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# Theory Reference Page: 1

4.10. Concrete
The concrete material model predicts the failure of brittle materials. Both cracking and crushing failure modes are accounted for. TB,CONCR accesses this material model, which is available with the reinforced concrete element SOLID65. The criterion for failure of concrete due to a multiaxial stress state can be expressed i the form (Willam and Warnke([37])): (432

where: F = a function (to be discussed) of the principal stress state ( xp, yp, zp) S = failure surface (to be discussed) expressed in terms of principal stresses and five input parameters ft, fc , fcb, f1 and f2 defined in Table 4.4: Concrete Material Table fc = uniaxial crushing strength xp , yp, zp = principal stresses in principal directions If Equation 4326 is satisfied, the material will crack or crush. A total of five input strength parameters (each of which can be temperature depende are needed to define the failure surface as well as an ambient hydrostatic stress state These are presented in Table 4.4: Concrete Material Table. Table 4.4: Concrete Material Table (Input on TBDATA Commands with TB,CONCR)
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## Theory Reference Page: 2

Label ft fc fcb

Description Ultimate uniaxial tensile strength Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength Ultimate biaxial compressive strength Ambient hydrostatic stress state

Constant 3 4 5 6 7

f1

Ultimate compressive strength for a state of biaxial compression superimposed on hydrostatic stress state Ultimate compressive strength for a state of uniaxial compression superimposed on hydrostatic stress state

f2

However, the failure surface can be specified with a minimum of two constants, f t and fc . The other three constants default to Willam and Warnke([37]): (432 (432 (432 However, these default values are valid only for stress states where the condition (433

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## Theory Reference Page: 3

(433

is satisfied. Thus condition Equation 4330 applies to stress situations with a low hydrostatic stress component. All five failure parameters should be specified when a large hydrostatic stress component is expected. If condition Equation 4330 is not satisfied and the default values shown in Equation 4327 thru Equation 4329 are assumed, the strength of the concrete material may be incorrectly evaluated. When the crushing capability is suppressed with fc = -1.0, the material cracks whenev a principal stress component exceeds f t. Both the function F and the failure surface S are expressed in terms of principal stress denoted as 1 , 2 , and 3 where: (433 (433 and 1 1. 0 2. 1 3. 1 4. 1 2 1 0 2 2 3. The failure of concrete is categorized into four domains: 2 2 0 3 3 (compression - compression - compression) 3 (tensile - compression - compression) 3 (tensile - tensile - compression) 0 (tensile - tensile - tensile)

In each domain, independent functions describe F and the failure surface S. The four functions describing the general function F are denoted as F 1 , F2 , F3, and F4 while th
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## Theory Reference Page: 4

functions describing S are denoted as S1, S2 , S3 , and S4 . The functions S i (i = 1,4) have the properties that the surface they describe is continuous while the surface gradients are not continuous when any one of the principal stresses changes sign. Th surface will be shown in Figure 4.30: 3-D Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space and Figure 4.32: Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space with Nearly Biaxial Stress. These functions are discussed in detail below for each domain.

## 4.10.1. The Domain (Compression Compression - Compression)

0 1 2 3

In the compression - compression - compression regime, the failure criterion of Willam and Warnke([37]) is implemented. In this case, F takes the form (433

and S is defined as

(433

## Terms used to define S are:

(433

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## Theory Reference Page: 5

(433 (433

(433

h is defined by Equation 4331 and the undetermined coefficients a0 , a1, a2 , b0 , b1, and b2 are discussed below. This failure surface is shown as Figure 4.30: 3-D Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space. The angle of similarity describes the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses. From Equation 4336, = 0 refers to any stress state such that 3 = 2 > 1 (e.g. uniaxial compression, biaxial tension) while = 60 for any stress state wher 3 >2 = 1 (e.g. uniaxial tension, biaxial compression). All other multiaxial stress sta have angles of similarity such that 0 60. When = 0, S 1 Equation 4335 equals r1 while if = 60, S1 equals r2 . Therefore, the function r1 represents the failu surface of all stress states with = 0. The functions r1 , r2 and the angle are depicted on Figure 4.30: 3-D Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space. Figure 4.30: 3-D Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space

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## Theory Reference Page: 6

It may be seen that the cross-section of the failure plane has cyclic symmetry about e 120 sector of the octahedral plane due to the range 0 < < 60 of the angle of similitude. The function r1 is determined by adjusting a0 , a1, and a2 such that ft, fcb, and f1 all lie on the failure surface. The proper values for these coefficients are determined through solution of the simultaneous equations:

(434

with (434
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(434

## 2 is defined by: (434

and 0 is the positive root of the equation (434 where a0 , a1, and a2 are evaluated by Equation 4340. Since the failure surface must remain convex, the ratio r1 / r2 is restricted to the rang (434 although the upper bound is not considered to be restrictive since r1 / r2 < 1 for mos
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materials (Willam([36])). Also, the coefficients a 0 , a1 , a2, b0 , b1 , and b2 must satisfy the conditions (Willam and Warnke([37])): (434 (434 Therefore, the failure surface is closed and predicts failure under high hydrostatic pressure ( > 2). This closure of the failure surface has not been verified experiment and it has been suggested that a von Mises type cylinder is a more valid failure surfac for large compressive h values (Willam([36])). Consequently, it is recommended tha values of f1 and f2 are selected at a hydrostatic stress level in the vicinity of or above the expected maximum hydrostatic stress encountered in the structure.

Equation 4344 expresses the condition that the failure surface has an apex at = 0

A profile of r1 and r2 as a function of is shown in Figure 4.31: A Profile of the Failure Surface. Figure 4.31: A Profile of the Failure Surface

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## Theory Reference Page: 9

As a Function of

The lower curve represents all stress states such that = 0 while the upper curve represents stress states such that = 60. If the failure criterion is satisfied, the mate is assumed to crush.

1 0 2 3

## In the regime, F takes the form (434

and S is defined as (4 34

## where cos is defined by Equation 4336 and (435

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## Theory Reference Page: 10

(435 The coefficients a 0, a1 , a2 , b0, b1 , b2 are defined by Equation 4340 and Equation 4 342 while (435

If the failure criterion is satisfied, cracking occurs in the plane perpendicular to princip stress 1 . This domain can also crush. See (Willam and Warnke([37])) for details.

## 4.10.3. The Domain (Tension - Tension Compression)

1 2 0 3

In the tension - tension - compression regime, F takes the form (435 and S is defined as (435

If the failure criterion for both i = 1, 2 is satisfied, cracking occurs in the planes
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## Theory Reference Page: 11

perpendicular to principal stresses 1 and 2 . If the failure criterion is satisfied only fo = 1, cracking occurs only in the plane perpendicular to principal stress 1 . This domain can also crush. See (Willam and Warnke([37])) for details.

## 4.10.4. The Domain (Tension - Tension Tension)

1 2 3 0

In the tension - tension - tension regimes, F takes the form (435 and S is defined as (435

If the failure criterion is satisfied in directions 1, 2, and 3, cracking occurs in the plane perpendicular to principal stresses 1, 2, and 3. If the failure criterion is satisfied in directions 1 and 2, cracking occurs in the plane perpendicular to principal stresses 1 and 2 . If the failure criterion is satisfied only in direction 1, cracking occurs in the plane perpendicular to principal stress 1 . Figure 4.32: Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space with Nearly Biaxial
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## Theory Reference Page: 12

Stress

Figure 4.32: Failure Surface in Principal Stress Space with Nearly Biaxial Stress
represents the 3-D failure surface for states of stress that are biaxial or nearly biaxial. the most significant nonzero principal stresses are in the xp and yp directions, the three surfaces presented are for zp slightly greater than zero, zp equal to zero, and zp slightly less than zero. Although the three surfaces, shown as projections on the xp - yp plane, are nearly equivalent and the 3-D failure surface is continuous, the mode of material failure is a function of the sign of zp. For example, if xp and yp a both negative and zp is slightly positive, cracking would be predicted in a direction
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perpendicular to the zp direction. However, if zp is zero or slightly negative, the material is assumed to crush.