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Biomechanics -recruited nine young women who had worn high heels for at least 40 hours a week for

a minimum of two years. The scientists also recruited 10 young women who rarely, if ever, wore heels to serve as controls. The women were in their late teens, 20s or early 30s. - electrodes to track leg-muscle activity, as well as motion-capture reflective markers. Ultrasound probes measured the length of muscle fibers in their legs. - The control group covered the walkway 10 times while barefoot. The other women walked barefoot 10 times and in their chosen heels 10 times. - In that control group, the women who rarely wore heels, walking primarily involved stretching and stressing their tendons, especially the Achilles tendon. But in the heel wearers, the walking mostly engaged their muscles. -next slide -quote from Dr. Cronin - walking in heels may ultimately increase the likelihood of strain injuries - The risks extend to workouts, when heel wearers abruptly switch to sneakers or other flat shoes. - Wear high heels maybe once or twice a week or remove when sitting down Hip - highly accurate two-dimensional image of the three-dimensional structure inside bones - cancellous structures appear to follow the theoretical lines of force experienced by any joint, and anatomists have long believed that the structure of the bone co-evolves with the changing forces on the hip - in just two weeks of daily wearing of the new shoes the cancellous structures had altered in line with the changed forces on the hip -surprising because these changes usually happen over time, sometimes can lead to bone deposition -next slide - Increasing the three curves of the spine means that all the muscles of the spine have to exert greater forces to maintain any posture. - tight hip flexors are a major and often undiagnosed cause of both neck and back pain. Feet

-Sciatica: a painful condition where nerves become trapped, triggering pain and numbness as far down as the feet. Due to putting pressures on nerves in your back -bunions, bony growths at the base of the big toe caused by tight, ill-fitting shoes, and socalled 'pump bumps', where straps and the rigid backs of pump-style shoes cause a bony enlargement on the heel. - Many women also develop hammertoes, where tight-fitting shoes force them to crumple up their toes, shortening the muscles inside and leaving them permanently bent. Ballroom Dancing -Ballroom dancing usually involves wearing 3 in heels and if the pelvis wasnt already tilted forward, a lot of proper positioning calls for the hip to stick out - Researchers measured the amount of pressure over the bottom surface of the feet of six professional Latin dancers as they danced barefoot, and then wearing heels of three heights: 1.7 inches (4.5 centimeters), 3 inches (7.5 cm) and 4 inches (10 cm). - Dancing in high heels means a greater shift in pressure from the heel to the front of the foot. That change in distribution of pressure can lead to plantar fasciitis, an irritation and swelling of the bottom part of the foot that leads to shooting pain in the heel, the researchers said. They advised high-heel wearers to wear shoes that provide adequate cushioning support to avoid this condition. Remedies -heel height: The main determinants of when a particular height of heel is likely to become significant appear to be the width of the foot (in respect of problems in the metatarsal area), and the length between heel bone and the forefoot, that part of the front of the foot that presses onto the floor, and the weight of the person. As a general rule, the lighter you are, the less a pair of high heel will press undue weight onto the forefoot -cushioning -wearing heels around before dancing is like actively stretching as opposed to static stretching