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Domain, Range, and Period of the three main trigonometric functions: 1. sin(x) Domain: R = (, ) Range: [1, 1] Period: 2 2.

2. cos(x) Domain: R Range: [1, 1] Period: 2 3. tan(x) Domain: {x|x = Range: R Period: Domain, Range, and Denition of the three main inverse trigonometric functions: 1. sin1 (x) Domain: [1, 1] , ] Range: [ 2 2 Denition: = sin1 (x) means sin() = x when 1 x 1 and 2. cos1 (x) Domain: [1, 1] Range: [0, ] Denition: = cos1 (x) means cos() = x when 1 x 1 and 0 3. tan1 (x) Domain: R Range: ( , ) 2 2 Denition: = tan1 (x) means tan() = x when
2 2 2 + k , k = ..., 1, 0, 1, ...} = {x|x = ..., 32 , , , 3 , ...} 2 2 2

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I. sin(sin1 (x)) = x when 1 x 1. II. sin1 (sin(x)) = x when x . 2 2 Good I sin(sin1 (1/2)) = 1/2, since 1 1/2 1 Bad I sin(sin1 (1.8)) = undened, since 1.8 < 1 Good II: is in the right quadrant, and written correctly sin1 (sin ) = , since 5 5 2 5 2

Bad II: is in the right quadrant, but written incorrectly sin1 (sin 9 )=? 5

Now 95 is not between and , but it is in the right quadrant, namely quadrant 2 2 IV . To nd the correct angle, simply add or subtract 2 from the angle given until you get an angle in the range of sin1 (x). In this case, 95 2 = , so 5 9 1 sin (sin 5 ) = 5 .

Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant sin1 (sin 6 )=? 5

Here is actually in the wrong quadrant, so we need to ip it across the y axis and nd the associated angle in the right quadrant. You can just look at the picture and see that is the correct angle, so sin1 (sin 65 ) = . 5 5

I. cos(cos1 (x)) = x when 1 x 1. II. cos1 (cos(x)) = x when 0 x . Good I cos(cos1 (1/3)) = 1/3, since 1 1/3 1 Bad I cos(cos1 ( 3)) = undened, since 1 < 3

Good II: is in the right quadrant, and written correctly cos1 (cos 4 4 4 )= , since 0 5 5 5

Bad II: is in the right quadrant, but written incorrectly cos1 (cos 6 )=? 5

Now 65 is not between 0 and , but it is in the right quadrant, namely quadrant II . To nd the correct angle, simply add or subtract 2 from the angle given until + 2 = 45 , so you get an angle in the range of cos1 (x). In this case, 65 6 4 1 cos (cos 5 ) = 5 .

Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant cos1 (cos 6 )=? 5

Here is actually in the wrong quadrant, so we need to ip it across the x axis and nd the associated angle in the right quadrant. You can just look at the picture and see that 45 is the correct angle, so cos1 (cos 65 ) = 45 .

I. tan(tan1 (x)) = x when < x < . II. tan1 (tan(x)) = x when <x< . 2 2 Good I tan(tan1 (1000)) = 1000, since < 1000 < Bad I THERE IS NO BAD I FOR INVERSE TANGENT. Case I always works! NOTE: Now there are some serious discrepancies between Sin, Cos, and Tan. The way to think of this is that even if is not in the range of tan1 (x), it is always in the right quadrant. So there is only Good II and Bad II, no Worse II. That means the only thing that can go wrong is that the angle was not written correctly. Good II: is written correctly tan1 (tan Bad II: is written incorrectly tan1 (tan 6 )=? 5 ) = , since < < 5 5 2 5 2

Now 65 is not between and , so just like with the Bad II for Sin and Cos, I add 2 2 or subtract the period until I get an angle that is in the range of tan1 (x). For Sin and Cos, I add or subtract 2 because that is their period. For Tan, I add or subtract = , so tan1 (tan 65 )= . , the period of tan(x). Here 65 5 5

Worse II: is in the wrong quadrant THERE IS NO WORSE II FOR INVERSE TANGENT. Only Good II and Bad II.