v

NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee Subcommittee on Nondestructive Examination

Dote of Issuance: July I. 2007

(Includes all Addenda dated July 2006 and earlier)

This international code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards and it is an American National Standard. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry. academia. regulatory agencies. and the public-at-large.

ASME does not "approve." "rate." or "endorse" any item. construction. proprietary device. or activity.

ASME docs not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this document. and docs not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent. nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard arc expressly advised thm determination of the validity of any such patent rights. and the risk of infringement of such rights. is entirely their own responsibility,

Participation by federal agency rcpresentative(s) or pcrsoru s) affiliated with industry is not to he interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established ASME procedures and policies. which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals.

TIle footnotes in this document arc part of this American National Standard.

ASME collective membership mark

The above ASME symbols arc registered in the US. Patent Office.

"ASME" is the trademark of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

The Specifications published and copyrighted by the American Society for Testing and Materials arc reproduced with the Society's permission.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any Conn. in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise. without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-3934 Printed in the United States of America

Adopted by the Council of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1914.

Revised 1940. 1941. 1943. 1946. 1949. 1952. 1953. 1956. 1959, 1962. 1965. 1968. 1971. 1974. 1977. 1980. 1983, 1986. 1989. 1992, 1995, 1998. 2001. 2004. 2007

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Three Park Avenue. New York. NY 10016·5990

Copyright © 2007 by

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All Rights Reserved

2007 ASME

BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE

SECTIONS

Rules for Construction of Power Boilers

II Materials

Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications

Part C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals Part D - Properties (Customary)

Part D - Properties (Metric)

III Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components

Subsection NCA - General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 Division I

Subsection NB - Class I Components Subsection NC - Class 2 Components Subsection ND - Class 3 Components Subsection NE - Class MC Components Subsection NF - Supports

Subsection NG - Core Support Structures

Subsection NH - Class I Components in Elevated Temperature Service Appendices

Division 2 - Code for Concrete Containments

Division 3 - Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

and High Level Radioactive Material and Waste

IV Rules for Construction of Heming Boilers

V Nondestructive Examination

VI Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers

VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers

VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

Division I

Division 2 - Alternative Rules

Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels

IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels

XI Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components

XII Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks

iii

ADDENDA

Colored-sheet Addenda. which include additions and revisions to individual Sections of the Code, are published annually and will be sent automatically to purchasers of the applicable Sections up to the publication of the 2010 Code. The 2007 Code is available only in the loose-leaf format; accordingly. the Addenda will be issued in the loose-leaf. replacement-page format.

INTERPRET A TIONS

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretation of technical aspects of the Code. The Interpretations for each individual Section will be published separately and will be included as part of the update service to that Section. Interpretations of Section III, Divisions I and 2. will be included with the update service to Subsection NCA.

Interpretations of the Code arc distributed annually in July with the issuance of the edition and subsequent addenda. Interpretations posted in January at www.cstools.asme.org/interpretations are included in the July distribution.

CODE CASES

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee meets regularly to consider proposed additions and revisions to the Code and to formulate Cases to clarify the intent of existing requirements or provide. when the need is urgent, rules for materials or constructions not covered by existing Code rules. Those Cases that have been adopted will appear in the appropriate 2007 Code Cases book: "Boilers and Pressure Vessels" and "Nuclear Components." Supplements will be sent automatically to the purchasers of the Code Cases books up to the publication of the 20 I 0 Code.

iv

CONTENTS

Foreword '" '" xv

Statements of Policy xvii

Personnel xix

ASTM Personnel .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi

Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii

List of Changes in BC Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv

SUBSECTION A Article 1

T-110

T-120

T-l30

T-150

T-160

T-170

T-ISO

T-190

Mandatory Appendix I

NONDESTRUCTIVE METHODS OF EXAMINATION .

General Requirements .

Scope .

General. .

Equipment .

Procedure .

Calibration .

Examinations and Inspections .

Evaluation .

Records/Documentation .

Glossary of Terms for Nondestructive Examination .

2 2 2 2 3 3

4

Nonmandatory Appendix

A Imperfection vs Type of NDE Method '" 5

Article 2 T-21O T-220 T-230 T-260 T-270 T-2S0 T-290

Figure T-275

Tables T-233.1 T-233.2 T-276 T-283

Mandatory Appendices I

Radiographic Examination .

Scope '" '" '"

General Requirements .

Equipment and Materials .

Calibration .

Examination .

Evaluation .

Documentation .

Location Marker Sketches .

Hole-Type lQl Designation, Thickness, and Hole Diameters .

Wire IQI Designation, Wire Diameter, and Wire Identity .

lQI Selection .

Equivalent Hole-Type 1Ql Sensitivity .

In-Motion Radiography .

v

7 7 7 7 9

10 14 15

II

8 8 13 15

16

II III

IV

V VI

VII VIII

Real-Time Radioscopic Examination....... 17

Digital Image Acquisition, Display, and Storage for Radiography and

Radioscopy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Interpretation, Evaluation, and Disposition of Radiographic and Radioscopic Examination Test Results Produced by the Digital

Image Acquisition and Display Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Glossary of Terms for Radiographic Examination. . .. . 21

Digital Image Acquisition, Display, Interpretation, and Storage of

Radiographs for Nuclear Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Radiography Using Phosphor Imaging Plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Nonmandatory Appendices

A Recommended Radiographic Technique Sketches for Pipe or Tube

Welds........................................................... 31

C D

Article 4 T-410 T-420 T-430 T-440 T-450 T-460 T-470 T-480 T-490

Figures T-434.1.7.2 T-434.2.1 T-434.3 T-434.4.1 T-434.4.2.1 T-434.4.2.2 T-434.4.3

Table T-42 1

Mandatory Appendices I

II

III

IV

Nonmandatory Appendices

A B C D

Hole-Type IQI Placement Sketches for Welds .

Number of IQIs (Special Cases) .

Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Welds .

Scope .

General .

Equipment .

Miscellaneous Requirements .

Techniques .

Calibration .

Examination .

Evaluation .

Documentation .

Ratio Limits for Curved Surfaces .

Non-Piping Calibration Blocks .

Calibration Block for Pipe .

Calibration Block for Technique One .

Alternate Calibration Block for Technique One .

Alternate Calibration Block for Technique One .

Alternate Calibration Block for Technique Two .

Requirements of an Ultrasonic Examination Procedure .

Screen Height Linearity .

Amplitude Control Linearity .

Time of Flight Diffractiion (TOFD) Technique .

Phased Array, Single Fixed Angle With Manual Raster Scanning .

Layout of Vessel Reference Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

General Techniques for Angle Beam Calibrations. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 59

General Techniques for Straight Beam Calibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Examples of Recording Angle Beam Examination Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

vi

34 34

41 41 41 41 46 46 48 50 52 52

43 44 45 46 47 47 48

42

53 53 53 58

E G

J K L

M

N

Article 5 T-51O T-520 T-530 T-560 T-570 T-580 T-590

Figures T-534.3

Table T-522

Mandatory Appendices I

II

III IV

Article 6 T-610 T-620 T-630 T-640 T-650 T-660 T-670 T-680 T-690

Tables T-62 I T-672

Mandatory Appendices I

II

iII

Computerized Imaging Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Alternate Calibration Block Configuration 74

Examination of Welds Using Angle Beam Search Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Alternative Basic Calibration Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Recording Straight Beam Examination Data for Planar Reflectors . . . . . . . 79

TOFD Sizing Demonstration/Dual Probe - Computer Imaging

Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

General Techniques for Angle Beam Longitudinal Wave

Calibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Interpretation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104

Scope............................................................. 104 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104

Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104 Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 105 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 108

Straight Beam Calibration Blocks for Bolting.... ..... ... ... ... ... .... 106

Variables of an Ultrasonic Examination Procedure .

Ultrasonic Examination of Pumps and Valves .

Iuservice Examination of Nozzle Inside Corner Radius and Inner Corner

Regions .

Glossary of Terms for Ultrasonic Examination .

lnservice Examination of Bolts .

Liquid Penetrant Examination .

Scope '" , .

General '" .

Equipment .

Miscellaneous Requirements .

Technique .

Calibration .

Examination .

Evaluation .

Documentation .

Requirements of a Liquid Penetrant Examination Procedure .

Minimum Dwell Times .

Glossary of Terms for Liquid Penetrant Examination .

Control of Contaminants for Liquid Penetrant Examination .

Qualification Techniques for Examinations at Nonstandard

Temperatures " .

vii

105

110

110 III 112

114 114 114 114 114 115 116 116 117 118

115 116

119 119

120

Article 7 T-71O T-720 T-730 T-740 T-750 T-760 T-770 T-780 T-790

Figures T-754.2.1 T-754.2.2

T-764.1.I T-764.1.2.1 T-764.1.2.2 T-766.1

Table T-721

Mandatory Appendices 1

II III

Magnetic Particle Examination , ] 22

Scope............................................................. 122 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 122

Miscellaneous Requirements. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 123

Calibration. . . . .. . 126

Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 129

Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 131

Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 131

Single-Pass and Two-Pass Central Conductor Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 The Effective Region of Examination When Using an Offset Central

Conductor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125 Pic-Shaped Magnetic Particle Field Indicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Artificial Flaw Shims. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127 Artificial Flaw Shims. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 128 Ketos (Betz) Test Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 130

Requirements of a Magnetic Particle Examination Procedure .... . . . . . .. 123

Magnetic Particle Examination Using the AC Yoke Technique on

Ferritic Materials Coated With Nonmagnetic Coatings .

Glossary of Terms for Magnetic Particle Examination .

Magnetic Particle Examination Using the Yoke Technique With

Fluorescent Particles in an Undarkened Area .

132 134

135

Nonmandatory Appendix

A Measurement of Tangential Field Strength With Gaussmeters , . . . . . . . . .. 137

Article 8 T-8 ]()

Mandatory Appendices I

II

III IV V

VI

Article 9 T-91O T-920 T-930 T-950 T-980

Eddy Current Examination of Tubular Products .

Scope .

Glossary of Terms for Eddy Current Examination .

Eddy Current Examination of Nonferromagnetic Heat Exchanger

Tubing .

Eddy Current Examination on Coated Ferritic Materials .

External Coil Eddy Current Examination of Tubular Products .

Eddy Current Measurement of Nonconductive-Nonmagnetic Coating

Thickness on a Nonmagnetic Metallic Material .

Eddy Current Detection and Measurement of Depth of Surface

Discontinuities in Nonmagnetic Metals With Surface Probes .

Visual Examination .

Scope .

General. .

Equipment .

Technique ········ .

Evaluation .

Vl1I

138 138

139

139 145 147

149

lSI

154 154 154 155 155 155

T-990

Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ISS

Table T-nl

Requirements of a Visual Examination Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Mandatory Appendix

I Glossary of Terms for Visual Examination '" 156

Article 10 T-lOOO T-IOIO T-1020 T-1030 T-1040 T-1050 T-1060 T-1070 T-1080 T-1090

Leak Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157

Scope... 157

General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157

Miscellaneous Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158

Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159

Mandatory Appendices

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Bubble Test - Direct Pressure Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 160

Bubble Test - Vacuum Box Technique 161

Halogen Diode Detector Probe Test. .. . 163

Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Detector Probe Technique...... 165

Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Tracer Probe Technique. . . . . . . . . . .. 168 Pressure Change Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 170 Glossary of Terms for Leak Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 171 Thermal Conductivity Detector Probe Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 172 Helium Mass Spectrometer Test - Hood Technique................... 175 Ultrasonic Leak Detector Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 177

Nonmandatory Appendix

A

Supplementary Leak Testing Formula Symbols. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 180

Article 11

Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

Vessels.......................................................... 181

Scope................................................... 181

General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Equipment and Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 184 Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

T-lllO T-Il20 T-1130 T-1140 T-1l60 T-1180 T-1190

Figures T-1142(c)(l)(a) T-1142(c)(l )(b) T-1142(c)(l )(c) T-1142(c)(2)(a) T-1142(c)(2)(b)

Atmospheric Vessels Stressing Sequence " 185

Vacuum Vessels Stressing Sequence 186

Test Algorithm - Flowchart for Atmospheric Vessels '" 187

Pressure Vessel Stressing Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Algorithm - Flowchart for Pressure Vessels " 189

ix

Tables T-112!

T-1181

Mandatory Appendices I

II

III

Requirements for Reduced Operating Level Immediately Prior to

Examination .

Evaluation Criteria .

181 190

Instrumentation Performance Requirements .

Instrument Calibration .

Glossary of Terms for Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber-

Reinforced Plastic Vessels .

191 192

194

Nonmandatory Appendix

A Sensor Placement Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 195

Article 12

T-1210 T-1220 T-J230 T-1240 T-1260 T-1280 T-1290

Figure T-1244.3.2

Table T-1281

Mandatory Appendices

11 III

Nonmandatory Appendices

A B

Article 13 T-1310 T-1320 T-1330 T-1340 T-1350 T-1360 T-1370 T-1380 T-1390

Acoustic Emission Examination of Metallic Vessels During Pressure

Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 I

Scope............................................................. 201 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 I

Equipment and Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 202 Application Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 202 Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 203

Evaluation " 203

Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 204

An Example of Pressure Vessel Test Stressing Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 204

An Example of Evaluation Criteria for Zone Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 205

Instrumentation Performance Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 206 Instrument Calibration and Cross-Referencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207 Glossary of Terms for Acoustic Emission Examination of Metal

Pressure Vessels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207

Sensor Placement Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 209 Supplemental Information for Conducting Acoustic Emission

Examinations.................................................... 214

Continuous Acoustic Emission Monitoring.......................... 215

Scope............................................................. 215 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 215 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 216

Requirements. . 219

Procedure Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 220

Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 220 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 221

Evaluation/Results .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222

Reports /Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222

x

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