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Students Last Name 1 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ETHICS Introduction A code of ethics differentiates between what is morally acceptable and

unacceptable. In the business world, the administrators face different situations that require them to make daily business decisions. Although some solutions are beneficial to the company, they may be unethical at the national or international level. This happens when such decisions fail to comply with the established business ethics. Based on this understanding, it is significant to display ethical actions as a way of promoting appropriate and competent operation of an organization. Global ethics governs companies operations at the international level. However, the issues of how to behave in an ethical manner remains unclear as several countries are involved in international business. In this article, I refute the argument identifying what is ethical at the international level is hard to do. After reframing this statement, this paper supports the claims that identifying what it ethical is not hard at the international level. However, the paper agrees with the second claim that behaving ethically at an international level is even hard. Therefore, the essay is divided into several sections that address issues connected to business ethics at the international level. Ethical behaviors to promote at international level Business ethics are comparable at the local and international level. The six significant elements for making business decisions globally are laws, integrity, character, morals, ethics, and values. Some ethics have universal implications. However, other regulations apply at the national level. In order to ensure that two nations engage in a business contract, examination of the others code of ethics is necessary. Ethical practices also require these companies to comply with the

Students Last Name 2 regulations set by both states. Honesty and fairness is also significant when entering into a business contract without manipulating the partner state or organization. When firms from developing nations are recruiting employees from developing countries, they are required to guarantee appropriate living conditions comparable to those of employees from developed countries. Hence, the ethical guidelines should also be clearly outlined to prevent the instances where one country takes advantage of the partner country. This happens by ensuring that the two counties abide by the same laws. Argument for seeking to promote the ethical conducts at international level Morals and ethical principles dominate international relations. These ethical guidelines require states to exercise actions specified in these principles. A theoristHoffmansupports this perception by praising ethics as the central element when making decisions in the public domain. The theorist additionally explains that, in their private life, human beings hardly understand of the role played by ethics in policy formulation. Hoffman associates lack of understanding to a grip of pragmatist tradition. In his argument, Doh (2010: 481) insists that the states understand ethical conducts and their importance at the national level. Moreover, Doh insists that these ethics also play a significant role in understanding the global relations. The author at the same time refutes the claims that the universal ethical code governing all the nations does not exist within the international community. In order to understand international ethics, states begin by exploring the variations in ethical guidelines of other countries. At the same time, the international treaties, norms and conventions have several constituted rules demanding compliance by all nations. Violation of any of these roles accompanies several consequences. At a minimum, these

Students Last Name 3 international ethics condemns oppression, massacre and torture. According to what these ethics specify, any government accused with cruelty is liable to a punishment. Instead of defending their ethical violations, the accused states deny the allegations. Alternatively, such countries blame other nations for initiating unethical practice. In this case, they try to defend their economies against punishment for violations of the international ethical guidelines. This is a clear depiction that, despite awareness of the international ethics governing their behaviors, some states go ahead to behave in an unethical manner. In spite of the strong argument that maintains that it is hard to identify what is ethical at the global level, Byrne (2011: 497) maintains a conflicting view. According to the perception of Byrne, ethics draw parameters for providing guidance to behaviors that should be adopted by states. As a result, ethics acts as platforms used by states in unveiling international policy resolutions. When states make decisions at the global arena, the impact spread beyond to the global level. Byrne (2011: 498) supports this argument by insisting that international interactions provide nations with an opportunity of identifying other nations ethical behaviors. For instance, a state can make collective ethical decisions that other states can emulate. However, some states are adamant to the international ethical guidelines. A clear illustration is China. The Chinese leadership portrays their disregard for human right through policies such as; one child policy, press censorship, phone and internet censorship among other violations. As such, it would be useless for the international states to force such a country to become a signatory of the international resolutions that campaigns for human rights.

Students Last Name 4 Different mechanism, strategies or techniques for defining and promoting ethical business conduct From the argument developed earlier in this paper, it is apparent that the world has distinctive and clear ethical policies that guide international business operations. However, several critiques argue that these ethical guidelines constitutes nothing more than empty rhetoric discourse. These international ethics guide the conduct of each person notwithstanding the country of origin. However, states eventually portray their selfish acts, their central interest being to defend security and economic interest at their national level. An area where advanced economies ignore ethical practices is in the arms trade. The ethical policies guide all Western nations to respect human rights when making a decision of authorizing the weapon trade from their territories. In such circumstances, the democratic circumstances come second after considering the issue of human rights. However, these nations ignore the issue of human rights. Going against the international ethics, these nations implement their individual interest while ignoring the international security obligations. According to the perception of Godiwalla (2012: 2), there is a disconnection between identifying what is internationally ethical (as specified in the international law) and behaving ethically. Practically, the international states hardly practice worldwide ethics. Based on this understanding, existence of international agreements is not enough to guide the international states to adopt ethical behaviors. Perhaps instead of debating on whether the behaving ethically is possible at the international level, an alternative move should involve identifying what causes failure. According to the perception held by Godiwalla (2012: 4), the main cause of failure is the lack of a consensus between the nations on the meaning of international ethical systems. With

Students Last Name 5 this understanding, Godiwalla argues that the laws and ethics are not capable of providing such a foundation. According to the argument developed in Godiwalla (2012), the rules codifying international morality result in failure largely because of the absence of a universal ethical system. However, this claim contrasts to earlier perception of Byrne (2011) that supports the existence of an ethical system. From another perspective, Godiwalla insists that rules have vicious effects. Although international laws exist, Godiwalla assert that it is only capable of protecting a section of unethical acts such as war crimes, genocide and humanity crimes. Other unethical human behaviors are allowed, acceptable, or unavoidable by the international law. The universal ethics that are against unethical human behaviors encourage the states to formulate a moral campaign (Godiwalla Y. 2012, 6). The aim of developing several codes is to establish order among international organizations. However, a number of organizations fail to accept these codes based on the understanding that state governments do not fully endorse them. Without complete and even endorsement, the international organizations could have an extensive choice in global moral concerns. The issue of corporate and state culture also triggers lack of consensuses. In every nation, a distinct way of doing businesses is adopted. Altering this trend prompts emergence of challenges. Adopting business ethical guidelines of other countries may force such a country to overlook its original ethics principles. Thus, many organizations argue that they have no alternative but to ignore the international ethics in favor of their organizational or state ethical guidelines.

Students Last Name 6 Therefore, besides adopting the code of ethics governing business operations, organizations also have a responsibility of addressing human right issues and highlighting any unethical behaviors. Examples of the ethical issues addressed include workers conflict of interest, employees confidentiality issues, sexual harassment, confirmatory action and unlawful payment (James F. 2012, 13). Importance of promoting ethical behaviors From my perspective, two or more nations should not be allowed to deal in business at the international level without abiding by the business ethics. Lack of business ethics promotes arguments, disorder and failure in most business dealings. With globally accepted standards, the companies can avoid these shortcomings. These international business ethics prevent time wastage on drafting business agreements. On the contrary, such businesses will promote common understanding because of a jointly agreed standard and law. Promoting ethical business behaviors at the global level will ensure success of the global marketplace. Therefore, the ethical behavior acts as a way of measuring and demonstrating compliance with the global morals. Conclusion As organizations operate at an international level, they are required to abide by the international ethics. Several states understand these international ethics and the repercussions of failing to abide by them. However, these companies are also governed by the national and organizational ethical guidelines that they are not ready to abandon in favor of the international ethical guidelines. From this argument, this paper refutes the claims that identifying what is ethical is hard at the international level. On the other side, it supports the argument that behaving ethically at the international level is hard. Based on this understanding, the international

Students Last Name 7 corporations have no alternative but to develop ethical policies and rules that adhere with the international ethical codes. Unless they are able to draw such a uniform body of rules, the problem highlighted in this paper will continue affecting the international business relations. As a result, the companies that fail to abide by the international business ethics will be unsuccessful in their global ventures.

Students Last Name 8 References Byrne, E., 2011. Business Ethics Should Study Illicit Businesses: To Advance Respect for Human Rights. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(4), Pp. 497-509. Doh, J., 2010. Ahoy There! Toward Greater Congruence and Synergy between International Business and Business Ethics Theory and Research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(3), Pp. 481-502. Godiwalla, Y., 2012. Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Strategies For Foreign Subsidiaries. Journal of Diversity Management, 7(1), Pp. 1-10. James, F., 2012. Aspects of International Business Ethics. Advances in Management, 5 (3), Pp. 11-16.