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Grammar Booklet Klasa 2 LO New Matura Success Intermediate Spis treci:

1. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ...................................................................................................................2 for / since w Past Simple, Present Perfect i Present Perfect Continuous .................................................3 2. PRESENT PERFECT VS PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ................................................................................4 3. REFLEXIVE, EMPHATIC RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS ...........................................................................................6 4. ORDER OF ADJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................................9 5. HABITS: 'WOULD AND USED TO ................................................................................................................12 6. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 0, 1, 2, 3 ....................................................................................................14 Conditionals: words other than if ............................................................................................................18 7. EXPRESSING WISHES, ETC.: I WISH, IF ONLY, ITS (HIGH) TIME ..............................................................20 8. PASSIVE VOICE (all tenses) REVISION ........................................................................................................23 9. REPORTED SPEECH .......................................................................................................................................25 Relacjonowanie zda twierdzcych ............................................................................................................25 Relacjonowanie pyta oglnych .................................................................................................................28 Relacjonowanie pyta szczegowych ........................................................................................................28 Relacjonowanie pyta o podmiot ...............................................................................................................29 Relacjonowanie zda rozkazujcych i prb ...............................................................................................30 10. MODAL VERBS ............................................................................................................................................30 11. KONSTRUKCJA HAVE SOMETHING DONE .................................................................................................35 12. LOOK/SOUND/FEEL + ADJECTIVE; LOOK/SOUND/FEEL AS IF (AS THOUGH) ..............................................37 13. DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................39 Pytania bezporednie ..................................................................................................................................39 Pytania porednie........................................................................................................................................39 14. KONSTRUKCJE GERUNDIALNE I BEZOKOLICZNIK........................................................................................42 Bezokolicznik bez TO (tzw. goy) .............................................................................................................42 Bezokolicznik z TO .....................................................................................................................................42 Gerundium ..................................................................................................................................................43



FORM has/have + been + verb-ing Positive I we have you ('ve) they He has She ('s) It Question Have been waiting. Has I we you they he she it Negative I we have not you (haven't) they he has not she (hasn't) it

been waiting.

been waiting.

USE Frequently used with how long, for and since (> Exercise 43 for difference between for and since). I've been studying English since I was a child. How long have you been waiting? To describe activities which were happening until this moment or a very short time ago: 'You look tired.' 'Yes, I've been working all night' "Why are you so dirty?' 'I've been playing football' Note: this tense is not used with to be or with verbs that do not normally take the continuous. Practice 1 a Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the present perfect continuous. 'What (you do) today?' 'I (play) tennis.' 'What have you been doing today?' I've been playing tennis.' 1. 'How long (you study) English?' .. 2. 'Oh, David! I (look) for you!' .. 3. 'Pat (live) here for twenty-five years.' .. 4. 'I'm tired. We (walk) all day.' .. 5. 'How long (you learn) to drive?' .. 6. 'I (wait) here for ages. .. 7. 'She's bad-tempered because she (work] too hard. .. 8. 'They (watch) football since three o'clock.' .. 9. 'Why (you see) your parents so much recently?' .. 10. 'The children look exhausted. What (they do)?' .. 11. 'She should pass the exam. She (study) for weeks.' .. 12. 'Your mother sends her love. I (just speak) to her on the phone. .. 13. 'I (work) here since I was eighteen.' ..

1 We use the present perfect progressive in place of the simple present perfect when we want to emphasize that something has been in progress throughout a period: Instead of saying: I've typed all day, we can say, for emphasis, I've been typing all day. Depending on context, this may mean I'm still typing or I've just recently stopped. 2 Some verbs like learn, lie, live, rain, sit, sleep, stand, study, wait, work, naturally suggest continuity and we often use them with since and for We can use them in the present perfect tense: I've waited here for two hours. I've worked here since 1987. But we most often use them in the progressive: I've been waiting here for two hours. I've been working here since 1987. 1b 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Supply the present perfect progressive tense of the verbs in brackets. I'm tired. I ....have been digging... all day. (dig) How long .. here? (you wait) I .. here since 6 o'clock, (stand) How long .. Chinese? (you learn) She .. English for five years, (study) You're out of breath. .. ? (you run) We .. here for twelve years, (live) Your eyes are red. .. ? (you cry) How long ..? (the children sleep) What .. all afternoon? (you do)

for / since w Past Simple, Present Perfect i Present Perfect Continuous

Since and for We use both since and for to say how long something has been happening: I've been waiting for you since 8 o'clock. I've been waiting for you for two hours. We use since when we say the beginning of the period (8 o'clock). We use for when we say the period of time (two hours). since 1977 Christmas lunchtime we arrived for a week five years a long time ages

8 o'clock Monday May 12 April Practice 1c 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

two hours ten minutes three days six months

Circle for or since in each sentence. I've worked here (for/since) six years. I lived here (for/since) three months. I've worked in the factory (for/since) 1982. He's been abroad (for/since) five years. I studied French (for/since) twelve years. I've known her (for/since) 1982. I've lived here (for/since) I was a child. We've been in Paris (for/since) we were married. I've known them (for/since) years. We practised (for/since) months.


1 d Write these sentences, choosing for or since and putting the verb into the past simple or present perfect as necessary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I (study) medicine (for/'since) three years but then I stopped. I studied medicine for three years but then I stopped. She (work) for me (for/since) she left school. She's worked for me since she left school. I (work) in the restaurant {for/since) six months but then it closed. I (live) here (for/since) I was a little girl. He (be) in prison now (for/since) three years. I (not see) him (for/since) he left the office. I (not see) her (for/since) several years and then I met her again. We (be) in Vienna (for/since) 1960. I (work) here (for/since) seven years but it's time to leave now. I (live) in England (for/since) 1993.

1 f Put in since or for. Example: Tom and I have known each other ... for six months. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It's been raining . I got up this morning. Randy's father has been a policeman. 20 years. Have you been studying English . a long time? . Christmas, the weather has been quite mild. Janet has been on vacation . three days. That's a very old car. I've had it . ages.


The simple present perfect and the progressive forms mean different things here: I've been painting this room. It will look good when it's finished, (the job is unfinished) I've painted this room. Doesn't it look good? (the job is definitely finished) 2 a Supply the simple present perfect or the present perfect progressive. 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b I .have typed.all your letters. The job's done. (type) I this report since yesterday and I'm only half way through. (type) Your mother is still in the kitchen. She all morning. (cook) I a lovely meal which I'll be serving in a couple of minutes. (cook) We this garage ourselves and have just begun to use it. (build) We this garage ourselves and hope to finish it within the next two months. (build)

2 b Complete this conversation between two friends. Use the present perfect or present perfect progressive form of the verbs in parentheses ( ). A: Hi. I haven't seen (not see) you around lately. How (be) you ? B: OK, thanks. What about you? A: Not bad. What you . (do)? B: Nothing special. What about you? A: I . (read) a book for this business course I'm taking. It's called Body and Soul. It's pretty interesting. I can lend it to you when I'm done, if you'd like. B: Who's it by? A: Anita Roddick. you ever (read) anything about her?

B: Yes. I (see) a few articles about her in the paper. A: you ever (buy) any of her products? B: As a matter of fact, I (use) her products for years. A: Oh. Where do you buy them? B: A new shop . just .. (open) on Broadway. A: Wow, they . (open)everywhere, haven't they? I wonder where the next one is going to be. 2 c Use the cues to write questions about Anita Roddick. she / sell / cosmetics for a long time? Has she been selling cosmetics for a long time? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How much money / her business / make this year? How long / she / travel around the world? How many countries / she / visit? How many copies of her book / she / sell? she / write / any books since Body and Soul? she / ever appear on TV? How long / she and her husband / live in England?

2 d Read the situation and then write two sentences, one with the present perfect simple (I have done) and one with the present perfect continuous (I have been doing). Example: Tom is reading a book. He started two hours ago, and he is on page 53. (he / read / for two hours) ....He has been reading for two hours.... (he / read / 53 pages so far) ....He has read 53 pages so far.... 1. Linda is from Canada. Now she is traveling around Europe. She began her trip three months ago. (she / travel / around Europe for three months) .. (she / visit / six countries so far) .. 2. Sue is a tennis champion. She began playing tennis when she was 11 years old. Now she has just won the national championship for the fourth time. (she / play / tennis since she was 11) . (she / win / the national championship four times) . 3. Bill and Andy make films. They started making films together when they left college. (they / make / films since they left college) . (they / make / ten films since they left college) . 2 e Imagine that you are talking to a friend. Read the situation and ask a question beginning in the way shown. Example: Your friend is studying Arabic. How long have you been studying Arabic? 1. Your friend is waiting for you. 2. Your friend writes books. 3. Your friend writes books. 4. Your friend is fishing by the river. How long How many books How long How many fish

2 f Put the verb into the correct form: present perfect simple (I have done) or continuous (I have been doing). Examples: I have lost (lost) my key. Can you help me look for it? You look tired. ....Have you been working.... (you/work) too hard? 1. Look! Somebody .. (break) that window. 2. I .. (read) the book you gave me, but I (not/finish) it yet. 3. "Sorry I'm late." . "That's all right. I .. (not/wait) long." 4. Hello! I .. (clean) the windows. So far I . (clean) five of them and there are two more to do. 5. My brother is an actor. He .. (appear) in several movies.


Zaimki zwrotne, emfatyczne i wzajemne 1. Zaimki zwrotne w jzyku angielskim maj oddzielne formy dla kadej osoby gramatycznej (podlegaj odmianie przez osoby). Zaimek zwrotny wystpuje bezporednio po czasowniku. Mona go na j. polski przetumaczy: siebie, si, sob Zaimek osobowy I You He She It We You They Zaimek zwrotny/emfatyczny myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves - Ja mwi do siebie. - Ty mwisz do siebie. - On mwi do siebie. - Ona mwi do siebie. - My mwimy do siebie - Wy mwicie do siebie - Oni mwi do siebie. Skaleczyem si. Dobrze si bawimy. Za duo o sobie mwicie. Za duo o sobie mwisz.

I'm talking to myself You are talking to yourself. He's talking to himself. She is talking to herself. We are talking to ourselvels You are talking to yourselves. They are talking to themselves. I have cut myself. We're enjoying ourselves. You talk about yourselves too much. You talk about yourself too much.

2. Zaimki zwrotne mog take wystpi w roli zaimkw emfatycznych tzn. takich, ktre podkrelaj, e dana czynno jest wykonywana osobicie przez osob, do ktrej odnosi si zaimek. Taki zaimek emfatyczny wystpuje zazwyczaj na kocu zdania. You must repair your bicycle yourself. Musisz sam naprawi swj rower.

3. W odrnieniu od zaimkw zwrotnych w jzyku angielskim wystpuj wyraenia "each other" oraz "one another" okrelajce, e czynnoci wykonywane przez podwjny podmiot byy wykonywane wzajemnie. each other tumaczymy: siebie nawzajem, gdy mwimy o dwch osobach. one another - tumaczymy: siebie nawzajem, ale gdy mwimy o wikszej iloci osb. Tom and Betsy dont like each other. Tom i Betsy nie lubia si (siebie nawzajem dwie osoby) All neighbours in the block visit one another. Wszystkie ssiadki w bloku odwiedzaja si (siebie nawzajem, tutaj mwimy o wikszej iloci osb) John and Mary buy each other a lot of presents. John i Mary kupuj sobie duo prezentw. (sobie nawzajem) We blamed one another for the accident. Za ten wypadek obwinialimy siebie nawzajem.

Czy s jakie czasowniki, ktre nie cz si z zaimkami zwrotnymi? feel relax concentrate meet Dobrze I feel good. He usually relaxes after work. They cant concentrate. We meet together after school regularly. Zazwyczaj nie stosujemy zaimkw zwrotnych z: wash dress shave dry Dobrze I am washing. I get dressed. I am shaving. Co znaczy i kiedy stosujemy each other?


le I feel myself good. He usually relaxes himself after work. They cant concentrate themselves. We meet ourselves after school regularly.

le I am washing myself. I dress myself. I am shaving myself.

Jeeli chcemy powiedzie, e jaka czynno jest odwzajemniona przez drug osob uywamy each other. Porwnaj te zdania: John and Mary like themselves. They are happy people. = John likes himself and Mary likes herself. John and Mary like each other. They are friends. = John likes Mary and Mary likes John. Practice 3a 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Fill in the correct reflexive pronouns. I did not want to believe it and then I saw the UFO . The girl looked at in the mirror. Freddy, you'll have to do your homework . You don't need to help them. They can do it . I introduced to my new neighbour. Boys, can you make your beds ? She made a pullover. What happens when a fighting fish sees in the mirror? The father decided to repair the car . We can move the table .

3 b Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns Decide whether you have to use the reflexive pronoun, the reciprocal pronoun (each other) or nothing. 1. John hurt when climbing the tree. 2. Peter and Sue helped with the homework.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I feel much better today. Did she make a cup of tea? The wild monkey looked at in the mirror. Brigit and Billy smiled at . We're meeting at the station. During the meeting, Jane and Mary were talking to . I don't remember where we spent our holiday last year. We need to concentrate .

3 c Choose the correct reflexive pronouns. myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself - ourselves - yourselves - themselves 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Robert made this T-shirt . Lisa did the homework We helped to some cola at the party. Emma, did you take the photo all by ? I wrote this poem . He cut with the knife while he was doing the dishes. The lion can defend . My mother often talks to . Tim and Gerry, if you want more milk, help . It was extremely loud in class, so Alice and Doris couldn't concentrate .

3 d Wpisz waciwy zaimek zwrotny w zdaniu. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Peter hurt while skiing. Listen to ! What you are saying is wrong. I am so unhappy with . I had so much time and spent it all watching TV. The girl saw in the mirror and started crying. I don't like Jim. He is so boring. He can only talk about . They introduced to the other people in the room. We can do it by . Your mother and you always pay for . Let me pay for that. The dog opened the gate by . We can help by taking a loan in the bank.

3 e Przekszta zdania. Uyj zwrotu by + zaimek zwrotny = samodzielnie/sam 1. He lives alone. He lives by himself. 2. Sarah can drive alone. 3. Jim does his homework alone. 4. My parents went to the restaurant alone. 5. His children always play alone in the garden. 6. We usually listen to music alone. 7. I often repair a car without anybody helping. 8. My dog sometimes sleeps alone outside. 9. The student eats lunch alone in the cafeteria.

3 f Wybierz waciw odpowied. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. They love themselves / each other . Mary and Sarah introduced each other / themselves to the rest of the group. Look your father is talking to each other / himself . They looked in the mirror and they saw each other / themselves . Jim and Sarah are talking to each other / themselves . We sometimes give ourselves / each other expensive gifts. We dont like ourselves / each other . He is not my type. You are friends for God's sake. You shouldn't quarrel. You like yourselves / each other .

Porzdek przymiotnikw w zdaniu In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun - for example, "He's a silly young fool," or "She's a smart, energetic woman." When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. This page will explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them. Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples: large, tiny, enormous, little An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples: ancient, new, young, old A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples: square, round, flat, rectangular A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples: blue, pink, reddish, grey An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples: wooden, metal, cotton, paper A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with "-ing". Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), roasting (as in "roasting tin")

Some examples of adjective order Opinion a silly a a huge small Size Age young round red



Origin English

Material metal

Purpose man bowl sleeping bag

4 a Wybierz waciw kolejno przymiotnikw 1. Which is the correct order? a) a small Canadian thin lady b) a Canadian small thin lady c) a small thin Canadian lady d) a thin small Canadian lady 2. Which is the correct order? a) a carving steel new knife b) a new steel carving knife c) a steel new carving knife d) a new carving steel knife 3. Which is the correct order? a) a beautiful blue sailing boat b) a blue beautiful sailing boat c) a sailing beautiful blue boat d) a blue sailing beautiful boat 4. Which is the correct order? a) an old wooden square table b) a square wooden old table c) an old square wooden table d) a wooden old square table 5. Which is the correct order? a) an new French exciting band b) a French new exciting band c) an exciting French new band d) an exciting new French band 6. Which is the correct order? a) a red big plastic hat b) a big red plastic hat c) a plastic big red hat d) a bit plastic red hat 7. Which is the correct order? a) a small Japanese serving bowl b) a Japanese small serving bowl c) a small serving Japanese bowl d) a serving small Japanese bowl 8. Which is the correct order? a) a cotton dirty old tie b) a dirty cotton old tie c) an old cotton dirty tie d) a dirty old cotton tie 4 b Type the correct noun phrase, putting the adjectives in order. For example: blue small a German doll "a small blue German doll".

1. round small reading lamp


2. German old yellow car

3. wooden huge sailing ship

4. physics boring old teacher

5. slim Canadian handsome snowboarder

6. sugar blue round bowl

4 c Choose the correct answer. 1 - I bought a pair of _____ shoes. a) black leather b) leather black 2 - It was a ____ car. a) red fast b) fast red 3 - It's a ____ building. a) big round b) round big 4 - I bought ____ knife. a) a Swiss army b) an army Swiss 5 - It's ____ film. a) a beautiful old b) an old beautiful 6 - He's ____ man. a) an unfriendly rich b) a rich unfriendly


7 - It's ____ phone. a) a mobile expensive b) an expensive mobile 8 - It's ____ village. a) an old lovely b) a lovely old 9 - The ____ visitors were Japanese. a) two last b) last two 10 - He's got ____ eyes. a) blue big b) big blue 11 - It's a ____ house. a) nice new b) new nice 12 - It's ____ airline. a) a popular American b) an American popular 13 - It's ____ company a) a family old b) an old family 14 - It's a ____ restaurant. a) cheap good b) good cheap


Przesze nawyki: would and used to used to is not a modal. It is formed like this: I used to work there. I didn't use to work there. Did you use to work there? Use would and used to to talk about past habits: When we were children, my brother and I used to fight all the time. When we were children, my brother and I would fight all the time. When we use would to talk about a past habit, it is necessary to use a past time reference. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference. I used to go out a lot. (NOT I would go out a lot.) Before I got this job, I used to/would go out a lot. When we talk about past situations (not actions), we can use used to but we can't use would: We used to live in a flat in the town centre. (NOT We would live in a flat in the town centre). She used to have long hair but now she wears it short.

Practice 5 a Complete the sentences with would or used to. Where either form is possible, write them both. Where there is a word in brackets, put it in the correct position. 1. I used to have lots of free time before I started working here. 2. In the long summer holidays, we used to/would go out somewhere with a picnic every day. 3. When I was a newly-trained teacher, I . work till late every night preparing lessons. 4. They . be happy together but they're not now. 5. When they came to London, they . (never) travel anywhere on the tube. 6. When I had a car, I . drive everywhere, but now I'm much fitter because I always walk or cycle. 7. During my last year at university, I . go to the library to start work at 9 o'clock every morning. 8. When we shared a flat together, we . (often) stay up talking late into the night. 9. When Amy was a baby, people . (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. 10. He. be very overweight but he's much slimmer now. 11. When I was at school, I . (never) do my weekend homework until Sunday evening. 12. I . work in the same department as your sister. 13. When I was a teenager, I . (often) spend the whole evening just listening to music. 14. She . have a lot of boyfriends when she was younger. 15. He . go for a run every day. 5 b Write these sentences, putting one verb into the correct form of used to and the other into the past simple. Wstaw used to lub form czasu past simple I . (smoke), but I . (give it up) last year. I used to smoke, but I gave it up last year. I (not like) him, but then I (change) my mind. I didn't use to like him, but then / changed my mind. He . (live) in London before he . (go) abroad. I . (earn) a lot of money, but then I . (lose) my job. I'm surprised that they . (join) the tennis club. They. (not like) tennis. . (you travel) a lot before you . (get) this job? I . (work) in a factory before I . (become) a teacher. She . (drive) a lot before she . (have) the accident. That old radio . (work) before I . (drop) it. We . (see) them every week, but then we . (have) an argument. I . (work) in a restaurant before I . (go) to college. She . (play) a lot of tennis before she . (break) her leg. We . (have) a garden, but then we . (move) to a different house. She . (live) in Wales, but then she . (move) back to Scotland. I . (drive) a lorry before I . (start) this business.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.



Tryby warunkowe (Zero, I, II, III)

Zero conditional FORM if + present simple If you press the button, If you go in the best seats, or present simple The machine switches off You get a free drink

present simple the machine switches off. you get a free drink. if + present simple if you press this button. if you go in the best seats.

USE If has the same meaning as when here. The zero conditional is used: a) for instructions: If you select reverse gear, the car goes backwards. If the camera is on, a red light appears. b) for general truths: If he's got no money, he doesn't go out. He always says hello if he sees you. Practice 6 a Put the verbs into the correct tense. Water (freeze) if the temperature falls below zero. Water freezes if the temperature falls below zero. If he's angry, his face always .. (go) bright red. If you put your money in a savings account, you .. (get) ten per cent interest. If the microphone isn't working, you .. (can not) hear what he's saying. The radio .. (not work) if the batteries are flat. If there .. (be) only a few students, we usually close one of the classes. The machine .. (not work) if it doesn't have enough oil. If a balloon is filled with hot air, it .. (rise). If water .. (boil), it changes into steam. The machine stops automatically if something .. (go) wrong.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

There are three main types of conditional sentences. First conditional (or Type 1 conditional) If I see Andrew at the meeting, I will [Ill] give him your message. present simple future simple (will+ infinitive)

To talk about something that is quite likely to happen in the future. It is very possible that I will see Andrew at the meeting, in which case I'll give him your message. The condition is quite likely to be fulfilled.

Second conditional (or Type 2 conditional) If my parents were alive, they would [they'd] be very proud of me now. past simple would + infinitive

To talk about a present situation which is impossible: a hypothetical situation. The condition cannot be fulfilled because my parents are not alive. If she changed her job, she would [she'd] be much happier.

To talk about a future event that is unlikely to happen. The speaker does not expect her to change her job. That is, it is unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled. Third conditional (or Type 3 conditional) If she had worked harder, past perfect she would have [she'd have/she would've] passed the exams. would + perfect infinitive

To talk about something in the past that did not happen. She didn't work harder and she didn't pass her exams. It is an unfulfilled condition in the past. 6b 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form Conditional Type 1 I wont wake unless I . (hear) the alarm. If you'd like some ice I . (get) some from the fridge. He's only sixteen but he wants to leave school at the end of the term. If he . (leave) now he . (be) sorry afterwards. I expect it will freeze tonight. If it . (freeze) tonight the roads . (be) very slippery tomorrow. That book is overdue. If you . (not take) it back to the library tomorrow you (have) to pay a fine. Unless Tom . (take) his library book back tomorrow he . (have) to pay a fine. I will take the day off if I . (not feel) well tomorrow. If a driver . (brake) suddenly on a wet road he . (skid). If you . (like) I . (get) you a job in this company. My dog never starts a fight. He will not growl unless the other dog . (growl) first.

6 c Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations. Przykad: I don't have a spare ticket. I can't take you to the concert. If I had a spare ticket I could/would take you to the concert.

1 She drinks too much coffee. She doesn't feel calm. .. 2 He can't type. He isn't able to operate a computer. .. 3 They don't understand the problem. They won't find a solution. .. 4 He sits around too much. He isn't fit. ..


6 d Wstaw czasownik w nawiasie w odpowiedniej formie. Conditional II (If+Past Simple, would+czasown) Examples: If I knew (know) her number, I would call her. I . .wouldn't buy (not/buy) that coat if I were you. 1 I . (give) you a cigarette if I had one, but I'm afraid I don't. 2 This soup would taste better if it . (have) more salt in it. 3 If you . (not/go) to bed so late every night, you wouldn't be so tired all the time. 4 I wouldn't mind living in England if the weather . (be) better. 5 I'd help you if I . (can), but I'm afraid I can't. 6 If I were you, I . (not/marry) him. 7 We would gladly buy that house if it . (not/be) so small. 6 e Wstaw czasownik w nawiasie w odpowiedniej formie. Conditional II (If+Past Simple, would+czasown) 1. If I (know) .. his address I'd give it to you. 2. He (look) .. a lot better if he shaved more often. 3. If everybody (give) . 1 we would have enough. 4. He might get fat if he (stop) .. smoking. 6 f Wstaw czasownik w nawiasie w odpowiedniej formie. Conditional III (If+Past Perfect, would have + 3 forma) 5. If I .... (have) a map I would have been all right. 6. If I .... (know) that you were coming I'd have baked a cake. 7. The hens .... (not get) into the house if you had shut the door. 8. If he had known the whole story he (not be) .... so angry. 6 g The following sentences are first, second or third conditional. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. If it had been (be) a nice day, we would have gone (go) for a picnic. 1. 2. Why don't you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth, I'm sure you (regret) it one day. 2. Jennifer was here not long ago. If you (come round) earlier, you (see) her. 3. Apparently, the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. If that (happen), the town (lose) a great deal of money. 4. I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I'm afraid I haven't got any spare time at all at the moment. 5. The government is expecting to win the next election, but if it (lose), the Prime Minister (resign) from politics. 6. I am so glad that you took me to your friend's party. If we (not go) there, I (never meet) Adrian. 7. It's ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If fares (be) cheaper, I'm sure more people (use) the train and leave their cars at home. 8. If she (get) that job she's applied for, she (be) delighted. And I think she's got a good chance of getting it. 9. 10. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. 10. The talks between the two leaders keep breaking down. If they (break down) again, it is possible that there (be) a war between the two countries. 11. If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics, I'm sure she (help) us fix the car, but I think she knows even less than we do.

12. They've been married for twenty years now but I don't think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was. 13. Children spend too much time watching television and playing computer games. I'm sure they (be) happier if they (spend) more time playing outside. 14. Jamie has everything he wants but he's always moaning. I'm sure that if I (have) so much money, I (not moan) all the time. 6 h Comment on the following situations with if (expressing regret, etc.). John ate too much birthday cake, so he was sick. If John hadn't eaten too/so much birthday cake, he wouldn't have been sick 1. We came home from our holiday early because we ran out of money. .. 2. The house didn't burn down because the fire brigade came immediately. .. 3. The men were wearing protective clothing, so they were all quite safe. .. 4. I had an accident because I wasn't watching the road. .. 5. I was sweating because it was so hot. .. 6. My father didn't earn much money, so life wasn't easy for us. .. 7. I didn't enjoy school, so I didn't do very well. ..

6 i Read the situation and write a sentence with if. She didn't eat anything because she wasn't hungry. If she had been hungry she would have eaten something . 1. The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly. If the driver in front . 2. I didn't wake George because I didn't know he wanted to get up early. If I 3. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money. If ... 4. She wasn't injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt. If ... 5. You're hungry now because you didn't have breakfast. If ... 6. She didn't buy the coat because she didn't have enough money on her. If ...


Conditionals: words other than if

Tryb warunkowy ze zwrotami: unless, even if, if only, as/so long as, assuming (that), on (the) condition (that), provided/providing (that), suppose/supposing (that)

Conditionals can also be introduced by the following conjunctions: - unless - chyba, e / jeli nie - even if - nawet, jeli - if only - gdyby tylko - as/so long as - tak dugo jak, pod warunkiem, e - assuming (that) - zakadajc, e - on (the) condition (that) - pod warunkiem, e - provided/providing (that) - pod warunkiem, e In questions (w pytaniach) - suppose/supposing (that) - what if - imagine Practice 6 j In your notebook, rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction. 1 Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference if we pay him a reasonable fee. (supposing that / unless / on condition that) Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference on condition that we pay him a reasonable fee. - przypumy, e - co jeli - wyobra sobie, e

2 I won't help him if he doesn't ask me properly. (provided / unless / as long as) 3 If I could get a job, life here would be perfect. (what if / even if / if only) 4 If you had a lot of money, do you think you would give up work? (Supposing that / Providing that / As long as) 5 If the train arrives on time, they'll be here in a few minutes. (What if / Assuming that / On condition that) 6 If he doesn't agree to my request, what will I do then? (Imagine / What if / Provided that) 7 You can go out tonight if you get back by midnight. (as long as / assuming that / supposing that) 8 If the helicopter hadn't been there to save her, what would have happened then? (If only / Imagine / Unless) 9 If you'd offered to pay me a thousand pounds, I wouldn't have done it. (If only / Provided that / Even if) 10 If Rosie gets this new promotion, we'll have enough money for a holiday abroad this year. (Even if / Provided that / Supposing that)

Here are some more examples of unless: Don't tell Ann what I said unless she asks you. (= except if she asks you) I'll come tomorrow unless I have to work. (= except if I have to work) I wouldn't eat between meals unless I were extremely hungry. (= except if I were extremely hungry) We often use unless in warnings: We'll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry) Unless you work harder, you're not going to pass the exam. (= except if you work harder) The thief said he would hit me unless I told him where the money was. (= except if I told him) Instead of unless it is possible to say if... not: Don't tell Ann what I said if she doesn't ask you. We'll be late if we don't hurry.

As long as, provided (that), providing (that) These expressions mean but only if: You can use my car as long as (or so long as) you drive carefully. ( = but only if you drive carefully) Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park. (= but only if you have somewhere to park) Providing (that) she studies hard, she should pass the exam. (= but only if she studies hard) When you are talking about the future, do not use will with unless, as long as, provided, or providing. Use a present tense: We'll be late unless we hurry, (not unless we will hurry) Providing she studies hard ... (not providing she will study) <as long as> a. provided that. b. seeing that; since: As long as you're going, I'll go too. c. Also, <so long as.> during the time that; while.

6 k Read the sentence and then write a new sentence with the same meaning. Use unless. Example: You have to study more or you won't pass the exam. You wont pass the exam unless you study more 1. You should listen carefully or you won't know what to do. You won't know what to do 2. We have to hurry or we'll miss the train. We'll 3. You have to speak very slowly or he won't be able to understand you. He 4. I have to get a raise or I'll look for another job. . 5. She has to apologize to me or I won't forgive her. . 6 l Read the sentence with only if and then write a new sentence with unless. Example: Joe can hear only if you shout. Joe can't hear unless you shout. I'm going to the party only if you go too. I'm not going to the party You are allowed into the club only if you are a member. You're not The dog will attack you only if you move. The dog She'll speak to you only if you ask her a question. She


6 m Choose the correct word or expression for each sentence. Example: You can use my car unless / as long as you drive carefully, ("as long as" is correct) 1. I'm playing tennis tomorrow unless / providing it rains. 2. We're going to start painting the house tomorrow unless / provided it's not raining. 3. You can smoke in here unless / as long as you leave a window open to let the smoke out. 4. George doesn't trust anyone. He won't lend you any money unless / as long as you promise in writing to pay him back. 5. The children can stay here unless / providing they don't make too much noise. 6. Im going now unless / provided you want me to stay. 7. I can't understand why he's late unless / as long as he didn't get our message.


Uycie wish / if only wyraanie alw / ycze (nierealna teraniejszo / przeszo) After (I) wish, if only, it's (high) time and it's (about) time, we 'go one tense back': The past tense refers to the present: I wish I had a better watch! (i.e. NOW) The past perfect tense refers to the past: If only you had asked me first! (i.e. THEN) 7 a Tick the sentences that refer to 'present' or 'past'. 1 2 3 4 5 I wish I had a better watch! If only I knew the answer to the problem! It's high time/about time he learnt more manners! I wish you hadn't done that! If only you had phoned me yesterday! present past

Po zwrotach 'I wish' i 'if only' mog wystpi nastpujce konstrukcje gramatyczne Simple past Past perfect Would ale do teraniejszoci (aujemy e sytuacja jest inna ni bymy sobie tego yczyli) ale do przeszoci (aujemy teraz tego co si stao w przeszoci) yczenia bdce zarazem rozkazem do wykonania przez inne osoby

1 We often use I wish for things that might (still) happen: I wish I knew the answer! (= it's possible I might find out the answer) If only is stronger. We use it to express regret for things that can (now) never happen: If only your mother were alive now! (Of course, I wish is also possible.) 2 We may use the simple past of be after wish and if only, especially in everyday speech: I wish I was on holiday now. If only Tessa was here now! 3 If we want to be more formal, we use were in all persons: I wish I were on holiday now. If only Tessa were here! 4 We may use the past perfect of be for things that can never happen: I wish I had been on holiday last week. If only Tessa had been here yesterday! 5 We use the past or past perfect forms of other verbs: I wish I knew the answer to your question. I wish I had known then what I know now!

7b 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Express wishes and regrets about these situations. You're not very fit .. I wish / If only you were fit!............. It's very hot today .. It's raining .. You were too impatient .. You wasted a lot of time watching TV They don't have a lot of friends . We didn't lock the back door! . He is abroad . Jane has read your letter . John didn't take your advice .

7 c Context Write: Put in the right forms for the words in brackets. HAVING A WONDERFUL TIME! WISH YOU WERE HERE! While trying to sail round the world in a small boat, Harry, Sandy and Joe were shipwrecked one night. 'I wish there (be) ......was/ island nearby,' Harry said. By morning they were washed up on to a desert island. For six months they lived on fish, nuts and fruit. One day, they saw a bottle on the shore. 'If only it (contain) 2 . a note or something!' Sandy said. They opened it and a genie appeared. It's high time someone (open) 3 that bottle!' the genie gasped. Im so grateful, I'll give you one wish each. You first,' the genie said, pointing to Harry. 'That's easy,' Harry said. 'I wish I (be) 4 . with my family.' And (whoosh!) he disappeared. 'Me too,' Sandy said. 'If only I (can be) 5 . in dear old Glasgow.' And (whoosh!) off he went. 'And you, sir? 'the genie asked Joe. 'I wish I (have) 6 . my friends back!' Joe said. Would' and 'could' after 'I wish' and 'if only'

We must use could, not would, after I and we. Compare: I can't swim. I wish I could swim. We weren't together! I wish we could have been together. We sometimes use I wish you (he, she, etc.) would(n't) like an imperative: (You are making a lot of noise!) I wish you wouldn't make so much noise! (He is making a lot of noise!) I wish he would be quiet! 7 d Supply would, wouldn't or could. I wish they would be quiet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We wish you drive so fast. We wish we come to London with you. I wish I have seen the film with them. We really wish she change her mind and come on holiday with us. If only we have good weather like this the whole year.


7 e Wstaw czasownik w nawiasie w odpowiednim czasie Past Perfect albo Past Simple. 1. Its a pity that he didnt come to the party. I wish he .. (be) there 2. I regret that I didnt help my neighbour. I wish I .. (take) care of her dog for the weekend. 3. I regret I am not free as a bird. I wish I .. (have) more freedom. 4. It's a pity I sold my car. I wish I .. (not sell) it. 7 f Write sentences with I wish... Example: I don't know many people (and I'm lonely). I wish I knew more people... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I can't give up smoking (but I'd like to). I wish I I don't have any cigarettes (and I need one). I wish George isn't here (and I need him). I wish George .. It's cold (and I hate cold weather). I wish I live in New York City (and I hate New York City). I Tina can't come to the party (she's your best friend). I I have to work tomorrow (but I'd like to stay in bed) I don't know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down). I'm not on a beautiful sunny beach (and that's a shame).

7 g Imagine that you are in each situation. Make a sentence with I wish... Example: You've eaten too much and now you feel sick. You say: I wish I hadn't eaten so much 1 You've just painted the door red. Now you decide that it doesn't look very nice. You say: I wish I .. 2 You are walking in the country. You would like to take some photographs, but you didn't bring your camera. You say: I .. 3 A good friend of yours visited your town, but unfortunately you were away when he came. So you didn't see him. You say: .. 4 You've just come back from your vacation. Everything was fine except for the hotel, which wasn't very good. You say: ..



Strona Bierna + czasy cige Tworzenie zda twierdzcych w Stronie Biernej Tense Czas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Future Auxiliary to be odmienione w danym czasie am/is/are am/is/are being have/has been was/were was/were being had been will be* Verb Form III kolumna / czasown.+ -ed past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle past participle * Inne modalne tak jak will np: It must be done

8 a Change into passive voice. Zamie na stron biern. 1. Somebody has broken a glass. 2. She is photocopying the documents. 3. People hunt elephants for ivory. 4. You must turn off the TV at midnight. 5. The Polish eat many loaves of bread every year. 6. He has just combed his hair. 7. The workers are building many new roads in Poland. 8. Shakespeare wrote 'Hamlet'. 9. Adam will finish this phone call in 5 minutes. 10. They have bought a new DVD system. 11. Tina was doing a crossword all yesterday evening. 12. I didn't send this telegram. 13. My mother never gives me a morning kiss. 14. A lot of people enjoy sport. 15. John offered me a new job. 16. We should have seen this exhibition. 17. Danny will receive an important letter next week.

18. This hotel doesn't provide breakfast. 19. Our kids will have eaten some pizza by noon. 20. James had seen the cat before he closed the window. 8 b Change into passive voice. Zamie na stron biern. 1. Gucci designed this wonderful suit. 2. She seldom visits us. 3. The mechanic is repairing my car. 4. The programmer will create a new website soon. 5. Gerry was trying on a new shirt. 6. The Blacks always mow the lawn on Saturday. 7. He hasn't arranged all the meetings yet. 8. We had prepared the room before they arrived. 9. The government is establishing a new law. 10. The teacher has explained a new matter to us. 11. They will have installed a new alarm by tomorrow. 12. She was correcting her students' mistakes. 13. I didn't use this computer at all.. 14. She is typing 5 reports. 15. They flavour these rolls with garlic. 16. Sheila has washed her hands. 17. Many tourists enjoy this monument. 18. Turin is holding the Winter Olympic Games. 19. He is opening a tin. 20. I will do it in a minute. 8 c Change into passive voice. Zamie na stron biern. 1. You must send this letter today. 2. Someone is watching my parents. 3. Nobody will read this article.

4. We won't deliver the sofa today. 5. The company employs 500 people. 6. Who composed 'Carmen'? 7. You have to tell me the story again. 8. My father gave this watch to me on my 18th birthday. 9. The cleaning lady cleans the rooms everyday. 10. They aren't making these envelopes at present. 11. I will never forget this story. 12. They are watering some plants. 13. Have your sisters decorated the room? 14. I feed my dog twice a day. 15. I sent out the invitations 2 weeks ago. 16. The rivals have beaten my team once so far. 17. Dali painted this picture when he was 30. 18. We must save energy. 19. They make red wine from red grapes. 20. They will cancel the picnic if it rains.

Mowa Zalena Indirect statements with tense changes

Relacjonowanie zda twierdzcych

W jzyku angielskim mamy dwa sposoby wyraania tego, co chcemy powiedzie: a) mowa zalena (Indirect Speech) b) mowa niezalena (Direct Speech). Mowa niezalena to bezporednie cytowanie (wypowied oryginalna w cudzysowie) wypowiedzi osb trzecich: Kate said: I want something to drink - Kate powiedziaa: 'Chc co do picia' Natomiast mowa zalena polega na wiernym oddaniu (relacjonowaniu) tego co kto powiedzia: Kate said that she wanted something to drink. - Kate powiedziaa, e chce co do picia.

W jzyku angielskim charakteryzuje si ona pewnymi reguami, a mianowicie czas zdania oryginalnej wypowiedzi musi si zmieni na "jeden czas do tyu", jest to nastpstwo czasw. Naley take pamita o odpowiedniej zamianie zaimkw. Kate said: I will show you something Kate said that she would show me something.

Zmiany czasw: mowa niezalena present simple present continuous present perfect simple present perfect continuous past simple past continuous past perfect am/is/are going to future shall/will shall in offers and suggestions must can Zmiany okolicznikw: mowa niezalena now today tonight this week this month tomorrow next week next month yesterday last night this here mowa zalena then that day that night that week that month the following day the next day the following week the next week the following month the next month the day before the previous day the night before the previous night that there mowa zalena past simple past continuous past perfect simple past perfect continuous past perfect simple past perfect continuous past perfect was/were going to would should had to could

Example: 'Sales have dropped dramatically in the last year.' A representative said (that) sales had dropped dramatically in the last (or previous) year.


9 a Report these statements with said (except 13) moving the clauses 'one tense back'. DIRECT SPEECH STATEMENTS INDIRECT SPEECH STATEMENTS present becomes past 1 MAC: I need a holiday. Mac said (that) he needed a holiday. 2 SUE: I'm not wasting my time. ... present perfect becomes past perfect 3 TOM: I've had some good news. ... 4 PAM: I've been sleeping. ... past becomes past or past perfect (past perfect is often optional) 5 LOU: I went home early. ... 6 JAN: I was waiting for you. ... past perfect does not change 7 JOE: I had eaten earlier. ... 8 PAT: I had been waiting for you. ... modal 'present' becomes 'conditional' or 'past' 9 TIM: I will see you later. ... 10 DOT: I can speak French. ... 11 KIM: I may arrive later. ... 'past' or 'conditional' modals do not change 14 TED: I could help you. ... 15 ANN: I might see him. ... 16 JIM: I would enjoy that. ... 'should' (= 'it's advisable') doesn't change 21 LEE: I should go to the dentist's. ... 'must' (= necessity in the past) does not change, or becomes 'had to' 22 PAUL: I must catch an early ... train. 23 JILL: I must speak to you. ... 'mustn't' (= prohibition) does not change, or becomes 'couldn't' 24 JEAN: I mustn't eat meat. ... 25 JEFF: They mustn't give up. ... 9 b Turn each direct-speech statement into indirect speech with tense changes. JUST WHAT THE DOCTOR ORDERED! 'I've conducted a number of tests,' Dr Grey said. 1 Dr Grey said (that) she had conducted a number of tests. 'I must put you on a very strict diet,' she told me. 2 'You're putting on a lot of weight,' she said. 3 'You have gained 5.5 kilos in six months,' she added. 4 'You gained 10 kilos last year,' she reminded me. 5 'You will get very fat if you go on like this,' she told me. 6 'You should eat very little,' she said. 7 'So I'll have to live on nuts and water,' I said nervously. 8 'You can live on nuts and water without the nuts,' she said. 9

Indirect Yes/No questions: 'He asked me if I was ready'

Relacjonowanie pyta oglnych

1 We don't use quotation marks or question marks in indirect questions: He asked me if (or whether) I was ready. 2 Tense changes: 'Present becomes past and past becomes past perfect', but: Are you ready?' He asked (me) if/whether I was ready. If we are reporting a question that has just been asked, we can say: Are you ready?' - 'What did John ask you?' - 'He asked me if/whether I'm ready.' 3 The inversion in the direct question changes to statement word order: Are you ready?' He asked (me) if/whether I was ready. A reported tag question also changes to statement word order: 'You're ready, aren't you?' He asked (me) if/whether I was ready. 4 We use if or whether after ask, want to know, wonder, (not) know, didn't say/tell me. 9 c Report these Yes/No questions moving the clauses 'one tense back'. 'Are you hungry?' She asked us ...if/weather we were hungry. 1. 'Are you enjoying yourself?' He wanted to know .. 2. 'Do you always go to church on Sunday?' He wondered .. 3. 'Have you seen John recently?' She asked me .. 4. 'Has Debbie been working here long?' He wanted to know .. 5. 'Did you study hard for the exam?' She wondered .. 6. 'Will Ted and Alice be at the party?' She asked us .. 7. 'Will you be coming to the concert or not?' He wanted to know .. 8. 'You like Italian food, don't you?' She asked me .. 9. 'You don't like Italian food, do you?' She wanted to know .. Indirect question-word questions: 'He asked me why I went there'

Relacjonowanie pyta szczegowych

The inversion after a question-word in a direct question changes to statement word order in the reported question and, if necessary, the tense is changed at the same time: Why haven't you finished?' - He asked (me) why I hadn't finished. When did you go there?' - He asked (me) when I went (or had gone) there. 9 d Report these question-word questions moving the clauses 'one tense back'. 'What's the weather like?' She asked me what the weather was like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 'What does Frank do for a living?' I wanted to know .. 'Why is Maria crying?' She wondered .. 'What kind of holiday has Marco had?' You wanted to know .. 'How long have you both been living here?' They inquired ..

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

'Where did they go last week?' She wanted to know .. 'Who were you looking for?' He asked me .. 'When will lunch be ready?' You didn't tell me .. 'Which countries will John be visiting?' You didn't say .. 'How can I solve the problem? I wanted to know .. Indirect subject-questions

Relacjonowanie pyta o podmiot

A direct subject-question has the same word order as a statement. John paid the waiter. Who paid the waiter? (Not 'Who did pay the waiter?*) We keep the same word order when we report a subject-question, though, if necessary, we change the tense: 'John paid the waiter.' He asked (me) who (had) paid the waiter. 9 e Report these subject-questions moving the clauses 'one tense back' only where necessary. 'Who's next please?' She wanted to know .....who was next 'What makes a noise like that?' He wondered .. 'Which of you is waiting to see me next?' The doctor asked .. 'Whose composition haven't we heard yet?' The teacher asked us to tell her .. 'Who left this bag here?' Tell me .. 'What caused the accident?' Can you explain .. 'Which newspaper carried the article?' I'd like to know .. 'Whose painting will win the competition?' I haven't any idea .. 'Which firms have won prizes for exports?' This article doesn't say .. 'Which number can be divided by three?' The teacher asked .. 9 f Context. Put in the correct forms and tenses of the numbered verbs. BURNING THE CANDLE AT BOTH ENDS The nurse asked me if I (be) 1 and she led me into Dr Grey's surgery. Dr Grey smiled at me and asked (what the problem be) 2 .. I'm a young man and am not the sort of person she has to see very often! I told her I (be) 3 feeling rather run down. She asked me if I (keep) 4 . regular hours and I said I (have not) 5 . She wanted to know why I (not/keep) 6 . regular hours and I said I (be) 7 . out with friends almost every evening. Dr Grey then wanted to know how I (spend) 8 . my time and I (tell) 9 . her I (go) 10 . to parties mostly. The doctor asked if I (not/have) 11 . the chance to recover during weekends and I (tell)12 . her that my party-going (be)13 . even worse during the weekends! She asked me if I (smoke)14 . . When I said I did, she asked how many cigarettes a day I (smoke)15 . She raised her eyebrows when I answered! Then she asked me if I (take)16 . any exercise and I answered that I (not/have)17 . time for that sort of thing. 'You're burning the candle at both ends, Mr Finley,' she told me.

'Rest is the only cure for you. You've really got to slow down.' She looked at me wistfully before I left her surgery and added, 'but I do envy you the life you've been living!'

Reporting the imperative: 'He reminded me to post the letter'

Relacjonowanie zda rozkazujcych i prb

1 We report the imperative with suitable verbs (asked, told, advised, warned, reminded) + to-infinitive. The reporting verb matches the function of the imperative (asking, telling, advising, etc. e.g. Remember to post the letter,' he asked me. becomes: He reminded me to post the letter. 2 When we report a negative imperative, we put not or never before the to-infinitive: 'Don't wait,' he said. - He asked me not to wait. (Not *to not* or "to don't*) 'Never do that again,' he said. - He told us never to do that again. (Not *to never*) 9 g Report the following using the simple past of the verbs in brackets. 'Wait for me,' I said to him. (tell) I told him to wait for me 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 'Go on holiday when the weather gets warmer,' she told him. (advise) 'Keep out of this room at all times,' she said to them, (warn) 'Remember to post those letters,' he said to me. (remind) 'Don't go into my study,' he said to them, (ask) 'Don't wait for me,' I said to him. (tell) 'Don't go on holiday yet,' she told him. (advise) 'Don't ever enter this room,' she said to them, (warn)


Czasowniki Modalne

1 Verbs like can and may are modal auxiliaries. We often refer to them as modal verbs or just modals. We use them with other verbs for example, to ask for permission: Can I use your phone, please? May I borrow your car, please? There are ten modals: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to and three 'semimodals': need, dare and used to. 2 In their first use, modal verbs have basic meanings which are given in dictionaries: - can/could (= ability, permission, possibility): I can lift 25 kg./I can type. Can I speak to you for a moment? A coin can land on either side. - may/might (= permission, possibility): You may leave early. It may rain. - will/would (= prediction): It will rain soon. Will we find our way? - shall after I / We (= prediction): I'm sure we shall win the match. - should/ought to (= duty, advice): You should do as you're told. You should smoke - must (= total obligation): less. - needn't (= no obligation): You must be quiet. You needn't wait.


10 a What do these sentences express? Match A and B. A B 1 I can type twenty-five words a minute. _c_ a) prediction 2 You should do as you're told. ____ b) permission 3 You needn't wait. ____ c) ability 4 It will rain soon. ____ d) no obligation 5 You may leave now if you want to. ____ e) total obligation 6 You must be quiet. ____ f) duty

We can use can (or sometimes am/is/are able to) to describe natural or learned ability: I can (I am able to) run 1500 metres in 5 minutes. (natural ability) I can't (I am not able to/I am unable to) drive. (learned ability) 10 b Supply can, can't, could, couldn't, was/were able to, managed to. Alternatives are possible. 1 A good 1500-metre runner .can.. run the race in under four minutes. 2 Bill is so unfit he run at all! 3 Our baby is only nine months and he already stand up. 4 When I was younger, I speak Italian much better than I now. 5 she speak German very well? - No, she speak German at all. 6 He draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he's a famous artist. 7 After weeks of training, I swim a length of the baths underwater. 8 It took a long time, but in the end Tony save enough to buy his own hi-fi. 9 Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? - No, I get any. 10 For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they saw them and reach them without too much trouble. The first use of modal verbs 1 Modal verbs are not 'complete verbs'. For example, we use verbs like must and can to refer only to the present or the future: I must go to the bank now. I must go to the bank tomorrow. This means we have to make up the 'missing parts' of must with have to. So if we want to express the past of must, we say: I had to go to the bank yesterday. In the same way, we use be able to to make up the 'missing parts' of can 2 Other important points about modal verbs: a) We can't use them as to-infinitives: / want to be able to type very fast. (Not *to can") b) We do not use the to-infinitive after modals: You must/mustn't phone. (Not *to phone") c) There's no -(e)s in the 3rd person singular: The boss can see you now. (No -s on can) 10 c Use suitable forms of have to only when it is impossible to use must. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 You take a taxi if you intend to catch the next train. Since the new boss took over, we change our working methods. We talk about this again tomorrow. If you bring up a large family, you wouldn't have had so much money to spend. I was late for work this morning because I go to the bank first. I (not) speak French since I was at school. I hate wait for people who don't know how to keep appointments. He get up early tomorrow morning if he wants to see the sunrise.


The second use of modal verbs 1 The second way we use modals is to express degrees of certainty or uncertainty. We use nine of the modals for this purpose (not shall), but we don't use them in a fixed order. We express the greatest uncertainty with might, the greatest certainty with must/can't He might be right. He might know the answer, (very uncertain) He could be right. He would know the answer, (fairly certain) He must be right. He must know the answer, (almost certain) He can't be right. He can't know the answer, (almost certain) We use be or an ordinary verb, not a modal, for 'absolute certainty' You are right. You know the answer, (certain) 2 In their second use, modals have only two forms: - present form: He must be right. He must know the answer, (now) - perfect or past form: He must have been right. He must have known the answer, (then) 10 d Put 'certain', 'almost certain', 'fairly certain' or 'very uncertain' beside these sentences. The phone's ringing. It's Roland. .....certain..... 1. The phone's ringing. It might be Roland. 2. A car is parking outside our house. That will be the Kennedys. 3. A car is parking outside our house. That must be the Kennedys. 4. From your description, the person you met would have been my cousin, Jeff 5. From your description, the person you met can't have been my cousin Jeff 6. If I have understood you correctly, Jeff should be my second cousin 7. Are you saying it mightn't be possible for me to get a visa to visit the USA? ..... 8. If he spent five years in America, he must speak English, I suppose Uses of modals (etc.) to express certainty and possibility 1 If we are certain of our facts, we use be or any full verb[> 11.1C]: Jane is at home. Jane works at home, (certain facts) 2 If we are referring to possibility, we use may, might or could + be/have been: Jane may/might/could be at home now. She may/might/could have been at home yesterday. Or we use may, might, could + full verb: Jane may/might/could work (or... may/might/could be working) at home. She may/might/could have worked (or... have been working) at home yesterday. 10 e Read these sentences and write C (= Certain) or P (= Possible) against each one. 1 My boss is away on holiday. _C_ 8 He could be swimming right now. 2 His wife may be with him. 9 He'll come back in a good mood. 3 She will be back next week. 10 He might leave this evening. 4 He could reply by the weekend. 11 They've been staying at a big hotel. 5 He wasn't here last week. 12 They may have been dancing all night. 6 She might have been to Paris. 13 He borrowed my ladder. 7 She's returned from Paris. 14 He could have borrowed my ladder. 10 f Turn these 'certain' statements into 'possible/less than certain' statements. 1 He is at home now. He may/might/could be at home now 2 He will be at home tomorrow 3 He was at home yesterday 4 She leaves at 9 5 She will leave tomorrow 6 She has left 7 She left last night 8 She will have left by 9 9 He is working today

10 He will be working today 11 He was working today 12 He has been working all day

10 g Write uncertain answers to these questions. 1 Where's Jim today? He may/might/could be at home. 2 Where was Jim yesterday? 3 Where will Jim be tomorrow? 4 What time does the train leave? 5 What time did the train leave last night? 6 What's Sue doing at the moment? 7 What was Sue doing yesterday? 9 What has Sue been doing this week? 10 What has John had for breakfast? 11 Where has Ann parked the car? 12 What did that car cost? Uses of modals to express deduction. 1 We express certainty with be or any full verb: He is here. He lives here. He is leaving. 2 We express deduction with must be/can't be, must have been, can't/couldn't have been: He must be at home. He can't be out. He must have been at home yesterday. or with verbs other than be: He must live abroad. He must have lived abroad. 10 h Read these sentences and write C (= Certainty) or D (= Deduction) against each one. 1 John Wright is a man of action. _C_ 2 He was in the Galapagos ten years ago. _____ 3 Now he lives in an enormous house. _____ 4 He is writing a book. _____ 5 He has been writing this book since he came back from the Galapagos. _____ 6 He must be writing about his travels. _____ 7 He must have seen the giant tortoises and the iguanas on the Galapagos. _____ 8 He can't have seen any elephants on the Galapagos. _____ 9 He can't have been working very hard on his book. _____ 10 He must have taken a lot of photos while he was on the islands. _____ 11 He must have done a lot of research for his book. _____ 12 He must enjoy life. _____ Two kinds of 'must be' 1 We use must be in the present to express deduction [> 11.1C]: You haven't eaten for hours. You must be hungry! 2 The negative of must be (= deduction) is can't be, not 'mustn't be*: You've only just eaten. You can't be hungry again! (Not 'mustn't be") 3 We can also use must (be) to express total obligation [> 11.1 A]: This is a hospital. You must be quiet. 4 The negative of must (be) (= total obligation) is mustn't (be) (= prohibition [> 11.3B]): You mustn't be noisy outside a hospital. 10 i Supply must be, can't be, or mustn't be. b Write D (= Deduction) or O (= Obligation) beside each sentence. 1 The meeting is at 10 o'clock sharp and you mustn't be late. __O__ 2 You at the station ten minutes before the departure of the train. 3 The children tired already! We've only been walking for ten minutes. 4 The children thirsty. They haven't had a drink for hours. 5 Did you hear that? It someone walking about in our garden.

6 7 8 9 10

I don't recognize the handwriting on this envelope. It from anyone we know. Your handwriting clear, otherwise no one will be able to read it. You a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. Don't panic! We late for the train. It doesn't leave till 10.05. We late for the train or we'll miss our connection.

'Must have been', 'can't/couldn't have been'; 'had to be/didn't have to be' 1 We express deduction about the past with must have been: You hadn't eaten for hours. You must have been hungry! 2 The negative of must have been is can't/couldn't have been, not *mustn't have been*: You had already eaten. You can't/couldn't have been hungry! (Not *mustn't have been*) 3 Must(= total obligation) is not a 'complete verb' [> 11.1B]. We use had to in the past: The meeting was at 10 this morning and I had to be there. (Not 'must have been*} 4 The negative of had to is didn't have to: It was a holiday yesterday, so I didn't have to be at work. (Not 'mustn't have been") 10 j Supply must have been, can't/couldn't have been, have to/had to (be), didn't have to (be). 1 He knows a lot about flying planes. He ..must have been a pilot when he was young. 2 Vera . at the supermarket this morning. I didn't see her there. 3 John . at the bank till 10, so he only arrived here five minutes ago. 4 When (she) . at the hospital? - Early this morning. 5 We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I buy any more. 7 There are so many nice things for tea, I think you . expecting us. 8 There . an accident on South Street because the road is closed off. 9 You . waiting long. After all, I'm only five minutes late. 10 When I was a boy we . sitting at our desks working before the boss got in. 11 I left a message on your answer phone last night. You . out. 12 The fire alarm went and we . out of the building in two minutes.

Practice 10 k Complete the sentences with can, could, may, might, will, should, ought to or must and an infinitive in the appropriate form. Kerry's rather late. She must have missed (miss) the train. Travellers' cheques can/may be exchanged (be exchanged) at most banks. 1. They're not answering the phone so they (be) out. 2. Don't phone her now. It (be) the middle of the night in Australia. 3. They (not move) house yet. I saw them in town this morning.

4. I haven't seen Molly this week. I think she (visit) her parents but I'm not sure. 5. Her exam results are coming out soon. She worked very hard so she (do) well. 6. That woman's just fallen over. Let's go and see her: she (be) hurt. 7. I don't know where she is. She (not still play) tennis: it's been dark for the last hour. 8. I sent the letter two days ago so he (get) it by now, but you can never be sure. 9. The encyclopaedias (be found) on the second floor of the library. 10. Jim's been very quiet since his girlfriend went away. He (miss) her. 11. I (come) and visit you at the weekend. Anyway, I'll give you a ring to let you know. 12. She was with a man I didn't recognize. It (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. 13. The roads are fairly quiet today so we (have) a good journey. 14. 'Do you think Josephine (be) at home now?' 'No, she She (have) a swim. She always does at this time in the morning.' 15. 'Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?' 'I don't know. She (run) to catch the bus.' 16. These glasses (be) Tim's: they look a bit like his. 17. It (not rain): the ground's completely dry. 18. I (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven't decided yet. 19. What a terrible thing to have happened. You (be) terrified. 20. I told her you were coming so she (expect) you. 21. They've just rung the bell so the children (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. 22. That looks like Jack but it (not be) him. He went to live in Australia last year. 23. I've got a stomachache this morning. I (eat) too much last night or I (have) some sort of virus.


Forma KAUZATYWNA Konstrukcja have sth. done uywana jest gdy mwimy o czynnoci wykonywanej niesamodzielnie lecz przez inne osoby (kaemy komu co zrobi za nas) I had my hair cut I will have my car repaired We are having our flat painted Kazaem sobie obci wosy Oddam samochd od naprawy Maluj nam mieszkanie

Konstrukcja ta moe wystpowa w rnych czasach gramatycznych 11 a Complete the sentences with the correct form of have and the verb in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. My hair's getting far too long. I need to _______ it _______ . (cut) Noah hates _______ his photo _______ . (take) I've lost my key so I'd better _______ another one _______ . (make) My watch isn't working properly. I ought to _______ it _______ . (repair) I'm going to _______ my suit _______ as there's a coffee stain on the sleeve. (dryclean)

6. It's time we _______ our car ______ . (service) 7. Katie can't find a wedding dress she likes so she's considering _______ one _______ . (make) 8. As this summer is expected to be really hot we're planning on _______ air-conditioning _______. (instal) 9. Jenny's worried she may have a high cholesterol level so she wants to _______ it _______ . (check out) 10. The police suspected the fugitive was hiding somewhere in the building so they _______ it _______ . (search) 11 b Fill the gaps with have and the verb in brackets in their correct forms. 1 We ___________ the roof ___________ last year. It cost us a packet. (repair) 2 Anne ___________ her hair ___________ every Friday afternoon. (do) 3 I ___________ the brakes ___________ three times a year. (check) 4 The government ___________ the whole town ___________ yesterday. (evacuate) 5 I ___________ my hard drive ___________ for a bigger one last week. (change) 6 When did you last ___________ the air-conditioning ___________ ? (service) 7 You don't think Liv Tyler's beautiful?! You should ___________ your eyes ___________ . (test) 8 After the plague of fleas, the boss ___________ the office ___________ . (disinfect) 9 Your cat's coughing. You need to ___________ him ___________ for parasites. (treat) 10 Daphne ___________ her legs ___________ once a fortnight. (do) 11 I normally ___________ my suit dry ___________ before a wedding. (clean) 12 The headmaster ___________ all the lockers ___________ for the missing footballs yesterday. (search) 13 Have you ___________ your house ___________ ? (double-glaze) 14 Have you ___________ that poster I bought you ___________ yet? (frame) 15 The house is in chaos. We're ___________ a new kitchen ___________ in. (put) 11 c Complete the sentences using the past simple form of have something done and the words in brackets. had her hair cut had your house painted had our phone repaired 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. had their car stolen had my bag searched had his photo taken had a parcel delivered had a new garage built

We (new garage / build) last month. He (his photo / take) yesterday. They (their car / steal) when they were in Paris. You (your house / paint). I (my bag / search) at the airport. We (our phone / repair) yesterday. She (her hair / cut) last week. They (a parcel / deliver) this morning.

11 d Complete the sentences and make clear that the people don't / didn't do it themselves. (The first sentence is given as an example.) 1. Yesterday, (I / cut / my hair) . . 2. Every Friday, (Joe / wash / his car) . . 3. Tomorrow, (she / repair / her shower) . . 4. Each Saturday, (we / deliver / a pizza) . to our home. 5. Last year, (Bob / clean / his house) . by a charwoman. 6. As Phil had a broken arm, (he / type / his texts) by his secretary. 7. (I / pick up / the goods) . tomorrow in the afternoon.

8. (we / redecorate / our walls) . last summer. 9. Whenever Clara is staying at this hotel, (she / carry / her bags) . . into her room. 10. (we / organise / our last party) . by professionals.


A You can use as if to say how someone or something looks/sounds/feels, etc.: The house looked as if nobody was living in it. Ann sounds as if she's got a cold, doesn't she? I've just come back from vacation, but I feel tired and depressed. I don't feel as if I've had a vacation. Compare: You look tired, (look + adjective) You look as if you haven't slept, (look + as if + subject + verb) Tom sounded worried, (sound + adjective) Tom sounded as if he was worried, (sound + as if + subject + verb) You can use as though instead of as if: Ann sounds as though she's got a cold. B You can also say It looks/sounds/smells as if (or as though): Tom is very late, isn't he? It looks as if he isn't coming. We took an umbrella because it looked as if it was going to rain. Do you hear that music next door? It sounds as if they are having a party, doesn't it? It smells as though someone has been smoking in here. After It looks/sounds/smells, many people use like instead of as if / as though: It looks like Tom isn't coming. C You can also use as if with other verbs to say how someone does something: He ran as if he were running for his life. After the interruption, she continued talking as if nothing had happened. When I told them my plan, they looked at me as if I were insane. D After as if we sometimes use the past when we are talking about the present. For example: I don't like Norman. He talks as if he knew everything. The meaning is not past in this sentence. We use the past ("as if he knew") because the idea is not real: Norman does not know everything. We use the past in the same way in if sentences and after wish (see Unit 35). When we use the past in this way, we use were instead of was: Harry's only 50. Why do you talk about him as if he were (or was) an old man? They treat me as if I were (or was) their own son. (I'm not their son.)


Practice 12 a Use the sentences in the box to make sentences with as if. she had hurt her leg she was enjoying it you've seen a ghost he hadn't washed in ages she was going to throw it at him they hadn't eaten for a week you need a good rest he was calling long distance I'm going to be sick

1. Tom looks very tired. You say to him: You look. as if you need a good rest. 2. When you talked to Jack on the phone last night, you couldn't hear him very well. He sounded 3. Carol had a bored expression on her face during the concert. She didn't look 4. You could smell him from a long way away. He needed a bath badly. He smelled 5. Your friend comes into the room looking absolutely terrified. His face is white. You say: What's the matter? You look 6. You've just eaten a whole box of candy. Now you are feeling sick. You say: I feel 7. When you saw Sue, she was walking in a strange way. She looked 8. They were extremely hungry and ate their dinner very quickly. They ate their dinner 9. Ann and Tom were having an argument. She was very angry. Suddenly she picked up a plate. She looked 12 b Make sentences beginning It looks/sounds as if (or like) ... he isn't going to come we'll have to walk home you had a good time it's going to rain there's been an accident they are having an argument

Tom hasn't arrived yet and it's late. You say: It looks as if (or like) he isn't going to come. 1. The sky is full of black clouds. You say: It .. 2. You hear two people shouting at each other next door. You say: It sounds .. 3. There is an ambulance, some police officers, and two damaged cars at the side of the road. You say: .. 4. You and your friend have just missed the last bus home. You say: .. 5. Sue and Dave have just been telling you about all the interesting things they did on their vacation. You say: .. 12 c These sentences are like the ones in section b. Complete each sentence. Example: Norman doesn't know everything, but he talks if he knew everything. 1. I'm not a child, but sometimes you talk to me a child. 2. She doesn't know me, so why did she smile at me . 3. He's not my boss, but sometimes he acts 4. You are an intelligent person but sometimes you talk stupid.



Pytania bezporednie i porednie

Pytania bezporednie
Mona je podzieli na dwa rodzaje: 1. Pytania oglne (general questions), na ktre odpowiada si tak lub nie, czyli pytania zaczynajce si od sowa czy. Pytania te tworzy si zgodnie z zasadami tworzenia pyta dla danego czasu bd danej struktury gramatycznej. I tak: Is he ill? (Czy on jest chory) Are you really in love with him? (Czy ty naprawd jeste w nim zakochana) Were they with you yesterday? (Czy oni wczoraj byli z tob) Was it his fault? (Czy to bya jego wina) Can you open the window, please? (Czy moesz otworzy okno) Do you like apples? (Czy lubisz jabka) Does your mother work on Sundays? (Czy twoja mama pracuje w niedziele) Do Peter and Tom always go to school together? (Czy Tom i Peter zawsze chodz do szkoy razem) 2. Pytania szczegowe (specific questions) tzn. pytania zaczynajce si od ktrego ze swek pytajcych (question words). Tworzy si je dokadnie tak samo jak pytania oglne, tyle tylko, e na pocztku takiego pytania stawiamy swko pytajce, np.: Why do you like apples? (Dlaczego lubisz jabka) Where did your brother go yesterday? (Gdzie twj brat wczoraj poszed) How are you today? (Jak si dzisiaj masz?) What is the weather going to be like tomorrow? (Jaka jutro bdzie pogoda) What were you doing yesterday, when I came to see you. (Co robie wczoraj, kiedy przyszedem si z tob zobaczy) When did you buy your car? (Kiedy kupie samochd)

Pytania porednie
Pytania porednie maj znaczenie pyta, ale struktur twierdze, czyli czasownik znajduje si po podmiocie. Pytania porednie zostaj wprowadzone pewnymi zwrotami, wrd nich znajduj si np.: Can you tell me (Czy moesz mi powiedzie) Do you know (Czy wiesz) Have you any idea (Czy masz pojcie) I wonder (Zastanawiam si) Im thinking (Zastanawiam si) I want to know (Chciaabym wiedzie), itp. Po powyszych zwrotach w pytaniach oglnych stosujemy swka if oraz whether w znaczeniu polskiego czy, a w pytaniach szczegowych zostawiamy swko pytajce (question word), po ktrym pytanie zamienia si na zdanie oznajmujce, np.: I wonder if you were at school yesterday. Have you any idea where I put my glasses? Do you know how he got there? Can you tell me what time it is. Im thinking if you could help me.

(Zastanawiam si czy bye wczoraj w szkole) (Czy wiesz, gdzie pooyem okulary) (Czy wiesz jak on tam dotar) (Czy moesz mi powiedzie, ktra jest godzina) (Zastanawiam si czy mgby mi pomc)

I want to know if you could send me some more information. przysa wicej informacji) Practice 13 a Choose the correct answer a-c. 1. What doing out last night? a) you were b) are you c) were you 2. Could you tell me when some more information. a) can you send me b) you can send me c) cant you send me 3. Ive no idea how old a) her son is b) is her son c) her son has 4. I can only guess why like that a) did she behave b) she did behave c) she behaved 5. Who yesterdays match. It was great, wasnt it? a) did watch b) watched c) watch 6. Im wondering , I dont want to be late for the meeting. a) what is the time b) what time is it c) what time it is 7. When her? a) did you last see b) you last saw c) last you saw

(Chciabym wiedzie, czy mgby mi

8. My mum went shopping, and I want to know anything for me a) is she going to buy b) if is she going to buy c) if she is going to buy 9. What this afternoon. We could go to the cinema to see the latest Brad Pitt movie? a) you are doing b) you do c) are you doing 10. Where this wonderful dress, it must have been designed by one of the famous designers. pay? a) did you buy, how much did you b) you bought, how much did you c) did you buy, how much you

13 b Zamie te pytania bezporednie na porednie nie zmieniaj pocztku. 1.What would you like to be in the future? Im wondering . 2. Where did you spend your last holiday? Can you tell me, 3. Have you bought everything I need? I really want to know 4. What is she going to do next summer? Ive no idea . 5. What time did you last see him. I want you to tell me 6. What have you been doing? Im curious 7. Have you ever been to England? Im wondering 8. Are your children nervous about your Matura exam? Dont even ask me 9. What time did Peter come home last night. I dont know 10. Are you happy with your life? You can tell me 13 c Zamie te pytania bezporednie na porednie nie zmieniaj pocztku. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Where's the station?" "Can you tell me ___________________________________________ ?" "Are you coming to the party?" "Can you let me know if ___________________________________________ ?" "How does it work?" "Can you explain ___________________________________________ ?" "What's the the matter?" Please tell me ___________________________________________ ." "Where are you from?" "I'd like to know ___________________________________________ ." "How long does it take to get there?" "Do you know ___________________________________________ ?" "Has she reached a decision yet?" "Has she told you whether ___________________________________________ ?" "What time are you leaving?" "Do you know ___________________________________________ ?" "Does Annie know about computers?" "I wonder whether ___________________________________________ ." "Excuse me. How do you get to the post office from here?" "Could you tell us ___________________________________________ ?" "What are you doing?!" "Do you have any idea ___________________________________________ ?!" "Could you lend me 50 Euros?" "I don't suppose ___________________________________________ ." "Could you take me to the airport?" "Is there any chance ___________________________________________ ?" "Does Susana like classical music?" "I can't remember if ___________________________________________ ."



Bezokolicznik bez TO (tzw. goy)
wystpuje po : a) CZASOWNIKACH MODALNYCH can dare (also with to) do help (also with to) let may must need (also with to) shall should will b) INNYCH CZASOWNIKACH np.: let (pozwoli) make (zmusi)

Bezokolicznik z TO
wystpuje midzy innymi po tych czasownikach: afford agree appear attempt beg choose claim dare (also without to) decide demand expect help (take bez to) hope learn long - pozwoli sobie na co, mie rodki by zrobi co I cant afford to buy a car. - zgodzi si, aby She agreed to come with us - wydawa si The weather appeared to be stable - prbowa They attempted to escape from prison - baga He begged her not to leave him - chcie, wybra Peter chosed to leave the party earlier - twierdzi Mary claims to be best at maths - odway si Nobody dared to speak - zdecydowa We decided to learn English - da The woman demanded to see the manager - spodziewa si Everyone expected to hear good news - pomc Eva helped me to understand maths - mie nadziej We hope to finish the work soon - nauczy si I will never learn to drive a car well - marzy o zrobieniu czego She longed to return to Poland

manage mean offer ought plan prepare pretend promise refuse resolve seem swear want wish would hate would like would love would prefer

- zdoa He managed to reach the top of the mountain - mie zamiar, zamierza Paul didnt mean to hurt you. - zaofiarowa si She offered to help us - powinien You ought to be careful - zamierza We didnt plan to stay long - przygotowa si Everybody prepared to leave the plane - udawa The murderer pretended to be a postman - obieca Sarah promised not to smoke cigarettes any more - nie chcie They refusd to pay the bill - postanowi The drowning man resolved not to give up - wydawa si Mark seems to like Sandra - przysiga The student swore to learn more - chcie I want to become a doctor - chcie, pragn The woman wished to see her husband - bardzo nie chcie I would hate to see you in prison - chciabym The children would like to play outside - bardzo bym chcia I would love to travel around the world - wolabym We would prefer to see a good film

wystpuje midzy innymi po tych czasownikach: admit advise allow avoid can't help can't stand consider - przyzna sie do She admitted stealing the car - zaleci co The doctor advised staying in bed - pozwoli na co The teacher will not allow swimming here - unika They avoided stopping at bad hotels - nie mc si powstrzyma przed, nie poradzi nic na I cant help laughing - nie znosi czego I cant stand listening to stupid people - rozwaa co

deny dislike enjoy fancy finish imagine keep mind miss permit practise prefer sth. to sth. else recommend stop suggest

I consider moving abroad - zaprzeczy czemu She denied stealing the money - nie lubi czego - kocha co - miec ochot na co, wyobrazi sobie Do you fancy going to the ciemna? - skoczy co We must finish doing this exercise - wyobrazi sobie I cant imagine being a king - kontynuowa co, cigle robi co, nie przestawa Keep talking, please. - mie co przeciwko I dont mind walking long distances - tskini za, brakowa komu czego I miss playing football with my kids - zezwoli We dont permit parking here - wiczy She practices playing the violin - wole co od czego innego I prefer staying at home to going to the party. - zaleci co I recommend buying tickets earlier - przesta Stop screaming! - zaproponowa Mary suggested staying at a youth hostel

GERUNDIUM MOE WYSTPI JAKO PODMIOT ZDANIA 14 a Complete the sentences with the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. (cook) is one of her hobbies. (cycle) is fun. (Get) a good job is not easy. (Find) a parking space is quite difficult in this area. (drive) becomes more and more expensive. No (smoke) in this area. (work) overtime is quite common in this company. (eat) fruits and vegetables is good for your health. (make) fun of other people is not nice. (learn) about other cultures makes people more tolerant.

GERUNDIUM MOE WYSTPI PO PRZYIMKACH I PEWNYCH PRZYMIOTNIKACH Example: I am interested in visiting the museum. afraid of ba si bad at by kiepskim w czym busy zajty czym famous for syncy z czego fond of lubi co good at by dobrym w czym interested in by zainteresowanym cyzym

keen on pasjonowa sie czym proud of by dumnym z czego sick of mie do czego sorry about przeprasza za tired of by zmczonym czym worried about martwi sie czym worth by wartym czego Practice 14 b Put the verb in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive) Example: He doesn't like (answer) _____ the phone. (key = answering) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. He often lets other people . (move) ahead. Would you mind . (buy) me lunch? I prefer . (drive) to walking. . (lie) on this beach is very pleasant. I tried . (explain) it to him, but he didn't understand. After . (hear) the conditions I left. I suggested . (not go) out in the rain. I decided . (enter) for the competition. Some people seem . (be) very kind. I have a passion for . (write) to the newspapers. Try . (forget) your past. It is not worth . (worry) about. He keeps . (ask) me such stupid questions.

14 c Choose the correct answer for each gap below, then click the "Check" button to check your answers. 1. Dan enjoys .(read) science fiction. 2. Cheryl suggested . (see) a movie after work. 3. I miss . (work) in the travel industry. Maybe I can get my old job back. 4. Where did you learn . (speak) Spanish? Was it in Spain or in Latin America? 5. Do you mind . (help) me translate this letter? 6. He asked . (talk) to the store manager. 7. You've never mentioned . (live) in Japan before. How long did you live there? 8. If he keeps . (come) to work late, he's going to get fired! 9. Debbie plans . (study) abroad next year. 10. I agreed . (help) Jack wash his car. 14 d Choose the correct form (infinitive with or without to or gerund). I hope .............................. (SEE) you again soon. We enjoy .............................. (DANCE). He dreamt about .............................. (BE) an astronaut. I'd love .............................. (SPEND) another holiday in Spain. His jokes made us .............................. (LAUGH). They practised .............................. (PLAY) the guitar. She was busy .............................. (STUDY) for her exams. We managed .............................. (ARRIVE) in time. Why should they .............................. (DO) this? We can .............................. (TRUST) him. I enjoy .............................. (BE) with you. John is fond of .............................. (EAT) ice-cream. He is famous for .............................. (WIN) six races in a row.

I am interested in .............................. (LEARN) karate. We cannot .............................. (PARK) our car here. Gareth is bad at .............................. (SAY) nice things to people.