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Hilary Term 2014

LAW OF TORTS
CORE READING LIST
Material highlighted in green was added in the 2011-2012 academic year
Material highlighted in red was added in the 2012-2013 academic year
Material highlighted in yellow was added in the 2013-2014 academic year

Extract from Examination Regulations


Questions may be set in this paper requiring knowledge of the law of contract.
Teaching Convention
There is an agreed reading list for tort, which is revised annually. The topics on the list in
bold type are taught by most Oxford tutors. The other topics without bold headings are taught
by some Oxford tutors. The examiners are entitled to set questions requiring knowledge of
issues across the bolded and unbolded categories and across topics.
Currently, the topics with headings in bold type are: Negligence/Duty of Care;
Negligence/Breach of Duty; Causation and Remoteness of Damage; Negligence and
Economic Loss; Defences; Liability for Defective Premises; Nuisance and the Rule in
Rylands v Fletcher; Product Liability; Vicarious Liability. Currently the topics with headings
that are not in bold type are: Joint Liability; Employers Liability; Breach of Statutory Duty;
Defamation; Trespass; Economic Torts; Tort Remedies, including Damages for Personal
Injury and Death; Compensation: Fault and Insurance.
Some of the materials on the agreed reading list are marked with an asterisk. This indicates
the seminal and leading cases and other materials with which the examiners are entitled to
expect that candidates answering questions on that topic are familiar.
Material Available in the Examination Room
A recent edition of Blackstones Statutes on Contract, Tort and Restitution, which may be
supplemented by additional statutory material.

Hilary Term 2014

Contents
Contents......................................................................................................................................2
BOOKS......................................................................................................................................4
Textbooks..........................................................................................................................4
Casebooks.........................................................................................................................4
Monographs and edited collections...................................................................................4
Practitioners Books..........................................................................................................4
A. NEGLIGENCE.....................................................................................................................5
Duty of Care..........................................................................................................................5
General...................................................................................................................................5
Liability of public authorities................................................................................................5
Breach of Duty.......................................................................................................................6
B. CAUSATION AND REMOTENESS OF DAMAGE.........................................................6
Causation...............................................................................................................................6
Remoteness ...........................................................................................................................7
C. NEGLIGENCE AND ECONOMIC LOSS..........................................................................7
Economic loss........................................................................................................................7
Negligent statements and provision of services.....................................................................7
Negligent damage to property...............................................................................................7
Relationship to Contract........................................................................................................8
D. DEFENCES..........................................................................................................................8
Contributory Negligence.......................................................................................................8
Exclusion and Volenti non fit injuria.....................................................................................8
Illegality.................................................................................................................................8
E. LIABILITY FOR DEFECTIVE PREMISES.......................................................................9
Occupiers Liability...............................................................................................................9
Liability of Non-occupiers.....................................................................................................9
F. PRIVATE NUISANCE ........................................................................................................9
G. PUBLIC NUISANCE.........................................................................................................10
H. THE RULE IN RYLANDS V FLETCHER.......................................................................10
I. PRODUCT LIABILITY......................................................................................................11
Negligence...........................................................................................................................11
Strict Liability......................................................................................................................11
J. EMPLOYERS PRIMARY LIABILITY............................................................................11
K. VICARIOUS LIABILITY.................................................................................................11
Employees and borrowed employees..................................................................................11
Independent contractors and agents.....................................................................................12
L. JOINT LIABILITY............................................................................................................12
M. BREACH OF STATUTORY DUTY................................................................................12
N. DEFAMATION.................................................................................................................13
Libel and Slander.................................................................................................................13
Presumption of damage.......................................................................................................13
Serious harm requirement....................................................................................................13
Publication...........................................................................................................................13
Who can sue?.......................................................................................................................13
What is defamatory?............................................................................................................13
Defences..............................................................................................................................14
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Remedies..............................................................................................................................15
Defamation and Freedom of Speech....................................................................................15
Relationship to other torts....................................................................................................15
O. TRESPASS.........................................................................................................................15
Trespass to the Person.........................................................................................................15
Trespass to Land .................................................................................................................15
P. ECONOMIC TORTS..........................................................................................................15
General.................................................................................................................................15
Inducing a breach of Contract..............................................................................................15
Intimidation.........................................................................................................................16
Causing loss by unlawful means .........................................................................................16
Conspiracy...........................................................................................................................16
Deceit...................................................................................................................................16
Q. TORT REMEDIES ...........................................................................................................16
Nominal damages
.............................................................................................................................................16
Aggravated damages............................................................................................................16
Exemplary or punitive damages..........................................................................................16
Restitutionary damages........................................................................................................17
Damages for personal injury................................................................................................17
Damages for death ..............................................................................................................17
Remedies in property torts...................................................................................................17
R. COMPENSATION: FAULT AND INSURANCE............................................................18
S. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON TORT LAW.......................................................18

Hilary Term 2014

BOOKS
Textbooks
Deakin, Johnston and Markesinis (eds), Markesinis and Deakins Tort Law (OUP 7th ed
2012)
McBride and Bagshaw, Tort Law (Longman 4th ed 2012)
Murphy and Witting (eds), Street on Torts (OUP 13th ed 2012)
Rogers (ed), Winfield & Jolowicz on Tort (Sweet & Maxwell 18th ed 2010)
Casebooks
Lunney and Oliphant, Tort Law: Text and Materials (OUP 4th ed 2010)
Hepple and Matthews, Tort: Cases & Materials (Butterworths 6th ed 2008)
Steele, Tort Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (OUP 2nd ed 2010)
Monographs and edited collections
Arvind and Steele (eds), Tort Law and the Legislature (Hart 2013)
Atiyah, The Damages Lottery (Hart 1997)
Beever, Rediscovering the Law of Negligence (Hart 2007)
Beever, The Law of Private Nuisance (Hart 2013)
Burrows, Remedies for Torts and Breach of Contract (OUP 3rd ed 2004)
Cane, Atiyah's Accidents, Compensation and the Law (CUP 8th ed 2013)
Cane, The Anatomy of Tort Law (Hart 1997)
Carty, An Analysis of the Economic Torts (OUP 2nd ed 2010)
Conaghan and Mansell, The Wrongs of Tort (Pluto 2nd ed 1999)
Degeling, Edelman and Goudkamp (eds), Torts in Commercial Law (Thomson 2011)
Goudkamp, Tort Law Defences (Hart 2013)
Harris, Campbell and Halson, Remedies in Contract & Tort (Butterworths 2nd ed 2002)
Khoury, Uncertain Causation in Medical Liability (Hart 2006)
McIvor, Third Party Liability in Tort (Hart 2006)
Markesinis et al., Tortious Liability of Statutory Bodies (Hart 1999)
Mitchell and Mitchell (eds), Landmark Cases in the Law of Tort (Hart 2010)
Nolan and Robertson (eds), Rights and Private Law (Hart 2012)
Owen, Philosophical Foundations of Tort Law (Clarendon 1995)
Pitel, Neyers and Chamberlain, Tort Law: Challenging Orthodoxy (Hart 2013)
Stapleton, Product Liability (Butterworths 1994)
Stevens, Torts and Rights (OUP 2007)
Weir, Economic Torts (Clarendon 1997)
Weir, Introduction to Tort Law (Clarendon 2nd ed 2006)
Wright, Tort Law and Human Rights (Hart 2001)
Practitioners Books
Jones and Dugdale (eds), Clerk & Lindsell on Torts (Sweet & Maxwell 20th edn 2010)
Oliphant (ed), Law of Tort (Butterworths 2nd ed 2007)

Hilary Term 2014

A. NEGLIGENCE
Duty of Care
General
*Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 (compare Lord Atkin and Lord Macmillan)
*Caparo v Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605, 616-618
Phelps v Hillingdon LBC [2001] 2 AC 619
Stapleton, Duty of Care Factors: A Selection from Judicial Menus in Cane and Stapleton
(eds) The Law of Obligations: Essays in Celebration of John Fleming (OUP 1998) 59
Weinrib, The Disintegration of Duty in Madden (ed) Exploring Tort Law (CUP 2005) 143
Robertson, Justice, Community Welfare and the Duty of Care (2011) 127 LQR 370
Nolan, Deconstructing the Duty of Care (2013) 129 LQR 559
Omissions and acts of third parties
*Smith v Littlewoods [1987] AC 241
Calvert v William Hill Credit Ltd [2008] EWCA Civ 1427, [2009] Ch 330
Everett v Comojo (UK) Ltd [2011] EWCA Civ 13, [2011] 4 All ER 315, concentrate on [1][12], [23]-[34]
Liability of public authorities
Home Office v Dorset Yacht Co [1970] AC 1004
*Hill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire [1989] AC 53
Stovin v Wise [1996] AC 923
Kent v Griffiths (No 2) [2001] QB 36
*Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550
*D v East Berkshire Community NHS Trust [2003] EWCA Civ 1151, [79]-[85] and [2005]
UKHL 23, [2005] 2 AC 373
*Gorringe v Calderdale MBC [2004] UKHL 15, [2004] 1 WLR 1057, [2004] 2 All ER 326
Jain v Trent Strategic Health Authority [2009] UKHL 4, [2009] 1 AC 853
*Mitchell v Glasgow City Council [2009] UKHL 11, [2009] 1 AC 874
Smith v Ministry of Defence [2013] UKSC 31; [2013] ICR 981
Nolan, The Liability of Public Authorities for Failing to Confer Benefits (2011) 127 LQR
260
Nervous Shock
*McLoughlin v OBrian [1983] 1 AC 410
*Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire [1992] 1 AC 310
*Page v Smith [1996] AC 155 (evaluated Bailey and Nolan, The Page v Smith Saga: A Tale
of Inauspicious Origins and Unintended Consequences (2010) 69 CLJ 495)
*White v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire [1999] 2 AC 455 (sub nom. Frost)
Greatorex v Greatorex [2000] 4 All ER 769
*W v Essex [2001] 2 AC 592
*Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co; Re Pleural Plaques Litigation [2007] UKHL 39,
[2008] 1 AC 281

Hilary Term 2014

Law Commission, Liability for Psychiatric Illness (LC 249, 1998)


Wrongful Life, Wrongful Conception and Wrongful Birth
Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976
McKay v Essex Area Health Authority [1982] 2 All ER 771
*McFarlane v Tayside Health Board [2000] 2 AC 59
*Parkinson v St James & Seacroft University Hospital [2001] 3 All ER 97
*Rees v Darlington Memorial Hospital NHS Trust [2003] UKHL 52, [2004] 1 AC 309
Hoyano, Misconceptions about Wrongful Conception (2002) 65 MLR 883
Breach of Duty
*Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850
*Paris v Stepney Borough Council [1951] AC 367
*Roe v Minister of Health [1954] 2 QB 66
*Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee [1957] 1 WLR 582, 586-587
*The Wagon Mound (No 2) [1967] 1 AC 617, 640644
Goldman v Hargrave [1967] 1 AC 645, 663664
*Nettleship v Weston [1971] 2 QB 691
*Sidaway v Bethlem Royal Hospital [1985] AC 471
Mansfield v Weetabix Ltd [1998] 1 WLR 1263
*Mullin v Richards [1998] 1 All ER 920
*Bolitho v City & Hackney HA [1998] AC 232
Blake v Galloway [2004] EWCA Civ 814, [2004] 1 WLR 2844
Connor v Surrey County Council [2010] EWCA Civ 286, [2011] QB 429
Baker v Quantum Clothing Group [2011] UKSC 17, headnote from [2011] 4 All ER 223 (in
the absence of an AC report) plus Lord Mance [15]-[26] and Lord Dyson [91]-[101].
Nolan, Varying the Standard of Care in Negligence (2013) 72 CLJ 651.
B.

CAUSATION AND REMOTENESS OF DAMAGE

Causation
Performance Cars v Abraham [1962] QB 33
*Barnett v Chelsea Hospital [1969] 1 QB 428
*Baker v Willoughby [1970] AC 467
*Jobling v Associated Dairies Ltd [1982] AC 794
*Hotson v East Berkshire Area Health Authority [1987] AC 750
*Wilsher v Essex Area Health Authority [1988] AC 1074
*Allied Maples Group v Simmons & Simmons [1995] 4 All ER 907
Banque Bruxelles Lambert v Eagle Star Insurance [1997] AC 191
*Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd [2002] UKHL 22, [2003] 1 AC 32
*Chester v Afshar [2004] UKHL 41, [2005] 1 AC 134
*Gregg v Scott [2005] UKHL 2, [2005] 2 AC 176
*Barker v Corus plc [2006] UKHL 20, [2006] 2 AC 572 (reversed by the Compensation Act
2006, s 3 in so far as apportionment of liability in mesothelioma cases is concerned)
*Rothwell v Chemical & Insulating Co; Re Pleural Plaques Litigation [2007] UKHL 39,
[2008] 1 AC 281
*Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

Hilary Term 2014

Sienkiewicz (estate of Costello) v Greif (UK) Ltd [2011] UKSC 10, [2011] 2 AC 229
Durham v BAI (Run Off) Ltd [2012] UKSC 14, [2012] 3 All ER 1161, [52], [55]-[68], [77],
[82]-[83], [124]-[132]
Stapleton, Lords a'Leaping Evidentiary Gaps (2002) 10 Tort LJ 276
Peel, SAAMCO Revisited in Burrows and Peel (eds), Commercial Remedies: Current Issues
and Problems (OUP 2003) ch 7
Stapleton, Cause-in-Fact and the Scope of Liability for Consequences (2003) 119 LQR 388
Stapleton, Unnecessary Causes (2013) 128 LQR 39
Remoteness
*Re Polemis [1921] 3 KB 560
*The Wagon Mound (No 1) [1961] AC 388
*Smith v Leech Brain [1962] 2 QB 405
*Hughes v Lord Advocate of Scotland [1963] AC 837
McKew v Holland Hannen & Cubitts [1969] 3 All ER 1621
Lamb v Camden LBC [1981] QB 625
Knightley v Johns [1982] 1 All ER 851
*Page v Smith [1996] AC 155
*Jolley v Sutton LBC [2000] 1 WLR 1082
Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884
Spencer v Wincanton Holdings [2009] EWCA Civ 1404
Cartwright, Remoteness of Damages in Contract and Tort Law: A Reconsideration (1996)
55 CLJ 488
Stauch, Risk and remoteness of damage in negligence (2001) 64 MLR 191
C. NEGLIGENCE AND ECONOMIC LOSS
Economic loss
Stapleton, Duty of Care and Economic Loss: A Wider Agenda (1991) 107 LQR 249
Mitchell, Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v Heller & Partners Ltd (1963) in Mitchell and Mitchell
(eds), Landmark Cases in Tort Law (2010) 171.
Stevens, Torts and Rights (2007) 2043.
Negligent statements and provision of services
*Hedley Byrne v Heller & Partners [1964] AC 465
*Smith v Bush [1990] 1 AC 831
*Caparo Industries v Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605
Spring v Guardian Assurance [1995] 2 AC 296
*Henderson v Merrett Syndicates [1995] 2 AC 145
*White v Jones [1995] 2 AC 207
*Williams v Natural Life Health Foods [1998] 1 WLR 830
Commissioner for Customs & Excise v Barclays Bank [2006] UKHL 28, [2007] 1 AC 181
Negligent damage to property
Weller v Foot & Mouth Disease Research Institute [1966] 1 QB 569
*Spartan Steel & Alloys v Martin [1973] QB 27

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*The Aliakmon [1986] 1 AC 785


D & F Estates v Church Commissioners [1989] AC 177
*Murphy v Brentwood DC [1991] 1 AC 398
D Pride & Partners v Institute for Animal Health [2009] EWHC 685 (on what constitutes
physical damage and what pure economic loss)
Shell UK Ltd v Total UK Ltd [2010] EWCA Civ 180, [2011] QB 86, [111]-[152] (noted Low,
Equitable Title and Economic Loss (2010) 126 LQR 507)
Relationship to Contract
Junior Books v Veitchi [1983] 1 AC 520
Simaan v Pilkington Glass [1988] 1 All ER 791
Pacific Associates v Baxter [1989] 2 All ER 159, 178-180
Henderson v Merrett Syndicates [1995] 2 AC 145
Robinson v PE Jones [2011] EWCA Civ 9, 134 Construction LR 26
D. DEFENCES
Contributory Negligence
*Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945
*Jones v Livox Quarries [1952] 2 QB 608
*Stapley v Gypsum Mines [1953] AC 663
*Froom v Butcher [1976] QB 286
*Reeves v Commissioner of Metropolitan Police [2000] 1 AC 360
St George v Home Office [2008] EWCA Civ 1068, [2009] 1 WLR 1670, [2008] 4 All ER
1039
Co-operative Group (CWS) Ltd v Pritchard [2011] EWCA Civ 329; [2012] QB 320, [28][63], and [76]-[86], noted in Goudkamp, Contributory Negligence and Trespass to the
Person (2011) 27 LQR 518
Exclusion and Volenti non fit injuria
*Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, ss 1, 2
*Road Traffic Act 1988, s 149(3)
*Dann v Hamilton [1939] 1 KB 509
*ICI v Shatwell [1965] AC 656
*Nettleship v Weston [1971] 2 QB 691
*Morris v Murray [1991] 2 QB 6
*Reeves v Metropolitan Police Commissioner [2000] 1 AC 360
Illegality
Hall v Herbert [1993] 2 SCR 159 (McLachlin J)
Revill v Newbery [1996] 1 All ER 291
*Gray v Thames Trains [2009] UKHL 33, [2009] 1 AC 1339
Delaney v Pickett [2011] EWCA Civ 1532; [2012] 1 WLR 2149
Joyce v OBrien [2013] EWCA Civ 546, [2014] 1 WLR 70

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E.

LIABILITY FOR DEFECTIVE PREMISES

Occupiers Liability
To visitors
*Occupiers Liability Act 1957
*Defective Premises Act 1972, s 4
*Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, ss 1 and 2 (as amended by Occupiers Liability Act 1984,
s 2)
*Roles v Nathan [1963] 1 WLR 1117
*Wheat v Lacon [1966] AC 552
*White v Blackmore [1972] 2 QB 651
*Ferguson v Welsh [1987] 3 All ER 777
*McGeown v Northern Ireland Housing Executive [1995] 1 AC 233
Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1881, [2002] 1 WLR 1052,
[113]-[155]
Gwilliam v West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust [2002] EWCA Civ 1041, [2003] QB 443
Maguire v Sefton MBC [2006] EWCA Civ 316, [2006] 1 WLR 2550
Portsmouth Youth Activities Committee v Poppleton [2008] EWCA Civ 646
Harvey v Plymouth City Council [2010] EWCA Civ 860
To non-visitors
*Occupiers Liability Act 1984
Herrington v British Rail Board [1972] AC 877
Swain v Nati Ram Puri [1996] PIQR P442
*Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2004] UKHL 47, [2004] 1 AC 46
Keown v Coventry Healthcare NHS Trust [2006] EWCA Civ 39; [2006] 1 WLR 953
SH Bailey, Occupiers Liability: the Enactment of Common Law Principles in Arvind and
Steele (eds), Tort Law and the Legislature (Hart 2013) 187
Liability of Non-occupiers
*Defective Premises Act 1972
*Latent Damage Act 1986
*Pirelli v Oscar Faber [1983] 2 AC 1
D & F Estates v Church Commissioners [1989] AC 177
*Murphy v Brentwood DC [1991] 1 AC 398
*Targett v Torfaen BC [1992] 3 All ER 27
Nitrigin Eireann v Inco [1992] 1 All ER 854
Hoyano, Dangerous Defects Revisited by Bold Spirits (1995) 58 MLR 887
F. PRIVATE NUISANCE
*St Helens Smelting Co v Tipping (1865) 11 HLC 642
Bradford Corporation v Pickles [1895] AC 587
*Hollywood Silver Fox Farm v Emmett [1936] 2 KB 468
*Halsey v Esso [1961] 1 WLR 683

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*The Wagon Mound (No 2) [1967] 1 AC 617


*Miller v Jackson [1977] QB 966
*Kennaway v Thompson [1980] 3 All ER 329
Allen v Gulf Oil [1981] AC 1001
Laws v Florinplace [1981] 1 All ER 659
*Cambridge Water Co v Eastern Counties Leather [1994] 2 AC 264
*Wheeler v JJ Saunders [1996] Ch 19
*Hunter v Canary Wharf [1997] AC 655
*Southwark LBC v Mills [1999] 4 All ER 449, 459-460, 464-466
Marcic v Thames Water Utilities Ltd [2003] UKHL 66, [2004] 1 All ER 135
Watson v Croft Promosport Ltd [2009] EWCA Civ 15, [2009] 3 All ER 249
Barr v Biffa Waste Services Ltd [2012] EWCA Civ 312, [2012] 3 WLR 795, [2012] 3 All ER
380
*Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13
Nolan, A Tort Against Land: Private Nuisance as a Property Tort in Nolan and Robertson
(eds), Rights and Private Law (2012) 459
Who can sue?
*Hunter v Canary Wharf [1997] AC 655
Dobson v Thames Water Utilities Ltd [2009] EWCA Civ 28, [2009] 3 All ER 319
*European Convention on Human Rights, art 8
Who is liable?
*Sedleigh-Denfield v OCallaghan [1940] AC 880
*Leakey v National Trust [1980] 1 QB 485
Hussain v Lancaster City Council [1999] 4 All ER 125
Lippiatt v S Gloucestershire Council [1999] 4 All ER 149
*Holbeck Hall Hotel v Scarborough BC [2000] 2 All ER 705
G. PUBLIC NUISANCE
Wringe v Cohen [1940] 1 KB 229
*AG v PYA Quarries [1957] 2 QB 169
Tate & Lyle v GLC [1983] 2 AC 509
*Corby Group Litigation v Corby BC [2008] EWCA Civ 463, [2009] QB 335
H. THE RULE IN RYLANDS V FLETCHER
*Rylands v Fletcher [1866] LR 1 Ex 265; [1868] LR 3 HL 330
Perry v Kendricks [1956] 1 WLR 85
*Cambridge Water Co v Eastern Counties Leather [1994] 2 AC 264
*Transco plc v Stockport MBC [2003] UKHL 61, [2004] 2 AC 1
Bagshaw, Rylands Confined (2004) 120 LQR 388
Nolan, The Distinctiveness of Rylands v Fletcher (2005) 121 LQR 421

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I.

PRODUCT LIABILITY

Negligence
*Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562
Grant v Australian Knitting Mills [1936] AC 85
Muirhead v Industrial Tank Specialities [1986] QB 507
Hamble Fisheries v Gardner [1999] 2 Lloyds Rep 1
Tettenborn, Components and product liability: damage to other property (2000) LMCLQ
338
Strict Liability
*Consumer Protection Act 1987, pt 1 and ss 45, 46
*Directive on Liability for Defective Products (85/374/EEC)
C 300/95 Commission v UK [1997] All ER (EC) 481
Abouzaid v Mothercare [2000] All ER (D) 2436
*A v National Blood Authority [2001] 3 All ER 289, [2][22], [31][81]
Tesco Stores Ltd v Pollard [2006] EWCA Civ 393, [2006] All ER (D) 186
Stapleton, Products liability reform - real or illusory? (1986) 6 OJLS 392
Newdick, The Development Risk Defence of the Consumer Protection Act 1987 (1988) 47
CLJ 455
Stapleton, Product Liability (Butterworths 1994), ch 13
J.

EMPLOYERS PRIMARY LIABILITY

*Employers Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969


Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co v English [1938] AC 57
McDermid v Nash Dredging [1987] 2 All ER 878
Barber v Somerset County Council [2004] UKHL 13, [2004] 1 WLR 1089, [2004] 2 All ER
385
K.

VICARIOUS LIABILITY

Stevens, Torts and Rights (2007) 257274


Employees and borrowed employees
*Employers Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969, s 1
Mersey Docks & Harbour Board v Coggins & Griffiths [1947] AC 1
*Cassidy v Minister of Health [1951] 2 QB 343
Ready Mixed Concrete Ltd v Minister of Pensions [1968] 2 QB 497
Young & Woods Ltd v West [1980] IRLR 201
*Viasystems (Tyneside) Ltd v Thermal Transfer (Northern) Ltd [2005] EWCA Civ 1151,
[2006] QB 510
Hawley v Luminar Leisure Ltd [2006] EWCA Civ 18, [2006] IRLR 817
Biffa Waste Services Ltd v Maschinenfabrik Abrik Ernst Hese GmbH [2008] EWCA Civ
1257, [2009] QB 725, [41]-[61]

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*Various Claimants v Catholic Child Welfare Society [2012] UKSC 56, [2012] 3 WLR 1319
(discussed in Lord Hope, Tailoring the law on vicarious liability (2013) 129 LQR 514)
Independent contractors and agents
*Honeywill & Stein v Larkin [1934] 1 QB 191
*Salsbury v Woodland [1970] 1 QB 324
*Launchbury v Morgans [1973] AC 127
*McDermid v Nash Dredging Co [1987] AC 906
Gwilliam v West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust [2002] EWCA Civ 1041, [2003] QB 443
*Biffa Waste Services Ltd v Maschinenfabrik Abrik Ernst Hese GmbH [2008] EWCA Civ
1257, [2009] QB 725, [62]-[82]
Farraj v King's Healthcare NHS Trust and Cytogenic DNA Services Ltd [2009] EWCA Civ
1203, [2010] 1 WLR 2139, [63]-[123]
Woodland v Essex County Council [2013] UKSC 66, [2014] 1 All ER 482, [2013] 3 WLR
1227
McKendrick, Vicarious Liability and Independent ContractorsA Reexamination (1990)
53 MLR 770
Course of employment
Beard v London General Omnibus Co [1900] 2 QB 530
*Century Insurance v Northern Ireland RTB [1942] AC 509
*Rose v Plenty [1976] 1 WLR 141
General Engineering v Kingston & St Andrews Corporation [1988] 3 All ER 867
Smith v Stages [1989] AC 928
*Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd [2002] 1 AC 215
Mattis v Pollock [2003] EWCA Civ 887, [2003] 1 WLR 2158
Richard Weddal v Barchester Healthcare Ltd; Royal Bank v Wallbank Fox designs Ltd
[2012] EWCA Civ 25
Vicarious Liability for Statutory Torts
Majrowski v Guy's Hospital [2006] UKHL 34, [2007] 1 AC 224 (Stevens (2006) 123 LQR
30)
L.

JOINT LIABILITY

Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978


Carty, Joint Tortfeasance and Assistance Liability (1999) 19 Legal Studies 489
CBS Songs Ltd v Amstrad Consumer Electronics Plc [1988] AC 1013
Credit Lyonnais Bank Nederland NV v Export Credits Guarantee Department [2000] 1 AC
486
M.

BREACH OF STATUTORY DUTY

Groves v Wimborne [1898] 2 QB 402


Phillips v Britannia Hygienic Laundry [1923] 2 KB 832
Cutler v Wandsworth Stadium [1949] AC 398
Lonrho v Shell [1982] AC 173

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*R v Deputy Governor of Parkhurst Prison ex p. Hague [1992] 1 AC 58, 157-161, 168-173


*X v Bedfordshire CC [1995] 2 AC 633, 731-732
*Cullen v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary [2003] UKHL 39, [2003] 1
WLR 1763, [1]-[21], [33]-[44], [62]-[70]
Stanton, New Forms of the Tort of Breach of Statutory Duty (2004) 120 LQR 324
*Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, s 47 (as amended by the Enterprise and
Regulatory Reform Act 2013, s 69)
N.

DEFAMATION

*Defamation Act 2013


Mullis and Scott, Tilting at Windmills: the Defamation Act 2013 (2013) 77 MLR 87.
Libel and Slander
Defamation Act 2013, s 14
Broadcasting Act 1990, s 166
Theatres Act 1968, ss 4, 7
Monson v Tussauds [1894] 1 QB 671
Smith v ADVFN [2008] EWHC 1797 (QB), [13]-[17]
Presumption of damage
Jameel v Dow Jones & Co Inc [2005] QB 946
Serious harm requirement
Defamation Act 2013, s 1
Publication
Defamation Act 2013, s 8
Defamation Act 1996, s 1
Huth v Huth [1915] 3 KB 32
Bryanston Finance v de Vries [1975] QB 703
Slipper v BBC [1991] 1 QB 283
McManus v Beckham [2002] EWCA Civ 939, [2002] 1 WLR 2982
Bunt v Tilley [2006] EWHC 407, [2006] 3 All ER 336 headnote plus [1]-[37]
Who can sue?
*Derbyshire CC v Times [1993] AC 534
Goldsmith v Bhoyrul [1997] 4 All ER 268
What is defamatory?
*Cassidy v Daily Mirror [1929] 2 KB 331
Tolley v Fry [1931] AC 333
Byrne v Deane [1937] KB 818
Newstead v London Express [1940] 1 KB 377

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Lewis v Daily Telegraph [1964] AC 234


Morgan v Odhams Press [1971] 2 All ER 1156
Charleston v News Group [1995] 2 All ER 313
Berkoff v Burchill [1996] 4 All ER 1008
Defences
Truth
Defamation Act 2013, s 2
Defamation Act 1952, s 5
*London Artists v Littler [1969] 2 QB 375
Honest opinion
Defamation Act 2013, s 3
London Artists v Littler [1969] 2 QB 375
British Chiropractic Association v Singh [2010] EWCA Civ 350, [2011] 1 WLR 133
Joseph v Spiller [2010] UKSC 53, [2011] 1 AC 852
Absolute privilege
Defamation Act 1996, s 14 (as amended by the Defamation Act 2013, s 7(1))
Hamilton v Al Fayed [2000] 2 All ER 224
Westcott v Westcott [2008] EWCA Civ 818, [2008] Fam Law 951
Qualified privilege
Defamation Act 2013, s 6
Defamation Act 1996, s 15 and Schedule 1 (as amended by the Defamation Act 2013, s 7).
*Horrocks v Lowe [1975] AC 135
Publication on a matter of public interest
Defamation Act 2013, s 4
Reynolds v Times Newspapers [2001] AC 127
Jameel v Wall Street Journal Europe SPRL [2006] UKHL 44, [2007] 1 AC 359
Reportage
Charman v Orion Publishing Group Ltd [2007] EWCA Civ 972, [2008] 1 All ER 750
headnote plus [48]-[56], [66]-[69].
Other statutory defences
Defamation Act 2013, ss 5, 10
Defamation Act 1996, ss 1-4
Milne v Express Newspapers Ltd [2004] EWCA Civ 664, [2005] 1 WLR 772

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Hilary Term 2014

Remedies
Defamation Act 1996, ss 8-10
Defamation Act 1996, s 13
*John v Mirror Group [1996] 2 All ER 35
Defamation and Freedom of Speech
*European Convention on Human Rights, art 10
*Human Rights Act 1998, ss 2, 4, 6, 8, 12
*Derbyshire County Council v Times Newspapers [1993] AC 534
Tolstoy v United Kingdom (1995) 20 EHRR 442
*John v Mirror Group [1996] 2 All ER
*Reynolds v Times [2001] AC 127
Greene v Associated Newspapers Ltd [2004] EWCA Civ 1462, [2005] 1 All ER 30
Relationship to other torts
Joyce v Sengupta [1993] 1 All ER 897
*Spring v Guardian Assurance [1995] 2 AC 296
O.

TRESPASS

Trespass to the Person


Fowler v Lanning [1959] 1 QB 426
Letang v Cooper [1965] QB 232, approved in A v Hoare [2008] UKHL 6, [2008] 1 AC 844
Lane v Holloway [1968] 1 QB 379
*Sidaway v Bethlem Hospital [1985] AC 871
Wilson v Pringle [1986] 2 All ER 440
*In re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) [1990] 2 AC 1
Non-Marine Underwriters, Lloyd's of London v Scalera [2000] 1 SCR 551 [1]-[45], [74][119]
*Ashley v Chief Constable of Sussex Police [2008] UKHL 25, [2008] 1 AC 962
Trespass to Land
Bernstein v Skyviews [1978] QB 479
League Against Cruel Sports v Scott [1986] QB 240
P.

ECONOMIC TORTS

General
Stevens, Torts and Rights (2007) 297298.
Deakin & Randall, Rethinking the Economic Torts (2009) 72 MLR 519
Inducing a breach of Contract
Lumley v Gye (1853) 3 E&B 216

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Hilary Term 2014

*Hill v First National Finance [1988] 3 All ER 801


OBG v Allan; Douglas v Hello! [2007] UKHL 21, [2008] 1 AC 1
Howarth, Against Lumley v Gye (2005) 68 MLR 195
Intimidation
*Rookes v Barnard [1964] AC 1129
OBG v Allen; Douglas v Hello! [2007] UKHL 21, [2008] 1 AC 1, [7], [61] (Lord Hoffmann)
Revenue and Customs Commissioners v Total Network SL [2008] UKHL 19, [2008] 1 AC
1174, [99] (Lord Walker), [124] (Lord Mance).
Causing loss by unlawful means
Allen v Flood [1898] AC 1
*OBG v Allan; Douglas v Hello! [2007] UKHL 21, [2008] 1 AC 1
Conspiracy
Quinn v Leathem [1901] AC 495
Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co v Veitch [1942] AC 435
*Revenue and Customs Commissioners v Total Network SL [2008] UKHL 19, [2008] 1 AC
1174
Deceit
*Derry v Peek [1899] 14 AC 337
Smith New Court Securities v Scrimgeour Vickers [1997] AC 254
Q.

TORT REMEDIES

Tettenborn, What is a Loss? in Neyers et al (eds), Emerging Issues in Tort Law (Hart 2007)
Nominal damages
Ashby v White (1703) 2 Ld Raym 938, 92 ER 126
Constantine v Imperial Hotels [1944] KB 693
Aggravated damages
Kralj v McGrath [1986] 1 All ER 54
Law Commission, Aggravated, Exemplary and Restitutionary Damages (LC 247 1997),
Part II
Exemplary or punitive damages
Rookes v Barnard [1964] AC 1129
Cassell & Co v Broome [1972] AC 1027
*Kuddus v CC of Leicestershire Constabulary [2001] UKHL 29, [2002] 2 AC 122
Burrows, Remedies for Torts and Breach of Contract (OUP 3rd ed, 2004), ch 18

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Hilary Term 2014

Law Commission, Aggravated, Exemplary and Restitutionary Damages (LC 247 1997),
Part IV
Restitutionary damages
Ministry of Defence v Ashman [1993] 2 EGLR 102
Inverugie Investments Ltd v Hackett [1995] 1 WLR 713
Burrows, Remedies for Torts and Breach of Contract (OUP 3rd ed, 2004), pp.371-395
Damages for personal injury
*Courts Act 2003, ss 100, 101, amending Damages Act 1996 ss 2, 2A, 2B, 4
Cane, Atiyahs Accidents, Compensation and the Law (CUP 8th ed 2013), ch 6
Damages for non-pecuniary loss
Administration of Justice Act 1982, s 1(1)(b)
Lim Poh Choo v Camden & Islington AHA [1980] AC 174
*Heil v Rankin [2000] 3 All ER 138
Damages for pecuniary loss
Law Reform (Personal Injuries) Act 1948, s 2(4)
*Pickett v British Rail Engineering [1980] AC 136
Wells v Wells [1999] 1 AC 345
Collateral Benefits
Social Security (Recovery of Benefits) Act 1997
*Bradburn v Great Western Railway Co (1874) LR 10 Ex 1
Parry v Cleaver [1970] AC 1
*Hunt v Severs [1994] 2 AC 350
Lewis, Deducting Collateral Benefits from Damages: Principle and Policy (1998) 18 LS 15
Damages for death
*Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934, s 1
*Fatal Accidents Act 1976
Davies v Taylor [1974] AC 207
*H v S [2002] EWCA Civ 792, [2003] QB 965
Law Commission, Claims for Wrongful Death (LC 263 1999), Parts I and III
Remedies in property torts
*The Mediana [1900] AC 113
Dodd Properties v Canterbury City Council [1980] 1 WLR 433
Arthur v Anker [1997] QB 564
*Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] AC 655
Delaware Mansions Ltd v Westminster City Council [2001] UKHL 55, [2001] 4 All ER 737
Dimond v Lovell [2002] 1 AC 384

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Hilary Term 2014

*Lagden v OConnor [2003] UKHL 64, [2004] 1 AC 1067, [45]-[62], [90]-[102]


R.

COMPENSATION: FAULT AND INSURANCE

Atiyah, Personal Injuries in the Twenty-First Century: Thinking the Unthinkable in Birks
(ed), Wrongs & Remedies in the Twenty-First Century (Clarendon 1996), or Atiyah, The
Damages Lottery (Hart 1997)
Burrows, In Defence of Tort in Burrows (ed), Understanding the Law of Obligations, (Hart
1998)
Weinrib, The Insurance Justification and Private Law (1985) 14 JLS 681
Stapleton, Tort, Insurance and Ideology (1995) 58 MLR 820
Morgan, Tort, Insurance and Incoherence (2004) 67 MLR 384
Morris, Spiralling or Stabilising? The Compensation Culture and Our Propensity to Claim
Damages for Personal Injury (2007) 70 MLR 349 (see also Compensation Act 2006, s 1)
Coleman, Risks and Wrongs (OUP 1992), pp.205209
S.

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON TORT LAW

Stevens, Torts and Rights (2007), chs 1, 1314


Nolan and Robertson, Rights and Private Law in Nolan and Robertson (eds), Rights and
Private Law (2012) 1
Weinrib, The Idea of Private Law (Harvard University Press 1995), chs 1 and 6

18