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LIMBA ENGLEZĂ I
Unit 1: EDUCATION Unit 2: WORK FOR A LIVING Unit 3: RECRUITMENT Unit 4: APPLYING FOR A JOB Unit 5: WORK AND MOTIVATION Unit 6: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE Unit 7: STARTING A BUSINESS
Asist.univ.drd. FELICIA BUCUR
Anul universitar 2012-2013
LIMBA ENGLEZĂ Titular curs: Asist. univ. Felicia BUCUR Cadrul general al cursului: Cursul practic de limba engleză I se adresează în principal studenţilor din anul I din cadrul sistemului de Învăţământ Deschis la Distanţă (IDD) al Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”, cu un nivel mediu de cunoaştere a limbii engleze şi doreşte să le ofere acestora posibilitatea de a recapitula cunoştinţele acumulate şi de a -şi însuşi noi elemente – noţiuni generale din limbajul economic. De asemenea, cursul îşi propune dezvoltarea unor strategii care să conducă la autonomia studenţilor în învăţare, prin conştientizarea nevoilor personale, efort individual şi autoevaluare permanentă. Cursul este structurat în 7 unităţi de învăţare. Textele sunt însoţite de exerciţii, care au rolul de a facilita procesul de înţelegere şi de a favoriza acumularea lexicală.
Obiectivele cursului sunt: 1. să formeze deprinderilor necesare pentru a folosi limba engleză în mod flexibil şi eficient atât în scopuri sociale cât şi profesionale 2. să îmbogăţească vocabularul studenţilor prin achiziţia de termeni economici în limba engleză. 3. să crească încrederea studenţilor în capacităţile personale de îndeplinirea sarcinilor comunicative în limba engleză
Competenţele pe care trebuie să le dobândească studenţii se înscriu în precizările oferite de Cadrul European Comun de Referinţă pentru Limbi: Învăţare, Predare, Evaluare (2001). Astfel, nivelul pe care îl au studenţii la începutul acestui curs ar trebui să fie B1 sau B2, şi ne dorim ca nivelul atins la finalizare să fie B2+. Competenţele de comunicare lingvistică pe care studentul le poate dobândi cuprinde următoarele componente: 1. Competenţa lingvistică generală: să se exprime clar şi fără a lăsa impresia că este nevoit să restrângă ceea ce vrea să spună; a. competenţa lexicală: să stăpânească o gamă bogată de vocabular pentru subiectele legate de domeniul economic şi subiectele cele mai generale; b. competenţa gramaticală: să menţină un control gramatical bun, să nu facă greşeli care să conducă la neînţelegeri; c. competenţa fonologică: pronunţie şi intonaţie fireşti; d. competenţa ortografică: să producă un text scris coerent, clar şi inteligibil ce respectă regulile curente de dispunere în pagină şi de organizare. 2
2. Competenţa sociolingvistică: să se exprime cu siguranţă, simplu şi politicos într-un registru oficial şi neoficial potrivit cu situaţia şi persoanele în cauză. 3. Competenţa pragmatică: a. competenţa discursivă: să poată face o descriere sau alcătui un discurs clar dezvoltând şi argumentând punctele importante cu ajutorul detaliilor şi al exemplelor semnificative; să poată interveni într-o discuţie într-o manieră adecvată; să poată utiliza cu eficacitate o varietate de cuvinte de legătură pentru a marca clar legăturile dintre idei. b. competenţa funcţională: să poată comunica cu spontaneitate, demonstrând adeseori o remarcabilă uşurinţă şi o facilitate de exprimare chiar şi în enunţurile complexe şi destul de lungi; să poată transmite o informaţie amănunţită în mod fiabil.
Resurse şi mijloace de lucru Propunem utilizarea următoarelor resursele si mijloacele de lucru: - prezentul curs practic de limba engleză; - o gramatică a limbii engleze, pentru referinţe (să poată fi consultată l a nevoie1); - un dicţionar general englez-român, român englez; - un dicţionar economic englez-român/român-englez2
Structura cursului Cursul pentru semestrul I este compus din 7 unităţi de învăţare, după cum urmează: Unit 1: EDUCATION Unit 2: WORK FOR A LIVING
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile: Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL Educational Vince, Michael (2008) - Macmillan English Grammar In Context Student's Book – Intermediate, London: Macmillan Preda, Ioan; Leviţchi, Leon (2008) – Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureşti: Gramar Docherty, Vincent; Brough, Sonia (2009) – Gramatica standard a limbii engleze, Bucureşti: Niculescu 2 Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile: Oxford Business. Dicţionar englez-român (2007), Bucureşti: ALL Dicţionar de afaceri englez-român, (2007), Bucureşti: Niculescu Dicţionar economic englez-român (2003), Bucureşti: Editura didactică şi pedagogică Dicţionar economic englez-român, român-englez (2006) Bucureşti: Niculescu Dicţionar economic englez-român, român-englez (2009) Bucureşti: Teora
la alegere din unităţile 1. TRANSLATION [TRANSLATION]: exerciţii de traducere şi retroversiune a unor texte şi fraze din domeniul economic pentru a -i face conştienţi pe studenţi de complexitatea pe care o presupune realizarea acestor activităţi cu succes (alegeri lexicale. acurateţea structurilor gramaticale). OBIECTIVE [OBJECTIVES]. 3. Prima temă de control trebuie rezolvată şi expediată prin e -mail. 2. Tema de control 1 presupune rezolvarea în scris. 2. LECTURA [READING]: un text (500-700 cuvinte). 6 sau 7 a unei activităţi propuse în secţiunea SKILLS FOCUS. Tema de control 2 presupune rezolvarea în scris. teme pentru dezbateri şi scurte fragmente de text legate de subiectul unităţii respective pentru a stârni interesul studenţilor şi pentru a le activa elementele lexicale necesare unităţii respective. pentru a-i motiva pe studenţi să-şi însuşească conţinutul şi de asemenea pentru a-i ajuta să se autoevalueze). DEZVOLTAREA VOCABULARULUI [VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT]: prin intermediul exerciţiilor se oferă posibilitatea de fixare a elementelor lexicale deja întâlnite. TEME DE CONTROL Rezolvarea celor două teme de control reprezintă 30% din nota finală. RECAPITULARE [LANGUAGE FOCUS]: revizuirea unor structuri şi funcţii deja studiate. la alegere din unităţile 5. cu două săptămâni înainte de cea de-a doua întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar. 3 sau 4 a unei activităţi propuse în secţiunea SKILLS FOCUS. 4 . prin platforma e-lis. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR [SKILLS FOCUS]: activităţi menite să dezvolte competenţele necesare exprimării orale şi scrise în domeniul economic. 6. în care se exprimă o opinie cu privire la tema din unitatea respectivă. ÎNŢELEGERE [COMPREHENSION]: prin intermediul exerciţiilor se oferă posibilitatea de a verifica gradul de înţelegere a textului. dar care prezintă un interes deosebit în engleza economică. La sfârşitul cursului se află cheia exerciţiilor. 8. iar cea de -a doua temă. cu două săptămâni înainte de prima întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar. 7. pe care studenţii trebuie să le atingă prin parcurgerea unităţii respective (aceste obiective sunt stabilite pentru a coordona procesul de învăţare. INTRODUCERE [LEAD-IN]: include întrebări. 4.Unit 3: RECRUITMENT Unit 4: APPLYING FOR A JOB Unit 5: WORK AND MOTIVATION Unit 6: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE Unit 7: STARTING A BUSINESS Fiecare unitate este alcătuită din: 1. 5.
B. preluat dintr-o revistă economică în limba engleză. 70% evaluarea finală. Durata medie de studiu individual 120 minute pentru fiecare unitate. B. sub formă scrisă. Trebuie să redactaţi un text (40 -50 de cuvinte) folosind informaţia dată (writing a note. message. requesting information. asking for comments. etc. Fiecare spaţiu gol reprezintă un cuvânt sau o expresie.). 3. 5 . Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi cuvântul sau expresia potrivită (A. Examenul scris de la sfârşitul semestrului I va evalua competenţele lingvistice. Retroversiunea a 5 propoziţii/fraze care să conţină structuri gramaticale sau funcţii ale limbii revizuite în cadrul unităţilor din semestrul I. C sau D). Un text cu 15 spaţii goale. memo or email: giving instructions. 30% evaluarea pe parcurs. Descrierea unei situaţii de afaceri. 4. explaining a development. care va avea loc în sesiunea de examene. 5. Traducerea unui text de 60-70 de cuvinte. agreeing to requests. 2. Evaluarea La sfârşitul semestrului studentul va primi o nota care va fi compusă din: 1. Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns (A.Cerinţe preliminare pentru parcurgerea cursului Este necesar un nivel cel puţin mediu de limba engleză pentru parcurgerea acestui curs (de exemplu obţinerea cel puţin a calificativului B1 la examenul de bacalaureat sau al unui calificativ similar). Structura examenului scris va fi următoarea: 1. Un text şi şase întrebări. prin notarea celor două teme de control obligatorii. 2. C sau D). sociolingvistice şi pragmatice dobândite prin parcurgerea unităţilor de învăţare 1 -7 şi va avea o durată de 60 de minute.
Dărăbanţ (2006) – Excel in Business. Ian (2000) English for Business Studies – a course for Business Studies and Economics students. David. Fleischhack. Ioncică. 6 . Editura Universitară. Prelipceanu. Raluca (2005) – First Steps in Business. (2010) . Vince.New First Certificate Language Practice with Key. Rotariu. Longman. Bucureşti: ALL Educational.Bibliografie: Mackenzie. Bucureşti. London. Bucureşti. Editura Universitară. Irina. Diana. Irina. Prelipceanu. Michael. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. Cristina. Eric. Cristina. David. CUP.
but many children choose to remain at school for another two or three years after 16 to take higher exams. Schools (5) ______________ for the summer holiday in July. (14) ______________ (a class of students discussing a subject with a teacher).Unit 1: EDUCATION OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . (6) ______________ education begins at the age of about eleven. Most children go to (9) ______________ schools. they sometimes go to a (1) ______________. (15) ______________ (when a teacher gives a prepared talk to a number of students) and of course private study.develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN 1. and most schools at this level are (7) ______________. At university. Their first real school is called a (2) ______________ school. which means they receive their (12) ______________. where they learn simple games and songs. The (3) ______________ year in Britain begins in September and is divided into three (4) ______________. state tutorial break up terms seminar graduate nursery school compulsory co-educational degree grant academic fees secondary primary private lecture When children are two or three years old. which can be very expensive. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct space in the passage below.develop and practise vocabulary related to education . In Britain children start this school at the age of five. which are maintained by the government or local education authorities. which means boys and girls study together in the same classes. 7 . In Britain education is (8) ______________ from five to 16 years of age.improve your essay writing skills . teaching is by (13) ______________ (an individual lesson between a teacher and one or two students). but some children go to (10) ______________ schools.get familiar with the higher education system . University courses normally last three years and then students (11) ______________.revise and practice auxiliary verbs .
with a child beginning primary education during the school year he or she turns 5. leading most typically to A-level qualifications. A master’s degree may last 2 years. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional level.Most people who receive a university place are given a (16) ______________ by the government to help pay their (17) ______________ and living expenses. How do you feel as a fresher at “Nicolae Titulescu” University? What are your expectations? E. Nursery school is compulsory in England. 3. you will have wasted a great opportunity. Do you think education should be free? Are there advantages in a fee-paying system? B. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16. Read it quickly and decide if these statements are true. Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further two years (sixth form). 6. the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U. 3. Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Innovation and Skills. either taught or by research. Secondary education may go on beyond 16. The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. The funding for state schools is provided by tax revenues. Private schools are very expensive. What do they mean and do you agree? READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. The change will take effect in 2013 for 16-year-olds and 2015 for 17-yearolds. 7. secondary education (ages 11–18) and tertiary education (ages 18+). Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees. Is a university education necessary for professional jobs? F. Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business. although other qualifications and courses exist. 2. Many British people believe that if you do nothing more than study hard at university. The education system is divided into nursery (ages 3–4). Now that you have filled in the text. Is it difficult to go in? D. Local authorities decide the educational policy in England. and 8 . primary education (ages 4–11). Education is divided into 4 stages. read it again and using your knowledge about the Romanian educational system try and find similarities and differences between the two systems. Give answers to the following questions: A. England also has a tradition of independent schooling. 4. but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means. including Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications. false or not stated: 1. How usual is it to go to university in Romania? C. State-provided schooling and sixth form education is paid for by taxes. 2. 5. The following text gives you information about the way in which education is organized in England.
education c. especially in a college or university Use some of the words/expressions you identified in the previous exercise to fill in the sentences below.the doctorate. 5. He left school with no formal _______s. 4. and all but one are financed by the state via tuition fees. an award given by the British Privy Council to certain organizations or institutions which are recognized as the leading authorities in their field. Organizations with royal charters include the BBC. 7. Choose the right word to form a collocation: 1. to give something to somebody. 2. etc. She's studying for her ______. the money that you pay to be taught. a plan of action agreed or chosen by a political party. The present government's _______ on education is going to be reconsidered. 3. 2. an exam that you have passed or a course of study that you have successfully completed 6. goals b. private 2. A new work programme for young people will be _______. a business. A Committee on Safety of Medicines was set up under the _______. United Nations observers _______ the elections. a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Now read the text more carefully and find words or expressions which mean: 1. to make something that has been officially decided start to happen or be used 3. learning 4. especially officially. which have increased for both UK and European Union students. a law that has been passed by a parliament 7. formal a. school 3. to watch somebody/something and make sure that a job or an activity is done correctly 2. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1. the highest university degree 8. New members will be _______ with a temporary identity card. 4. the British Academy and some British universities. school 2. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: background basic goal 9 graduates illiteracy system . year d. 10. the two final years at school for students between the ages of 16 and 18 who are preparing to take A levels 5. 6. Pay attention to the form of the verbs: 1. 9. 8. Sue is in the _______ _______ now. Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees.
A) take B) book B) timetables B) learnt B) give C) subject C) terms C) educated C) get 10 D) mark D) organisations D) graduated D) make . Nobody in my class has lost / missed / failed a lesson so far this year. 2. without understanding anything about the subject! 1. University _______ find difficulties to find a job nowadays. 5. You need an educational _______ in mathematics if you want to be an engineer . 3. 2. You can (15) _________ a lot of time memorising books. 1. Complete the text below by adding the missing verb in the correct form in each gap. Learning How to Learn There is usually one important (1) C missing from school (2) _________. or tell them to write ten pages. You should always check your work carefully in case you have gone / made / had a mistake. I _______ two exams yesterday: Speaking in the morning and Listening after lunch. Let’s take some simple (5) _________. Putting an end to adult _______ is another priority for developing countries. Do you know how to (6) _________ up words in a dictionary. 5. 6. Decide which answer A. Teachers ask students to (11) _________ pages from books. Something should be done to reform the educational _______ of the developing countries. 5. I've been studying French for 6 months now but I don't feel like I'm _______ much progress. 6. many schools give learners no (10) _________ with these matters. I hope you are successful in the exam. I think I _______ my best in the test and I hope I'll get a good mark. A) taught 4. One educational _______ for developing countries would be at least a _______ education for every citizen. but it is more important to have a genuine (14) _________ of a subject. There was a great film on TV last night and I forgot to _______ my homework. 4. I could have got higher marks but I _______ a few silly mistakes. Steve is feeling quite ill and might have to _______ the lesson. 4. 3. 3. I try to make/ do take my homework before I have my evening meal. You can only do/make/be your best. A) agendas 3. 4. can you understand them (9) _________ ? For some reasons. Learning by (13) _________ can be useful. and do you understand all the (7) _________ the dictionary contains? Can you (8) _________ notes quickly. 5. C or D best fits each space. but don’t explain (12) _________ to do it. 2. 3. I'm sitting/making/ taking my exams this month.1. My teacher thinks we're all doing / making having really good progress. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct verb: 1. A) theme 2. Very few students are (3) _________ how to organise their learning and how to (4) _________ the best use of their time. B. 4.
(How many?) c) I’m learning English because i need it for my job. in pairs. ask and answer the questions about you. does and did are used to form the question and negative in the Present Simple and the Past Simple.5. A) information 8. have Have is used to make perfect verb forms: Have you ever seen a ghost? She’s been waiting for two hours. Why did you go to Paris? We didn’t buy anything. What does she do? He doesn’t want to go home. (Why?) d) I’ve been to France. e. do Do. A) how 13. Practice 1. years. A) teaching 11. A) do 9. I’ve been learning English for three My money’s been stolen. A) after 10. Then. What were you doing this morning? I was born in Bucovina. Sweden and the United States. be and have are used to express various grammatical functions. Germany. Make questions with you from the sentences. be Be is used with –ing forms and past participle forms to make continuous and passive verb forms: She’s wearing new shoes. A) pass B) results B) look B) advise B) send B) afterwards B) ability B) remind B) what B) heart B) success B) waste C) rules C) research C) subject C) make C) lastly C) instruction C) forget C) why C) how C) understanding C) tell D) examples D) get D) themes D) revise D) at last D) help D) memorise D) it D) law D) attention D) use LANGUAGE FOCUS: Auxiliary Verbs The auxiliary verbs do.: I come from Bucharest. (Where?) Where do you come from? a) I live in a flat near the centre of the town? (Where?) b) I speak three languages. A) sentences 6. A) information 15. Where do you work? I don’t like the rain. A) find 7. The Times is published in London. (Which countri es?) 11 . A) the way 14. for example to form questions and negatives. and to form tenses. A) concentrate 12.g.
c) I went out last night. OK. honestly! g) Where were Andy and Lou at lunchtime? h) Philippa never does her homework. (Where?) j) I’m wearing jeans and a jumper. when suddenly 12 . and I (5) ________ trying to meet an important deadline at the moment. 4. i) What have you done with my pen? j) Why are you looking so sad? k) We’ve got a new computer at home. l) We have a new computer at home. I smoke. in 1985. (How much?) i) I went to the cinema last night. I work at home. e) We’ve got a dog. 3. Read the sentences. I (4) ________ (not) work for a company. (How many?) h) I’ve got 100 lei in my pocket. (When? Where?) f) I’ve been learning English for 5 years. I don’t smoke. Computer Helpline. f) We weren’t using your CD player. I’m self employed. c) Did anyone phone last night? d) We did the washing-up before we went to bed. It ________ (not) working at all! D: OK. Damian speaking. Is the verb in bold an auxiliary verb (A) or a full verb (F)? a) Have you ever been to China? (A) b) We had a lovely meal at Angie’s. Tell me your name and your company name and describe what (3) ________ happened. at last! Hello. I (1) ________ got a real problem with my computer. (How long?) g) I have two brothers and a sister. e) She has coffee for breakfast every morning. D: Good afternoon. This morning I (6) ________ working happily. (What?) Find examples of the following tenses in the questions: Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Simple Passive 2. Make the statements negative: e. d) I’m learning Spanish. Complete the telephone conversation with auxiliary verbs. g) English is spoken in every country in the world. b) It’s raining. How can I help you? P: Oh. P: My name’s Phil Evans.g.e) I was born in Iasi. Damian. a) My mother works in a bank. f) I had a shower this morning. Use contractions wherever possible.
I think I know what the problem is.everything stopped and a message came up on the screen. Phil. perhaps just one or two sentences) Paragraph 2: FOR Paragraph 3: AGAINST Paragraph 4: CONCLUSION (your opinion) 13 . Write a 250-word for-and-against essay. SKILLS FOCUS: Writing – FOR and AGAINST Choose one of the essay titles below. Now do exactly what I say.. Phil. D: OK Phil. I believe that … Moreover … It could be argued that … I think … Firstly. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. D: It’s OK. OK? Can you see a ‘W’ in the top right-hand corner? Click on that ‘W’ with the mouse. What (12) ________ it say? Can you read it to me? P: There’s a list of three things.. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. (10) ________ you switched the computer off? P: No. and use some of the expressions in the box. Go to your computer. All educational facilities should be funded by the government. remembering to plan and organise your answer. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. because I (9) ________ (not) understand it. but I think it said something about ‘not enough memory’. First it says . (7) ________ (not) worry! What (8) ________ the message say? P: I can’t remember exactly. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. D: Fine. Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. In some countries teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Tell me. It’s still on. Phil. Then the screen went blank. I (11) ________ (not). … In my opinion … The most important point is that … Also … Thirdly … Another point is that … You might find useful the following tips: A good answer might be organised as follows: Paragraph 1: INTRODUCTION (not very detailed.
preserving the original meaning. Translate the following text into English: Facultățile de stat din România se axează mai mult pe profit. mulți dintre aceștia nu mai reusesc să facă față. Însă banii sunt puțini și părinții tot mai supărați din această cauză. Taxe mari.html) 14 . dat fiind faptul că. Însă. tot mai multi absolvenți de liceu se îndreaptă catre facultăți care nu îi caracterizează. fie că sunt derutați și nu mai știu pe ce drum să o ia în viață. "statul" se transforma tot in "privat". clarity.ro/lifestyle/family/invatamantul-superior-din-romania-alegeti-va-cu-grija-si-cumpatare-drumulin-viata. de la an la an și tot mai puține locuri la buget. destinate studenților. translate the following text into Romanian: Most successful distance education students have done plenty of research to find the program that is right for them. (http://a1. Fie că este necesar să intre la buget. Dacă ar fi existat. Having these strategies in mind. la zi. Nu se mai pune accentul pe calitatea studenților. Some of the points you need to consider before applying to a program include the following: Do I have a place at home or at work that I can claim as my own for extended periods of study and communication with the program? Will family members or others around me respect my need to spend time on my own? What are the specific educational outcomes of the program? Is earning a degree important to me. Umblă zvonul că ar fi mult mai pregătite decât cele private. într-un sistem asemenea. Însă. sunt tot mai multe cazurile în care studenții renunță în primul an la facultatea aleasă. De asemenea. în realitate. Însă aceste lucruri sunt deja utopice în România. însă. Before translating a text you should decide what strategy you should take: should you translate it right away? do you read the entire text first? what do you do if you do not know a word? when you reread your translation which are the main points you focus on? Consider accuracy. stirring the same reaction in the reader etc.TRANSLATION 1. de ce nu se pornește de la urmatoarea întrebare: oare există vreun motiv pentru care studenții devin tot mai plictisiți și neimplicați? Din cauza faptului că nu există consiliere profesională. o îndrumare corectă. De aceea joburile part-time. style. pentru a-și mai da încă o șansă. organizarea este la pământ. cu siguranță populația reprezentată de studenți ar fi mult mai restransă și calitativă. au un foarte mare succes. ci pe cantitate. de la bun început. o facultate presupune multe ore și cursuri inutile. if necessary? Are there any additional expenses I might incur? 2. studenții sunt din ce în ce mai criticați. Evaluările nu sunt relevante. or do I want to take just a few classes to learn a new skill or to complete a certificate program to increase my professional status? What are the total costs of the program? Do the fees include books.
WORK AND EXAMS do your homework/(British English) revision/a project on something work on/write/do/submit an essay/a dissertation/a thesis/an assignment/(North American English) a paper finish/complete your dissertation/thesis/studies/coursework hand in/(North American English) turn in your homework/essay/assignment/paper study/prepare/(British English) revise/(North American English) review/(North American English. especially North American English) ace a test/an exam pass/fail/(informal. SCHOOL go to/start preschool/kindergarten/nursery school be in the first. informal) cram for a test/an exam take/(both British English) do/sit a test/an exam (especially British English) mark/(especially North American English) grade homework/a test (British English) do well in/(North American English) do well on/(informal. PROBLEMS AT SCHOOL be the victim/target of bullying (British English) play truant from/(both British English. informal) bunk off/skive off school (= not go to school when you should) (both especially North American English) skip/cut class/school (British English) cheat in/(North American English) cheat on an exam/a test get/be given a detention (for doing something) be expelled from/be suspended from school IV. UNIVERSITY apply to/get into/go to/start college/(British English) university 15 .VOCABULARY I. (British English) leave/finish/drop out of/(North American English) quit school (North American English) graduate high school/college III. etc. LEARNING acquire/get/lack (an) education/training/(British English) (some) qualifications receive/provide somebody with training/tuition develop/design/plan a curriculum/(especially British English) course/(North American English) program/syllabus give/go to/attend a class/lesson/lecture/seminar hold/run/conduct a class/seminar/workshop sign up for/take a course/classes/lessons II. second.REMEMBER . especially North American English) flunk a test/an exam/a class/a course/a subject V. (North American English) grade/(especially British English) year (at school) study/take/drop history/chemistry/German. etc.
Auxiliary Verbs 16 . Cristina. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. Bucureşti: ALL Educational. Diana. Vocabulary. Editura Universitară. Longman. . Unit 18: Education and Learning (pages 252-256) 3. Prelipceanu. Ioncică. (2010) . leave/graduate from law school/college/(British English) university (with a degree in computer science) study for/take/(British English) do/complete a law degree/a degree in physics (both North American English) major/minor in biology/philosophy earn/receive/be awarded/get/have/hold a master's degree/a bachelor's degree/a PhD in economics Specific Bibliography: 1. London. Bucureşti. David. Eric. Irina. Unit 1: On Education (pages 22-33) 2. Fleischhack. Vince.New First Certificate Language Practice with Key. Rotariu. Michael. Raluca (2005) – First Steps in Business.
an airport or a bank. SKILLS computer skills artistic skills typing skills language skills driving skills mathematical skills telephone skills managerial skills interpersonal skills financial skills QUALITIES patient calm physically strong quick-thinking emotionally strong honest well-organised clean and tidy intelligent punctual caring Which of them are necessary for the jobs on your list? Discuss this with your partner as in the example: To be a ____________ you need to have good _____________ skills and to be ______________. Look at the list of skills and qualities in the box. Is there a job that you would be good at? SKILLS AND QUALITIES 1. Choose one of the places.improve your letter writing skills .get familiar with means of expressing opinions . 17 . Make a list of all the different jobs people do there.develop and practise vocabulary related to work .revise and practise Present Tense Simple . Imagine yourselves working in a hotel. Which would be the best place to work? Why? Which would be the worst place to work? Why? 2.develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN EXPRESSING OPINIONS 1.Unit 2: WORK FOR A LIVING OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . 3.
’ 1. but I’m not a chocoholic. 5. 2. It was all in the course of duty. Now read more carefully and find words which mean: 1. It took them from 9 am 5 to 2 pm. Her official title is confectionary selector. ‘you don’t swallow unless it’s so good you can’t resist. in her airy offices in the Chocolate Masters headquarters in Baker Street. Elaine has become immune to the temptations which. having too much of a good thing (line 7) to try (line 13) complete (line 17) trying food (line 24) well-ventilated (line 31) too much (line 34) 18 . Elaine is one of the 11 people at Chocolate 10 Masters who are responsible for chocolates and sweets.’ she told me. 4. I like chocolate. like every kid. 25 30 35 Which company does Elaine work for? What is her job called? What does she have to do? How long has she been in the food industry? 2. How come? ‘Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting. When I began in confectionary I was just like a child in a sweet shop. 3. Can you think of some more skills and qualities needed for the jobs on your list? READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. wanted to work in the Mars Bar factory. eating everything. One day Elaine Jones and a colleague of hers had to eat their way through almost ten kilos of chocolates. ‘The technologist and I had to try out an entire fresh cream range from one of our suppliers before it went off. Read the article quickly to find the answers to these questions: ‘Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting – you don’t swallow.’ Perhaps. 15 ‘That 10 kilos was unusual. 3. I think all of us in the office have become immune to chocolate. It no longer makes us put on weight. after 15 years in the business. Elaine is not overweight. But that’s worn off. But their chocolate marathon was not a binge. 2. She has to sample chocolates every day.2. It was 20 a very hot day which made things worse. Afterwards they felt ‘very. 4.’ she said. ‘When I was little. I found overwhelming. There were chocolates everywhere. 6. very unwell’. Her chocolate enthusiasms began early.’ ELAINE JONES Would working as a Confectionary selector for Chocolate Masters be a dream come true for chocoholics? Julie Turner finds out. Despite such excesses.
In 1999 she moved to Chocolate Masters. Are these statements true or false? 1. 2. She is the only chocolate taster at Chocolate Masters. I was a buyer for eight years – bread.’ She enjoyed the challenge. cakes – before moving into confectionary where I found my niche. ‘I did my training there. This involves a lot of travel in Britain and on the Continent. 3. the fast turnover. She has not put on weight because of her job. 5. What qualifications and training do you think Elaine needed to become a Confectionary Selector? Read about Elaine’s career and fill in the chart: Elaine was brought up in Essex. After A-levels she worked in banking for a year and hated it. overseeing production. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the text below. encouraged by a friend in retailing. calendar technical requirements class hours college credits graduation outlines specified subjects major course curriculum three week 19 prospectus amount number electives opportunity . 4. Elaine samples 10 kilos of chocolate every day. she went to work at Harrods. She has always wanted to work with food.3. patisserie. Her basic responsibility is to develop new lines and she is in charge of both product and packaging. She does not usually eat the chocolate she tastes. Elaine Jones Qualifications _________________________________________________________ Work experience _______________________________ (1 year) _______________________________ (8 years) _______________________________ (since 1999) Present responsibilities _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1. doing comparative shopping and visiting food fairs. Then. 4.
. 7. These are usually equal to the number of (8) _____________ devoted each week to the course. d) boring. Between 30 and 40 of the required (13) _____________ must be the student's (14) _____________ subject. d) struck. 6. c) extent.. a) note. a) part. Match each word in column A with its definition in column B. a) clear. d) write on. it is useful to .. as well as the credits given for the (6) _____________.It suddenly . b) way.... A few jokes always . a) pin.. Almost all schools have a certain (16) _____________ of required courses called (18) _____________. Choose the right answer 1. a) noisy.. c) dawned... colleges. Schools vary considerably in the (15) _____________ of freedom given students in selecting their courses. c) put down. b) appendix. b) inspire. at the back of the book giving the answers to the exercises. a) overview. You've hit the . I can agree with you to a certain . a course that meets three times a (9) _____________ usually gives (10) _____________ credits towards graduation. a) came. The (2) _____________ of the institution (3) _____________ the complete (4) _____________. 3. on the Commodity Science next week? a) lecture. but not entirely. 2. d) raise. d) level. When you listen to a lecture.. c) annoying. b) jot. of the present situation. the main points.. etc course of study in a school. c) doodle. b) oversight. Each course is designated as giving a (7) _____________ number of credits. b) hit. b) nail. d) point. college. permission to do something 20 .. d) meeting. a) index. 5. Are you going to attend Professor's .. c) overtone.. 10. a) liven. d) overture. c) loosen. Liberal-arts colleges usually give students more (19) _____________ to choose than do (20) _____________ schools.. down the main points that are made. There is a/an .The courses given by a (1) _____________ or university are called its curriculum. 9. The lecture was very . To begin the lecture. c) key. 3. That's what I mean. d) sketch. b) discussion.. and I slept for most of it. let's take an . c) hammer. etc written statement of rights. 1) gymnasium 2) rector 3) 4) 5) 6) charta curriculum budget dean a) charge or payment for professional advice or services b) an educational talk given by a lecturer to a large audience c) d) e) f) of students room/hall with equipment for physical training head of certain universities.. 8. Professor. b) sleepy. on the head.. For example. Schools using the semester (11) _____________ require about 120 credits for (12) _____________. It gives the (5) _____________ for entry to each course. During a lecture I always try to . up a lecture. on me what he really meant. 2. b) notify. c) conference.. 4.. d) reference.
I would like _____________ to ski. it is not enough _____________ new words. He gets up at 7.00. 4. 7. sits at his desk and reads any emails that have arrived. You know much more than I do. B. It should be ready for use in a couple of hours. it is necessary to use them in written and oral communication. society. etc. 6.000 people. UAC International. After a short ride he arrives at work at 9. has breakfast then drives to the local station where he takes a commuter train. It has a subsidiary.30. 21 . 5. Decide which section concerns: i) temporary situations ii) regular events iii) permanent states or situations iv) actions happening now v) changing and developing situations What tense is used in each case? A. The student _____________ to write with his left hand. Mr. speciality chemicals and packaging. so I cannot _____________ you. Jones is a stockbroker and works for a major firm in the City of London. to study. plastic. C. In _____________ a foreign language. private person. I am planning _____________ polytology next year. too. Bloom is speaking on another line? They’re repairing the machine right now. Who has _____________ you to surf so well? LANGUAGE FOCUS: Present Tense Simple vs. 4.especially from the government to a town/city/university 7) investment 8) fee 9) lecture 10) course g) in some universities head of a department of study h) the act of using money to obtain income or profit i) a series of academic lectures or lessons in a particular j) subject estimate of future income and expenditure made by a business company. What subjects do you _____________ in the first year? 2. says ‘hello’ to colleagues. Present Tense Continuous I. Look at sections A-E below. 3. Mr. It operates in over 70 countries and employs about 300. Would you like to hold. to teach: 1. Fill in the gaps with the right word in the required form: to learn. which specialises in paper. Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch company which produces food products and detergents.
Our engineer _________ to detect the cause of the fault.000 people and (4) _________ (have) a turnover of over £75m. They believe in free trade. II. 6. b) Simple or continuous? P&S (1) _________ (be) a chain of department stores with branches in many cities in the UK. used in the Present Tense Continuous. P&S (3) _________ (employ) over 3. Consumer research has identified a new trend. 5. I _________ at the Continental Hotel whenever I’m in Hong King.g. 2. A receptionist _________ all incoming calls and _________ routine enquiries. We _________ for a new Media Sales Manager. Kent. We _________ a departmental meeting every fortnight. especially those describing states. More and more people are working in services instead of manufacturing industry and the number of women in the labour force is increasing. Each store (2) _________ (sell) a variety of goods from textiles to kitchen utensils to furniture.5’. 11. The firm (5) _________ (grow) rapidly and at present (6) _________ (recruit) more highly qualified personnel to run its new branch in Maidstone. We _________ branches in most major cities. Some verbs. Our firm _________ fact. more and more people _________ to Sunkist. C&F means that insurance is not included in the price quoted by the exporter. (i) – (v) above. 8. The box contains 144 packets. The prices _________ full insurance cover. 9. 35% growth in only two years.D. Then choose a verb and decide whether it should be in the Present Tense Simple or Present Tense Continuous. Mrs Kaul is ill. 10. manufacture receive include try have expand look answer stay hold interview change 1. 7. beliefs. Mantex owns over 50% of the shares. each of the following sentences belong to. Mr. 22 . ABC plc _________ a wide variety of adhesives. or verbs which make a declaration are never . 4. I’m walking to work this week as my car is being serviced. Prescott _________ the candidates right now. The consignment weighs 44 kilos and measures 2’x1’x1. Our record shows that you owe us £694. e. 3. so I’m dealing with her correspondence.or rarely. E. Western economies are changing. PRACTICE a) Decide which category.
I (3) _________ (think) this will help us to improve our performance in Hungary. with different meanings. We are having an interesting conversation. In the meantime. We (1) _________ (have) offices in most European Capitals and (2) _________ (think) of opening another in Budapest shortly. I don’t understand how the profit margin is calculated. as in: Jack is noisy. I regret to announce a 12% decrease in Profitability. d) Put the verbs in the correct form. we (4) _________ (try) to do better in Romania and Bulgaria but (5) _________ (doubt) whether this will be possible in the near future. In addition. III With some verbs. I (7) _________ (assure) you that we will take the necessary steps to avoid any future delay and (8) _________ (promise) to supervise the satisfactory completion of your orders personally. it is sometimes possible to use either the Present Tense Simple or Present Tense Continuous. I (3) _________ (realise) that you need rapid delivery and we (4) _________ (do) our best to ensure that the goods will arrive by the end of April. If you (8) _________ (need) any further information. This parcel weighs a kilo. I promise to deal with the matter myself. Dan has a Porsche. I (6) _________ (suggest) a reduction of 2. David is thinking about getting a new job. We assure you that your request will receive our best attention. I (7) _________ (send) our latest report on the situation in Eastern Europe under separate cover. I am weighing the parcel right now. I (5) _________ (agree) that payment terms should be modified. In the circumstances. I don’t know what time I’ll arrive. it depends on the traffic. However. I’m depending on you. 23 . I suggest we look at the figures very carefully.5 per cent on the unit price. Jill is being noisy today.I realise that there has been a breakdown. I wish to make my position clear on this point. I (6) _________ (confirm) that I will spend a couple of weeks in Germany in the spring and will be able to meet you in Berlin during the first week of April. It depends what you mean. I think I like you. PRACTICE c) Put the verbs in brackets in either the Present Tense Simple or Present Tense Continuous: We (1) _________ (have) a great deal of difficulty with this order and I (2) _________ (admit) that the delivery date is unlikely to be respected. please let me know.
Would you be interested in a job like this? What would you want to know about it before you decided to take it? What might the drawbacks be? 2. Sussex. Do you think the farmer would be satisfied with it? Why not? Now answer the questions. what would you say about yourself in your letter? How formal do you think your letter should be? HOLIDAY JOBS! Need to improve your English? Want to spend some time abroad? Short of cash? Why not come and work for us at Home Farm! You’ll be picking fruit and generally helping out with all the usual farm work. We’ll pay you by the hour. the more you’ll earn! We’ll provide a place to sleep and all your meals. We’ll be happy to answer any queries. Great Britain SU3 8TZ Michael Dupont saw the advertisement and made these notes: QUESTIONS TO ASK When does the job start and finish? Will I be the only one there? Where exactly will I sleep? What is the minimum rate per hour? How many hours will I be expected to work? Can I have a photo of the farm? 3.SKILLS FOCUS: Transactional Letter – Applying for Holiday Jobs 1. If you wanted the job. Mr and Mrs Bull. 24 . so the harder you work. Scan the letter below. Look at the advertisement below. Interested? Why not drop us a line (and a photo). Cold Comfort Farm.
16 May Dear Sir/Madam. I am 18 years old and very fit. My last employer will be happy to write me a reference. I expect? Please tell me how much I earn exactly and what there is to do in the evenings. Has Michel used clear paragraphs for each new section of the letter? How does he show he is beginning a new paragraph? Mr and Mrs Bull received another letter on the same day but they were not very impressed? Why? Paris Tuesday. too formal? b. Could you let me know if you need any more helpers? 25 . I look forward to hearing from you soon. I saw your advertisement in the newspaper and I am quite interested at the job. I’m a student and I need more practice with my English. No discos I suppose? My Friend Daniel. Could you please let me know how long you would want me for. Working for you would be an ideal solution. too informal? c. who goes to college with me. I’m fit and healthy and I adore to be outdoors. I saw your advertisement in the paper and I am very interested in working on your farm. Has Michel given the information he was asked for in the advertisement? Has he asked about all the points he noted down himself? 2. Although I’ve never worked on a farm before I have helped on a building site and I am used to working hard. 200Dear Mr and Mrs Bull. Yours sincerely. would also like a job. just right? 3. I’m 16. how many hours a day and what the minimum wages per hour would be. a student and I really want a holiday away from the parents. I was hoping to come to Great Britain but didn’t want to ask my parents for money. I would like to know if there would be other students there too and where I will be sleeping. I’m very fond of animals and would be happy to help with the cows and sheep if needed. Michel Dupont 1. The advertisement was informal – is Michel’s letter a. The only problem is that I’m scared from cows but I could keep away from them. I enclose a photo as requested. if you so wish.Rue Vichy Troyes France 15 May.
Please write back soon! Regards.I am sending the only photo I have at the moment.style inconsistent (changes from formal to informal) Look back to Michel’s letter and complete this plan. You are interested in the job below.inappropriate content .layout . . but please don’t worry. Send your letter to Samba Youth Camps 2214 Creek Drive Colorado USA P. Write a letter giving the information required and including any queries you have. Didier Didier’s letter contains errors in each of the areas below. Find examples of each type and underline them. Accommodation and modest salary provided. Interested? Write and tell us a little about yourself.S. My leg would be out of plaster soon. Do you like having fun? Do you want to be with young people? Can you organise sports and entertainments? Have you had experience of camping? Can you cook? Volunteers Needed at SUMMER CAMPS! We need helpers for our youth camps in the USA this summer.inappropriate language (too formal or too informal) .paragraphing .inappropriate greeting .inappropriate ending . Need more information? Just send us your queries with your letter and we will write back immediately! 26 . 1 OPENIN G 2 3 4 5 4.structure (grammar) .
") instead of a colon. Familia Smith este acasă. Paragraphing: Remember to group your ideas into paragraphs and to start each paragraph on a new line. Use personal statements to make the letter less formal: "I agree with your assessment of the highway construction project. I too commute that way. Make sure the style is consistent throughout your letter." Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the use of the Present Tense Simple and Present Tense Continuous. Niciodată nu plec de acasă fără umbrelă. De obicei copii beau lapte dimineaţa." rather than "Sincerely" or "Thank You. 3. spelling and formatting rules. and keep checking back as you write to make sure you have included all the relevant points. Ei îşi petrec aproape fiecare sâmbăta seara în acest fel. Choose "Dear" over "To Whom It May Concern. Mereu îmi dă telefon şi îmi pune întrebări stupide. Employ standard grammar. but not relaxed enough to be casual. Gheata se topeşte la soare. iar fiica lor Juliet se joacă." "Cheers" or "Regards. Be brief.USEFUL TIPS: Planning: Underline the important points in the advertisement before you reply." Close with "Best. straightforward and logical. 5. 7. A paragraph should normally contain more than one sentence! Style: Decide how formal your letter should be before you start writing. 6. dar astăzi ei beau ceai. Instructions: Use writing that is breezy rather than casual. Pământul se învârte în jurul soarelui. domnul Smith citeşte ziarul.” 27 . Doamna Smith se uită la televizor. Begin with the date. 8. 4. Mă trezesc la ora 7.30 în fiecare dimineaţă. preferable indented. “Ce cauţi?” “Îmi caut stiloul. 2. 1. but relax your tone and construction slightly. both your address and the recipient's (or just your address) and a salutation. Este sâmbăta seara." Place a comma after the salutation ("Dear Jane. Use contractions and conversational phrases to soften the letter. TRANSLATION Translate the following text into Romanian: An informal business letter is a bit more relaxed than a formal business letter.
Longman. and occupation. especially one that needs a high level of education: He hopes to enter the medical profession. Present Tense Continuous 28 . London. trade = a job. employment = (rather formal) work. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar.REMEMBER . the state of being employed or the situation in which people have work: Only half the people here are in paid employment. Vince. especially one that involves working with your hands and requires special training and skills: Carpentry is a highly skilled trade.these are all words for the work that somebody does in return for payment. Present Tense Simple. especially when it is done to earn money. such as being a doctor or lawyer. especially over a long period of time. occupation = (rather formal) a job or profession: Please state your name. work = the job that somebody does. usually involving more responsibility as time passes: He had a very distinguished career in the Foreign Office. IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS in/out of work/employment full-time/part-time work/employment/career/occupation permanent/temporary work/employment well-paid work/employment/profession/occupation low-paid work/employment/occupation to look for/seek/find work/employment/a career/an occupation to get/obtain/give somebody/offer somebody/create/generate/provide work/employment Specific Bibliography 1. Vocabulary. The profession = all the people who work in a particular profession: the legal profession. age. especially in order to earn money: It's very difficult to find work at the moment. Michael. Fleischhack. Unit 2: Work and Employment (pages 190-194) 2.VOCABULARY EMPLOYMENT / CAREER / PROFESSION / OCCUPATION / TRADE . career = the job or series of jobs that somebody has in a particular area of work. Eric. profession = a type of job that needs special training or skill. The professions are the traditional jobs that need a high level of education and training. (2010) .New First Certificate Language Practice with Key. Bucureşti: ALL Educational.
and certainly 29 .develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN 1.understand how information is structured in a Curriculum Vitae . What does each part should contain? 3. How do people find work? Which are the steps they have to take? 2. Which are the words that the personnel manager uses about foreign languages? 5. and indeed one still sees different formats arriving on one’s desk. what do you have to carry along with you? How do Americans call it? What does it contain? READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. the most common format these days. When you go to a job interview. then answer these questions: 1. Read the following text to see what is a personnel manager’s opinion on it. How should we order the information about our education and work experience? 4. Conventions as how to write one have been changing.revise and practice language related to recruitment . However. How many parts a CV should have? 2.revise and practice means of expressing Past Time .Unit 3: RECRUITMENT OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . Try and answer the following questions: 1. probably.write a Curriculum Vitae according to the commonly accepted European criteria . Are our hobbies or interests important when we apply for a job? There has been a lot of variation in the way CVs are set out over the last few years. A job advertisement will usually ask you to send in a CV.
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 the one I most likely like to get – because you can see at a glance whether it is worth reading the whole thing or not – is the one that starts from the most recent job and works back. There is a slight tendency. a good CV these days should begin by saying what it is: a CV. For those who are applying for their first job. Anyway. list main responsibilities and successes. too. for some reason – is to put down the name of what is. This should be followed by a section on qualifications and training. Finally. It was only recently. so a short final section on outside interests is always useful. and so on. that I discovered HEC was a – if not the – leading French business school. particularly among foreign (non-British applicants) to go for the hard sell. my reaction was simply ‘Oh. Again. this should be in order of most recent first. and ‘basic’ if you can just about get by. a master’s degree in management science). for those applying for a first job. If you are applying for a post with a company in another country. It is of no help whatsoever to go round putting down diplomas which only exist in your country. Another bad habit I have noticed – particularly with the French. this can sometimes be a crucial section. as I said earlier. If you have been secretary of your local tennis club or something. ‘intermediate’ if it is OK. it is a good idea to mention that here (for English: one of the Cambridge Certificates or the London Chamber of Commerce level 2 or 3 etc. or any relevant summer jobs you may have had. just briefly. The next section – and the most important – is the one on work experience. if you have any nationally or internationally recognized examination demonstrating your proficiency. it 30 . so I can see what you are doing at present and have been doing recently. in almost note form. for example. again. By this I mean almost to boast of their accomplishments and success in each post. so that I can see what you have been up to since your initial training.). giving brief. Before that when I saw on a CV ‘diploma from HEC’. So. But I confess I personally find it rather distasteful and it rather puts me off. there should be a brief section on personal details: address. we discovered he had simply translated ‘Studii Aprofundate de Management’ (literally. One difficult thing for us in personnel when evaluating applications from abroad – and we are getting more and more – is the problem of equivalences. it is useful to mention any periods of occupational training you may have undertaken in a company or companies. This brings me to another point. telephone number. Then. Incidentally. this person wasn’t good enough to go to a university’. we in Britain like to know something about a candidate’s life outside of work. A related difficulty is candidates who just put the English equivalent. nationality and marital status. At interview. some highly prestigious establishment within their own country. In this section. I had this problem recently with a young man who claimed he had an MBA. you should add your proficiency in those languages: ‘fluent’. beginning with the most recent and moving back. on the assumption that everyone knows about it. Again. if you speak a language well. so the excellent level of English we were expecting from someone who had studied in the UK or the States did not materialize. it is important to state when and where you got a qualification. the person’s name should be prominent. but relevant information on each. unless you also put in brackets afterwards an approximate British equivalent that I can relate to. however. or for a job that requires travel or the use of one or more foreign languages. presumably.
disgust somebody in or to a foreign country or countries it may supposed to be true VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1) 1. a) qualifications b) references c) requests What does to screen candidates mean? 31 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) . b) or c): Which of the following does not mean recruiting new personnel? a) taking on b) employing c) dismissing Which part of a Curriculum Vitae (C. using few words. c.V.55 may be the only opportunity you have had to demonstrate that you are fit for positions of responsibility. 2. Find words in the text that mean: a. a) collected b) rejected c) selected Applicants are asked to supply … from past employers.) gives information about your past work record? a) Skills b) Experience c) Qualifications Which word is a synonym for candidate? a) applicant b) interviewer c) employer What is a cover letter? a) a letter from your former boss to your new employer b) a letter that you send with your CV to apply for a job c) a letter informing you that you have been unsuccessful at interview Which word means to make a request for a job? a) to apply b) to hire c) to interview Out of 400 applications. b. 10 candidates were … for interview. h. d. immediately. g. from the very beginning. concise not serious or important aggressive way of selling something talk with too much pride and satisfaction make somebody feel dislike. f. e. Choose the most suitable answer a).
to attend an interview o interviewer (n) o interviewee (n) to select (v) o selection (n) to assess (v) o assessment (n) to shortlist (v) o shortlist (n) 32 . to a position o appointment (n) to interview (v) o interview (n). complete the following sentences with the right word or phrase (sometimes there is more than one possibility): to recruit (v) [BE] = to hire (v) [AE] o recruitment (n) [BE] = hiring (n) [AE].] (v) o application (n). what are behavioural questions? a) questions about the candidates paper qualifications b) questions about their current position c) questions about how candidates react in certain situations 2. Then. recruitment agency o recruit (n) o recruiter (n) to employ (v) o employment (n). employment agency o employer (n) o employee (n) to headhunt (v) o headhunting (n) o headhunter (n) to advertise (v) o advertisement (n) o advertising (n) o advertiser (n) to apply for [sth. Read them carefully. application form o applicant (n) to candidate (v) o candidature (n) o candidate (n) to appoint sb. The following words and expressions are all related to RECRUITMENT. finding a suitable explanation for each of them.a) to invite them for interview b) to examine their education and work background c) to inform them whether or not they got the job 9) What are routine tasks? a) special jobs b) ordinary work c) difficult jobs 10) In an interview.
You often have to give the names of two people who are prepared to write (9) _______ for you. 7. You become a (4) _______ or an (5) _______. I hope she. because if she _______ the job. 2. and send it. They told him that they had received a lot of (6) requests for the job. Insert the following words in the gaps in the text below: applicant apply employment agencies job vacancies application candidate interview references application form curriculum vitae or CV (BE) or resume (AE) job description short-listed Many people looking for work read the (1) _______ advertised in newspapers by companies and (2) _______. but we’re going to _______ someone next week. A few days later. If your qualifications and abilities match the (10) _______. 3. I phoned to check on my application. 5. the company (9) had chosen six people to interview. 3.e. The selection process has lasted three months. CV [BE] = resume [AE] covering letter [BE] = cover letter [AE] selection process educational qualifications letter of application group discussion to offer sb. To reply to an advertisement is to (3) _______ for a job. 4. Computer programmers wanted. You write an (6) _______. Only those with UNIX experience should _______. along with your (8) _______ and a covering letter. This job is so important. we’ll have to start looking again. or fill in the company’s (7) _______. Replace the underlined phrases with correct forms of words and expressions from the previous exercise: Fred had already (1) refused two job offers when he went for (2) a discussion to see if he was suitable for the job. (10) done tests on their personality and intelligence and they had then given someone the job. i. but they said they’d already _______ someone. you might be (11) _______. the supermarket (4) asked him if he would like the job and Fred (5) said yes. 6. That last applicant was very strong. so he phoned the company. Harry didn’t hear anything for six weeks. They looked at his driving licence and contacted (3) previous employers Fred had mentioned in his application. but I understand he’s had two other _______ already. the/a job to turn the/a job down to accept the/a job references 1. They’ve finally _______ a new receptionist. 4. I think we need to _______ someone. selected to attend an (12) _______ 33 . After looking at the life stories of the (7) people asking for the job and looking at (8) what exams they had passed during their education.
but now I get up at eight. when Pete came and helped her. I always got up at six in those days. Pete came and helped her. USED TO . Habits in the past: the past simple is used to describe past habits or states. and which was interrupted by another action: While Sue was trying to open the door. 2. Completed actions: the simple past is used to talk about completed actions in the past. A time expression is not necessary: I used to get up at six.Past habits USED TO is used to describe past habits. A time expression (or a time clause) is usually necessary. father was reading a newspaper and the children were playing in the garden. 3. he was reading a book. Look at the following common examples and at the prepositions that are used with them: at on in no preposition 6 o’clock/1. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS 1. usually in contrast with the present.LANGUAGE FOCUS: Means of expressing PAST TIME PAST TENSE SIMPLE 1. Points of time in the past: we use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was in progress at a particular moment of time in the past: At ten o’clock yesterday afternoon. Susan went into the station and bought a ticket. Interrupted past action: we can use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was already in progress. As in the example above.15/the end of the year/Christmas Tuesday/15th May/the 21st/New Year’s Day January/1997/the 1990s/summer yesterday/yesterday morning/last Monday/a few days ago/the day before yesterday 2. He ran 5 miles every day when he was young. Two or more parallel actions in progress: we use the past continuous to show that two or more actions were going on at the same time in the past: While mother was cooking. the simple past is often used with expressions that refer to points of time in the past. We can rephrase this sentence using when for the second part: Sue was trying to open the door. 34 .
(I arrived at the office.) Note the negative and interrogative forms of USED TO: I didn’t use to like beer. the phone rang / ringed. she broke / was breaking a cup. 35 .) 2. Choose the correct word or phrase from each pair underlined. b) How did you felt / did you feel yesterday afternoon? c) When I reached / was reaching home I received / was receiving David’s phone call. g) When you fell / felt over the cliff. Practice 1. a) While I washed / was washing my hair. f) We sang / sung some songs and then ate some sandwiches. and then the meeting started. the meeting had started. In 2. Did you use to swim every day? PAST PERFECT SIMPLE . the meeting started. so I was missing / missed the bus. d) Last summer I was going swimming / went swimming every weekend. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS We use the PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS to talk about the duration of an activity up to a point in the past: When I left my last job. When I arrived at the office. i) I didn’t see / didn’t saw where the bus stop was. When I arrived at the office.USED TO can also describe past states: I used to own a horse. Compare: 1. what happened / was happening next? h) While Mary washed up / was washing up. she screamed / was screaming. e) When the dog bit / was biting Laura’s leg. it is also possible to use as soon as or after instead of when. I had been working there for four years. I was late. j) What did you do / were you doing when I phoned / was phoning you last night? There was no reply.) In 1. (The meeting started before I got to the office. it is also possible to use by the time instead of when. the point in the past time expression emphasizing duration A past time expression is necessary.Previous and subsequent events The PAST PERFECT SIMPLE is used to refer back to completed actions that happened before other events in the past. (I owned a horse once.
we (tell) told him the good news. 1. What did Jean do when Tony called? ____ 6.2. h) She put her books away and left. What did Pat do when the bell rang at the end of the lesson? ____ 8. they came back on. Choose a sentence from a) to h) which is the best continuation of the conversations beginning 1) to 10). f) While Tina was looking for a torch. h) Ann (watch) _________television when Julie (arrive) _________. Why did Helen leave so early? ____ a) She went sailing most days. __________ I met an old friend of mine in the city centre. 3. Jim was studying to be a doctor __________ he met Sally. Jan met Sarah __________ half past eight outside the cinema. i) When the lights (go out) _________. b) She put the phone down. How did Brenda spend her holiday? ____ 3. f) When I (study) _________ abroad. What happened when the lights went out? ____ 4. You can use an expression more than once. Complete each sentence with a suitable time expression from the list. g) I (find) _________ my lost pen while I (look for) _________ my pencil sharpener. he cut his finger badly I first came to this town more than twenty years __________. so she (choose) _________ to stay on a small island. e) Pam (want) _________ a relaxing holiday. What were you doing __________ the police officer knocked on the door. e) She came to my brother’s birthday party. 4. d) She went to meet her parents at the restaurant. ago a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) in last week at when while Two burglars broke into the house while we were watching television. my parents (phone) _________ me every week. and sunbathed at the beach. 36 . d) When Tom (finish) _________ his letter. a) When Harry (wake up) woke up. I (lie) _________ in bed reading. What was Carol doing when you knocked on the door? a 2. b) Where (you leave) _________ your wallet when you (go) _________ swimming? c) Everyone (wait) _________ for the concert to begin when a message (arrive) _________. Did Ann hear what David said? ____ 7. __________ Dick was preparing lunch. Put each verb given into either past simple or past continuous. g) She wasn’t listening. When did you meet Kathy? ____ 5. __________ did you start playing basketball? Most of the young people left this village a long time __________. Tony bought his first motorbike __________ 1992. he (take) _________ it to the post office. c) She was listening to the radio in the kitchen.
when I saw that Dutch friend of yours. 3. 8. 4. I used to like / was liking sweets much more than I do now. c) He stood/ was standing up. You sat/ were sitting with your arm around Tom. 1. 2.j) When you (go) _________ to the new Chinese restaurant. She carried/ was carrying a baby. By the time Sheila got back. Choose the correct form of the verb: a) They fell/ were falling in love when they worked/ were working in Rome. I suddenly remembered that I forgot / had forgotten my keys. 4. Chris went / had gone. there was a power-cut. and closed/ was closing the window. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. a passing car (stop) stopped and the driver (offer) offered to help me. 37 . e) Didn’t you meet/ Weren’t you meeting your wife while you lived/ were living in Italy? f) I saw/ was seeing you in the park yesterday. 10. The police (pay) ________ no attention to Claire’s complaint because she (phone) ________ them so many times before. 7. Mary (not wear) ________ her glasses at the time. i) Why didn’t they visit/ weren’t they visiting me when they stayed/ were staying in London? j) What did you write/ were you writing when your computer crashed/ was crashing? 6. While Diana watched / was watching her favourite television programme. so he knew what to order. walked / was walking across the room. 9. b) She read/ was reading quietly in her room. 2. David ate / had eaten Japanese food before. g) As soon as I walked/ was walking into the room. Tom used to live / would live in the house at the end of the street. she handed / was handing me the letter. next to some tourists who (feed) ________ the ducks. 1. when suddenly the lights went / were going out and she heard / was hearing a scream. what (you eat) _________? 5. Only use the past perfect where there is absolutely necessary. Laura missed the party because no one was telling / told her about it. 7. Who was driving / drove the car at the time of the accident. While I (try) was trying to get my car started. Choose the most suitable tense. 3. 6. All sentences refer to past time. 5. Tanya would / used to be a doctor. Nick (lie) ________ down on the grass for a while. I did / was doing some shopping yesterday. d) A young woman walked/ was walking into the office. so she (not notice) ________ what kind of car the man (drive) ________. h) His father was really angry with him because he listened/ was listening to music while he did/ was doing his homework.
I was enjoying my holiday last year. I (2) _________ (not hesitate) to accept his invitation. When Professor Mallory. 6. the builders of the city (10) _________ (hide) it among the mountains in order to protect its immense riches. 4. I (not listen) ________ to you. I (think) ________ about something else. For a week or more we (15) _________ (climb) higher and higher. In fact most of Mallory’s colleagues in Oxford either (5) _________ (believe) that the city (6) _________ (never exist) or (7) _________ ( feel) that it (8) _________ (vanish) long ago and (9) _________ (become) simply a legend. which Mallory (16) _________ (study) from time to time. Everything had gone wrong! 10. . 8. and while she (finish) ________ her studying. According to the Professor. They all wanted to believe her.unsuitable 2. while we (17) _________ (rest) at the top of a valley. 9. she tried to remember what happened. Sorry. 9. The police (get) ________ to Claire’s house as fast as he could. I (phone) ________ you last night but you (not answer) ________. but the burglars (disappear) ________. but suspected she was lying. (1) invited (invite) me to take part in his expedition to find the lost city of the Himalayas. she (fall) ________ asleep. Then one afternoon. A rider whose clothes (20) _________ (shine) like gold! 38 . We (not go) ________ out yesterday because it (rain) ________. 8. someone knocked on the door. Tony (admit) ________ that he (hit) ________ the other car. As Peggy went home. Decide whether the tense underlined is suitable or not. Mallory (3) _________ (discover) an ancient map showing the position of the city. Helen (feel) ________ very tired. I didn’t know you had bought a new car. Although it rained a lot. Harry tried to repair the car. What (you do) ________? 10.5. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable past tense. 7. Were you eating spaghetti every day when you lived in Italy? 7. He (11) _________ (believe) that the descendents of these ancient people (12) _________ (still keep) themselves apart from the rest of mankind for the very same reasons. While I had a bath. each of us (14) _________ (look forward) to exciting discoveries. ‘What a terrible day!’ thought Lucy. although no European (4) _________ (ever go) to the area before. 9. we (18) _________ (notice) that a rider on a horse (19) _________ (wave) at us from the other side of the valley. but he didn’t really know what he was doing. What did you wear to the Martins’ party? 5. 1. Sally didn’t go to a boxing match before. 8. but said that he (not damage) ________ it. following the map. 3. So when we (13) _________ (set off) on a cool May morning towards the distant mountains. 6. the famous archaeologist.
Four out of five energy industry employees are set to retire over the next 15 years. Ce oraş ai vizitat anul trecut? 39 . Albert şi soţia lui mai vorbeau încă cu un poliţist. The energy company.500 new jobs over the next 10 years and has invested £3bn ($4. which is owned by Iberdrola of Spain. write your own CV.9bn) to improve its high-voltage transmission electricity network in Scotland. 3. Scotland’s first minister. telefonul încă mai suna când am deschis uşa. and ScottishPower said it wanted to attract a new generation of workers to the industry and was encouraging its contractors and companies in the wider supply chain to do likewise. Alex Salmond. exercise 1. a sunat telefonul. 2011) Translate the following sentences into English. (You can download and use the model provided at europass./CVTemplate) TRANSLATION Translate the following text into Romanian. Când Peter era tânăr alerga timp de o jumătate de ora în fiecare dimineaţă. dar când m-am întors el s-a oprit. 5.europa. paying attention to the use of Past Tense Simple and Continuous: 1. Type it or word process it if possible. Some of the jobs will be completely new while others will replace people who have retired. 4.. said the project would include the connection of up to 5GW of renewable energy. it will be essential that generators can distribute power to where it is needed. cineva a bătut la uşă. 2. Am cunoscut-o pe verişoara ta în 1998. Read the answers to the questions from READING. Taking into considerations these answers. August 17. “With [Scotland’s] plans to harness up to 10GW of offshore capacity in Scottish waters by 2020.. The company hopes to recruit graduate engineers and apprentices over the next decade as well as retrain under-25s into highly skilled jobs.cedefop. said: “ScottishPower’s plans to upgrade transmission will ensure the grid is capable of carrying increasing supplies of clean green energy generated to domestic and European markets. having in mind the tips given in the first unit: ScottishPower plans to create 1. în timp ce mergeam sa răspund.eu/europass/. alongside other renewable sources. Pe când îmi căutam ochelarii. b. helping Scotland achieve its 2020 carbon reduction targets.SKILLS FOCUS: WRITING – CV (RESUME) a. and extensive upgrades to the electricity grid links between England and Scotland. Când am plecat de la poliţie. Când l-ai văzut ultima dată? 6. Pay attention to the layout and features discussed.” (Financial Times.
etc.VOCABULARY GETTING A JOB look for work look for/apply for/go for a job get/pick up/complete/fill out/(British English) fill in an application (form) send/email your (British English) CV/(North American English) résumé/application/application form/covering letter be called for/have/attend an interview offer somebody a job/work/employment/promotion find/get/land a job employ/(especially North American English) hire/recruit/(especially British English) take on staff/workers/trainees recruit/appoint a manager DOING A JOB arrive at/get to/leave work/the office/the factory start/finish work/your shift do/put in/work overtime have/gain/get/lack/need experience/qualifications do/get/have/receive training learn/pick up/improve/develop (your) skills cope with/manage/share/spread the workload improve your/achieve a better work-life balance have (no) job satisfaction/job security BUILDING A CAREER have a job/work/a career/a vocation find/follow/pursue/(especially North American English) live (out) your vocation enter/go into/join a profession choose/embark on/start/begin/pursue a career change jobs/profession/career be/(both especially British English) work/go freelance do/take on temp work/freelance work do/be engaged in/be involved in voluntary work LEAVING YOUR JOB leave/(especially North American English) quit/resign from your job give up work/your job/your career hand in your notice/resignation plan to/be due to retire in June/next year.REMEMBER . take early retirement 40 .
Specific Bibliography 1. Unit 6: Recruitment (pages 33-36) 2. Past Perfect Continuous. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. Eric. Ian (2010) English for Business Studies – a Course for Business Studies and Economics students. Past Tense Simple. Past Perfect Simple. Mackenzie. CUP. Bucureşti: ALL Educational. 3rd edition. Past Tense Continuous. USED TO 41 . Fleischhack.
Now make adjectives where possible from the nouns in lists 1 and 2. job application . Which of the items in the lists below would be most important in your job? If you have a job now.) 1 patience honesty intelligence independence reliability efficiency confidence 2 humour ambition initiative stamina enthusiasm energy imagination creativity 3 4 good manners good communication leadership skills qualities a sympathetic a sense of humour manner ability to cope ability to work in a crisis under pressure 2. Look at these job advertisements. Try and answer the following questions about yourselves.revise and practice language related to jobs. 3. Do you think you have the right personal qualities and skills for the job? 3.write an application letter according to the commonly accepted rules . What job would you like to do in the future? 2. What sort of personal qualities and skills do you need for your job? (Some of the words below may help you. What job do you do? 2.revise and practice Present Perfect Simple .understand how information is structured in an application letter . 1.Unit 4: APPLYING FOR A JOB OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . Which job would you prefer? Why? 42 . Why did you choose it? 3. If you are still a student. 1.develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN 1.
London W1 4. Applicants must be imaginative. enthusiastic young person is required to train as a Sales Manager in our foreign book sales department. depending on experience. A smart appearance is essential. plus a command of English. Prospects are excellent for applicants who can take responsibility and who really want to get to the top. reliable and self confident. hood humour and excellent communication skills. Eurotours. Ability to keep cool in a crisis is essential! Applicants must speak good English. Spain (Please enclose your CV) Trainee Sales Manager Required A confident. Apply in writing. What are all the qualities you think you would need for each of the jobs? Make some notes under these headings: Tourist Guide Sales Manager 43 Radio Presenter . Training will be given where required but a high degree of hard work and commitment will be demanded in return. Apply in writing to: Personnel Manager. Apply in writing to: Shortman Publishing House 9. Clifton Street Kensington. Granada. to: NTV Radio. You will need patience. You will need excellent communication skills. both as presenters and behind the scenes.TOURIST GUIDE Do you want to work for one of the most up and coming companies in International Tourism? Do you: know this area well? have experience in dealing with groups? speak at least two languages? We have a vacancy for a Tourist Guide. Excellent prospects and salary. A smart appearance and pleasant manner are essential. Salary negotiable. PO Box 892. London WC6 8LP WORK FOR NTV RADIO! New world service radio station is looking for talented young people for a variety of opportunities.
c. Look at the Tourist Guide advertisement.5. c. 4. c. This is the letter one of the applicants wrote for the job of Tourist Guide. Read it carefully. I feel sure my studies recommend me for the job. I always make the best decisions. I am totally knowledgeable about this type of work. I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary. b. 200- 5 Personnel Manager Eurotours Calle Principal Granada 10 Spain 44 . b. b. I can make decisions when it is really necessary. I have a genuine interest in this kind of work. I hope I am right for this sort of work. 2. I know this type of work. 2) a. 2. 1) a. I can maintain friendly relationships with people. I am well liked by everybody. c. 5) a. 3) a. READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. I am quite interested in this type of work. What sort of person are you looking for? What do you need to hear from a good applicant? How formal would you expect their letter to be? 7. I am incredibly keen on and interested in this type of work. Underline the most important details which you should refer to in a letter of application. What information should be included in a letter of application? What would you like a future employer to know about you? What do you think the future employer would like to know about you? Make a list. I am a friendly person. 4) a. then answer the following questions: 1. b. 3. Here are some lines from the letters of application of different candidates. b. Now imagine you are the Personnel Manager of Eurotours. Choose the most appropriate and convincing sentence in each group and give reasons for your choice. c. I am sure I am the best person for the job. Do you think Eurotours will be impressed by his letter? Has he supplied all the details requested? Is the language and style he uses formal or informal? Is this appropriate? Has he included any unnecessary information? 4 Green Street Kensington London 5 August. I am familiar with this type of work. 6.
My mother is Spanish and I therefore have a perfect understanding of Spanish people. In my spare time I play basketball for a local team of which I have recently been made captain. Yours faithfully. In this job. Since leaving University. I very well qualified for this job. my main responsibilities include guiding groups around the city and dealing with bookings and accommodation. As you can see from my references. As my CV shows. a) If you work hard. They refer back to words or information given earlier in the text. I have been working as a courier here in England. as shown in the example. In fact have been named ‘Courier of the Month’ by our local tourist board on two occasions. In addition to these. I studied tourism at London University from 1997-2000 and obtained enclosed diploma. I am at present taking classes in German. b) In a different job. this job (line 16) -> Tourist Guide 15 20 25 30 35 40 VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1. I saw your advertisement for a Tourist Guide in this week’s edition of ‘Travel’ and would like to apply for the post. this included a special course on tourism in Europe. we decided that … 45 . Before that I had a job with Smith’s Travel Agency in London. The words in bold type are important because they help to link the text together. Use each ending once only. I would now like to broaden my experience as a courier.Dear Sir/Madam. with the chances for promotion this would provide. Find the words they refer to. As you can see. I speak Spanish and French fluently. There I answered telephone enquiries and dealt with holiday bookings. For the past year. I would be able to come for interview at any time. I have plenty of patience and good humour. the company will give you 4. I would also welcome the chance to work for a large company like yours. I know Andalucia especially well as I have spent most of my holidays around this region. As regards languages. Complete each sentence from a) to j) with one ending from 1 to 10. their language and the country. I have also done a number of training courses in different aspects of the tourist industry (certificates enclosed). I could get a higher … c) The best way to find new staff is to put a/an … d) Because he had stolen the money. I look forward to hearing from you. I also help out with the local youth club. Chris Jones 3.
e) She has a pleasant personality but hasn’t got the right … f) In the meeting we are going to discuss the … g) As he has three young children he doesn’t want to … h) I think it would be a good idea to send in your … i) I’m afraid that in this job there aren’t very good … j) We cannot give you the job without … 1. … qualifications for a job of this kind. 2. … advertisement in the local press on Friday. 3. … application for the job as soon as possible. 4. … promotion to a more responsible position. 5. … full time employment at the moment. 6. … references from your previous employer. 7. … dismissing him was the only possible action we could take. 8. … prospects for the future at the moment. 9. … salary and better conditions of employment. 10. … appointment of a new sales representative. 2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) The building workers were paid their income / salary / wages every Friday. She’s only here for three weeks. It’s a / an full-time / overtime / temporary job. When he retired he received a monthly bonus / pension / reward. Apparently she earns / gains / wins over $20,000 a year. While the boss is away, Sue will be in charge / in control / in place of the office. Could I have two days away / off / out next week to visit my mother? Paul was always arriving late, and in the end he was pushed / sacked / thrown. When I left the job, I had to hand in my application / dismissal / notice three weeks beforehand. i) How much exactly do you do / make / take in your new job? j) If you have to travel on company business, we will pay your costs / expenses / needs. 3. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words given, and so that the meaning stays the same. Do not change the words given in any way. 1. Terry works in a different place now. Terry has a new job now. 2. A good boss looks after everyone in the company. 3. I’m sure you will learn a lot in this job. 4. This job is a good way to earn money, but that’s all. 5. The firm gave me a rise after I had worked there a year. 6. The company was profitable last year. 7. I had to be interviewed at the head office. 8. My monthly salary is $1000. 9. Jill is employed by a firm of accountants. 10. We advertised the job in the paper. JOB EMPLOYER EXPERIENCE LIVING RAISED MADE ATTEND A YEAR WORKS PUT
4. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space:
Choosing a job One of the most difficult decisions in choosing what to do for a (1) B. For example, do you want to follow a definite (2) ________, and (3) ________ a low (4) ________ at the beginning, but have good (5) ________ in a company that trains its (6) ________? Or are you more interested in taking any kind of work, because you need a/an (7) ________? You may have to (8) ________ the fact that a good (9) ________ can be difficult to find. In that case, why not take a (10) ________ one? You will gain some useful (11) ________. Remember that even if you have the right (12) ________, you may have to (13) ________ lots of application forms before you are asked to (14) ________ an interview. But don’t worry if you don’t know what you want to (15) ________ exactly. You’ll enjoy finding out! 1. A) salary 2. A) company 3. A) earn 4. A) money 5. A) hopes 6. A) employers 7. A) money 8. A) face up to 9. A) work 10. A) temporary 11. A) experiences 12. A) qualifications 13. A) fall through 14. A) be 15. A) work B) living B) training B) gain B) profit B) prospects B) crew B) cash B) go over B) labour B) overtime B) experienced B) exams B) get on B) attend B) job C) employee C) business C) win C) cheque C) futures C) staff C) account C) come up with C) job C) profitable C) experience C) letters C) turn down C) make C) do D) work D) career D) take D) salary D) promotions D) persons D) income D) call off D) seat D) short D) experiencing D) degrees D) fill in D) advertise D) employ
LANGUAGE FOCUS: Present Perfect Simple
1. Present result of the past: We use the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE to talk about a present situation which is a result of something that happened at an unspecified time in the past. Therefore we do not use specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, etc. I have given your report to the teacher. (I gave him your report and he has it now – this is the present result) I have sent them the books they wanted. (I sent them. They are probably in the post now.) 2. Completed activities in the recent past: the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE is often used with words such as just, of late, recently, lately, up to now, so far, up to the present, already, yet etc., which refer to a period of time that is very close to the present moment. I’m sorry, Mrs Smith is not here. She has just left. I have not seen Jack lately. 47
Already is used in positive sentences. It often indicates that something has taken place slightly earlier than expected. Notice its position in the sentence: She has already shown me the figures. Yet is used in question and negatives. It shows that we expect an action will take place if it has not happened up to now. Notice the position of yet: Have you talked to Peter yet? I have not talked to him yet. 3. Unfinished periods of time: the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE is often used with prepositions or prepositional phrases indicating periods of time that have not finished yet. Common examples are: today, this morning, this month, this year, these days, these weeks, over the last few days, all day, all night etc. This month we have received a lot of complaints. (The month has not finished, and there may be more complaints.) If we are speaking after one of these time periods, we use the simple past because we are referring to a period of time that has finished. Compare: Have you seen John this morning? (It is now 11.15 in the morning; the morning has not finished.) Did you see John this morning? (It is now 2.30 in the afternoon; the morning has finished.) 4. Indefinite periods of time: the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE is often used with words such as: ever, never, often, seldom, always, several times etc. to talk about general life experience. Have you ever worked abroad? (That is, in all your life up to now?) I have never been to America. (That is, not in all my life up to now.) The PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE with ever is often followed by the SIMPLE PAST. We use the SIMPLE PAST to give more information about a completed action, when referring to a specific time or context: Have you ever been to Hong Kong? Yes, I have. I worked there two years ago. 5. For and since: The PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE is often used with for and since to talk about things that began in the past and have continued up to now: They have not seen Alice since 2001/Christmas/she went to London.
For refers to a period of time that continues up to the present. But almost single-handedly she (4) transformed / has transformed Chloé into the most talked about fashion brand in the world. we can use How long …? + present perfect: How long have you been in England? I have been here since August.Since denotes the beginning point of a period of time that extends up to the present. Previously Chloé (3) was / has beenvirtually invisible as a major force in the world of fashion. ‘I want to bridge the gap between the consumer and the press. When she (8) was / has been appointed it (9) was / has been clear she (10) knew / has known what she (11) had / has had to do. In the first year. Stella (12) stuck / has stuck to her philosophy of avoiding outrageous and commercial catwalk creations. It (2) took / has taken her just one year to reverse its fortunes. RIGHT: I have been here since December. (1) joined / has joined the troubled Paris fashion house Chloé barely a year ago. Stella McCartney. To ask questions about periods of time. Complete the memo with the past simple or present perfect forms of the verbs in brackets: Memo To: Peter Thompson From: Marie Delacroix Date: October 25th Re: Counterfeiting I’m worried about the sales of the range of fragrances we (1) _____________ (launch) two years ago. Choose between the past simple and present perfect. PRACTICE 1. As her best friends are Kate Moss. fashion is just sort of stuck in the middle.15/Monday/the 18th/last week/June/1999/I left school etc. it also brings her big publicity. She (13) kept / has kept to the simple philosophy of designing clothes that she or her friends would like to wear. !COMMON MISTAKES: We do not use the present simple tense with for and since to talk about something that began in the past and has gone up to the present: WRONG: I am here since December. Common examples: since 10. At the moment. Common examples: for ten minutes/five days/three months/two years/a long time/ages etc. She (5) increased / has increased sales fivefold. Naomi Campbell and Yasmin Le Bon. Paul McCartney’s daughter. Paris (6) didn’t see / hasn’t seen anything like it since the young Yves Saint Laurent (7) took / has taken the city by storm 30 years ago. 2.’ So far. These boys have been here for half an hour. sales (2) _____________ (increase) 49 .
sales (3) _____________ (fall) by almost 10%. 3. There (3) _____________ (be) a great deal of interest in our 50 . He is introducing himself and the company to new sales recruits. I (1) _____________ (leave) university 20 years ago and then I (2) _____________ (go) to the United States. However. I (6) _____________ (organise) a team of investigators. In the last three months we (11) _____________ (cut) costs by almost 5%. Complete his speech with the past simple or present perfect forms of the verbs in brackets. so I’m faxing you this short report. A year ago we (8) _____________ (reorganise) our Sales Department and. Good morning and congratulations on becoming a member of Caferoma’s successful sales team. which the police (8) _____________ (seize) and impounded. +44 132 1175 Attention: David Black From: Nathalie Druot th Date: November 7 Subject: Sales trip CARIBCOOL INTERNATIONAL 20 Rue de Pontoise Paris 75005 France Telephone: + 33 1 92 08 56 67 Fax:+ 33 1 92 08 56 68 Pages including this: 1 Dear David. First. Up to now. I’ve tried to phone you several times but have been unable to contact you. I (5) _____________ (become) Head Of Sales last July and I (6) _____________ (not have) a holiday ever since. Yesterday. Several firms in SE Asia (4) _____________ (copy) our designs and are now flooding the French market with them. Read this fax sent by Nathalie Druot. Last month. Peter Fisher is Caferoma’s Head of Sales. The reason for this is clear. I’m Peter Fisher. Complete the fax with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Bringing us up to date.steadily. I (3) _____________ (join) Caferoma 15 years ago and (4) _____________ (work) in the Sales Department for 10 years. since November. 4. they (7) _____________ (find) many counterfeit goods. since the beginning of this year. I (9) _____________ (contact) several firms who (10) _____________ (inform) me that they (11) _____________ (have) similar problems. This (5) _____________ (become) a serious problem. FAX MESSAGE To: Marten Bros. a sales representative in France for Caribcool International. I’ll introduce myself and then I’ll tell you a little bit about your new company. last week Caferoma (12) _____________ (launch) an advertising campaign for a low-priced decaffeinated product. Head of Sales. It will be your first job to sell this product. Caferoma (7) _____________ (be) the market leader for many years now. They all (12) _____________ (lose) sales because of counterfeiting. I know you want to hear about my recent sales trip. I (1) _____________ (visit) a number of supermarkets and hypermarkets in Southern France where I (2) _____________ (give) presentations of our new products. our turnover (9) _____________ (increase) by 12% and our share price (10) _____________ (rise) sharply because of our excellent results. During the trip.
Maybe he could be our area rep in the South of France. I _____________________ a friend of yours. a) We started working here three years ago. He (10) _____________ (have) a difficult time lately. I (7) _____________ (go) to Montpellier and (8) _____________ (have) an enjoyable lunch with Martine Roland – one of our best customers. Last Saturday. We have worked here for three years.relaunched cola drink. g) Is this your first visit to South America? Have _____________________ before? h) Oh bother! My wallet is still in the car. b) This is the first time I have been on a plane. In Montpellier and Bordeaux. He knows the French market inside out. I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from her. Match the clauses in list A with the clauses in list B to form sentences in the past simple or present perfect simple: 51 . Oh bother! I _____________________ my wallet in the car. and I’m simply not able to cover the whole of France by myself. We _____________________ to your sister for a long time. i) It’s a long time since we spoke to your sister. f) I’m still writing my letters. This morning. our sales in the South (13) _____________ (fall) by almost 10% in the last nine months or so. We must do something to improve our performance. I (15) _____________ (just finish) writing it. I ran into Francois Duperrier. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. e) I saw a friend of yours a few moments ago. They think it effective – very clever and humorous! The commercial should really boost Gogo’s sales and get everyone talking about the drink. Gogo. He (11) _____________ (leave) his last job in May and since then. I (4) _____________ (meet) the owners of some large retail outlets and (5) _____________ (inform) them of our new discount policy. I think it’ll be a winner over here. Our TV commercial for Gogo was shown for the first time last night. he (12) _____________ (be) unemployed. saying how much they liked it. Sorry it’s a bit late. so you should get it in a few day’s time. So far. What do you think? As you know. several people (14) _____________ (phone) me. I _____________________ my letters yet. no one (6) _____________ (complain) about the lower discounts we are offering. She promised to buy 20 cases of Gogo. This can’t go on. Nicky and Jan ______________ this school. but I (9) _____________ (not receive) an order from her yet. I _____________________ before. j) Is Anna still asleep? Has _____________________ up yet? 6. Nathalie 5. Some good news now. Finally a word about my October sales report. Best wishes. c) That’s strange! My pen isn’t here! That’s strange! _____________________ disappeared! d) Nicky and Jan aren’t at this school any more. In Nimes.
g) I (hope) ______ you aren’t a vegetarian. and now I (just lose) have just lost my gloves. I’ve ______ been on a big ship before. there (not be) ______ any tickets left. about 50 years ago. 8. I’ve ______ passed this building. c) We (be) ______ here for hours. but this is the first time I’ve been inside. A lot of cinemas have closed He published a new novel People have started to watch TV Millions of people have seen the play The Mousetrap I have seen her new film Television programmes have got worse She decided to become an actress She has finished a new film I went to my first concert a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 1. 52 . and he (go) ______ to hospital. Thanks for the present! I’ve ______ wanted a pet goldfish! Have you ______ drunk pineapple juice? It’s fantastic! I’ve ______ heard some fantastic news! I’ve passed my exams! Hurry up! Haven’t you finished ______? You are a slow-coach! Nina has worked in this company ______ five years. e) We (have) ______ some coffee after that and then (catch) ______ the bus home. It’s an interesting experience! We’re very busy today. 5. since they allowed private channels. h) Recently a lot of young people (take up) ______ in-line skating. Put a time word or phrase from the list into each space: yet never a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) for already since so far often just ever always Carlos has lived in the city centre since 1996. f) I (never eat) ______ octopus. but it hasn’t opened yet. b) I (work) ______ for Blue Bank at the moment but I (decide) ______ to change jobs. 8. j) Please come quickly! Nick (have) ______ an accident. 7. a) Last week I (lose) lost my scarf. 7. past simple or present simple. Put each verb given into either present perfect simple. when I was twelve. but once on holiday I (eat) ______ some squid. Can I have a different book? I’ve ______ read this one. 3. 4. i) When we (reach) ______ the cinema. 2. since the arrival of video. 9. I (cook) ______ you some lamb chops.A 1. Are you sure we (come) ______ to the right place? d) (you see) ______ my calculator? I’m sure I (leave) ______ it here earlier. when she was ten years old. B since it opened in 1952. ______ we’ve sold over a hundred bikes. twice already last year. 6.
2. correct (no errors) and accurate. A vorbit foarte încet şi nu am înţeles nimic.com/cs/jobapplications/a/jobapplication. the employer has a record of your personal and employment history. It is the plan Chris Jones made before he wrote the letter of application you read earlier.telephone and holiday bookings letter Training / Qualifications Diploma – London Univ. It's important for your job applications to be complete. TRANSLATION Translate the following text into Romanian: When you apply for a job you are typically asked to complete an employment application.about. 1. make sure you have all information you need ready before you apply for a job. Regardless of whether you complete an online job application or apply inperson. (http://jobsearch. Ieri ne-am întâlnit şi mi-a dat o carte. Write a letter of application for one of the jobs advertised at the beginning of this unit.SKILLS FOCUS: WRITING . Here is the information you will need to complete an application for employment and tips and suggestions for writing applications that make a great impression. You may be asked to complete a job application even if you have already submitted a resume and cover letter. Hobbies basketball youth club Availability for interview anytime Knowledge of area Mum – Spanish Holidays - Andalucia Languages Sp & Fr classes in German Past experience Smith’s Travel Agency . verified and signed by the applicant. That way. 53 . Training courses Present job courier here in England -guiding & booking References patience good humour b.htm) Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the use of past simple and present perfect.Letter of Application a. Study this spidergraph.
job = a piece of work that somebody has to do: I've got various jobs around the house to do. informal) the dole be on/qualify for (North American English) unemployment (compensation) be/go/live/depend (North American English) on welfare collect/receive (North American English) welfare combat/tackle/cut/reduce unemployment TASK / DUTIES/ MISSION/ JOB / CHORE . 7. 8. 4. 5.3. Când l-ai văzut ultima dată? Ce oraş ai vizitat anul trecut când ai fost la conferinţă? Ai încercat vreodată să-l ajuţi? Nu ne-am mai întâlnit de luni de zile. 54 . especially when they are sent to another country: They undertook a fact-finding mission in the region. duties = tasks that are part of your job: Your duties will include setting up a new computer system. De când este plecată? REMEMBER . 6. Surorile mele tocmai au venit de la birou. especially a difficult or unpleasant one: Our first task will be to set up a communications system. task = a piece of work that somebody has to do. am fost foarte ocupaţi cu problemele de la serviciu.are all words for a piece of work that somebody has to do. 9. informal) on the dole claim/draw/get (British English. mission = an important official job that a person or group of people is given to do.VOCABULARY UNEMPLOYMENT Losing your job lose your job become/be made redundant (British English) be offered/take voluntary redundancy/early retirement face/be threatened with dismissal/(British English) the sack/(British English) compulsory redundancy dismiss/fire/(especially British English) sack an employee/a worker/a manager lay off staff/workers/employees cut/reduce/downsize/slash the workforce Being unemployed be unemployed/out of work/out of a job seek/look for work/employment be on/collect/draw/get/receive (both British English) unemployment benefit/jobseeker's allowance be/go/live/sign (British English. Am cunoscut-o pe actual mea şefă în 1998.
David. Present Perfect Simple 55 . Prelipceanu. Fleischhack. especially in the home. Bucureşti: ALL Educational. Editura Universitară. Ioncică. Rotariu. chore = a task that you have to do regularly. Eric. Diana. Irina. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. or a job can be something that takes a long time and is boring and/or needs a lot of patience. A job may be something small that is one of several jobs that you have to do. Raluca (2005) – First Steps in Business. Bucureşti. Cristina. Unit 10: Applying for a Job (pages 132-146) 2. . TASK OR JOB? A task may be more difficult than a job and require you to think carefully about how you are going to do it. especially one that you do in the home and find unpleasant or boring: household chores the task/mission/job/chore of (doing) something o daily/day-to-day task/duties/job/chore o routine task/duties/mission/job/chore (a/an) easy/difficult task/mission/job household/domestic task/duties/job/chore to do a task/a job/the chores to finish a task/a mission/a job/the chores to give somebody a task/their duties/a mission/a job/a chore Specific Bibliography: 1.
to give a reason or incentive for someone to do something. skilled C. wages 6. sales promotion 9. usually monthly for professional or office work. A. earning B.revise and practice Present Perfect Continuous . earner B. employer 3. A. working for money. motivate B. job security 10. command B. labour relations C. labour unions 4.develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN Which words do the following sentences define? 1. A. Having particular abilities. A person employed by someone else.understand how information is structured in a summary . salary C. wages 7. earnings B. managers and workers. profits C. A. Knowing that there is little risk of losing one’s job. To inspire. employee C. power C. apart from wages or salary. A. educated B. A fixed regular payment made by employers. benefits B. motivation B. A. bureaucracy B. human relations B. To be raised to a higher rank or better job. talented 56 .develop and practice language related to work and motivation .Unit 5: WORK AND MOTIVATION OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . Advantages that come with a job. A. A.write a short argumentative essay based on the topic of the unit . Relations between employers. Money paid (per hour or day or week) to manual workers. A. supplements 8. salary C. management and unions. provoke 2. Having control of something as part of your job. to induce. promotion C. A. acquired by training. promote C. job safety C. responsibility 5.
Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. 2. employers should give their workers responsibilities because … 57 . Later theorists argued that Theory Y makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than McGregor realised. who named them Theory X and Theory Y. Read the text again and complete the following sentences. Statement Theory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 THEORY X AND THEORY Y In The Human Side of Enterprise. 6. What he calls theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work. they will enjoy it. Under the right conditions. Douglas McGregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation. who need protection against the burden of responsibility. 8. These two approaches were summarised by a well-known American theorist of the psychology of work. 3. According to Theory X. with little selfdiscipline. and that they have to be both threatened (for example. He pointed out that there always weak and vulnerable people. People want to be interested in their work and. given the right conditions. According to Theory Y. on the contrary. and concluded that its demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction. 2. most people will accept responsibility and want to realise their own potential. Which of the following statements seem to you to be generally true? 1. with losing their job) and rewarded. Most people are far more creative and ingenious than their employers realise. Abraham Maslow. It assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Read the following text and then classify the statements above according to which theory they support. 5. 4.READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. spent a year studying at a Californian company that used Theory Y. using your own words as much as possible. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty. employers have to threaten workers because … 2. You may have noticed that the statements above can be separated into two groups reflecting two very different ways in which employers can treat their employees. Douglas McGregor. People avoid responsibility and would rather be told what to do. Theory Y. People dislike work and avoid it if they can. Work is necessary to people’s psychological well-being. assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility. 7. People are motivated mainly by money. People are motivated by anxiety about their security. 3. for example. 1.
the most ecological or the most reliable products in a particular field. mindless. ‘dissatisfiers’ where they do not exist. For example. good administration and good labour relations good working conditions: enough space. However. and job security motivate workers. and lots of unskilled people who have to do them. One of the most important functions of a manager is to motivate the employees under his or her authority. as doing four different repetitive jobs a day is better than doing only one. interesting creative job responsibility contact with people opportunities to travel holidays and Are there any other important factors that are not listed here? 5. a pension. or making the best. and benefits such as paid holidays. on the contrary. include things such as having a challenging and interesting job. or hamburger restaurant chain. They are merely ‘satisfiers’ or. 58 . Frederick Hertzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets. has argued that many of the featured listed above do not in fact motivate people. more importantly. recognition and responsibility. the safest. and by definition. ‘SATISFIERS’ AND ‘MOTIVATORS’ It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations. good working conditions. But how? What kind of things motivates you? Which of the following factors have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job? Classify them in order of importance. the people who fill the shelves. So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities. ‘Motivators’. Another well-known theorist of the psychology of work. and so on. or airline. and so on an adequate wage or salary. even with the development of computers and robotics. heat and time. Maslow argued that even though they might want to be given responsibilities at work … 4. there is only a limited number of such goals to go round. But in Work and the Nature of Man. Unfortunately. not as individuals but as part of a team. some supermarkets combine office staff. with which all the company can identify: for example.3. Many people now talk about the importance of a company’s shared values or corporate culture. there are and always will be plenty of boring. repetitive and mechanical jobs in all three sectors of the economy. Read the following text and find out why. Frederick Herzberg. good wages and benefits. how to display them every couple of hours. which ultimately only concern a few people. sick pay. and the people who work on the checkout tills into a team and let them decide what product lines to stock. and so on job security a challenging. not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best. the most user-friendly. not too much noise. being the best hotel chain. promotion. light. Maslow criticised Theory Y because … 4.
59 . 2) She answered an advertisement. – KNOW All the _________ in this company are given free meals. – CARE Helen has become a _________ businesswoman. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word given. 3) She decided to leave. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) She was given the sack. 4) She did the job carefully. interesting and responsible jobs are motivating is that … 4. Read the text again and complete the following sentences using your own words as much as possible. The problem with saying that only challenging. – QUALIFY Mr Dale was my _________ for ten years. 1. 7) She got a rise She got a promotion. – EMPLOY Paul has good ideas. She was conscientious. but writes very _________. – SUCCEED I hope to leave school with some useful _________. 8) She wanted a better job. The problem with trying to motivate workers by the belief that their company is the best is that … VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1. 7) She was dismissed. She was ambitious. 6) She earned her money that way. – COME John’s _________ of history is amazing for a boy of his age. 5) She didn’t have a job.6. the French lesson starts at ten. 3. Hertzberg suggested that good labour relations and working conditions … 2. so she has a high _________. and paid me well. business job living work 1. She resigned She was unemployed. I’m afraid. According to Herzberg. Jack makes his living working as a journalist. The words can be used more than once. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Nowadays it is very important to get a good education. She did it for a living. 1) She was given a better job. – EMPLOY 2. 2. 10) She was given more money. Ways of motivating people in unskilled jobs include … 5. 9) She was old and stopped work. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. the kind of things that motivate … 3. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence 1) to 10) with a similar meaning. – TIME Cathy has three jobs. – EMPLOY According to the _________. She retired She applied for the job. She has just left to go to _______. – EDUCATE Our company helps _________ people to find new jobs.
2. 8. The cost of _______ has risen greatly over recent years. Finished and unfinished activities: We use the PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE if we are talking about a recently completed action. Have you been reading war and Peace? 2.) Notice that we do not have any definite time expressions with this value. There are still two million people without _______. Explain the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences: 1.) We can use the present perfect simple to express this value as well. I can’t come out tonight. I am still trying to ring them. a. (They started producing cars 10 years ago. since and How long …? and other expressions of duration (e. The activity may have been going on continuously or repeated several times: They have been producing cars here for 10 years. 60 .000. (It is finished.) I have been trying to ring them all day. all day etc) to talk about activities that started in the past and are still happening now. We use the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS when something is still going on.) I have been writing a report for Janet. I have lived here since 1978. 3. They are still producing cars. but. 5. We have been selling tickets since March. Unfinished activities: The PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS is used with for. b. the continuous form of the present perfect is preferred if we want to emphasize how long an action has been in progress.000. a. 7. I have been living here since 1978. (I am still writing it. 9. We have just sold out of tickets. b. An early _______ by Picasso was sold for $2. They worked very hard and now they have their own _______.3. a. Have you read War and Peace? b.g. 10. Stop interfering! This is none of your _______. sometimes. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Present Perfect Continuous 1. whose result is sometimes relevant to the present. Some _______-men came and dug a hole in the road outside. (I started trying to ring them this morning. Compare: I have written a report for Janet. 4. PRACTICE 1. Lucy has got a very good _______ in an international company. I’ve got too much _______ to do. especially if we give details of how much or how many. 6.
We’re enjoying our trip. Paul has ______________________ the room. We’ve had a very interesting trip (a) so far. 1. 8. 4. not yet. but I have decided / decided not to accept. It started / has started raining. 4. I’m standing / I have been standing here for hours and I feel tired. and can speak well. 6. Shall we go? I (look forward) am looking forward to seeing it. Take your umbrella with you. I ______________________ French since March. This has been / was a busy day and it isn’t over yet! 10. A: Why is your leg in plaster? B: That’s a silly question! I (break) ______ it. She’s been (i) ______ every day. d) I’m still reading this book. c) I have had French lessons since March. 5. 3. and we’ve had some interesting adventures (b) ______ the last time we wrote. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. 3. I feel really tired. but Ann (h) ______ picked up quite a lot. and they’ve been (f) ______ us the local language. Mary ______________________ to the shops. 2. and she has (j) ______ me everything she knows. I’m afraid the last train left / has left an hour ago. 7. We have visited / visited two countries so far. 3. We went / have been to a party last night. I ______________________ reading this book yet.2. 2. 9. I haven’t managed to learn much (g) ______. (you see) Have you seen it? B: No. in either present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. but there’s no reply. 1. We’ve (c) ______ to some beautiful islands. and I (not finish) ______ yet. Put one suitable word in each space. I live here / have lived here since the end of last year. A: Someone (write) ______ “Time for a break” on the plaster! 4. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. and (d) ______ a lot of interesting people. A: What’s the matter? You look really tired! B: I am! I (study) ______ all day. using the verbs given. I have been living here for three months. In fact (e) ______ we’ve made friends with some people in a village. A: (you hear) ______ the news? B: What news? A: Someone (rob) ______ the bank at the end of the road. Complete each mini-dialogue. a) I came to live here three months ago. Someone has just stolen / has just been stealing my bike. Yesterday I lost / have lost my wallet. e) Paul left the room a moment ago. 61 . 5. of course. b) Mary is out at the shops at the moment. A: Oh well. A: I (phone) ______ Carol all day. 5. B: I expect she (go) ______ swimming with her friends. Thank you for your offer. time for a break. A: Terminator 3 is on at the Rex.
Rewrite each sentence. and I ________ (to have) it for the last three years. I have ______________________ Helen’s phone number. g) I’ve been feeling ill three weeks ago. 2. He’s still at the university. Tom ________ (to play) football when he ________ (to be) at school. I ________ (never to eat) snails and. Present Perfect Continuous or Past Tense Simple: 1. before that he ________ (to spend) four years in high school.” 6. c) “What have you been doing all day?” “I’ve been written letters.” “Oh. I ______________________ to the cinema for ages.” d) When have you arrived in this city? _______________________.” 7. When George ________ (to come) into the room.f) Ten of the letters are ready.” “Funny! I ________ (not to hear) her. j) Tony has leaved his books on the bus. “I ________(just to hear) that Emily is in Spain.” “How long ________ he ________ (to be) at the university?” “He ________ (to b e) there for three years. David ______________________ his mind. Father ________(to drive) it for the first six years. Lucy ________ (to sit) in an armchair in the corner of the room.” 5. e) You have ever been to India? _______________________. _______________________. my sister ________ (to use) it for the next two years. 7. This car ________(to be) in our family for more than eleven years. _______________________. Underline the errors in these sentences. _______________________. g) It’s ages since I last went to the cinema. “________you ________ (ever to eat) snails?” “No. 6. We ________ (not to see) them for ages! Where ________ you ________ (to be)? 4. I wouldn’t eat them. a) My penfriend is writing to me for years but has never sent me a photo. She ________ (to go) straight to the kitchen. i) I don’t remember Helen’s phone number. _______________________. Then Lucy ________ (to cough) and George ________ (to turn) round quickly and ________ (to say): “Excuse me. i) I wait here a long time. f) Paula has been stayed in a hotel by the sea. I haven’t played (not to play) football since I broke (to break) my leg. “Mother ________ (not to come) back yet?” “Yes. I ______________________ snails before. 3. I (not to see) you.” 8. h) I live in this city since I was born. I ______________________ ten letters so far. _______________________. George ________ (not to see) Lucy and he ________ (to go) to the bookcase ________ (to choose) a book. don’t you know she ________ (to leave) our town at the end of July? I ________ (to receive) a letter from her the other day. b) We have started this course three weeks ago. “My brother ________ (not to start) work yet. she ________(to come) half an hour ago. My penfriend has been writing to me for years but has never sent me a photo. if I were you. j) David has a different opinion now. 9.” 62 . h) This is the first time I have eaten snails. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect Simple. Where have you been? _______________________.
At 6 o’clock PM Mr. Peter ________ (to meet) Robert at school yesterday morning and ________ (to tell) him: “I ________ (not to see) you at the bus stop this morning.” “And what she ________ (to do) before that?” “She ________ (to work) in a shoe factory. but so far nothing ________ (to be) decided. Choose the most suitable tense: 1.” 14. “________ you ________ (to see) any good plays lately?” “Yes . I ________ (to love) it. Did you see / Have you seen my bag anywhere? 2. White. he ________ (not to enjoy) it at all. I ________ (to go) to the theatre last week. 15. But.” 16. she understands almost everything.” 13. “I (not to see) him today. That is why he ________ (to come) to our factory where he ________ (to work) for more than a year now. ________ (to dictate) four letters and ________ (to tell) Peggy to type them quickly.” I ________ (to answer) him. From the minute he got up this morning Gary asked/has been asking silly questions! 4. Now I am typing the letter to Mr. ________ you ________ (to miss) the bus?” “I ________ (not to miss) it.” 8. “How long ________ Peter ________ (to work) in that office?” “He ________ (to work) there for two years. James ________ (to be) since he ________ (to arrive) in Romania?” “Oh. Peggy’s employer.” 12. “Where else ________ Mr. and I ________ (to see) a French comedy. “How long ________ Lucy ________ (to be) in her present job?” “I think she ________ (to be) there for three years. “But my sons ________ (to go) to the cinema this afternoon and they ________ (not come) back yet. she ________(not to know) a word.” 11. I ________ (not to understand) very many words. Jackson yet. Perhaps Hob ________ (to go) with them. but he ________ (not to visit) Iasi yet.” “________ you ________ (to like)it?” “Yes. but she ________(to work) hard since then and so. But this morning my neighbour ________ (to give) me a lift.” 19. Mr. “I hear that your secretary ________ (to leave). He ________ (to say): “________ you ________ (to finish) all the letters?” “I ________ (to type) the letters to the Oil Company and to Mr. she __ ______ (to leave) two weeks ago. Have you given/Did you give Helen my message when you have seen /saw her? 63 . “________ your friend ________ (to know) any English when she first ________ (to arrive)?” “No. “I ________ (not to miss) the bus for months. Sullivan. Williams.” 18.” “________ he ________ (to enjoy) working there?” “No.” ________ (to answer) Peter. he ________ (to be) to the monasteries in Northern Moldavia. of course. “________ Harold ________(to book) the hotel room yet?” “Well. About an hour later he ________ (to ring) Peggy’s office. 3. but they ________(not to answer) him yet. I suppose. he ________ (to write) to the hotel ten days ago.” 17.” “Yes. but I ________ (not to begin) the one to Mr.” “________ anybody ________ (to be) appointed in her place?” “I think several women ________ (to apply) for the job. Larry is writing/has been writing/has written his novel for the last two years without getting further than Chapter One.10. brown ________(to ring) me up and ________ (to say): “Is Hob with you?” Hob is his son and he ________ (to come) to my place almost every day last week.
What have you been doing today/ yesterday? 5. could you say that again? I didn’t listen /haven’t listened/ haven’t been listening to you. 8. 10. And now for an item of local news. so call this number. 10. You must use between two and five words. using the word given in bold on the right. This is the second time I (come) _________ here. 7. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. 9. 10. Let’s go and see Roger. Wait a minute. 1. How was your holiday in Italy? Did you visit/ Have you visited lots of interesting places? 9. We last (see) _________ him a long time ago. 8. Actually I had dinner with Sue last night/ lately. 9. Have you eaten Italian food before/ already? 6. It’s ages ago/ since I last went to a football match. I’ve been trying to get in touch with David for ages/ for the last time. It says in the paper that they (discover) _________ oil in the Wales. They (look for) _________ it for ages. I’ve been living here in/ since the end of last year. This place is in a terrible mess! What on earth (you do) _________? 6. I’m sorry about not coming last week. this is Amanda. How is he? 2. Do not change the word given. I can’t give you the report I (promise) _________ for today because I (not finish) _________. 1. I haven’t seen Gerry for/since a long time. 10. This tooth (kill) _________ me lately! So I (make) _________ an appointment with the dentist for Tuesday. Sorry. which I (see) _________ in the local paper. I’m phoning about your advertisement for a bicycle for sale. I’ve written to Deborah last week/ recently. I can’t remember how long/ when I’ve had this watch. Terry hasn’t been to Edinburgh since/ when we went there together. Choose the most suitable time expression. 3. 11. Steve started learning the violin a month ago. I (have) _________ an idea. (you sell) _________ it? Or is it still available? 5. I (have) had a cold and so I (stay) stayed at home. 4. The police think they found/ have found your missing wallet. 4. 2. 64 learning . 7. 8. 3. It’s nice to be back here in London. 6. 7. Did you two meet/ Have you two met before? Eric. Did you meet/ have you met anyone interesting at the reception? 9. Harry (not look) _________ well since he (go) _________ on a diet. 1. I don’t think we’ll go swimming after all because the weather changed/ has changed/ has been changing. Hampshire police (find) _________ the dangerous snake which (go) _________ missing earlier in the week.5. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
but they can’t find one they can afford. Diana (wear) ___________ twelve different dresses in the past week! 9. I’ll have to buy some more. 2. 4. 1. 5. This is my first game of water-polo. When she heard the results. 10. What (you buy) ___________ your sister for her birthday? 3. played I _____________________________________________________ before. Jack has ______________________________________________ a month. since It’s ages ______________________________________________ an Indian restaurant. Graham and Pauline (try) ___________ to find a house for ages. Someone (eat) ___________ all the cakes. Brenda (learn) ___________ Russian. 6. This is my first visit to Japan.Steve has been learning the violin for a month. I haven’t been to an Indian restaurant for ages. Thanks. 3. Put each verb in brackets into either the Present Perfect Simple or the Present Perfect Continuous. I (do) ___________ everything you asked. but I’ve ________________________________________ eat. 8. but she finds it difficult. 65 . My throat is really sore. 7. 4. but I had something to eat earlier. and has for been wearing them ever since. already Thanks. It’s a long time since our last conversation. Those two cats (sit) ___________ on that branch for the last hour. 12. What should I do now? 10. Since hearing the results __________________________________ more confident. The last time Nancy came here was in 1986. 2. Mary began to feel become more confident. time This is the first time _____________________________________ to Japan. spoken We __________________________________________________ long time. I (sing) ___________ all evening. It (rain) ___________ all day! Why can’t it stop? 8. How long have Helen and Robert been married? get When ________________________________________________ married. 9. 5. 7. How many people (you invite) ___________ to your party? 6. since Nancy hasn’t ___________________________________________1986. SKILLS FOCUS: SHORT ESSAY WRITING Write a short essay (about 200 words) of the factors that have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job. Jack bought these trousers last month.
and increasingly about paying the bills. It is also often used in job applications. post = a job. Others know from the start that their new job is not one that is going to set their soul on fire. "I wish I had fewer handbags. job = a position doing work for which you receive regular payment: He's trying to get a job in a bank. and is not usually used about jobs generally. if only there were free schooling and satellite TV included. especially an important one in a large organization: a key post in the new government vacancy = a job that is available for somebody to do: We have several vacancies for casual workers." Or.TRANSLATION Translate the following text into Romanian: Nothing stops a conversation like the words. but now feel trapped by the lifestyle commitments it has afforded. "I really love my job. appointment = (rather formal.VOCABULARY JOB / POSITION / POST / VACANCY / APPOINTMENT .com/editorchoice/are-you-suffering-career-fatigue-391261 REMEMBER . The sad fact is that while people may take jobs that they think they will get some satisfaction from. especially at a high level. position = (rather formal) a job: a senior position in a large corporation JOB OR POSITION? Position usually refers to a particular job within an organization. Some may have absolutely loved their well-paid job in the beginning. but what is the alternative? http://www. a permanent/temporary job/position/post/vacancy/appointment a full-time/part-time job/position/post/vacancy/appointment to have/have got a(n) job/position/post/vacancy/appointment to apply for/fill a job/position/post/vacancy to resign from/leave/quit a job/position/post 66 . especially British English) a job or position of responsibility: This is a permanent appointment. more often than not going to work becomes less about personal enjoyment and achievement. It is just a conversational rarity. and would rather give it all up to go sell coconuts from a beach hut in Bali. and it doesn't violate any social norms." It's just not seen as ‘normal'.are all words for a position doing work for which you receive regular payment. descriptions and advertisements.albawaba. requiring commitment and hard work." It's not rude or controversial. Like "I despise baby bunny rabbits.
Specific Bibliography: 1. CUP. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. Unit 4: Work and Motivation (pages 23-28) 2. Mackenzie. Bucureşti: ALL Educational. Present Perfect Continuous 67 . 3rd edition. Eric. Ian (2010) English for Business Studies – a Course for Business Studies and Economics students. Fleischhack.
Partners who invest money in a business but do not own 5 it are called sleeping partners. Now read the following text and see if your answers were good: Businesses can be of several types. Larger companies are owned by shareholders (people who own shares in a company). 2. What do Ltd.? 6. If someone’s shares amount to 10 over 50% of the business. number of employees etc. Can you define a business company? Think of three examples of companies. following the name of a company. A basic requirement for any business to start and expand is to have a 68 . profile. who have limited liability for debts. you are an .develop and practise language related to companies . products. If you invest money in a business.distinguish between a memo and a letter . They can be owned and run by one person (a sole proprietor) or by two or more people. Sleeping partners can have either unlimited or limited liability for debts.understand different types of businesses. A partnership can be backed up by investors (also called backers). specific to the British economic system . What do you need in order to start a business? 5. type.write a short essay debating the importance of private companies for a country’s economy . 3.revise and practise means of expressing future time . they are called majority shareholders and have a controlling interest in the company.. mean? 4.develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN 1. who invest money in the business.Unit 6: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: . Both sole proprietors and business partners have unlimited liability for debts to creditors. Where can you raise capital for your company from? 2. and plc. What are the characteristics of A/B/C company? Think of size.. Try and answer the following questions: 1. called partners.
it is called loan capital. 3.certain amount of capital. the sole trader is entitled to all the 69 . How many times? Which line/s? What do you think it means? 4. Read the text and list information under the following headings. Consequently. The text that follows is about privately owned business organisations in Great Britain. A company with a high proportion of loan capital is said to be highly geared. Do you know which of the organisations (enterprises) listed below are privately and which are publicly owned? Can you supply examples for some of these types of organisation? public limited liability company (plc) (unlimited) partnership public corporation mixed enterprise (limited) private company multinational company limited partnership local government departments sole proprietor central government departments READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. Type of organisation Profit-and-loss responsibility Public availability of accounts Day-to-day management of business responsibility Ownership Finance Examples Sole traders Partnership Private limited company Public limited company Private ownership 1. the phrase “limited liability” has been used. while a low gearing company has a high proportion of equity capital. Capital can also be obtained from investments. One way of raising the money is to borrow it from a bank. it is called share or equity capital. If the money is borrowed. a bank will request some security 15 (also called collateral). Sole traders These are businesses which are owned by a private person who uses its own money to run the business. In order to grant a loan or an overdraft. In the text above. If it comes from investments.
decorator company 70 . and he is responsible for the day to day management of the business. by developing a corporate image. EMI. Tate & Lyle. plumbers and hairdressers. Membership of the company is restricted to private individuals: members of the general public cannot buy shares in a private limited company. The association or partnership does not have a separate existence from its members. the number of which ranges from two to twenty. Examples of sole traders are small shopkeepers. The partners provide the organisation. e. 4.g. Partners have unlimited liability: each partner is jointly liable with the other partners for any debts. The partners agree on the day-to-day running of the business: some members can be ‘sleeping’ partners. 5. in that they do not take part in the daily operations. Beecham. are the best known form of private company. painter. jobbing builders. The number of members can range from two to fifty and they provide the financial resources for the undertaking. Any losses are borne by the company. partnerships are found in all types of trade and business activity. Match each type of organisation with the type of economic activity it is engaged in: TYPE OF WHAT THEY ARE ENGAGED IN ORGANISATION 1. and the profits and losses will normally be shared in an agreed proportion depending on the individual’s contribution to the partnership. They are similar to private limited companies in that profits are distributed as dividends to shareholders and liability of members is restricted to their shareholdings. A sole trader has no legal obligation to make his accounts publicly available. personal services. accountants and estate agents. hairdresser. The day-to-day management of the company is carried out by a board of directors. Ford and Courtaulds are public limited companies. Losses are borne by the company. Management of the company is conducted by a board of directors. The profits are distributed to the members as dividends on their shareholding. Some public limited companies have developed into massive organisations such that a few private corporations are as large as some sovereign states. Public limited companies Public limited liability companies. Private limited companies This type of organisation is a corporation incorporated by the Companies Act 1948-85. 2. have become household names: Barclays. retailing and clothing industries. Partnership These are unincorporated associations and the legal rules which govern them were established in the Partnership Act of 1890. They are corporations and obtain their share capital from members of the public.profits. Like sole traders. But partnerships can be formed by any group of people carrying on business with a view of making a profit. public limited liability a. but he must also bear any losses which are incurred. who are responsible to the shareholders. Private limited companies are often local family businesses and are common in the building. there is no obligation for the partners to publish their accounts. Most industries include public limited companies and many of them. RowntreeMackintosh. consequently. despite their name. 3. Well-known examples of partnership occur in the professions such as solicitors.
2. public corporation 3. central government departments 4. partnership 5. (limited) private company 6. multinational company 7. local government departments 8. sole proprietor
b. administrative services to the public, nationwide c. large-scale organisations, e.g. construction, manufacturing d. services to local community e. key areas of economic activity; profitable for public concern f. personal services, small industrial commercial concerns g. large-scale organisations, variety of ‘interest areas activities h. medium-sized or small organisations, building, wholesalers, manufacturing, transport
1. Fill in the blanks with words from the box below: (a) sole trader/proprietorship (b) private limited company (c) partnerships (d) joint venture (e) multinational (f) holding (g) public limited company (h) subsidiary (i) franchise
1) A ... (Ltd. Co. / LLC) cannot offer its shares or debentures to the general public. Nor can shares be transferred between members without the consent of the other shareholders. 2) A ... or parent company owns more than half the share capital of another company which is known as a ... 3) A ... is a private individual who runs a one-man business. He/she takes all the profits but also all the risks. 4) A ... (MNC) is a business organization which owns or controls production or services outside the country in which it is based. 5) A ... (PLC) must have a minimum nominal share capital of £ 50,000. Shares can be freely bought and sold by members of the public. 6) There are different kinds of ... but they are all associations of two or more people sharing the risks and the profits in agreed proportions. 7) A ... is an agreement by which a company gives another company/ person (the franchisee) the right to sell goods or services using the franchiser's name in return for a royalty. 8) A ... consists in the pooling of resources of two or more companies in a common undertaking in which each partner contributes assets and shares risks. 2. Underline the correct word in italics. 1 My brother is a plumber. He’s autonomous / self-employed. 2 The people who own a private company might include the founder of the company, some family members, and perhaps a few business associates / companions. 3 In a public company anybody can buy the actions / shares. 71
4 A public company is listed / posted on a stock exchange. 5 Our railways were recently privatized. I think the service was better before, when they were a public company / state-owned enterprise. 6 The Purchasing Department is responsible for buying parts and raw materials / making the final product. 7 If you have a complaint, please contact Consumer Services / Customer Services. 8 All recruitment and selection is done by our Human Relations / Human Resources Department. 9 Innovation is the key to our success and we have recently expanded the Research and Design / Research and Development Department. 10 In the Legal Department we have three lawyers / advocates trained in commercial law. 11 It’s the CEO’s job to control / run the company. 12 Our Business Development Officer is responsible for / the responsible for finding new business opportunities. 13 I can’t take that decision. It will have to be referred to higher people / more senior people. 14 That decision will have to be taken at a higher level / a more superior level. 15 In the department there are six Sales Representatives and their line director / line manager. 16 The Sales Department has to liaise / liaison closely with Marketing. 17 She is part of / makes part of a team of designers. 18 I am the Financial Controller, and I relate directly / report directly to the Finance Director. 3. The following phrases are from a letter and a memo. They are all mixed up. Put them in the correct order. 1) I have asked the Secretarial Supervisor to come and speak to you and she may wish to arrange a later demonstration for her staff. 3) From: Vicenta Enjuanes, Purchasing Manager 5) Subject: Demonstration of word processor 7) We would be pleased to have you with us on the 3 of April as you suggest. 9) The Sales Manager of Smart Offices Ltd will visit the firm on 3 April to demonstrate the AX3000 word processor which I am sure you will be interested in seeing. 2) Please ring my secretary to arrange a time to meet the Sales Manager. A later demonstration can be arranged for members of your staff to see it. 4) Dear Ms Devereux,
6) To: Secretarial Supervisor 8) Thank you for your letter of 12 March offering to come to our firm to demonstrate the AX3000 word processor.
10) Yours sincerely, Vicenta Enjuanes, Purchasing Manager
11) I look forward to meeting you. memo 6
12) V.E. letter
LANGUAGE FOCUS: Means of expressing FUTURE TIME
I. WILL 1. Future facts: we can use will (or ‘ll) + short infinitive to express a future fact. Common adverbs: tomorrow, next week/month/year, in the future etc. He will come back tomorrow. 2. Spontaneous decisions: We can use will to refer to the future when we make an instant or spontaneous decision to do something: A: ‘We’ve run out of paper for the printer.’ B: ‘I’ll go and get some from the stockroom.’ We often use will future after I think and I don’t think: A: ‘I think I’ll go home now. It’s getting late.’ B: ‘Yes, you are right. I don’t think I’ll stay either.’ The negative of will is will not (won’t): I won’t stay long. I’m in a hurry. 3. Predictions: we can use will to make predictions and to state facts that will be true in the future: Over the next few years, TV will make a great impact on consumer behaviour.
PRACTICE Make spontaneous decisions based on the comments below: 1. You won’t be able to get to Paris. The traffic controllers are on strike. Really? Then I’ll take a train through the tunnel. 2. I’m sorry, the wine waiter says we have no more Chateau-Lafite ’64. ___________________________________________________ 3. I’m afraid we don’t accept credit cards. ____________________________________________________ 4. We can’t deliver the fax machines you ordered for three months. ____________________________________________________ 5. I’m afraid that the British Airways flight on Tuesday is fully booked. ____________________________________________________
Demand for oil is rising. 2. (I’ve already discussed about it with a car dealer. _______________________________________________ II. but going to usually suggests that the event will happen soon. Mrs Mason has booked three weeks’ leave in October. NOTE! Going to and the present continuous have a similar future meaning. There is little difference in meaning.6. but supply is falling. but going to emphasizes the idea that a decision has been made. Compare: I’m going to buy a new car this week. Decisions or intentions: we use going to to talk about something we intend to do. (I’ve made a decision to buy a new car. The stock market is very over-valued. (be correction) There is going to be a correction soon. (modernise) 4. however. it is possible to predict future events using either will or going to. or have already decided to do: The DV Group is going to open a new Fiat dealership this summer. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Future arrangements: we can use the present continuous to talk about future arrangements and plans. (leave the company) III. One of our clients. Mrs Mason. GOING TO 1. Predictions: we use going to for making firm predictions when there is some physical evidence that an event will take place. They’re not going to accept it. rang two minutes ago.9% pay rise. (have a holiday) 6. She sounded very upset about something. I don’t think that the present government is going to win the next election. We have ordered over $1. particularly when the time and place have been arranged. PRACTICE Use the verbs in brackets to say what the following people are going to do (to express their intentions or decisions) or to make predictions: 1.) I’m buying a new car this week. My boss is looking for another job. (price/rise) 5. The Unions have been offered a 3. whereas the present continuous emphasizes that something has been arranged. We generally use it with a future time phrase: I’m leaving at 6 on the first flight to Milan. (not accept). 2. Look at those clouds – it’s going to rain! In many cases. Compare: I don’t think that the present government will win the next election. 3.) 74 .5m of new equipment for this factory. I may or may not have something arranged with a car dealer.
2) It’s raining tomorrow. PRACTICE 1. a) A: Can you come dancing tomorrow night? B: 1) Sorry. According to the weather forecast. The train leaves in five minutes. before. Choose the correct sentence 1) or 2). as soon as. d) A: What about tomorrow at about 5. I (go) _________ to Manchester at the end of next week. 2) Sorry. I will contact you as soon as I get the information. after etc. Time clauses: we use the present tense simple in time clauses that refer to the future. most people (probably ride) _________ bicycles to work. b) A: What are your plans for the summer? B: 1) I’ll spend a month in the mountains. which are usually beyond the speaker’s control. B: 1) Are you doing anything on Wednesday? 2) Will you do anything on Wednesday? 2. I’ll see you then. Put the verb given into a form of will. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Have you heard the news? Harry (join) is joining / is going to join the Army! Sorry to keep you waiting! I (not be) _________ long. c) A: What do you think about the weather? B: 1) It’ll probably rain tomorrow. I’m sorry I can’t meet you tonight.IV. Careful! You (knock) _________ that jug out of the table! In fifty years’ time.30? B: 1) OK. I (go out) _________ with my parents. Look out! You (hit) _________ that tree! I think our team (probably win) _________. in each mini-dialogue. going to or present continuous. B: 1) Really? What is she going to call it? 2) Really? What she calling it? f) A: It would be nice to see you next week. e) A: Mary is buying a dog next week. 2) OK. Time clauses are generally introduced by words such as: when. 2) I’m going to spend a month in the mountains. More than one answer may be possible. PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Timetabled events: we use the simple present to talk about timetabled or fixed events in the future. 75 . I’m playing basketball. I’ll play basketball. I’m seeing you then. it (snow) _________ tomorrow. Our teacher (give) _________ us a test tomorrow.
I have to go to London. ___________________ Paula is likely to get the job. Are you free tomorrow? Are _________________ anything tomorrow? 4. __________________________________________________ e) I’ve read the weather forecast. a) I go swimming next Saturday. _________________________________ 76 . Rewrite them. I predict a victory for our team. Everyone thinks a large number _________________ this country next summer. _______________________________________ Sarah doesn’t plan to get married again.30. I think _________________ win. Tomorrow I’ll be absent. _________________________________________ Martin’s wife is pregnant again. I’m going to study engineering in France. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains will or going to. Would you like to come? b) What are you going to discuss at the next meeting? __________________________________________________ c) The boat is turning over! I think it will sink! __________________________________________________ d) Sue is going to lend me her roller-skates.30. I don’t plan to sell my bike after all. teacher. I see you later this evening. Underline the sentences which are incorrect. I _________________ outside the station at 5. Would you like to come? I am going swimming next Saturday. What’s our arrangement for lunch? Where _________________ for lunch? Everyone expects lots of tourism in this country next summer. I _________________ my bike after all. ____________________________________________ We’ve an appointment at the doctor’s. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) I plan to study engineering in France. ___________________________________ I predict a score of 3 – 0. __________________________________________________ i) Where will you be tomorrow at this time? __________________________________________________ j) Bye for now. _________________________ _______ There is a possibility of snow tomorrow. teacher. Terry intends to finish painting the kitchen this evening. Tomorrow’s weather forecast is for rain. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) My party is on Thursday. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. I am having a party on Thursday.3. Meet me outside the station at 5. __________________________________________________ g) There is a lot to do. __________________________________________________ f) David and Helen will be here at 9. so we can’t come.30. I _________________ here tomorrow. and it’s definitely sunny tomorrow. I’m not seeing you tomorrow. Terry _________________ painting the kitchen this evening. __________________________________________________ 5. It’s _________________ tomorrow. I’ve arranged a party for next Friday. Is anyone going to help you? __________________________________________________ h) Sorry.
You’d better not come in July. ‘I _________ (be) a pilot when I grow up. Put each verb in brackets into the most appropriate future time form.6. Where __________ (we spend) the night? 8. All sentences refer to future time. but I _________ (see) you next week. 8.00. present simple) of the verbs in brackets. the bus is going to arrive/ arrives at 6. because I’ll leave/ I’m leaving tomorrow. My mother __________ (stay) with me then. the best things will go/ will have gone. going to. 77 . There may be more than one possibility. 1. George __________ (not be) back until six. 7. As soon as we __________ (get) there. they must be very heavy. What time __________ (your plane leave)? 10. All the hotels are full. I will tell (tell) you my news. According to this timetable. we __________ (phone) for a taxi.00 and 9. 2. Great news! Jean and Chris will come/ are coming to stay with us. 2. Choose the most suitable tense: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Why are you going to buy/ will you buy a new mountain bike? Don’t phone between 8. 9. Complete these sentences using the correct future forms (future simple. j) If you arrive late at the sale. I’ll study/ I’ll be studying then. Can you answer the phone for me? I __________ (lie down) for a while. The train _________ (leave) in five minutes – let’s go! Now let’s look at the timetable. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. present continuous. 9.00. j) I _________ (carry) those bags for you. Can I take a message? 3. OK? Look out! That ladder _________ (fall)! They say the weather _________ (get) worse in the next few days. What __________ (you buy) with the money you won in the lottery? 4. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Do you think the car starts / will start (start) if I turn on the ignition? I’ve got to go now. I will be visiting (visit) our Birmingham branch. 1. More than one answer may be possible.’ said the little boy. I can’t see you on Thursday afternoon.45 and we _________ (depart) at 7. 5. I have a feeling that something strange is going to happen/ is happening in a minute. i) You _________ (fall) the exam if you don’t study more.30 for Naples. 7. We _________ (arrive) in Rome at 6. Maybe the police __________ (not notice) it. Look out! That tree will fall/ is going to fall! Let me know as soon as Louise will get/ gets here.00. h) The doctor says I will have/ I am going to have a baby! i) Can you call me at 7. When I see (see) you tomorrow. h) We _________ (plan) to buy a new house sometime this year. __________ (you take) your dog to you in Scotland? 6. I don’t think you __________ (have) any problems at the airport. Leave the car here.
Do you want anything? ‘Would you like to order now?’ ‘Yes. We __________ (wait) here until the rain __________ (stop). or owners.’ John _________ (come) to clean my car for me tomorrow.’ SKILLS FOCUS: SHORT ESSAY WRITING Not so long ago (before 1989). 7. please.’ ‘That’s great. 6. All sentences refer to future time.’ ‘Don’t worry.3.’ ‘I _________ (do) it for you. decide and elect 78 . I __________ (get) some money from the bank when it __________ (open). you __________ (feel) better. I _________ (look) around the shops. I _________ (not forget). I never get time to clean my car. a new separate entity is created. the business corporation is the most complex type. thank you. Before we __________ (paint) the wall. 9. we _________ (have) steak and chips. I __________ (go) to the library before I __________ (do) the shopping.’ ‘Oh. (10 – 15 lines) TRANSLATION Translate the following text into Romanian: Business Corporation Of all types of companies. in our country there were no private companies. ‘I’m so busy. 10.’ g) I can’t come on Sunday. the organization continues to function until dissolved. we __________ (have) a cup of tea. 4.’ f) ‘When _________ (you leave)?’ ‘Next Sunday. I __________ (let) you know the minute I __________ (hear) the results. After you __________ (take) the medicine. Whenever a business corporation is incorporated or registered with the government. I _________ (give) Rose a lift to the airport. as I never have time. This is distinct from the owners and therefore irrespective of the personal financial condition of all shareholders. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. I _________ (get) the train to London and then _________ (fly) to Paris. The shareholders. Do you think it was good or bad? Justify your answer. You have to stay until you __________ (finish) your work. 10. 8. 5. ‘Don’t forget to ring me and tell me what time to expect you. no! I _________ (give) a lift to the airport in my car. We __________ (climb) over the wall as soon as it __________ (get) dark.’ ‘What time _________ (be) your train?’ ‘It _________ (leave) at 9 am and _________ (stop) at every station. a) b) c) d) e) My friends are coming (come) to visit me this weekend.
. Maria (2006) – Excel in Business. Prelipceanu. which separate them from each other.html Translate into English: 1. Delegaţia va pleca la Londra de îndată ce va primi viza. Bucureşti. O să te doară burta dacă continui să mănânci aşa de multe dulciuri. there are a few differences in terms of number of share holders and profit sharing polices. David. With basics remaining same. Dărăbănţ. S Corporation and Non-profit corporation. Close Corporation. Cristina. There are numerous legal formalities like approvals and meetings which need to be adhered to by corporations. 2.com/articles/types-of-companies. Bucureşti: ALL Educational. Familia Thompson nu va ajunge acasă înainte să înceapă ploaia. Means of expressing Future Time 79 . Editura Universitară. 3. REMEMBER .General Corporation.directors who form necessary policies and rules for the proper functioning of the organization. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. Various managers and officers are appointed by these directors who actually control the daily on goings of the organization. 4. Unit 4: Types of Businesses (pages 56-65) 2. http://www.buzzle. Eric. Irina. Trenul pleacă la ora 10.VOCABULARY RUNNING A BUSINESS buy/acquire/own/sell a company/firm/franchise set up/establish/ start/start up/launch a business/company run/operate a business/company/franchise head/run a firm/department/team make/secure/win/block a deal expand/grow/build the business boost/increase investment/spending/sales/turnover/earnings/exports/trade increase/expand production/output/sales boost/maximize production/productivity/efficiency/income/revenue/profit/profitability achieve/maintain/sustain growth/profitability cut/reduce/bring down/lower/slash costs/prices announce/impose/make cuts/cutbacks Specific Bibliography: 1. Fleischhack. 5. George nu crede că va putea să treacă pe la ei ca să îşi ia rămas bun înainte de a pleca la mare. Va pleca la Cluj peste câteva ore. There are basically 4 types of business corporations .
Mark (tick). Can you plan ahead? 7. Do you get along well with others? 9. Do people ask you for help in making decisions? 4. A. Try and answer the following questions: What qualities and skills would you need in a business venture? What kind of difficult situations would there be? 2.write an informal letter . Personal Strains 80 .develop and practise translation skills Average study time: 120 minutes LEAD IN 1. Do you enjoy competition? 5. Do you have willpower and self discipline? 6. Do you enjoy taking risks? 10.revise and practise passive . Personal Characteristics Yes ()/ No ()/ I don’t know (?) 1.identify the necessary steps when starting a business . Answer the questionnaire individually. (cross) or ? (don’t know) to give a true picture of your entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses. Do you strongly believe that your future and success depend on you and your abilities? B. Do you like to make your own decisions? 3. Do you like people? 8. Compare the results with the answers given for the questions in exercise 1.Unit 7: STARTING A BUSINESS OBJECTIVES This unit will help you: .revise and practise language related to business . Read the following Self-Analysis Questionnaire (Parts A and B). Can you lead and motivate people? 2. Thinking of starting a business? First take a clear-headed look at yourself to see if you have got what it takes.
but will probably take more money capital than you have on hand. Elements of Business Operation. This process includes learning about the laws. Anyone hoping to become an entrepreneur must also learn as much as possible about the business he or she plans to start. Many such programs exist and are relatively inexpensive. you might buy parts as you need them for a particular job: In time.11. You could also buy advertising space in the local newspaper. Once you have customers. must bear? 16. The more YES-es ticked. you might invest in paint sprayers so that you can complete jobs faster. then with the entire class. the more successful you’ll be in starting your business. Is your family prepared to go along with the strains they. Programs 81 5 10 15 20 25 30 . receipts and record keeping. Entrepreneurs then gather the factors of production and decide on the form of business organization that best suits their purposes. you also should purchase the programs that will allow you to keep track of all your expenses and all your receipts. six or seven days a week? 12. you will need equipment and replacement parts. Are you prepared to lose your savings? Discuss and compare results in groups. regardless of size. Advertising. Risk. As your business grows. You will quickly find out that letting potential customers know that you are in business is costly. having a system to track your expenses and income is key to your success. No matter how small your business is. and risk. information about your business will spread by word of mouth. Expenses. Are you prepared to temporarily lower your living standard until your business is firmly established? 15. Probably one of the first things you want to do. you must make potential customers aware that your services are available for a price. With the computer. advertising. This new equipment would add to your income. Do you have the emotional strength to withstand the strain? 14. Read the following text and list the steps that one should take when starting a business: Nearly every person who makes the decision to start a business is an entrepreneur because he or she is willing to take a risk. Usually people decide to start a business to gain profits and to “do something on their own” or to be their own boss. regulations. involves four elements: expenses. You must balance the risks against the advantages of being in business for yourself . To start a business. All receipts should be safely filed and saved. Every business involves risks. If you own a painting business.including profit versus loss. Depending on the kinds of jobs you do. READING AND COMPREHENSION 1. You could have one-page fliers printed to advertise your business and pass them out. Do you have the physical stamina to handle the workload and schedule? 13. you will find it easier to have an inventory. however. you will need to purchase brushes and paint. and tax codes that will apply to the business. if you have not already done so. Are you willing to work up to 16 hours a day. is buy a computer. An inventory is a supply of whatever items are used in a business. At first. Receipts and Record Keeping. too. Every business.
an inventory of goods and components c. to write ads. a person who works for an organisation b. most people are motivated by the hope of gaining (3) _____________ from the business. Together with specialized software. and so on. an owner will want to have an (9) _____________ of replacement parts to make the business more efficient. but the profit you expect to make is your incentive for taking those risks. and tax codes that apply to their operation. As the business grows. information spreads by (7) _____________. which is usually small. State and federal tax laws require that an owner keep (10) _____________ for every expenditure. if you spend part of your savings to pay for advertising and equipment. a business 3. 1. raw materials. The first step in starting a new business is to (2) _____________. As an entrepreneur. Finally. Through (6) _____________. you are taking a risk. New business owners must learn all they can about the laws. try and fill in the following summary: People who want to start their own businesses are regarded as (1) _____________. If you work for someone else. to set up the bookkeeping. The second step involves gathering the (4) _____________ and then choosing the most suitable form of (5) _____________. This time is an opportunity cost. In time. 2. The first match has been done for you. and so on. an entrepreneur needs to be aware of the (12) _____________ of starting a business and balance them against the potential (13) _____________. Once customers know a business. entrepreneurship 5. calculate your monthly profit and loss. you are taking many risks. employer 4. and so on. there will be more (8) _____________ incurred for supplies. You 40 may not get enough business to cover these costs.35 write checks for you. difference between current assets and current liabilities e. owners let others know about the business and the services offered. including work for someone for a wage. For example. Every business involves four elements. you take only the risk of not being paid. 45 You could have used it to do something else. equipment. You are even taking a risk with the time you spend. (11) _____________ will enable an owner to keep track of all transactions related to the business. Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right. regulations. Suppose you do the work and your customer never pays you. income d. a computer can help maintain business files. you are taking a risk. Whenever you buy a special part for a job. but so are the potential rewards. property and possessions owned by an individual or 82 . Along with the desire to be one's own boss. tell you the difference between what you own and what you owe (called net worth). Using words from the text that you have already read. business (h) 2. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 1. As an entrepreneur your risks are great. You are using time to think about what you will do. employee a.
financial obligation. asset 13. sole proprietorship business. (pl) debts for which one is liable g. 8. we would (4) __________ it if you could send us details of all the delegates so that we can prepare security passes. We are (2) __________ to hear that your company will be taking part and that you will address the opening conference. which has a money value and can be set against debts etc. (3) __________ the conference. Choose from the following: (a) appreciate (f) faithfully (k) Regarding Dear Ms. 7. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence: 1. person or company that pays people to do work j. f. commercial activity or occupation i. I’m afraid I’ve got only a $50 note. cash flow 12. a supply of cash needed by a business to meet its regular expenses. only cash / coins / money. We would also (5) __________ you to let us have details of equipment you need for your presentation. Thank you for your letter of 24 April.6. 2. 5. willingness to assume the risks of a business venture h. The factory workers asked for a rise in their income / reward / wages. Yours (7) __________. 3. Do you have change / money / rest? I still debt / owe / own the bank more than $5000. 6. 4. I’m sorry. total value of goods sold over a certain period m. 3. but we don’t accept credit cards. one-owner business o. stock 7. revenue 9. working capital 11. Dora earns / gains / wins more money in her job than I do. We look forward to (6) __________ your reply. turnover 8. premises 15. movement of money in and out of a business k. Jan Mayer Dear Sir/ Madam. liability 14. Chan. Paul borrowed / lent / loaned some money from me but didn’t pay it back. (1) (c)the exhibition in Berlin in August. a firm 2. 83 (b) ask (g) grateful (l) regret (c) concerning (d) delighted (h) hearing (i) please (m) sincerely (n) sorry (e) enclose (j) receiving (o) writing . Is it all right if I pay with credit card / by credit card / from credit card? We don’t exchange goods unless you still have the bill / cheque / receipt. Your company has been recommended to us by a business associate and I am (8) __________ to enquire about your translation services. fixed assets 10. a building which is used to produce a good or provide a service n. property owned by a firm and meant to be used over a long period of time l. Fill in the missing words in the letters below.
The object of the verb becomes the subject in a passive sentence. Jose Garcia Dear Mr Dupin. If you require us to repair the machine. I have investigated the compliant and I (13) __________ to tell you that the problem is the result of faulty operation. In this sentence milk is the object. Yours (11) __________. Russian and Turkish. Diane walks to college. Tim Brody LANGUAGE FOCUS: Passive TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE Verbs which have objects are called transitive verbs. Yours sincerely. PASSIVE: FORMATION RULES The passive is formed with the verb be and the past participle. Diane drinks milk every morning. I (14) __________ a copy of the inspector’s report with this letter. I was very (12) __________ to hear about your problems with the new super vacuum. We look forward to (10) __________ from you. We would be (9) __________ if you could send us your prices and terms of payment.My company has recently entered the export market and we need advertising material translated into Chinese. Verbs which do not have objects are called intransitive verbs. Only transitive verbs can be made passive. 84 . (15) __________ contact me at the number above.
In this sentence. WITH THE AGENT BY Passive sentences often include information about who did it. organisation etc. In this sentence. is called the AGENT. Helen has been chosen as the new president. WITH THE INSTRUMENT WITH Passive sentences may include information about what was used to perform an action.TENSE Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Simple Future Simple CONTEXTS OF USE We build hundreds of houses every year. They will play the match on Sunday evening. the number of houses built. Compare: The Government has built hundreds of houses this year. it was what it was done. Spoken and written language. Hundreds of houses are built every year The authorities are questioning two men. Passive tends to be used more in writing. The match will be played on Sunday evening. At this time yesterday the road was being repaired. This person. At this time yesterday they were repairing the road. We have chosen Helen as the new president. This is called the instrument and is introduced using with. Putting emphasis on important information: Hundreds of houses are built every year by the Government. One protester was arrested. which is given emphasis. the Government. and in formal speech. II. more emphasis is given to who did it. Two men are being questioned. thing. The windows were broken with a baseball bat. The police arrested one protester. Emphasised information usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. WITHOUT THE AGENT 85 . I. Stones were thrown by angry football fans.
lend. because we know that it is always the police who do this. One protester was arrested. It is not necessary to add by the police. Sometimes a group of people is responsible for an action. does some work for us. Some verbs may have a passive form in other languages. sell. Not known Brenda’s motorbike was stolen last night. offer. take. I was born in Uruguay. we would mention the name of the person. Karen was given a present by Peter. If we knew who had stolen it. There are several reasons for this. a mechanic. Students are asked not to smoke. HAVE SOMETHING DONE When a professional person. The passive is often used because who did it is not known or the speaker does not want us to know. PROBLEMS WITH PASSIVE To be born is a passive form but does not have an obvious passive meaning. We assume that the school authorities have made this decision. I have had my room decorated. promise. It is not necessary to add by someone. 86 . we can use have something done. and who did it is not mentioned.g. e. it is obvious. Obvious Impersonal VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS Some verbs can have two objects. or remains impersonal.It is not always necessary to mention the agent. perhaps because an authority is involved. but are not translated into passive in English. Sentences with these verbs can be made passive in two ways. some people prefer to include this information. These verbs include: buy. Peter gave Karen a present. HAVE can be used in any tense. We had our house painted last year. However. give. send. Peter gave a present to Karen. I am having my car serviced tomorrow. a plumber etc. A present was given to Karen by Peter.
2. My wallet has been stolen by someone. They have closed the mountain road. 4. 3. A burglar stole my television. 10. Last year the cup ______________ by United. Students write most of this magazine. Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. We were taught by a different teacher yesterday. Complete each sentence with a passive verb. This programme ______________ by millions of people. 1. 3. 8. The ill man was been taken to hospital. Underline the errors in these sentences. You ______________ at the bus station. Many pet dogs are losing every year. Tim had his arm broken playing rugby. United won the cup last year. 1. 1. The police questioned George. 6. They will finish our new house at the end of the month. She had her house broken into. 3. The damaged stadium ______________. __________________________ __________________________ . My television ______________ by a burglar. 3. 7. 5. 2. 8. 6. 4. Somebody will meet you at the bus station. Most of this magazine ______________ by students. 5. PRACTICE 1. They have elected a new president. They are rebuilding the damaged stadium. Three men have been arrested by the police. A new bridge is be built across the river. Our new house ______________ at the end of the month. A new president ______________. Nick was operated on at the hospital by a doctor. Two letters were delivered this morning by the postman. 2. Millions of people watch this programme. 2. 7. Rewrite each sentence.We also use this for unpleasant happenings. Yesterday a window was broken by someone. 87 Many pet dogs are lost every year. 9. Not all the sentences contain unnecessary phrases. George was questioned by the police. The mountain road ______________. We were shown round the museum by a guide. The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat.
The city council has banned traffic from the city centre. 1. 6. 88 . This book was writing by Sam’s father. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Nothing will being decided before next Saturday. 4. They are redecorating our school during the summer holidays. 5. People all over the world speak English. 6. Rewrite each sentence with a passive verb so that the people’s names are not mentioned. They will announce the results of the competition tomorrow. 7. 2. 4. The match is playing on Friday evening. Kate is having her car services / servicing / serviced tomorrow. People have elected a new government. Someone broke into the flat last week. Three terrorists ______________________________________________. 8. 3. 8. 3. 2. The London Underground system _______________________________. 2. The results _________________________________________________. The clubs have postponed the match. Penicillin ___________________________________________________. More than a thousand cars _____________________________________. The authorities have closed the casino. The police in New York have arrested three terrorists. 3. One of the most famous painters in the world painted this portrait. The President will open the new sports stadium on Saturday. 6. I was sending / sent / send here by the manager. All the food at the party was ate. The children were took / taken / taking to the seaside for the day. Rewrite each sentence beginning with the words given. 1. A new museum ______________________________________________. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 4. 6. The casino has been closed. 7. 5. 4. This portrait ________________________________________________. The new sports stadium ________________________________________. The authorities have opened the new swimming pool. I’m having my hair cutting / cut / to have cut tomorrow. Our company sells more than a thousand cars every week. Someone left this purse in the classroom yesterday. 8. The robber unlocked the door by a false key. 7.4. 5. 9. 1. 10. Our school _________________________________________________. 5. Archaeologists have discovered a new tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. They are building a new museum in the city centre. Two million people use the London Underground system every day. A new tomb has been discovered in the Valley of the Kings.
Someone broke into Tom’s house last week. having: ___________________________________ 5. having: I am having my car serviced tomorrow. 5. Someone stole Bob’s bike. 8. 1. Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given. 5. Mary’s car is being serviced today. My car has being stolen. Where exactly were you born / did you born / did you bear? I’ve just had my bike repaired / repair / repairing. 4. My parents gave me this ring. When is your date of birth? When exactly ___________________ born? 8. 7. I _____________________ in Cairo. This book _____________________ John. John lent me this book. I _____________________ parents. Yesterday they stole my bike. had: ___________________________________ 9. 3. A rock concert ticket was sold to me by a friend. They have just painted Ann’s portrait. 1. 1. Your order will been sent as soon as possible. 2. having: ___________________________________ 7. 4. 2. Sue had her windows breaking / broken / broke by vandals. Bob had his bike stolen. 7. 2. 3. 6. had: ___________________________________ 3. Rewrite each sentence beginning and ending as shown. The hole in the road was being repaired when I came home. Cairo is my place of birth. They have just cut my hair. They are fitting our new carpet tomorrow. had: ___________________________________ 6. 89 . 8. 6. Yesterday I _____________________ out. Underline the verb forms which are not possible.5. had: ___________________________________ 4. They are servicing my car tomorrow. David has been offer / offering / offered a new job in Brazil. Last year they painted our house. Jack was borned on a Thursday. Then I realised that none of the guests had been sent an invitation. The dentist took one of my teeth yesterday. They are taking out my tooth tomorrow. 7. 6. Tom had _____________________ last week. I was _____________________ by a friend.
7. _________________________ I haven’t been to the car wash for a long time. Their new house hasn’t been finished / wasn’t finished yet. 5. If there is too much snow. Sue told us her baby is born / had been born two weeks earlier than expected. 2. 10. I don’t think that you will be asked / are being asked to show your passport. supplied Our company __________________________________ by Smith Ltd. An address is writing on the back of the envelope. People think that an apple a day is good for you. 8. to An apple a day _____________________________________ for you. 12. 3. been Peter ___________________________________the day of the party. 6. using the word given (two to five words). Do not include the agent. was A notice ____________________ up on the notice board yesterday. 1. 6. We put up a notice about the trip on the notice board yesterday. were The suspects _______________________________________ police. 10. by The castle _____________________ William the Conqueror in the 11th century 4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. 5. People believe that someone murdered Jenkins. A painter painted our house last month. William the Conqueror built the castle in the 11th century. No one has seen Peter since the day of the party. 4. 2. No decision has yet been made. When were you told / have you been told about the new rules? 7. 1. The robbers were arrested / have been arrested as soon as they left the bank. 5. decided Nothing ___________________________________________ yet. are supplying our company with furniture. 8. 10. This swimming pool is used by over a thousand people each week. 1. The hairdresser is cutting my hair this afternoon. Customers are request to ask for a receipt. 3. The winning horse was ridden / was riding by Pat Murphy. Most of the passengers were swimming / were swum easily to the shore. get You ought ____________________________________________ cut 7. 4. 9. _________________________ The dentist has taken out all of Ricky’s teeth. Smith Ltd. By the time we got there. 3. The police were following the suspects. 10. 9. _________________________ Someone has stolen my motorbike. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a form of have something done. _________________________ 90 . Choose the most suitable tense. When was this church built? 9. but he was vanished / had vanished. 2. 8. Your hair needs cutting. 11. was A new marketing manager was appointed last Thursday. I looked again for the old man. the match has been cancelled / will be cancelled. We had our house painted last month. was It _______________________________________________ murdered. Last Thursday we appointed a new marketing manager. the rain had stopped / had been stopped.
but only incrementally. _________________________ 8. An entrepreneur starting out in India needs to go through 12 procedures. Write a letter to a friend and describe him/her the steps you have taken. “Entrepreneurs in India find it easier to establish themselves in services than manufacturing. Sunt sigur că acest cântec a fost ascultat de mai bine de zece ori de către prietenii tăi.” Pankaj Chandra. Aceste cărţi se citesc cu uşurinţă şi de aceea sunt preferate de turişti. it is getting better. 2. according to a World Bank report ‘doing business 2011‘. copilaşul era hrănit de mama lui. 3. Când s-a deschis uşa. Translate the following text into Romanian. ______________________________________________________ 7. all of which can take up to 29 days complete. 1. setting up is not easy. the country’s top business school. We are not doing enough to encourage entrepreneurs. Isn’t it time someone fixed your television? _________________________ 9. The police towed away Nigel’s car. Regulations need to be simplified for entrepreneurs.ft. (10 – 15 lines) Pay attention to the style you use – it is an informal letter! TRANSLATION 1. 4. Anglia a fost cucerită de normanzi în secolul al unsprezecelea . India is becoming an easier place to do business and starting a business. Director of the Indian Institute of Management – Bangalore told Financial Times. But while the business environment remains difficult for start-ups. _________________________ 10. have taken to starting their own businesses. Translate the following sentences into English. Someone broke Harry’s nose in a fight.com/beyond-brics/2011/06/03/india-where-are-the-entrepreneurs/#ixzz1XM8QwDz0 2. _________________________ SKILLS FOCUS: INFORMAL LETTER WRITING Imagine that you have just started up a business. Toate aceste case au fost distruse de recentul cutremur. 5. Helen’s publishers have just published her book. The men are coming to put in the new central heating on Saturday. 91 . The country climbed one place in the global rankings to become the 134th easiest place to do business globally.6. far behind China which was placed at 79th position in the same rankings. http://blogs.Ahmedabad. So it comes as no surprise then that only 10 per cent of alumnae from the Indian Institute of Management .
Bucureşti.) (1998) – English for Business&Administration. Editura Cavallioti. Schwarz (2009) – English Grammar. The British Council Romania (coord. Eric.VOCABULARY FINANCE FAILURE lose business/trade/customers/sales/revenue accumulate/accrue/incur/run up debts suffer/sustain enormous/heavy/serious losses face cuts/a deficit/redundancy/bankruptcy file for/(North American English) enter/avoid/escape bankruptcy (British English) go into administration/liquidation liquidate/wind up a company survive/weather a recession/downturn propose/seek/block/oppose a merger launch/make/accept/defeat a takeover bid draw up/set/present/agree/approve a budget keep to/balance/cut/reduce/slash the budget be/come in below/under/over/within budget generate income/revenue/profit/funds/business fund/finance a campaign/a venture/an expansion/spending/a deficit provide/raise/allocate capital/funds attract/encourage investment/investors recover/recoup costs/losses/an investment get/obtain/offer somebody/grant somebody credit/a loan apply for/raise/secure/arrange/provide finance Specific Bibliography: 1. Unit 7: Starting a Business (pages 96-109) 2. Fleischhack.REMEMBER . Bucureşti: ALL Educational. Passive 92 .
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