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# CE 362 Hydraulics Laboratory Manual Winter 2005

CE 362 Hydraulics Experimental Lab No.1 FLOWS IN PIPE NETWORKS Purpose: To study and compare head losses in various pipe systems.

Apparatus: Fluid Circuit System Procedure: 1. 2. Remove air from manometers Arrange the circuit to run test on pipes 1, 2, and 3 in series (do not use the smallest pipe). Take comparative measurements for each of the three, 66 inch lengths of pipe at 3 flow rates. Repeat (2) rearranging the pipes into a parallel configuration.

3. Report: 1.

Present data in both tabular and graph forms, that is plot headloss versus discharge for each pipe system. What conclusions can you draw about head losses in the various pipes of each system? What is the effect of putting the pipes in parallel as compared to series?

2.

3.

CE 362 Hydraulics Experimental laboratory #2 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Purpose: Develop the characteristic curve for a centrifugal pump.

Theory: A centrifugal pump imparts energy to a fluid by developing a centrifugal force through the action of vanes on the fluid. The discharge from a centrifugal pump, run at constant speed (rpm), depends on the head looses of the system against which it is pumping. A plot of the head difference (in head) across the pump vs. the discharge at that head difference is the pump characteristic curve. To perform this experiment, the following materials are required: a Apparatus: centrifugal pump, a water tank, a pressure gage, a tachometer, a stopwatch, a graduated cylinder, and a scale or ruler. Procedure: 1. With the storage tank filled to a level above the pump inlet, open all valves fully and bring the pump to full speed (approx. 1750 rpm). The speed is read on the tachometer (in rpm x 10). 2. Measure the flow using a stopwatch and graduated cylinder or bucket as required.

3. Observe the pressure difference across the pump and the elevations of the pump inlet and outlet. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 at least four more times (once with the valve completely closed), closing the gate valve slightly each time causing a pressure difference to increase. Allow the system to reach a new equilibrium before each measurement. 5. Repeat steps 2 through 5 for pump speeds of 1500 and 1200 rpm.

Report: 1. Plot the pump characteristic curve for each pump speed and discuss the relationship between head and discharge. 2. Compute the water horsepower at each flow rate and head difference.

3. Discuss the accuracy of the method used to determine the flow rate and head difference across the pump. Estimate the magnitude of any suspected error. 4. Discuss how you would develop an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of the pump.

CE 362 Hydraulics Experimental laboratory #3 HYDRAULIC JUMP Objective: To observe and understand the characteristics of the hydraulic jump and the sluice gate used in the flume to create conditions allowing the jump to occur. Apparatus: Flume and sluice gate.

Theory: The hydraulic jump occurs when flow transitions from supercritical to subcritical flow in an open channel. It is a case of rapidly varied, steady flow. In a horizontal, rectangular channel, the sequent (downstream) depth is related to the initial (upstream) depth by the equation:
y y3 = - 2 + 2 2Q y2 + 2 gb 2 y 2
2 2

where y2 is the initial depth, y3 is the sequent depth, b is the width of flume and Q is the flow rate. In the laboratory flume, the initial depth is produced using a sluice gate which controls the flow under the gate (the initial depth in the hydraulic jump) based on the depth of flow upstream of the gate, y1, as shown below. The sluice gate is analyzed using the energy equation. Procedure: For each of three flow rates (160, 220 and 275 gpm) and associated sluice gate openings (1", 1" and 2") observe y1, y2 and y3. Analysis and Report: a. For the measured depths, y1, y2 and y3, determine if the flow is subcritical or supercritical. b. For each of the measured values of y2, calculate the theoretical value of y3 and compare to the observed value. c. For each flow rate, plot the specific energy curve and identify the depths of interest. (y1, y2, y3, yc) d. Compute and plot the energy losses in the jump for each sluice gate opening and plot as a function of flow rate. e. For each sluice gate opening, compute the losses occurring in flow under the sluice gate and plot as a function of flow rate.

CE 362 Hydraulics Computational Lab No. 1 SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR EQUATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURIZED PIPEFLOW Objective: Determining either the flow-rate or pipe diameter for a pressurized pipe system requires the solution of a nonlinear equation. Depending on the resistance equation and whether there are significant minor losses, the resulting nonlinear equation may have to be solved repeatedly as part of the solution process. The objective of this lab is to use a nonlinear equation solver of your choice to solve a pressurized pipeflow problem, to compare the process and results of using two different resistance equations and to evaluate the effects of some modifications in the piping system. Develop a general equation for determining the flowrate in the pressurized piping system shown in Figure 1 given data on the system configuration (pipe material, diameter, length, layout, minor loss coefficients, pressure requirements, etc.) for two cases: where the headloss is computed by the Darcy-Weisbach and the HazenWilliams equations. Given the resulting nonlinear equation, select an approach for solution (e.g. Solver in Excel, MATLAB program). Test the approach on an appropriate example problem in the text. Once you are sure your process provides the correct solution, apply it to the system presented in Figure 1. Describe the development of the equation for Q and define all of the variables (but present only the original equation(s) and the resulting equation that you develop). Provide a detailed description (e.g. a flow diagram) of the procedure used to solve the problem. Reference the values you used to describe the piping system including selection of minor loss coefficients, resistance coefficients, etc. In the report you should present the flowrate as a function of valve opening in graphical form for both resistance equations and for all three pipe configurations (3 graphs, properly labeled). In the discussion comment on the effect of the resistance equation and the effect of changing the pipe diameter and material on the flowrate computed for the system.

Approach:

Report:

Solve this problem: The piping system in a typical dwelling in an older home is shown below. The exit diameter of the faucet is -inch. All of the piping is galvanized iron and the fittings are threaded. Pressure in the main is 40 psi (gage). 1. 2. 3. Determine the flow rate, using both the Darcy-Weisbach and the Hazen-Williams equation, when the faucet valve is fully open, open, open and open. Using only the Hazen-Williams equation, determine the effect on the flowrate of replacing the section of pipe with a 1 pipe. Using the Hazen-Williams equation, determine the impact on the flowrate of replacing the galvanized pipe in the original problem with copper tubing of the same diameter. Data for the globe valve (from White, 5th edition, 2003) Fractional opening 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.25 K/Kopen 1.00 1.03 1.13 1.38 1.50 1.75 2.63 3.75

Figure 1: Portion of a household plumbing system for which you want to compute the flowrate. (Note: drawing not to scale) 12 ft. 20 ft. Globe valve (faucet) 8 ft. 40 psi 1 in. diameter 30 ft. 0.5 in diameter

CE 362 Hydraulics Computational Lab No. 2 PIPE NETWORK FLOW ANALYSIS Objective: Apply a pipe network analysis program to determine the flow and pressure in a pipe network given inflows, demands (outflows), the lengths and diameters of pipes and the characteristics of a pump. Haestad methods WaterCad program. Hardy Cross Pipe Network Analysis as presented in lecture.

## Apparatus: Theory: Report: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

For the network shown, set up the problem in WaterCad. Solve for the distribution of flow and pressure in the system assuming all pipes are new cast iron. Repeat the solution assuming that the pipes are now old cast iron. Describe the effects of aging on the performance of the pipe network - flow distribution and pressure. A minimum pressure of 40psi is required in the system. If this criterion is not met, describe how can the system be redesigned to achieve it?

Data for the pipe network are as follows. Schematic is on the following page. All pipes are 6 cast iron. Reservoirs R-1 R-2 180 ft. 200 ft Pump Characteristics Flow (cfs) Head (ft) 1.0 40 1.5 35 2.0 26 Junctions Demand (cfs) 0 0 1 2 2

Pipes Length 500 800 1000 800 1200 1000 500 500 500

## J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5

Schematic of the water distribution system: (Note: R is a reservoir, P is a pipe and J is a junction) R1

Pump P1 J1 P7 P2 P8 J4

R2

P4

P5

J5 P9 J2 P3 J3 P6

CE 362 Hydraulics Computational lab No. 3 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW CALCULATIONS Objective: Develop a computer-based solution (e.g. spreadsheet) to calculate the water surface profile for a gradually varied flow situation. Gradually varied flow in open channels results when disturbances cause the depth of flow to deviate from the normal depth. Depending on whether the flow is sub or supercritical, the effects of these disturbances are propagated upstream or downstream, affecting the depth of flow. Calculations of flow depth in gradually varied flow are based on the energy equation. Manning's equation is used to compute losses due to frictional resistance. One method for the computation of the depth of flow at various points along the channel (called the flow profile) is the direct step method, applicable to prismatic channels. Using this approach, the distance between specified depths are calculated. Use the direct step method to compute the flow profile in the rectangular, concrete lined channel shown below. The channel has a bed slope of 0.0002 and the width is 25 ft.

Theory:

Procedure:

y 5.5 ft.

Flow is controlled by an Ogee crest 5.5 feet above the channel bed. Discharge over the weir can be computed as: Q = C L H1.5 where the weir coefficient, C, is 3.95. Compute the profile to the point where the depth of flow is within 5% of the normal depth. As part of the computational scheme, compute the normal and critical depth for the channel to verify whether the flow is sub or super critical. Plot the resulting flow profile. Analyses and Report: Perform the computation for a flow rate of 310 cfs, an appropriate roughness coefficient and the specified slope. Repeat these calculations, increasing and then decreasing the flow rate, the slope and the roughness by 10% (one at a time). (This procedure is called a sensitivity analysis). Provide a graphical display of the results. Discuss the sensitivity of the distance required to approach the normal depth on variations in the flow rate, the channel slope and the roughness coefficient. Discuss some reasons why this sort of analysis (sensitivity analysis) may be of interest.