan

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

0
2000

2005

2008

By Selected OECD Country
October 2007
October 2008

2.141

France

2.063
2.652

Germany

2.855
1.771

Italy

1.679
1.742

United Kingdom

1.726
2.358

Canada

2.534
4.823

Japan

4.337
2.215

South Korea

2.023
20.476

United States

19.643

0

4

8

Notes: • OECD is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. • Because vertical scales differ, graphs should not be compared.

150

12

16

20

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/inter.html.
Source: Table 11.2.

Energy Information Administration/Monthly Energy Review February 2009

24

Table 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries
(Thousand Barrels per Day)
France

Germanya

Italy

United
Kingdom

OECD
Europeb

Canada

Japan

South
Ko