Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics

Estrangement as a Lifestyle: Shklovsky and Brodsky Author(s): Svetlana Boym Source: Poetics Today, Vol. 17, No. 4, Creativity and Exile: European/American Perspectives II (Winter, 1996), pp. 511-530 Published by: Duke University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1773211 . Accessed: 07/04/2014 01:01
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.


Duke University Press and Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Poetics Today.


This content downloaded from on Mon, 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

as a Lifestyle: Estrangement Shklovskyand Brodsky
Svetlana Boym
Harvard Literature, Comparative

Abstract The essay reflects on nostalgia and estrangement, on exile and homecoming, on modernist poetics and cosmopolitan identities.Through unconventional modernist autobiographies,Victor Shklovsky'sZoo;or,Letters Loveand Third Not about and Joseph Brodsky's"Less Than One" and "In a Room and a Half," the Factory, essay traces a cultural history of "estrangement"-from the avant-garde and formalist "artas a device" to a dissident art of survival.The exilic autobiographiesoffer a counterpoint to Benedict Anderson's analogy between the narrativeof individual biography and the "imagined community" of a nation. The essay does not limit itself to the "poetics"of exile but looks at how the actual experience of exile revises writers' metaphors and creates a new bilingual consciousness-that of a prodigal son who never comes back. The word nostalgia comes from two Greek roots-nostos (home) and algia (longing) -yet this composite word did not originate in ancient Greece. It is only pseudo-Greek, or nostalgically Greek. The nostalgic disorder was first diagnosed by seventeenth-century Swiss doctors and detected in mercenary soldiers (Lowenthal 1985: 11).' This contagious modern disease of homesickness-la maladie du pays-was treated in a seventeenth-century scientific manner with leeches, hypnotic emulsions, opium, and a trip to the Alps. Nostalgia was not regarded as destiny, nor as part of the human
1. I am grateful to Paul Holdengraber for sharing with me the origins of nostalgia.On la maladie dupays and mal du sieclesee also Levin 1966: 62-81 and Jankelevich 1974. PoeticsToday17:4 (Winter 1996) Copyright ? 1996 by the Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.

This content downloaded from on Mon, 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

or culture). The first one stresses nostos. transcendental homelessness to literal loss of home and the relationship between home and nationhood. and aesthetic homes. In a lyrical passage. homesickness and the sickness of being home. ironic nostalgia accepts (if it does not enjoy) the paradoxes of exile and displacement. This content downloaded from 146. but collective myths. it is "enamoured of distance. and does not pretend to rebuild the mythical place called home. I will not suggest a therapy for nostalgia. If utopian nostalgia sees exile. Anderson treats "biography" merely as a popular nineteenth-century genre. both as an artistic device and as a way of life. The second type puts the emphasis on algia. This essay is a part of my investigation of twentieth-century ideas about home--from metaphorical. where the "greaterpatria" has to be rebuilt. maladie du pays turned into maldusiecle. Its nostos could exist in the plural as geographical. political. This nostalgia is reconstructive and collective. However. home and culture. the geographic longing was superseded by the historical one. emphasizing the return to that mythical place somewhere on the island of Utopia. but only as a passing malaise. and singular.96.This nostalgia is ironic.2Anderson proposes thinking about nationalism anthropologically (in the order of kinship. "How many thousand days passed between infancy and early adulthood vanish beyond direct recall! How strange it is to need another's help to learn that this naked baby in the yellowish photograph sprawled happily on the rug or cot is you!" (Anderson 1991 [1983]: 204). fragmentary.252. as a definite fall from grace that should be corrected. a confessional narrative that "begins with the circumstances of parents and grandparents. one could speak of two types of nostalgia.) What is important for the national imagination is not history. In the nineteenth century. (One could also examine liberalism and fascism anthropologically to see what kinds of imagined communities they promote.512 PoeticsToday17:4 condition. not scientific facts. religion. and loss of the memory of home. estrangement.2 on Mon. not of the referent itself" (Stewart 1984: 145). Affectionately parodying Roman Jakobson's theory of the two types of aphasia. is part and parcel of ironic nostalgia. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in all the literal and metaphorical senses of the word. with classical porticos. rather than ideologically (in the order of liberalism and fascism). Estrangement.but the two ailments shared many symptoms. but only its provisional classification. but biography. Anderson draws on a developmental metaphor of the adolescent who wishes to forget childhood and the adult who desires to reinvent it by looking at an old photo of a child who supposedly resembles him or her. Communities Benedict Anderson in Imagined (1991[1983]) suggests a connection between the history of the nation and individual biography: both are seen as narratives of identity and personhood that sprang from oblivion."What he leaves out are the stories of internal and external 2.

In fact. Whatcharacterizes for the nonarbitrariness of the sign. for they refuse to allow the life of a single individual to be subsumed in the destiny of a collective. two reflections on the fate of Russian modernism and its imagined communities. Yet he never leaves his poetic home of an imagined Leningradian classicism and the boundaries of the timeless poetic empire. many modernist autobiographies written in the twentieth century problematize the three roots of the word auto-bio-graphy-self. Exile cannot be treated as a mere the imaginedcommunity of nationsin Anderson's accountis a desire 3. art and compromise. Both addressed estrangement and nostalgia. I will not only address the poetics of exile. For Shklovsky this departure turns out to be a round-trip: from his Berlin exile back to the fatherland. Estrangement here will be seen as both an artistic device and a way of life. But isn't this desirefor nonarbitrariness of the sign exactlywhat Roman definedas poetry? Whatis. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .96. Brodsky. but two different bifurcations of cultural fate. but also the notions of exilic self-fashioning and arts of survival. The two stories are not antipodes. They reveal a twisted relationship between creativity and unfreedom. offering us new ways of thinking about home. The autobiographical narrativesof these two theorists and practitioners of estrangement share one reference-the Marxist-Leninist slogan that became an ideological commonplace and a cliche of Soviet everyday life: "Material being determines consciousness. on the other hand.2 on Mon." This slogan revises Hegelian alienation and emphasizes the primacy of matter over spirit. and writing-by resisting a coherent narrative of identity. where he is forced to become a "spiritual exile.3 My examples will be two stories of modern exiles and authors of unconventional modernist autobiographies-Victor Shklovsky and Joseph Brodsky. misfits and mixed bloods who offer digressions and detours from the mythical biography of a nation. but rather with their departure from home.The two exiled writers use this ideological commonplace to narrate their own stories of how material existence relates to consciousness. at different historical moments.252. The story of their consciousness does not begin at home. and then to practice them between the lines. left Soviet Russia." to denounce the formalist theories of estrangement. is forced to leave Soviet Russia to become a naturalized American. then.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 513 exiles. theoretical practice and physical survival. politics.life. and culture. Modernist texts have no place in Anderson's account of the national literary imagination.the relationship betweenthe nonconsanguineous Jakobson and the community poeticcommunity imaginedby culturalnationalism? This content downloaded from 146. Instead of curing alienation-which is what the imagined community of the nation proposes -they use alienation itself as a personal antibiotic against the ancestral disease of home in order to reimagine it. and both. and a searchfor a sacredor privatelanguageproperto that community.

For a writer. The home that one leaves and "a home away from home. Hence exile is a cultural transgression that threatens a writer's very survival. even when its symptoms are hidden. it is the other way around: actual experience of exile offers an ultimate test to the writer's metaphors and theories of estrangement." Rather. but rarely can they get rid of an accent. for which every language is a foreign one" (Scarpetta 1981. a few missing articles. preserves an imprint of his or her cultural motherland. and the writer is a subject of that empire. my modern parables tell of painstakingjourneys that celebrate the limited practices of estrangement and also reveal the many defense mechanisms against polyphonic madness. best known in the West as one of the founding fathers was of Russian formalism and the theorist of estrangement (ostranenie). transcendental homelessness is seen not as a feature of modernist consciousness. as a result. has many side effects. actual exile from Mother Russia is viewed as unprecedented cultural betrayal. but as a part of Russian national identity. aside from the obvious political dangers. This content downloaded from 146. definite or indefinite. it is more than just a betrayal. Todorov 1992: 16-26). Yet the cosmopolitan ideal of a "republic of letters" is foreign to Russian culture. VictorShklovskyand the Poetics of Unfreedom Victor Shklovsky.2 on Mon." which one creates. without its happy traditional denouement. After the nineteenth century. sometimes have more in common than one would like to admit.252. In the tradition of Russian philosophy from Chaadaev to Berdiaev. Yet the modern disease of nostalgia. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Metaphorical exile (usually away from the transient. it is a heresy.96. both physical and spiritual. The myth of the prodigal son returning to his fatherland. External exile from Soviet Russia has additional complications. While in the traditional biography of the imagined community of a nation exiles are the ones who "lost their souls. which offer either a claustrophobia of strictly guarded borders or a metaphorical euphoria of their total dissolution. everyday existence) is a prerequisite for the wanderings of the "Russian soul". is rewritten throughout these texts. In contrast to those alternatives. betray the syntax of the mother tongue." in the postmodern story exiles embody the dream of "mad polyphony. there is a Russian empire of letters. Rather. A portable home away from home. forgiven but never forgotten.514 Poetics Today 17:4 metaphor--otherwise one could fall into the somewhat facile argument that every intellectual is always already a "spiritualexile. literature became a form of Russian civic religion. which an emigre ferociously guards. The exiles might be bilingual. not allowing us to turn foreignness into another euphoric poetic and theoretical trope. A few misplaced prepositions.

to experience it anew.or. See Striedter 1989. the only letter to which he receives a positive response is the last.5By making things strange. On the connection between the theory of estrangement and romantic aesthetics see Todorov 1985: 130-48. to reinvent the world. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . where he began to compose a series of unconventional Journey. and Zoo.an account of Shklovsky's autobiographical texts. For an interesting account of irony and eroticism in Shklovsky see Steiner 1985: 27-44. Shklovsky was denounced by an informer and had to flee the country to avoid imprisonment (Sheldon 1977:vii)." Ostranenie means more than distancing and making strange. or worth living. My nostalgia [toska]in Berlin is as bitter as carbide dust" (1990: 346). it is also dislocation.Here Shklovskybegs to be allowed to return to Russia: "I cannot live in Berlin. it makes everyday life lively.96. This content downloaded from 146. Erlich 1981.. the declaration of art's autonomy from the everyday. Estrangement is what makes art artistic. or do they contradict each other? The theory of estrangement is often seen as an artistic declaration of independence. Arabism in literary Persian. This last letter. Shklovsky claims that according to Aristotle.Yet in Shklovsky's "Artas a Device" (1917).. 5. and Steiner 1984. I use Richard Sheldon's translations with slight modifications.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 515 briefly a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party and in 1918 voted for the restoration of the short-lived Russian Constitutional Assembly. I am bound by my entire way of life.2 on Mon.. "poetic language" has to have the character of a for"Forthe Assyrians it was Sumerian. however. define Tracing the genealogy of estrangement. is no longer addressed to a woman but to the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Shklovsky also questions the autonomy and unity of the "national language. So the device of estrangement could both and defythe autonomy of art.estrangement appears more as a device of mediation between art and life.The Sentimental trials and tribulations during the Civil War.252. Latin for eign language (chuzhezemnyi): medieval poetry. Letters Not about the on author's Love.4 Is there a connection between this old-fashioned nostalgia and the theory of estrangement. Having narrowly escaped arrest. the writer found himself in Berlin.an ironic epistolary romance based correspondence with Elsa Triolet. In 1922. It appears that Shklovsky's "Artas a Device" harbors the romantic and avant-garde dream of a reverse mimesis: everyday life can be redeemed if it imitates art. Stran is the root of the Russian word for country-strana. old Bulgarian as a founda4.he also helps to "return sensation" to life itself. not the other way around. The theorist's epistolary love is unrequited. during the show trial of Socialist Revolutionaries. but by the same token. by all my habits [vsem bytom i navykami] to the Russia of today. depaysement. the artist does not simply displace them from an everyday context into an artistic framework.

He never ceases to dramatize the irredeemable cultural difference between them. inspired her to become a novelist. He goes on to say that Pushkin and Tolstoy used Russian almost as a foreign language for the French-speaking Russian nobility. Hence. yet they break many promises.252. Shklovsky's aesthetic (and pathetic) framing of her letters took them out of the everyday context and rendered them literary. and he. 7. The text could be compared to some theoreticoautobiographical writings of Walter Benjamin. while praising Shklovsky's fictionalized epistolary autobiography. The Saussurian sign is motivated only by cultural convention. prohibits him from speaking about love and begs him to discuss his literary theory instead. encouraging their author. dedicated to or addressed to the Latvian actress and writer Asja Lacis who eludes and escapes him. my translation)."In fact. instead of love. In the least-quoted chapter of Saussure's Course that the is not writes that he General motivated. the "new Eloise" of the formalist lover. ment and exile are his central preoccupations. The difference being. his unrequited love for Alya mirrors his relations with Berlin. letters about love and an example of a modernist exilic lover's discourse in the paradoxical style of literary montage. Later their fates radically diverged. rather than Russian culture.516 PoeticsToday17:4 tion of the Russian literary language" (Shklovsky 1929: 21. Alya. that "Alya"writes back and Shklovsky publishes her letters verbatim. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 146. to become a writer of fiction. The letters promise not to speak about love. Hence. there is no connection between language and blood (1966: 222-23). the autonomy of art. Ironically. in the Russian context. Letters of course. this kind of structural linguistics or poetics of estrangement presented an alternative to official patriotism and suggested different ways to create imagined communities. presenting Alya as "a woman of European.2 on Mon. the strict opposition of Russia and the West.6 In Shklovsky'saccount. Conceived on the eve of World War I. in turn. like One-WayStreetand Moscow Diary. Shklovsky presents himself as a biographer and theorist against his will.7 6. we could defamiliarize some of the critical cliches about language. particularly appreciated Alya's letters. They both fictionalize and resist fictionalization. directly or indirectly. sign organically Linguistics. Elsa Triolet. Maxim Gorky. she inspired him to speak about literature. and art as a device. of course. Shklovsky does not follow Anderson's proposed model of autobiography. revealing many more political and literary ironies. Now that formalism and structuralismare often perceived as safely oldfashioned. In fact. early modernist theories of language developed in response to the reemergence of neoin romantic nationalism. yet nostalgia for an imagined community and reflection on estrangeNot aboutLoveare. the early theory of estrangement already questioned the idea of language as organic and.96. they both come from a very similar background of Western-oriented urban intelligentsia.

here. Berdiaev.Everyday Wedon'tneed it.in the midst of all kinds of food.He couldn'ttakeit any more. Romantook Peterto the restaurant.. who was then still a surrealist.. When Shklovsky was forced to denounce formalism in the Soviet Union and many fellow supporters of leftist art were executed or forced into silence. where Shklovsky found himself in 1922.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 517 It turns out that the theory of estrangement and actual exile do not necessarily go together. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .252. . It appears that the woman-expatriate loves her foreign dress. Butthen again.) It was the center of the German avant-garde. While Shklovsky's letters are about allegories of the homelessness of a Russian intellectual. The modernist lover is jealous of her flirtation with foreign things. while her male counterpart cannot fit into a European suit. Alya's are often about domesticity and intimate relationships with her surroundings. Unlike Shklovsky. Kandinsky.).2 on Mon.96. the latter the author of a pioneering formalist analysis of costume and marionette theater.which are not defined in national terms at all. but not for living. But it is precisely her comfort that makes her epistolary lover uncomfortable: "I don't complain about you. he describes the "literary environment" of the exiled formalists. was hardly very comfortable) as a major threat to his survival as an intellectual and as a Russian theorist and practitioner of estrangement. But you are too much of a woman. (Shklovsky was one-quarter German but did not speak the language. Berlin. This psychology is European" (ibid. she would become a great supporter of the Stalinist Soviet Union in France. In one of his letters to Alya. for an impoverished emigre.. beganto cry. as if the two were incompatible and one could not practice formalist theory and wear a decent suit. wine and women. Petersat surrounded by the windowsthat were not scratched. Shklovsky proudly proclaims that he will not exchange his craft (that of a literary theorist) for the European suit..for the creationof parallellisms. In fact. we are hot-tempered seriously. Yet Shklovsky perceives the safe haven of West European everyday existence (which. He life [byt]heredefrosts us. Alya..Elsa did not return to Russia. the opening line of her first letter is the exact opposite of Shklovsky's Berlin nostalgia: "I settled comfortably [uzhilas'] in my new apartment" (ibid. The protagonists are Roman Jakobson and Peter Bogatyrev. In the store a woman flirts with things. This content downloaded from 146.. frequented by many Russian and European artists. She emigrated to France and married Louis Aragon. .we takeeverything Europebreaksus.: 306). She loves everything. and others might have crossed. anything goes. Nabokov. (Shklovsky 1990 [1923]: 297) European everyday life could be fine for an artistic device. where the paths of Bely. might seem to be an ideal place for the modernist critic..

or poetic being)." The "woman of European culture" is killed into fiction. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . revolutionary. but rather to theorize about unfreedom.' [sidel'tsy]"(ibid. for better or for worse. Shklovsky repeats here some of the cliches reiterated by several generations of Russian intellectuals and travelers in Western Europe from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuryWesternizers and Slavophiles. no more and no less.2 on Mon. Estrangement might well be a device in art and life.96. In the last letter of Zoo. Shklovskyproposes not to speak about estrangement. In TheSentimentalJourneyShklovsky remarksthat. Shklovsky here refers to his conversation with Boris Eikhenbaum. the Russian theorist feels himself as another lost emigre with imperfect table manners. no movement. after the revolution. This content downloaded from 146.518 PoeticsToday17:4 Shklovsky's Russian Berlin is compared to the realm of shadows. In this intellectual tradition "Russia"is not merely a geographical or ethnic unity but an imagined community of fellow intellectuals and artists for whom art is a civic religion. it does not have a destiny.252. But the vertiginous ironies and metamorphoses of the text leave us wondering whether the "Central Committee of the Communist Party" is also only a metaphor. philosophers of the Russian idea and. a Hades of sorts. Shklovsky's romantic and avant-garde conception of aesthetics relies on the high prestige of art. Alya. Russian life nearly turned into art (1990 [1923]: 271). In his imagined Europe.: 318). even if its rituals became modernist. Not even refugees. The utopian communal home of the future can be built only in the land of spiritual homelessness. but it has to signify culturally. Unwittingly. and its intimate link to the conception of national identity. Russian Berlin does not go anywhere. ThirdFactory (1977[1926]). In Shklovsky'sRussian Berlin "there is no force of gravitation. He 8. European culture is identified with "a petit bourgeois ideal of a little house and a cup of cabbage soup. surprisingly.8Perhaps he realized that in Europe the dream of reverse mimesis would never come true because.addressed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Shklovsky declares that the addressee of his prior correspondence. Real life is elsewhere. But the writer had to restrain his literary games once he returned from exile to his estranged motherland. formalists. but only "a realization of a metaphor. In his postexilic text. It would not yield to the Russian artistic device. but fugitives [vybezhentsy] and now we are 'house-sitters. everyday life would remain everyday life. "Western mercantile civilization" is seen as a stable culture that celebrates the cult of things and domesticity." where byt (everyday existence) is opposed to bytie(spiritual. a dress for the daughter and school for the son" (Herzen 1986 [1865]: 353-56). was not a real person. while Russia is the land of"transcendental homelessness." He writes: "We are refugees.

2 on Mon. Sovest' is distinctly Russian moral consciousness. personal.Lidiia Ginzburg (literary critic and Shklovsky'sstudent) observed: "The merry times of the laying bare the device have passed (leaving us a real writer. The Marxist dictum that was turned into a Soviet commonplace is creatively rewritten by Shklovsky:"Material being determines consciousness but conscience remains unsettled" (Shklovsky This unsettled consciousness is dramatized throughout the text. This is perhaps the earliest formulation of Soviet doublespeak. After the revolution and civil war. In the second letter he recorded what he really thought.96. Two different Russian words are used-soznanie in the first case and sovest'inthe second. In her diary of 1927. Now is the time when one has to hide the device as far as one can" (1989: 59. but as its necessary precondition. this language would bind together the imagined community of Soviet intelligentsia. It could be read as an enactment of political. the practice of aesthetic estrangement had become politically suspect. political.9 ThirdFactory opens with an anecdote about Mark Twain. One no longer needs to address letters to the "comrade government". and economic restrictions. It will become a foundational fiction of the Soviet intelligentsiathe Aesopian language. "the comrade government reads them anyway. Moreover." ThirdFactory discusses three kinds of home."followed by shrill declarations to the "comrade government" that from now on is perceived as the writer's permanent addressee. Between the 1930s and the 198os. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Shklovsky). not all of which would be of subjects nostalgia. my translation). defamiliarization turned into a fact of life. 1926: 15). He proposes to demonstrate that most great literature from Cervantes to Dostoevsky was created under the circumstances of unfreedom-understood in the broad sense of social."The first factory is 9. amusing and impersonal storytelling alternates with private confessions intended for some imaginary "gentle reader. who wrote letters in duplicate: the first one was destined for his addressee and the second for the writer's private archive. Shklovsky constructs his new autobiographical venture as a montage of anecdotes and aphorisms whose multiple ironies do not allow the reader to establish a single stable meaning. Shklovsky's metaphor for home is not organic but rather productionist: home is one of the "factories. In the text. the way of reading between the lines and understanding one another with half-words. The key formalist idea of "laying bare the device" has a paradoxical history in the Soviet context.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 519 tries to think of unfreedom not as the opposite of creative activity. and artistic compromise.252. while soznanieis connected to knowledge and rationality. This content downloaded from 146. while the everyday manner of existence and the maintenance of bare essentials became exotic.

It is sownthickly-oppressed. where Shklovsky was officially employed.520 Poetics Today 17:4 childhood and school. There is no family garden. Barthes. that became Shklovsky's true home and most beloved imagined community that he missed in Berlin. collaborative work. as it is represented in Aksakov. the second is the formalist Circle OPOYAZ. To describe the current situation of the formalist "second factory. Flax requires oppression.This is no advertisement.it is ritualmurder. the home of continuous conversation. friendship. At the momentI am moreinterested in pitch." Shklovsky tells a story about the "Flax Factory" in the chapter "On the Freedom of Art. In the first factory the child felt quite displaced.That is is obtained. and the third is.2 on Mon. whom Shklovsky called the makers of "red restoration."Among other things. The samewith flax. I wantfreedom. (Shklovsky 1977[1926]:45) The flax factory offers an interesting allegory. By the mid-192os the formalists were under attack on all sides by Marxists and traditionalists. and Jewish grandparents. wouldshriekas it's being processed.252. and others.. He is particularly nostalgic for the early years of OPOYAZ. It is the "second factory." I'm not employed Flax. with German. literally. and the collective intellectual labor of theoretical estrangement. Benjamin. instead. Shklovsky'sfamily purchased a dacha." So the exile returns to his homeland only to be called a "spiritual emigre"-one of the worst insults in the Soviet Russian context.. The first factory-childhood and school-are hardly idealized.By the root. later he was thrown out of schools and universities. I'll go look for unfreedom lisher.. if it had a voice. The author tries to persuade himself that the difference between freedom and unfreedom is only This content downloaded from 146. and undermines the familiar Russian trope of the happy childhood and the lost Eden. Flax.so that it will be not vigorousbutpuny. formalists and constructivistswere accused of being "capitalistsand spiritual emigres. Tolstoi.96. The third factory of the Soviet fatherland did not embrace its formalist prodigal son. but it also stands for postrevolutionary Soviet life. at the Flax Centerthesedays. Russian. at the handsof a womanand a pubBut if I get it. no idyllic estate in the countryside."the formalist circle.a small vacation place that put them permanently in debt. the Third Factory of State Cinema Studios. Shklovsky declares his mixed blood and eclectic middle-class background. how turpentine Fromthe tree'spoint of view.In tappingtreesto death. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and other celebrated twentieth-century theorists who never completed their doctoral dissertations. thus he could be placed on the same list with Lukacs.It is takenby head andjerkedfromthe ground.

" He remains the great theoriststoryteller who. my heart has borne even the thingsI haven'tdescribed. yet one thing clearly emerges from this painful.The comparison with Jews hiding during World War II appears anachronistic yet strikingly appropriate. I have some insurance: good health. the devices of Shklovsky's texts remain almost unchanged. The "Third Factory."At the end of Shklovsky's postexilic autobiography. (Ibid. speaks in elaborate parables. So far. full of self-contradiction.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 521 a matter of point of view. in a unique style of Russian formalist baroque." Nadezhda Mandel'shtam commented on Shklovsky'swork in the actual "Third Factory of the Goskino-State Cinema": "Among the writers declared outside the law-not openly but hiddenly. like Walter Benjamin. thirdfactoryof life! But don'tput me in the wrongguild. for early Stalinist Soviet life."which initially referred to a specific Soviet institution."Yet in spite of continuous attacks on his work and the official demands of narrative and ideological coherence. Shklovsky's two "surrenders"could also be read as affirmations of the invisible exilic retreat of an ironist and a theorist.it has not enlarged. Whateverhappens. was Shklovsky. especially in TheSentimental ourney.252. ThirdFactoryis not only about literary production. not exclusive to the Soviet context.though. Shklovsky's two autobiographical texts end with a series of "ostensible surrenders. The second turns estrangement from an artistic device into a technique for survival in the Soviet Russia of the late 192os. In his textual practices Shklovsky never betrays the "second factory. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .96.There is a story about This content downloaded from 146. the "third factory" turns from an object of study into the author'sjudge: Takeme. as they always did in our country.:98) What might strike us in this quotation is a gradual slippage of images. ironic tour de force: his "conscience remains unsettled" and very aware of the "shrieksand jerks" in the process of social production and the adaptation to "oppression. it is also about the "production"of the Soviet intellectual. Is Shklovsky's theoretical autobiography an avant-garde twist on the old Russian romantic drama of art and life? Or is it a political allegory of the specific Soviet transformation of intellectual life? Shklovsky the ironist gives us two versions of the story: the first turns unfreedom (like estrangement before it) into a device and a precondition for art making.It has not broken. has become a metaphor: first. and then for life as such.Jews figure prominently in Shklovsky'sparables and anecdotes. He hid in the Film Factory the way Jews in Hungary hid in the Catholic monasteries" (Mandel'shtam 1972: 271).2 on Mon. This exilic retreat between the tortured lines could only be carved through the secret rituals of the nearly extinct "formalist guild.

Rehabilitated and published again in the 196os.he was perceived as a kind of cultural martyr. not how life is made. denounce formalism. would appear in print only But those "forgottenJews" would continue very rarely after the late 1940os. sent to prison. He was not a practicing Jew and the Jews would soon be forgotten. remember the journey into the Hades of Russian Berlin? Or ever Orpheus exile not really a way out at that time? Perhaps he could have was actual theorized the market of unfreedom with Adorno.252. (Shklovsky 1977[1926]:34) The ritual celebration of exile (possibly a reference to Passover) is evoked by Shklovsky in passing as an obsessive memory. Shklovsky inspired the next generation of intellectuals who appreciated his ironic salto mortale. signifying ForgettheJews. from Soviet literature." In his chapter about his fellow ex-formalist Osip Brik. Let us leave. Shklovskywrites: Everyyearon a certainday. arrested by the KGB. in fact.2 on Mon.522 Poetics Today 17:4 the pogrom his grandmother experienced and a story of a young Jewish artist trying hard to adapt to the violence of Red Army life and to become Soviet rather than Jewish-only to be insulted constantly as a "Jew. The theorist of unfreedom became a persona non grata for the thirty He was forced publicly to years following the publication of ThirdFactory.) to haunt the writer who would no longer be able to leave and perform his exilic ritual. And here his poetic fate makes a radical swing: from a poet of the resistance he turns into a poet of the establishment in the United States.theJews standat the tablewith staffin handtheirreadiness to leave. They only try to see how fiction is made. and later forced into exile. Classicism Brodsky:Poetics of Leningrad Brodsky's cultural fate might appear to be the opposite of Shklovsky's. He was lucky to avoid arrest and the tragic fate of many of his contemporaries and fellow formalists and constructivists.96. From Shklovsky's letters not about love we move to Brodsky's auto- This content downloaded from 146."In ThirdFactory there is a strange refrain. or become an American academic like Roman Jakobson. (The word Jew. but was still accused of being a spiritual emigre and later a rootless cosmopolitan-for his essay "South West" on the literature of Odessa and its Western connections. But responsible theorists should not speculate about unrealized twists of plot. "Forget the Jews. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Did the formalist word. a poet laureate and a Nobel prizewinner. or rather eliminated. While Shklovsky'sformalist years were forgotten together with the traces of his subversive cultural memory persisted.

in the Soviet artistic context of the 196os.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 523 biography that is not about life: "A writer's biography is in his twists of language" (Brodsky 1986: 3). Brodsky defies the idea of the conventional "developmental"biography that served as a model for Anderson.2 on Mon. and its main vehicle-speaking both literallyand metaphoriThe wanderingof a Greekportico into the latitudeof cally-is translation. is on its own and can both conditionand ignore the existence. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Brodsky writes in the essay dedicated to one of his favorite poets. thereafter. consciousness (1986:3) "Artof estrangement" became a dissident art. his autobiography was in the twist of a foreign language. Moreover. This classical poetics.96. The latter evokes Leningradian-Saint Petersburgian imperial facades.:139)10 "Civilization" in Brodsky is not merely a canon but a way of translation and transmission of memory. He seeks a different temporality and a logic that does not conform to calendar chronology or conventional developmental narratives. Since Brodsky's autobiographical writings are largely about the autobiography of consciousness and the art of estrangement.252. The Greek portico is reinvented by the "allUnion homeless" poet. however. who once was a "little Jewish boy with a heart full of iambic pentameters. and Auden among them. or Third Rome and its "eternal"classical poetics. For an examination of Brodsky's metaphor of exile as a poetic palimpsest see Bethea 1994 and Loseff and Polukhina 199o. From the outset. in Brodsky it is an empire a First. This content downloaded from 146. in Brodsky's case. but a wandering structure. tundrais a translation. estrangement represented a resistance to sovietization. Osip Mandel'shtam. in Shklovsky. (Ibid. yet the ghost of that Soviet "material existence" that Brodsky ritually exorcises from his poetics leaves its traces throughout his oeuvre. they are closely linked to his essays on other poets Mandel'shtam. since his autobiographical essays were written in English." The former refers to Leningrad's interiorsits crowded communal apartments. There are two key architectural metaphors in Brodsky-the "room and a half" and the "Greek portico. If. The Marxist slogan shaped several generations of Soviet dissidents of alienation.the homeland was a factory. Osip Mandel'shtam: Civilization is the sum total of different culturesanimatedby a commonspiritual numerator.thatwhenI was aboutten or elevenit occurred was trueonly for conditionsconsciousness" that Marx'sdictumthat"existence as long as it takesconsciousness to acquirethe art of estrangement. Tsvetaeva. Second. It is linked to a lo. for instance. has a distinct local color. Brodskyreveals that his first significant memory is the discovery of the "art of estrangement": to me I remember." This Greek portico is not merely a classical foundation.

it makes a writer more conservative"(1988: 18). ForWalter Benjamin. for instance. It is the urge to be at home everywhere.This is hardly an antimodernist divorce of form and content but rather an affirmation of a certain cultural specificity that affects our understanding of what "form" is.."that is." writes Brodsky. like a snail in its shell. The only home a homeless postrevolutionary poet had was a poetic one. the preservation of an alternative space of cultural memory. Brodsky advances the somewhat paradoxical proposition that in Russia.252.This explains Brodsky'sdefensive attitudes toward what he calls "language of the street".. Mandel'shtam never wished to reconstruct this "world culture. The classical metaphors of the displaced modernist writers display various degrees of destruction. "Russian poetry has set an example of moral purity and firmness which to no small degree has been reflected in the preservation of the so called classical form without any damage to content" (1988: 143). "if only for purely ethnographic reasons. Like Shklovsky. Young Georg Lukacs repeats Novalis's notion whereby philosophy is "really a homesickness. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ruin. the search for lost classicism was strikingly prominent among modern writers and philosophers."slows down one's stylistic evolution... a nostalgia for a certain Greek Eden that cannot be rebuilt (Lukacs 1971:29).poetic language for him is not decorum but a foundation of his portable homeland. Brodsky's nostalgia pertains not only to the forms of Russian poetic classicism but also to the ways of reading and inhabiting literature. .524 Poetics Today 17:4 particular "nostalgia for world culture"-to use Mandel'shtam's termthat characterized Petersburg-Leningrad dissident poetry throughout the Soviet period. This content downloaded from 146." classical or traditional metric form should not be regarded merely as provincial atavism. those sacred cultural practices of literary resistance that were so dear to him in his youth. Nostalgia here is of a second type. Brodsky has his own imagined community of 11. many of whom came from assimilatedJewish backgrounds in countries far removed from classical civilization itself.1' At the turn of the century. It is as if the only homesickness they experienced was metaphorical-for the home that they and their countrymen never really had. but the historical ruin that preserves the layers of time. Russian poetic language was a survivalist mnemonic device. offering the dream of an alternative cosmopolitan transhistorical community where the poet does not feel claustrophobic or confined. It is defensively classical. the important thing was not the golden age of antiquity when the sky was starry and the temples were still intact. In Brodsky'sview. but only to evoke it" (ibid.2 on Mon.: 143). where classical metrics and stanzas were pillars of memory. "The exile. is not his metaphor. Omnea Mea mecum The poet carries his portable home made of Leningradian hexameter porto. the embodiment of imperfection and incompletion.96. In his view. it is this home that he guards like a patriotic vigilante. Brodsky's classical portico is of the Age of Empire.

"There.. Rebelling against the imposed collectivity of Soviet everyday life. they still retained their love for the non-existent (or existing only in their balding heads) thing called "civilization. there. the Classics of World Art were not merely regarded as foreign objects..252.. Giotto became known from reproductions. they thought that at least that world was like themselves."Hopelessly cut off from the rest of the world. particularly from the Polish or East German edition of the Classics of World Art. This wasn't. the works of Giotto and Mandel'shtam were not merely works of art but sacred fetishes of the imagined community." For them.96.2 on Mon. aura. Since virtually none of those Leningradian internal exiles was able to travel. Liberte. It is a kind of elegy to the postwar generation that made ethical choices "based not so much on immediate reality as on moral standards derived from fiction": Nobody knew literature and history better than these people. only better dressed.. Those books had a special status.Why does nobody add Culture?" (1988: 30) This is an eccentric community of 196os Leningradian "spiritual exiles" who nostalgically worship fictional "civilization" in their cramped communal kitchens. they were images of the other world framed by a Leningrad looking glass. but it is also rather claustrophobic. For these characters civilization meant more than daily bread and a nightly hug. This was the only generation of Russians that had found itself. for whom Giotto and Mandelshtam were more imperative than their own personal destinies. as it might seem. Having outgrown this imagined community. another lost generation. Mandel'shtam emerged from the yellowish pages of handwritten samizdat poems that were published very selectively in the early 1970s and immediately became the hottest items on the black market. Egalit6.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 525 Leningrad friends that he warmly evokes in his essay. Alexander Herzen (1986 [1865]) has insightfully remarked that for an exile historical time often stops at the moment of leaving the mother country.. the little world of the kitchen community might appear to be nostalgic or even endearingly heroic. inspiring mirages on the rippling surface of the Neva. and "Western" smell." They grin. holding glasses in their hands. nobody could write in Russian better than they. now they know that it is like others. In Brodsky's view. yet it appears that this uncompromising dream of aesthetic privacy has its foundations in that heroic dissident moment of the 1970S (Brodsky 1994: 466). I close my eyes and almost see them in their dilapidated kitchens. that moment forever remains the privileged point of departure. Fraternit6.. nobody despised our times more profoundly. Poorly dressed but somehow still elegant . As I write this. Although This content downloaded from 146. with ironic grimaces across their faces. carving extra dimensions in Brodsky's "room and a half. Yet. the poet is nonetheless frequently homesick. the poet is a private person par excellence. they created a community of their own. In retrospect. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

conducive to poetry. the This content downloaded from 146. Brodsky's poetic home rests on the nostalgic foundation of the Leningrad kitchen community and is adorned with Mandel'shtam's wandering "Greek portico in the latitude of tundra.526 PoeticsToday17:4 he was the same age as Dmitrii Prigov and other conceptualist poets. (1980:io8) Not only is the poet compared to a sheik. Brodsky appears to belong to a different poetic generation. One is safer for the everyday survival of a poet. only with a haremaltogether I haveswitchedEmpires.The empire is empire is empire with flashes of poetic insight and outbursts of nostalgia."always with a capital E.96. he is rather a nostalgic modernist. Analogy is one of Brodsky's favorite devices. Roman stoicism in Russian translation." a feature of exilic classicism. unfreedom is a fact of life (a strange poetic revision of Soviet Marxism. despite its global aspirations.2 on Mon. So where did the poet emigrate and how is the "other world" to which he came different from that "other world" that he imagined in the kichen communities of his youth? In "Lullaby of Cape Cod" Brodsky writes: Likea despoticSheik. in Brodsky's. That Leningradian intimacy in poetic intonation permeates Brodsky's Russian works. but both his old country and his adopted country are described as "Empires. the poet occasionally translates himself into the solemn rhythms of British and American modernists. It is precisely this nostalgic provincialism (in the best sense of the word) that makes it poetic. In the English versions of his poems this quality is lost. For him. he never places the poetic language within ironic question marks and does not offer us a theater of comic poetic impostors and graphomaniacs playing with cultural myths. The "eternal law" of the empire is internalized and naturalized. while the other used to be more hospitable to the survival of poetry. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in fact. variedand numerous.who can be untrue to his vast seraglioand multipledesires new. the empire is. In LessThanOnehe writes: "Aschool is a factory is a poem is a prison is academia is boredom. Imperial consciousness is part of the cultural baggage that the poet carries with him. There is no way to be exiled from the empire. The poet is not looking for a liberal republic of letters: like Shklovsky. Brodsky is not a postmodern poet. In Shklovsky's work Soviet life was equated with life itself.Brodsky is fascinated by unfreedom. His mode of modernist classicism has its own Leningradian local color. and the proverbial Russian fatalism). with flashes of panic" (1986: 17).252.

The fifth blank was. the embarrassment of origin is the acknowledgment of the first lie: The real history of consciousness starts with one's first lie. it seems to me that their art of estrangement is not sufficiently estranged from fundamental Russian cultural myths. The first one was a of the art of esawakenings discovery trangement. the hero can turn into a traitor."I was seven years old and knew very well that I was a Jew. This is a threat to the poet's survival but at the same time it ensures the quasi-religious prestige of culture. in his autobiographical text.. I happened to remember mine. it was also linguistic. Yet Brodsky's poetic "eternal return" to the classical labyrinths is also about a nonreturn to the poet's actual motherland. It was in a school library when I had to fill out an application for membership.. changing countries is easier than altering one's poetic style and system of aesthetic beliefs. (Brodsky 1986: 8) Indeed.96. of course. For Brodsky. Although the biographies of our two writers are quite different.252.2 on Mon. Brodsky's art of estrangement and his early em- This content downloaded from 146. It is no wonder that. you're in The Empire.and also the mutual dependency--of the tyrant and the poet. Brodsky naturalized the Russian and Soviet cultural duel. in the Soviet Union of the late 1940s and early 1950s. one quickly discovers that one has only awakened inside another dream: If suddenly you walk on grass turned stone and think its marble handsomer than green. I was ashamed of the word "Jew"itself-in Russianyevrei. or see at play a nymph and a faun that seem happier in bronze than in any dream let your walking stick fall from your weary hand. you might imagine yourself emerging on the other side of the extreme polarity. With a dubious glee she suggested that I go home and ask my parents. antiSemitism was not only popular and government sponsored. or of consciousness. In Brodsky's world if one dreams of waking up outside the empire.. If the first awakening of consciousness is seen as a revelation of artistic truth. (Brodsky 1994: 284) The Empire in Brodsky is laid out like a Borgesian labyrinth. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is a fate.regardless of its connotations. which is more an autobiography of consciousness than of life. Empire is not a choice. "nationality. but the polarities easily exchange roles. but I told the attendant that I didn't know. and the second was the embarrassment of national identity.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 527 laws of empire are equated with laws as such. my friend. The word Jew became virtually unprintable and enjoyed the status of a cultural obscenity. Brodsky records two formative prises de conscience. the executioner into a victim.

) The nomadic impulse.the Jewish tradition was simply unavailable. "'Scatter.252. he manages to remain faithful to the diasporic predicament. printed in thousands of copies by the established American poet. It comes as no surprise that Brodsky's most personal text. leaving the country was not an option [see Brodsky [1993: 64]. I want Maria Volpert and Alexander Brodsky to acquire to reality under a foreign code of conscience. The unpronounceable Russian word yevrei. lines are rails is a of "public transportation. He ponders the lessons of survivors and the reasons why so many Jews stayed in Nazi Germany despite all signs of disaster. I want English verbs of motion but resurrect describe their movements. and at least for a while they did"-these lines become the leitmotif of the essay (ibid. "In a Room and a Half. and exilic ritual offer another chance of escaping the fate of a passive victim on the grand historical scene of the crime. English grammar state may at least prove to be a better escape route from the chimneys of the This content downloaded from 146. unlike in Germany before 1939. (In Stalin's Russia.the switch to writing in English is not merely a poetic catastrophe signifying the loss of a mother tongue.96. Poetry is a vehicle for memory.It is a wandering ghost on the margins of their texts. For Brodsky. This won't them. Translation plays such an important role in his work. in the best possible circumstances. estrangement. it is not just a misfortune-it is also a cultural luxury. The diasporic Jew seeks not the promised land but only a temporary home.528 PoeticsToday17:4 barrassment of origins are interconnected. the margin of freedom whose width depends on the numbers of those who may be willing to read this. As for exile." dedicated to the memory of his parents.' said the Almighty to his chosen people. Nomadism and translation are key concepts in Brodsky's recent reflection on the fate of EuropeanJews in the twentieth century.shameful for a seven-year-old boy.2 on Mon.). is written in English -a language his parents did not know. when the Soviet government refused to grant the poet an entry visa to attend their funerals. It was composed shortly after their deaths in 1985. it haunted several generations of secular and assimilated Soviet Jews who sought neither traditional nor Zionist ways and for whom. Hence the art of estrangement offers a survival kit. but also a way of transferring and preserving cultural memory. Brodsky'sJew is a nomad. after the 1930S. Brodsky writes: I write this in English because I want to grant them a margin of freedom. is recovered (redeemed) in the English word Jew."and metaphor (from the Greek metaphorein) transfer of meanings. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The figure of the Jew in Brodsky is similar to that of Shklovsky. It seems that for Brodsky the art of nomadism is a commemoration of those for whom exile was unavailable (or inconceivable) -those who made the tragic mistake of putting down roots in Germany and preferrednot to take a chance and leave.

In Russian I am prepared to read. Modernist writers are not entirely cured of homesickness. blood is not the only foundation for imagining home and community. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 146.. writing this in this language is like doing those dishes. May English then house my dead.Joseph 1980 A Partof Speech (New York:Farrar. one's vocation is the poetics of unfreedom. Reviewof Books. Benedict on the Originand Spreadof Nationalism(LonReflections 1991 [1983] ImaginedCommunities: don: Verso). After all. 1988 "The Condition We Call Exile. Victor Doctrine 1981RussianFormalism: History. Erlich.as a Lifestyle Boym * Estrangement 529 crematorium than Russian.. of course. (New Haven.2 on Mon. 1986 Less Than One(New York: Farrar. ethnicity. as in the case of Shklovsky.Straus. 1994 Izbrannye (Moscow: Panorama). Lidiia stolom(Leningrad: Stovetskii pisatel'). write verses or letters.. Bethea. za pis'mennym 1989 Chelovek Herzen." New Republic. And as far as the latter is concerned. Foreign verbs of motion could be the only ways of transporting the ashes of familial memory. and Giroux). claustrophic rather than liberating. NobelPrize Speech stikhotvoreniia. English offers a better semblance of afterlife. References Anderson. Brodsky. CT: Yale University Press). It is condescending and presumes that the biography of a nation carries more weight than the biography of a writer and his or her alternative imagined community. One shouldn't ask writers-in-exile whether they plan to go back. and Giroux). one can no longer go back to monolinguistic existence. Once it is discovered. For Maria Volpert and Alexander Brodsky. a foreign language is like art--an alternative reality. save my very self. The exilic state has become familiar. Ginzburg. unless. a potential world. David andthe Creation 1994 JosephBrodsky of Exile (Princeton. When exiles return "back home" they occasionally discover that there is nothing homey back there and that one feels more at home in the comfortable exilic retreat that one has learned to inhabit. could be experienced as a second exile. Alexander v dvukh tomakh 1986 [1865] Sochineniia (Moscow: Mysl').96.Straus. maybe the only one there is. but conceived by it. but their "home" is impure in material and eclectic in style-be it a style of formalist baroque or Leningradian classicism. though. To return. and it is the experience of returning to the country of birth that might become defamiliarizing.252. (1986: 461) Some things could only be written in a foreign language. it's therapeutic. NJ: Princeton University Press). Nation. they are not lost in translation." New York 1993 "Profile of Clio.

Ferdinand in General edited by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. MI: Ardis). Poetics andAesthetics (London: St."in Steiner 1985.Victor (Moscow: Federatsiia)." New Formations This content downloaded from 146. Lukacs. Steiner." in Refractions: Essaysin Comparative Oxford University Press)." A Festschrift in Honorof Victor Glance: Erlich. Guy (Paris: Grasset). 1984 RussianFormalism: in RussianFormalism: A Retrospective 1985 "The Praxis of Irony in Viktor Shklovsky's tZoo. Richard 1977 "Victor Shklovsky and the Device of Ostensible Surrender.530 Poetics Today 17:4 Jankelevitch. Structure. 7 Apr 2014 01:01:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .252. Stewart. theCollection Narratives (Baltimore. Martin's). 17. Vladimir et la nostalgie 1974 L'Irreversible (Paris: Flammarion). Susan the Gigantic. Todorov.or.96. Striedter.Jurij and Value: RussianFormalism and CzechStructuralism ReconEvolution.Letters Journey: 1990 [1923] Sentimental Zoo ili pis'ma ne o liubvi]. David Country 1985 ThePast Is a Foreign (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Tzvetan 1985 "Poetic Language: The Russian Formalists. NY: Cornell University Press). of theMiniature. Georg 1971 The Theory of theNovel. MI: Ardis). by Wade Baskin (New York:McGraw-Hill). in 0 teoriiprozy 1977 [1926] ThirdFactory[Tret'iafabrika]. Scarpetta. 1972 Knigavtoraia de Saussure. Dialogism. 1989 Literary sidered (Cambridge. theSouvenir. and Schizophrenia. MA: Harvard University Press).translated by Anna Bostock (Cambridge: MIT Press). Levin. CT: Yale Center for International and Area Studies). and Valentina Polukhina. 1992 "Bilingualism. translated 1966 Course Linguistics. 1981Elogedu cosmopolitisme Sheldon. Mandel'shtam. Nadezhda (Paris:YMKA).2 on Mon. Loseff. 1984 OnLonging: MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). 1990 Brodsky's Lowenthal. Peter A Metapoetics (Ithaca."in Shklovsky 199o. Harry 62-81 (London: Literature. Love[Sentimental'noe puteshestvie: Not about Zoo.edited by Robert Louis Jackson and Stephen Rudy (New Haven. translated by Richard Sheldon (Ann Arbor. eds. translated by Richard Sheldon (Ann Arbor. 1929 "Iskusstvokak priem" [Art as a Device]. 1966 "Literature in Exile. Shklovsky. Lev.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful