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InstallationGuide

ToinstallAbaqus,studentsattheSchoolofCivilEngineering,Sohngaardsholmsvej57,shouldlogon to\\studserver,whereasthestaffattheDepartmentofCivilEngineeringshouldlogonto\\indy. Theinstallationfilesmaybefoundinthedirectoryntsoftware\Abaqus6.7. Theinstallationhasthefollowingsteps: 1. Firstly,runSetupfromthedirectoryHTMLDocumentation. 2. Onthethirdscreenoftheinstallationguide,thehostname/IPaddressshouldpopup automaticallyasyourowncomputername,e.g.mycomputer.Keepthissettingtoinstallthe HTMLdocumentationlocallyonyourowncomputer. 3. InthefanWebserverselectionchooseAbaquswebserver. 4. CompletetheinstallationguidefortheHTMLDocumentation. 5. AwebserverwiththeHTMLdocumentationwillnowberunningonyourcomputer.This allowssearchingandbrowsingtheAbaqususermanualsinHTMLformat. 6. Secondly,dependingonyourcomputersystem,runtheAbaqusinstallationwizardforLinux orWindowsand32or64bit.Therespectivesetupfilescanbefoundinthedirectory ntsoftware\Abaqus6.7inseparatesubfoldersnamedLicensingandProducts... 7. StepthroughtheIntroduction. 8. Asinstallationtype,chooseProduct. 9. Onlyonelicenseservershouldbedefined.Enterthehostname28000@nt1pc.civil.aau.dkas Licenseserver1andcontinue.Youmayencountersomeproblemscheckingoutthelicense server.Thenyoushouldsimplyreenterthehostname28000@nt1pc.civil.aau.dkwhenthe errormessageoccursandyouareaskedtoenterthehostnameexactlyasitshouldappear. 10. TheURLfortheAbaqusdocumentationshouldbeidentifiedautomaticallyas,forexample, http://mycomputer:2080/v6.7.Otherwise,youmayenterthecorrectpathyourself. 11. CompletetheinstallationguideforAbaqusProducts. 12. Youmayencountersomeproblemsrunningtheverification.Donotworryaboutthis. 13. Whenprompted,pleaserestartyourcomputer. 14. Afteryouhaverestartedthecomputer,opentheWindowsExplorer(orsimilar)andgoto thedirectoryinwhichAbaquswasinstalled,e.g.C:\Abaqus.Gotothedirectory6.71\site. Hereyoushouldopenthefileabaqus_v6.envwithatexteditor,e.g.Notepad. 15. Inthefileabaqus_v6.env,findthelineabaquslm_license_file="28000@nt1pc.civil.aau.dk". Rightabovethisline,youshouldaddalinewiththetextacademic=TEACHING.Notethat thisiscasesensitive.Thensavethefileandclosethetexteditor. 16. Congratulations!YouarenowreadytorunAbaqus6.71.

Beginnersguidetostructuralanalysis
Thefollowingguidewillgiveaconciseintroductiontothefiniteelementanalysisofframestructures usingAbaqus/Standard.Differentkindsofanalysistypesareavailable.However,onlyonesingletype ofanalysisiscoveredbytheguide,namelyasocalledbuckleanalysisusedtoexamineinstability. Abaqushastwodifferentwaysofprovidinginput:Viaagraphicaluserinterface(thesocalledCAE) ordirectlyviaaninputtextfile.Onlythefirstmethodwillbedescribedinthefollowing.Advanced usersmaypreferthesecondoptionasitprovidessomefreedomcomparedwiththeCAE.

Gettingstarted
RunAbaqusCAEandchooseCreateModelDatabase.Youshouldnowseethescreenvisualisedin Figure1.Ontheleftyouhavetheprojecttreeandontherightyouhavetheworkingarea.Thefield rightabovetheworkingareaisdenotedthecontextbar.

Figure1StartupscreeninAbaqus6.71.TheModuledropdownmenuisencircledinred. AbaqusCAEhasanumberofsocalledmodules.Eachmoduleisutilizedtodefinesomepartofthe model,e.g.thegeometryortheboundaryconditions.Youworkinonemoduleatatimeandcan changemoduleinthedropdownmenuModulewhichcanbefoundinthecontextbarasindicated bytheredrectangleinFigure1. Themodulesare: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Partdefinesthegeometryofastructuralelementormodeltobeusedintheanalysis. Propertydefinesmaterialsandcrosssections. Assemblyassemblesanumberofpartstoformtheglobalgeometryofamodel. Stepdefinesthedifferentanalysestobecarriedout. Interactiondefinesconnectionsandinterfaceconditionsbetweendifferentparts. Loaddefinestheboundaryconditionsofthemodel. Meshprovidesthediscretizationofthemodelintofiniteelements. Jobdefinesthejobstobecarriedoutbytheanalysisprogram. Visualizationisutilizedforviewingandpostprocessingtheresults.

10. SketchcanbeusedasasimpleCADprogrammeformakingadditionaldrawings. AsindicatedinFigure1,youwillstartoutinthemodulePart.

Definingthegeometry
Thefirststepistodefinethegeometryofthemodel.Inthiscase,wewouldliketoanalyseasimply supportedbeamwithanIprofile.Ourstrategyistoestablishashellfiniteelementmodelfroma solidpartusingthefollowingapproach. 1. IntheModelTree,doubleclickthePartscontainertocreateanewpart.FromtheCreate Partdialogboxthatappears,namethepartBeam,andacceptthedefaultsettingsofa threedimensional,deformablebodyandasolid,extrudedbasefeature.IntheApproximate sizetextfield,type0.40.Thisvalueistwicethelargestdimensionofthepart.ClickContinue toexittheCreatePartdialogbox. a. CreateanarbitraryrectangleusingtheCreateLines:Rectangletool.Therectangle shouldhavethedimensions0.08x0.32asshowninFigure2. b. HittheEsckeyandclickDoneinthepromptarea. c. TheEditBaseExtrusiondialogboxappears.Tocompletethepartdefinition,you mustspecifythedistanceoverwhichtheprofilewillbeextruded. d. Inthedialogbox,enteranextrusiondistanceof8.0m. e. Abaqus/CAEexitstheSketcheranddisplaysthepart.

Figure2Sketchoftherectangularcrosssectionofthesolidprofile.

2. CreateacutthroughthepartbyusingthePartitionCell:DefineCuttingPlanetool.Select NormalToEdge. a. Choosethebottomedge(theshortedge)atoneendofthesolidrectangularbeam. b. Selectthemidpointofthechosenedge. c. PressCreatePartition,thenclickDoneinthepromptarea. d. Thesolidisnowdividedintotwohalvesalongthesymmetryplane. 3. ConvertthesolidparttoashellmodelbytheCreateShell:RemoveFacetool. a. Firstly,selectonesidesurfaceofthesolidrectangularbeam,thenclickDoneinthe promptarea. b. ClickYeswhenthewarningappearstocontinueremovingthesidesurface. c. NowholddownCtrl+AltanduseMouseKey1torotatethemodelsothatthe oppositesidesurfacebecomesvisible.Repeatitem3.a.forthissurface. 4. SkiptotheAssemblymoduletoassemblethemodel. a. UsetheInstanceParttooltoincludethepart(Beam)youjustcreatedinthemodel. b. KeeptheInstanceTypeasDependent c. ClickOKtofinishtheCreateInstancebox. d. Thegeometryhasnowbeendefinedexcepttheshellthickness.Themodelshould appearasshowninFigure3.Notethatthebeamaxisisparalleltothezaxis. 5. Ifyouhavenotyetsavedthemodel,thisiscertainlythetimetodoso!

Figure3SketchoftheIbeam.

Definingthematerialandcrosssectionalproperties
Now,gobacktothePropertymoduleinwhichthepropertiesofthebeamwillbedefined. 1. ClicktheCreateMaterialtooltodefineanewmaterial a. ChangethenametoSteel. b. FromthemenuintheMaterialBehaviorsfield,selectMechanical/Elasticity/Elastic. c. PutYoungsModulusas2e11andPoissonsRatioas0.3andchangenothingelse. d. ClickOKtoclosetheEditMaterialbox. 2. Next,usetheCreateSectiontooltodefineashellcrosssection. a. ChangethenametoPlate b. ChangeCategorytoShellandkeepTypeasHomogeneous.ThenclickContinue... c. ChangeSectionintegrationtoBeforeanalysis. d. PuttheShellthicknessas0.008. e. TheMaterialshouldautomaticallybeputasSteel. f. ClickOKtoclosetheEditSectionbox. 3. UsetheAssignSectiontooltoassigntheshelldatatothemodel. a. SelecttheentiremodelbydraggingarectanglewithMouseKey1pressed. b. ClickDoneinthepromptarea. c. TheSectionshouldautomaticallyappearasPlate. d. PushOKtoclosetheEditSectionAssignmentbox.

Settinguptheanalysis
Itisnowtimetodefinethestepsintheanalysis.ThisisdoneintheStepmodule. 1. UsetheCreateSteptooltodefineanewanalysisstep. a. ChangethenametoInstability. b. ChangeProceduretypetoLinearperturbation. c. SelectBuckleinthesubmenuandpressContinue... d. IntheEditStepbox,changeEigensolvertoLanczosandputtherequestednumber ofeigenvaluesas4.TheclickOKtoclosethebox.

Definingtheboundaryconditions
BoundaryconditionsinAbaqusaredefinedintheLoadmodule.Thevariousboundaryconditionsare generatedinagivenStepandmaybetransferredtosubsequentsteps. 1. UsetheCreateBoundaryConditiontooltodefinesupportsforthebeaminthexdirection. a. ChangeNametoFixx. b. ChangeSteptoInitial. c. KeepCategoryasMechanicalandputTypeforSelectedStepas Displacement/Rotation.ThenclickContinue... d. Selectthemidlinesattheendsofthebeam.Morelinesmaybeselected simultaneouslybeholdingdownShift.YoumayusetheRotateViewtool(or alternativelyholddownCtrl+Alt+MouseKey1)torotatethemodel. e. WhenthemidlinesatbothendshavebeenhighlightedasindicatedinFigure4,click Doneinthepromptarea. f. IntheEditBoundaryConditionbox,checkU1.ThenclickOKtoexitthebox.

Figure4Themidlinesatbothendshavebeenselectedforapplicationofsupportsinthexdirection. 2. UsetheCreateBoundaryConditiontooltodefinesupportsforthebeamintheydirection. a. ChangeNametoFixy. b. KeepStepasInitial. c. KeepCategoryasMechanicalandTypeforSelectedStepasDisplacement/Rotation. ThenclickContinue... d. SelectthebottomedgesatbothendsofthebeamandclickDoneintheprompt area.Notethatthebottomedgeateitherendiscomposedoftwolines.The boundaryconditionsshouldbeappliedalongtheentireedge. e. IntheEditBoundaryConditionbox,checkU2.ThenclickOKtoexitthebox. 3. UsetheCreateBoundaryConditiontooltodefinesupportsforthebeaminthezdirection. a. ChangeNametoFixz. b. KeepStepasInitial. c. KeepCategoryasMechanicalandputTypeforSelectedStepas Displacement/Rotation.ThenclickContinue... d. SelectthebottomedgeatoneendofthebeamandclickDoneinthepromptarea. e. IntheEditBoundaryConditionbox,checkU3.ThenclickOKtoexitthebox. 4. Now,applytheCreateLoadtooltodefineamomentatoneendforthebuckleanalysis. a. ChangeNametoMoment1. b. ChangeSteptoInstability. c. KeepCategoryasMechanicalandchangeTypeforSelectedSteptoMoment.Then clickContinue...

d. Selectthemidpointsatthebottomedgeandthetopedgeatoneendofthebeam. Again,useShifttomarkmorepointsatatime.Whenthevisualizationofthemodel looksliketheillustrationonFigure5,clickDoneinthepromptarea. e. IntheEditLoadbox,setCM1to0.5.Thisproducesabendingmomentwithatotal magnitudeof1aroundtheglobalxaxisandleadingtotensioninthebottomflange. f. Themomentisindicatedbytwoheadedarrowspointinginthenegativexdirection. 5. Again,applytheCreateLoadtooltodefineamomentattheotherendofthebeam. a. ChangeNametoMoment2. b. KeepStepasInstability,CategoryasMechanicalandTypeforSelectedStepas Moment.ThenclickContinue... c. Selectthemidpointsatthebottomedgeandthetopedgeattheotherendofthe beam.ThenclickDoneinthepromptarea. d. IntheEditLoadbox,setCM1to0.5.Thisproducesabendingmomentwithatotal magnitudeof1aroundtheglobalxaxisandleadingtotensioninthebottomflange. e. Themomentisindicatedbytwoheadedarrowspointinginthepositivexdirection. Theboundaryconditionsdefinedforthemodelcorrespondtoasimplysupportedbeamwhichhas beenforkedatbothends,i.e.torsionalrotationisnotpossibleattheendsofthebeam.Inthebuckle analysis,thebendingmomentsappliedattheendsleadtoahomogeneousmomentalongthebeam. Thiscorrespondstotheboundaryconditionsintheclassicaltorsionallateralinstabilityproblem.

Figure5Pointsatwhichthemomentisappliedatoneendofthebeam.

DiscretizationintoFiniteElements
ProceedtotheMeshmoduletocreatethefiniteelementmodelofthesimplysupportedbeam. 1. Inthecontextbar,changeObjectfromAssemblytoPart.Thepartisautomaticallyidentified asBeam. 2. UsetheSeedParttooltodefinenodesalongtheedgesofthebeammodel. a. ChangeApproximateglobalsizeto0.32andclickApply. b. Thereshouldnowbe26nodesalongthebeamandthreenodesoverthewidth. 3. ApplytheAssignMeshControlstooltosetthemeshingtechnique. a. Selecttheentiremodelusingthemouse.ThenclickDone. b. IntheMeshControlsbox,setElementShapetoQuad. c. SetTechniquetoStructuredandclickOKtoclosethebox. d. Thebeamwillnowchangecolourtogreen. e. ClickDoneinthepromptarea. 4. UtilizetheAssignElementTypetooltoselectashellfiniteelementforthemodel. a. Selecttheentiremodelusingthemouse.ThenclickDone. b. KeepElementLibraryasStandardandFamilyasShell. c. ChangeGeometricordertoQuadratic. d. DOFpernodeshouldbe6andtheremainingElementControlsshouldallbesetto thedefaultvalues. e. ClickOKtoclosethebox. 5. UsetheMeshParttooltoformthefiniteelementmodel. a. ClickYesinthepromtareatoapplythemesh. b. Themodelnowchangescolourtocyanandtheelementsshouldbevisible. 6. Savethemodelbeforeyoucontinue.

Runningtheanalysis
GototheJobmoduletosubmittheanalysistoAbaqus/Standard.Thisisthesolver,whichprovides anoutputdatabasethatmaylaterbeaccessedfromAbaqus/CAE. 1. UsetheCreateJobtooltodefineanewanalysis. a. ChangeNametoIbeam01. b. ClickContinue... c. IntheEditJobbox,simplyclickOKtoclosethebox. 2. OpentheJobManagerfromthetoolsmenu. a. Onlyasinglejobshouldbedefinedatthisstage,i.e.Ibeam01.Thisjobis automaticallyselected. b. ClickSubmittoruntheanalysis.ThestatuswillchangetoSubmitted. c. Afterafewseconds,thestatuswillchangetoCompleted,providedthattherewere anyanalysistokensavailablefromthelicenseserveratthetime. d. Whenthejobhasbeencompleted,clickResults.Thiswilltakeyoutothe VisualizationmoduleandautomaticallyopentheoutputdatabaseIbeam01.odb generatedbyAbaqus/Standardduringtheanalysis.

Visualisationandpostprocessingoftheresults
AbaqusCAEcanplotthedisplacementsandotherfieldquantitiesinnumerousways.Thistakesplace intheVisualizationmodule. 1. TrythePlotContoursonDeformedShapetool.Thiswillprovideaplotasillustratedin Figure6. 2. Intheanalysis,thefirstfourinstabilitymodeswereidentified.Youcanskipthroughthe differentmodesbyclickingtheNextbutton(orPreviousbutton)inthecontextbar. 3. AsindicatedinFigure6,theEigenValuecorrespondingtothefirstinstabilitymode,i.e. Mode1,is14917.Thismeansthatthebeamcansustainamomentof14917before instabilityoccurs.AfurtherinvestigationofthefiguremakesitclearthatMode1actually involvestensioninthebottomflangeandcompressioninthetopflange. 4. TheEigenValuecorrespondingtoMode2is17792.Thisinstabilitymodeinvolvestensionin thetopflangeandcompressioninthebottomflange,i.e.theoppositesituationin comparisontoMode1.Hence,thebeamcansustainaslightlyhigherbendingmomentof thiskindbeforeinstabilityoccurs.Thisdifferenceisduetotheasymmetricplacementofthe fixitieswithrespecttothecentreaxisofthebeam.

Figure6ThefirstlateraltorsionalinstabilitymodeoftheIbeam.