THE EXPERIMENTAT METHOD

Is o syslemolic ond scientific opprooch to resecrch in which the reseorcher monipulotes one or more voriobles, ond controls ond meosures ony chonge in other voriobles.

Aim of Experimenlol Method Experiments ore done to be oble to predict phenomeno. Typicolly, on experiment cousotion. Chqrocferislics of experimenlql melhod o Comporison of groups a Monipulotion of the independent vorioble a Rondomizotion
Sleps
a a

is

constructed to find some kind of

ldentifying o reseorch problem Plonning on experimentol reseorch siudy a Conducting the experiment o Anolyzing ihe doio Writing the poper/presentotion describing the findings Types of voriobles 'r Independent voriobles - conditions or chorocteristics thot on experimenter monipulotes or controls Dependent voriobles - condilions or chorocteristics thoi oppeor, disoppeor, or chonge os the experimenter introduces, removes, or chonges independent voriobles o confounding voriobles - ospects of o study or somple thoi might influence the dependent vorioble ono wnose effeci moybe confused with the effect of ihe ind.pendent voriobre . Inierveningvoriobles e Exircneous voriobles ' Inleryening voriobles - is o hypolhelicol infernol siote thot is used to exploin relotionships between observed voriobles, such os independent ond depencient o Extrcneous vcrioble - ore vcricbles other thon thevoricbles. independent vorioble ihct moy beor ony effect on the behovior of the subject being studied. Melhods of conlrolling exlroneous voriobles r Removing the vorioble . Rondomizoiion

e r o

Moiching coses
Boloncing coses or group moiching
Anolysis of covorionce

Advonloges & Disqdvonloges of Experimenlol Reseorch 1. Experimentotion is o woy to goin insight into methods of instruction. 2' A perception exists thct informotion obtoined through scientific method 3, Scientific Method-Humon Construction ond Humon Error 4. Reseorcher does bring bios 1o the experimentotion 5. Scmples moy noi be representotive of o populotion. 6. The reseorcher hos control over the voriobles. Z. Artificiol results mcy result. 8. Groups in on experiment moy not be comporoote.

is

free of humon inconsistencies.

volidity. I 1. Experimentotion con be combined with olher reseorch methods to ensure rigor. I2. Polilicol pressure drives experimentolion ond forces unrelicble resurTS. Pre Experimentol Design Pre-experimentol deslgns ore so nomed becouse they follow bosic expenmentol steps

9. Even when rondomizorion of studenis is possibre, probrems crise. 10' When o humon populotion is involved, experimentol reseorch becomes concerned if behovior con be predicted with

.

THE ONE-SHOT CASE STUDY

Gool- to determine if the treotment hod ony effect on the outcome Wiihoul o comporison group, it is impossible io determine if the ouTcome scores ore ony higher thon they would hove been without the treotment. wiihout ony preiest scores, it is impossible to determine if ony chonge within the group itself

Subjects ore presented wiih some type of treotment, ond then outcome mecsure is opplied.

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ONE GROUP PRETEST POSTTEST STUDY

lnclusion of o pretesi to determine boseline scores we con now of leost stote whether c chonqe in ihe outcome or dependent vorioble is token ploce whcl we connot soy is if this chonge would hove occuned even without the opplicotion of the ireotment. . THE STATIC GROUP COMPARISON STUDY Attempts to moke up for the lock of o control group but folls short in relotion to showing if o chonge hos occurred. Does not include pre tesling ond therefore ony difference between the two groups priir to ihe study ore unknown. 1l,r PTcTURE SA RtcHT)

True Experimenlol Design

They employ both o control group ond o meons 1o meosure the chonge thot occurs in born groups

. Positest Equivolent Groups Studv Rondomizotion ond the comporison of both o conlrol ond on expenmentol group PrSs^t [4ui!d]nt Grorpi ore utilized in ihis E)t. iype of study. {}:D, while ihis is opproochlng the besi method, it folls short in its lock of o pretest Fr$esl Poin * Fsivatsni GmlF meosure. n s.( c1 Rondomizolion does well to mix subjects but it does not completely ec,(cl ossure us thoi this mix is truly creoling on equivolency belween the two groups. . Pretest-Posttest Equivolent Groups Study It is the most effective method but olso the most difficurt to perform Quosi-experimeni "Quosi" meons /lkeness or resembltng, so quosi-experiments shore chorocteristics of true experiments which seer interventions or ireotments. The key difference in this empiricol opprooch is the lock of rondom ossignment. Another unique element ofien involved in this experimentotion metbod is use of time series onolysis: interrupted ond nonintorrr rnlar]
Design of Quosi-experimenl l. ldentify the voriobles.

only reseorch method thot ccn odequctely meosure the couse ond effect relotionship

2. 3 4. 5' 6' o

The quosi-independent vcrioble will be the x_voricble. Grouping meons two or more groups such os o treotmeni group ond c control group. The predicted outcome is the dependent vorioble which is the y-vorioble. In o time series onolysis, the dependent vorioble is observed over time for cny chonges

thot moy toke ptoce. Once the voriobles hove been identified ond defined, o procedure should then be implemented ond group differences should be exomined.
They ore iypicclly eosier to set up thon true experimentol designs, it tokes r ruch less effort to study ond compore subiects or groups of subjects thol ore olreody noturolly orgonized thon lo hove io
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Advontoges

conduct rondom ossiqnment of

o o o

Utiliiing quosi-experimentol designs minimizes threots to externol volidity Since quosi-experiments ore noturol experiments, findings in one moy be opplied to other subjecls ond setiings, ollowing for some generclizotions to be mode oboui pooulotion. lt is efficient in longitudinol reseorch thot involves longer time periods which ccn be followed up in different environments.

Advonioges

Disodvonfoges o The control ollowed ihrough ihe monipulotion of the quosi-independeni voricble con leod io unnoturol circumstonces, olthough the dongers of ortificiolily ore considerobly less relotive to lrue experimenls o lt moy ollow studies to be more fecsible, but this olso poses mony chollenges for the invesiigotor in terms of internol volidity. o Becouse rondomizotion is obsent, some knowledge obout ihe doto con be opproximoted, but conclusions of cousol relotionships ore difficult to determine Focloriol Design o Foctoriol Designs ore designs used extensively in educoiionol reseorch, becouse essenliclly they ore the designs when two or more independeni voriobles ore included in the design. -,*x,I.rT.r:ip. o The term foctorrol is used to indicoie thoi oll possible combinotions of the foctors ore constoereo. o The bosic construciion of o fociorioi design is thot oll levels of eoch independeni vorioble ore token in combinotion with the levels of the other independent voriobles. o The design requires o minimum of two independent voriobles, with ot leosl two levels of eoch vcricble. O li involves two or more independent vcriobles, colled focfors, in o single design. o The number of different groups involved in o foctoriol design increoses very ropidly with the increose of the number of independent voriobles ond number of levels.

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Foctoriol design provides the economy of o single design rother thon seporcte designs for eoch of the independeni voriobles, ond it ollows the reseorcher to invesiigote lhe interoctions between the voriobles. O The fociorlol design, os well os simplifying the process ond moking reseorch cheoper, ollows mcny levels of onolysis. Disodvonloge O The moin disodvcntoge is ihe difficulty of experimenting with more thon two foctors, or monv levels. lt hos to be plcnned meticulously, os on error in one of the levels, or will jeopordize o greot omount of work
STATISTICAT TOOLS FOR DATA ANATYSIS

o

Stotistics- Mothemoticol science perloining to the collection, onolysis, interpretotion or explonotion, ond presentofion of Stotisticol methods con be used to summorize or descrlbe o collection of doto; ihis is cclied Descripfive Stofisllcs thct ore then used to drow inferences crhor ri tha nror-asc or populotion being studied; this is colled lnferenfiot

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Non-parametric - refers to (a function on a sample) whose interpretation does not depend on the population fitting any oarameterized distributions. ff you get it wrong you risk using on incorrect statistical procedure or you may use o less powerful procedure. Parametric
Assumed distribution Assumed variance

Non-parametric Any
Any

Normal Homogeneous
Ratio or Interval

Typical data
Data set relationships Usual central measure

Ordinal or Nominal Any Median Simplicity; Less affected by outliers

lndependent Mean
Can draw more conclusions

Benefits

lt is simply the placing of data into categories. Ordinal - Next up the list in terms of power of measurement. The data to be collected are to be arranged in rank. Interval - The standard survey rating scale. This means that the differences in the distance along the scale are definable in contrast to an ordinal scale where we can only talk about differences in order, not differences in the degree of order. Ratio scale - is the top level of measurement. The factor which clearly defines a ratio scale is that it has a true zero point. When to Use a lf your measurement scale is nominal or ordinal then you use NON-PARAMETRIC statistics. a lf you are using interval or ratio scales you use PARAMETRIC statistics.
Goal Type of Data

Level of Measurements Nominal -The lowest measurement level.

Measurement (from Gaussian Population)
Describe one group Compare one group

Rank, Score,

or Measurement {from Non- Gaussian

Population) Median, range Wilcoxon test Mann-Whitney test Wilcoxon test
Kruskal-Wallis test

Mean, SD

to

a hypothetical

One-sample f test Unpaired t test
Paired t test

value
Compare Compare

two unpaired groups two paired groups

Compare three or more

unmatched

One-way ANOVA

groups
Compare three or more

matched

Repeated-measures ANOVA

Friedman test

groups Quantify association between variables
ONE SAMPTE TTEST

two

Pearson correlation

Spearman correlation

One sample t-test is a statistical procedure that is used to know the mean difference between the sample and the known mean. value of the population t - -----:- 4t'i Unpaired two sample T Test .) The unpaired t methsd tests the null hypothesis that the population means related to two independen! random samples from an approximately normal distribution are equal.

o

E-u 4:

a

E(--- ---r)= -rl(-'r, --?r)'
.l ,:l

a-

- where x bar 1 and x bar 2 are the sample means, s2 is - ? the pooled sample variance, n1 and n2 are the sample sizes and t is a quantile with n1 + n2 - 2 degrees of freedom" The Paired f-test enables you to determine whether the means of paired samples are equal. The term paired means that there is a correspondence between observations from each population.

rza -'t- rr-

ANOVA (ANAIYSIS OF VARTANCE) a ANOVA is a general technique that can be used to test the hypothesis that the means among two or more groups are equal, under the assumption that the sampled populations are normally distributed.
PFARSON's CORREISTIO|{ COEFFICIEI{T

a a a

Used to test correlation {linear dependence} between two variables. tntergreted as -1 for negative linear correlation and +1 for positive linear correlation.

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SPEARMAN's CORRELAT|ON COEFfICIENT it assesses how well an arbitrary function could describe the relationship between two variables, without making any other assumptions about the particular nature of the relationship between the variables

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...Psychologicaltest...Anecdotal 97-104) Records...Autobiographies...Checklist, Score cards, COIIECTION Rating scales, etc 105-1271 CHARACHTERIS'T,G OF SATISFACTORY CASE STDY-Continuity 2. fNTERVfEW (pp 729-1,37) 3. OBSERVATION (pp 139-154) 9 Completeness of data Validity of data Confidential recording Scientific synthesis 4. TESTS (pp 155-160) TYPES SAMPIING (pp 163-177) NATUREOFDESCRIPTIVE V ExploratoryCaseStudy, ExplanatoryCaseStudy, Descriptive Case Study lt describes and interprets "what is". V I lt is concerned with conditions of relationships that ADVANTAGES exist,' practices that prevail; beliefs, processes that V Case Study provides a great amount of description going on; effects that are being felt, trends that and detail. are are developing. V Case Study present opportunities that researchers could not otherwise have. PURPOSE DISADVANTAGES V Determines and describes the way things are V diffi€ult to generalize V Compares how sub-groups view issues and topics BASIC STEPS V there is considerable room in case studies for "researcher bias" to creep in V Statement ofthe problem SURVEY METHOD V ldentification of information needed to solve the problem V a study used to measure existing phenomenon without inquiring why it exists Selection or development of instruments for V gathering the information V a fact-finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation V ldentification of target population and determination of sampling procedure V is used to collect demographic data about people PURPOSE V Deslgn of procedure for information colfection g Collection of information V To describe the characteristics, behaviors or opinions of a particular population V Analysis of information predictions NATURE V Generalizations and/or . Information is collected from a group of people. DISADVANTAGES . The information is collected through asking 1. What caused the prevailing conditions is not emphasized. questions. 2. Low response rates are common the findings without the TYPES 3. There are difficulties in interpreting 1. Cross-sectional survey data representing non-respondents'views
COLLECTION

of DATA (pp INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA 1. QUESTIONNAIRE (pp

4.Unc|ear/ambiguousitems.Researcherneedstodeve|op>
recording forms that collect the data objectively and

reliably

2. Longitudinal survey

5.Becausetherearenovariab|esmanipu|ated,thereisno> 6.Theresultsofobservationa|studiesarenotrepeatab|e>
which changes over time, and so there can be no replication of the experiment and reviewing of the results.
CASE

way to statistically analyze the results. Many scientists regard STEPS this type of study as very unreliable and 'unscientific'.

time.

Bias lssues represented, whether the unit is an individual, a Administrative lssues family, a social group, an institution, or a community Planning and survey design V PURPOSE- to identify causal factors to some Data collection abnormality or deficiency and to find and recommend Data analysis or developmental procedures a solution, a treatment, 10. Reporting METHOD- has been employed to describe a plan of organizing ADVANTAGES and presenting instructional materials in law, medicine, social work, and even in education, psychology, and sociology, where 1. lt is not labor intensive. as a rule, the case materials used are the product of case study 2. Methodology is not complex. 3. Small sample size can be used. investigation 4. lt reveals what is typical, average or normal. NEEDED INFORMATION- ldentifying data... ldentification and 5. lts results may be used for prediction. statement of the problem...Health and development 6. lt makes possible for the formulation of generalizations. history...Social history...Family history...Educational 7. lt reveals problems. History....Economic history...Psychological history 8. The instruments for gathering the data are easy to STEPS lN ORGANIZTNG AND CONDUCTING- Problem A case determine. study should address a problem

STUDY V is an extensive and intensive investigation

of a

unit

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. 8. 9.

Population lssues Sampling lssues Question lssues Content lssues

g

lmplementation-Theirnplementationdiscusseshow
the problem was

DISADVANTAGES

addressed

V

addressed V INSTRUMENTS-

Result- Result discusses the outcomes of how problem was

the

1. 2. 3.

Retrieval problem of the questionnaire fielded. Perceptions are not always reliable. Questionnaire may not be able to address the problem due to inadequacy of information.

Interview...Observation...Questionnaire

a. b. c. d. e.

Usually large

Survey population group given

Case study

Limited variables in the life of the

surveyeo
Cause-effect relationship are not

emphasis
Representativenessisimportant
Present conditions

a. b. c. d. e.

Usually one person, small community All the variables in the life are included Finding the causes is always a part Representativeness is not important From birth or origin or even the future

r Satisfaction measurements r Product features desired r Medical errors r Patient outcomes r Viewer/readership nterests r Assess program effectiveness r Customer acquisition FOLOW-UP STUDY 3. Difficulty in reading the text U employed when you intend to investigate the 4. Relevant data may not be available subsequent development of participants after a DEVEIOPEMTNAI STUDY specified treatment or condition V These are studies executed to describe what the present relationships are among variables in a given V evaluation of success of a specific topic g May lead to the improvement of the curriculum, situation and to account for changes occurring in guidance services, administrative procedures, etc. those relationship as function of time. g These are studies intended to get reliable information DOCUMENT ANAtYsls g also known as content analysis about a group of people over a tong period of time. g the study involves gathering of information by V These are often employed in connection with studies examining records and documents that deal specifically with aspects of human growth. e is usually undertaken to supplement the information pURpOSE the case study researcher acquires V lt is done to discover origin, direction, rate, trend, wPtS OF DOCUMENTS pattern, limit and decline of growth with factors 1. prototypical documents affecting it. 2. docurnents of record IMPORTANCE 3. Books These studies are important to education because... 4. canonical documents 1. They are needed to know how human beings grow 5. transactional documents and develop, and hoe they differ at various ages. 6. non-prototypical documents 2. They aid administrators in projecting future 7. digital documents requirements of the educational institution for WAYS OF CLASSIFYING DOCUMENTS needed facilities, staff and so forth. 7. primary, secondary and tertiary documents GROWTH STUDY 2. public and private documents V These studies give knowledge of what to expect at 3. solicited and unsolicited documents different age levels and understanding of CHARAC OF DOCUMENTS ANALYSIS developmental sequences within patterns. L' Objective 2. Systematic 3. qualitative/quantitative V These are done to understand growth in cognitive, STEPS offective and psychomotor domoins. 1. Recognize the problem. 2. Form the hypothesis. 3. LONGITUDINAL Research and assess the documents. 4. Design the These are studies that gather data over an extended period of study.s. Develop the instrument. 6. Collect the data. time where successive measures are taken at different Doints in 7. Analyze the data. 8. Make conclusions. 9. Make time from the same respondents. recommendations. STEPS APPLICATIONS Design of procedure for Information Collection 'J.. Determining the ideas of great authors and thinkers 1. Samples of subjects of a particular age are measured 2. Determining the contents of the textbooks and other on specific characteristics. instructional materials 2. Further measurements are made on the same 3. 3. Determining the achievements of students subjects at predetermined intervals until the subjects 4. 4. Determining the objectives and practices of reach the set age limit. different school and school systems 3. 3. By getting the mean (average) values for each time ADVANTAGES interval, growth patterns are established for the 1. Both quantitative and qualitative sample in general. 2. Provides historical/cultural insights 4. ffien, tables and graphs are built 3. An unobtrusive means of analyzing interactions to reflect growth changes, rate and direction of it. 4. Provides insight to complex models of human thought 5. 4. Differences in the sample are studied by and language used investigating and analyzing how subjects varied in DISADVANATGES measurements at each of the time intervals. L. Time consuminC ADVANTAGES, DtS and FEAUTRES (see photocopy) 2. Prone to biases
i

r-;it
I

CROSS

g

SECTIONAL
from respondents at one or more

These are Growth Studies that collects

information point in time.

is, when scores on one variable covary with scores on another variable. CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

WHEN TO 1. We select the aspect of development to be 2. We choice different respondents that are within the range of age and are in the same age 3. Take measures on each of these respondents to

USE

studied. decided increments. reveal

S I g V V V V V

Quantitative index of how well we are able to predict one set of scores based on another set of scores positive correlation - as a value of one measure increases, the value of the other measure also
increases

DIRECTION OF CORRELATIONAL COEFFICIENT

growth patterns and other

Note: This step also includes the Background check (retrospective) and the Current Development {prospective) 4. Data Analysis -Analyze these patterns and data to know the rate of development, direction of it, limit and the decline of growth and the factors affecting it. (ADVANTAGES, DIS and FEAUTRES (see photocopy)

data

negative correlation

-

value of one measure

increaset the value ofthe other measure decreases
MAGNITUDE OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 0 indicates there is no correlation +1.00 indicates a perfect positive correlation -1.00 indicates a perfect negative correlation values between 0-1.00 indicate less ability to

TREND U These are studies that examine recorded

predictive relationships of intermediate strength

data establish patterns ofchange occurred in the past, know what the present situation reveals, and on basis of these data, to predict what will be likely

to

TYPES

to the to

Naturalistic Observation

- Involves observing and recording the variables of interest in the environment without interference or manipulation by the

occur in the

future.

exPerimenter
Survey Method and Questionnaires A random sample of participants completes a survey, test, or questionnaire that relates to the variables of interest V Archival Research Performed by analyzing studies conducted by other researches or by looking at historical patient records
DISADVANTAGES

STEPS 1. Examine 2. 3.

recorded data to establish patterns of change or trends. Conduct two or more cross-sectional studies about the selected factors at more than one point in time to make comparisons over time Based on these data, predict what will be likely to occur in the future.

V -

RESEARCHES
Researches that are concern

in.-. in

e the V

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

Predicting the success of a project or program in

future.
Predicting the growth of students' population

cannot prove one variable causes a change in another variable a correlation between two variables can arise because both variables are related to some third variable that affects both the variable in questions
useful to study the uncontrollable or unmanipulative variables quick and relatively inexpensive may be able to use readily available data

schools

ADVANTAGES

3. Predicting the growth in participation of from certain sub-groups in certain 4. Predicting the development in the

affective and psychomotor
EXAMPLES

individuals fields. cognitive, domains of learners.

P V V

The Growing Participation of Women in the Intercollegiate Sports Programs. The lncreased in Teachers Enrolled in the Graduate School Programs. 3. Trends in the Methods in Financial Supports

of

public Education. 4. 4. Trends in the Aptitude and Achievement test in the Philippines. (FEATURES, ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE (see photocopy)
CORRELATIONAL

V V
PURPOSE

A study determining which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest.

Correlational studies only tells us that there is a relationship between two variables

Explanatory Studies Clarify our understanding of important phenomena through the identification of relationships among variables S Prediction Studies - A second purpose ofcorrelational research is prediction
THE RELATIONSHIP IN CORRELATION

V -

V

A correlation exists when two different measures of the same people, event, or things vary together, that

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