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# CHAPTER-XI LIFT ESTIMATION

11.1. LIFT Component of aerodynamic force generated on aircraft perpendicular to flight direction 11.2. LIFT COEFFICIENT (CL) Amount of lift generated depends on: Planform area (S), air density (p), flight speed (V), lift coefficient (CL) L = x x V2 x S x CL CL is a measure of lifting effectiveness and mainly depends upon: _ Section shape, platform geometry, angle of attack (), compressibility effect (mach number), viscous effects (Reynolds number) 11.3 CALCULATION CL cruise = (2WAve) / x v2 x s where, = 0.287 (at 12496 m) CL cruise = (2 x 10297.13 x 9.81) / (0.29 x 236.112 x 42.5) CL cruise = 0.29 11.4. LIFT AT TAKE-OFF CL Take off = CL cruise + CL flap
where, Take off flap at 200 is 0.5

(11.1)

(11.2)

(11.3)

## (11.4) (11.5) (11.6)

CL Take off = 0.29 + 0.5 = 0.79 VR = 1.1 Vstall VR = 1.1x 54.75 VR = 60.23 m/s LTake off = x x V2 x S x CL Take off where, = 1.225 (at sea level) LTake off = 74601.54 N

(11.7) (11.8)

(11.9)

11.5. LIFT AT LANDING CL Landing = CL cruise + CL flap CL Landing = 0.29 + 0.9 CL Landing = 1.19 VR = 0.7 Vstall VR = 0.7x 54.75 VR = 38.33 m/s L Landing = x x V2 x S x CL Landing where, = 1.225 (at sea level) L Landing = 45511.34 N (11.15) (11.13) (11.14) (11.11) (11.12) (11.10)

## CHAPTER- XII DRAG ESTIMATION

12.1. DRAG: Drag is the resolved component of the complete aerodynamic force which is parallel to the flight direction (or relative oncoming airflow). It always acts to oppose the direction of motion. It is the undesirable component of the aerodynamic force while lift is the desirable component. 12.2. Drag Coefficient (CD) Amount of drag generated depends on: Planform area (S), air density, flight speed (V), drag coefficient (CD) CD is a measure of aerodynamic efficiency and mainly depends upon: Section shape, planform geometry, angle of attack, compressibility effects (Mach number), viscous effects (Reynolds number). 12.3. Drag Components Skin Friction. Due to shear stresses produced in boundary layer. Significantly more for turbulent than laminar types of boundary layers. 12.4. Form (Pressure) Drag Due to static pressure distribution around body - Drag is the resolved Component of the complete aerodynamic force which is parallel to the flight direction or relative oncoming airflow. It always acts to oppose the direction of motion.

It is the undesirable component of the aerodynamic force while lift is the desirable component. Amount of drag generated depends on: Planform coefficient(CD) CD is a measure of aerodynamic efficiency and mainly depends upon: Section shape, planform geometry, angle of attack, compressibility effects (Mach number),viscous effects (Reynolds number). Skin Friction. Due to shear stresses produced in boundary layer. Significantly more for turbulent than laminar types of boundary layers. Due to static pressure distribution around body. Component resolved in direction of motion. Sometimes considered separately as forebody and rear (base) drag components. 12.5 DRAG CALCULATION 12.5.1 Drag at Take-Off CD Take-off = CD0 + K CL Take-off 2 where CD0 = 0.03 and apply eq (11.5) in 12.1 CD Take-off = 0.07 DTake off = x x V2 x S x CD Take off DTake off = 6610.26 N 12.5.2 Drag at Landing CD Landing = CD0 + K CL Landing 2 where CD0 = 0.03 and apply eq.(11.11) in (12.5) (12.5) (12.2) (12.3) (12.4) (12.1) area (S), air density, flight speed (V), drag

CD Landing = 0.11 D Landing = x x V2 x S x CD Landing D Landing = x 1.225 x 38.332 x 42.5 x 0.11 D Landing = 4206.32 N