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Ht m vi nh Ht nhng hot ho t ch cht ch chc nng lignans trong ph phng ng ch chng b bnh t tt

PGS.TS. Dng Thanh Lim B mn Dinh d dng ng Tr Tr ng ng i h hc c Nng Lm

Tn khoa h hc c, phn lo loi i th thc v v t


Gii (regnum): Plantae

Ngnh (divisio): Magnoliophyta Lp (class): B (familia): Chi (genus) Loi (species): Magnoliopsida Pedaliaceae Sesamum S. indicum

Bn B n ch cht h ha a h hc c c ca a c cc c d dc c ch cht trong h ht t m

Ht m
Lignan Compounds
Nhng hp cht Lignan

Nh Nh ng h hp ch cht lignan quan trng trong ht m


Cu trc ca sesamin v cc dn xut c hot hot t tnh nh sinh h hc c
O O O OH O O Decomposition O Sesamolin O O O O O O O O O Sesamol

Ant-oxidant

OH O O Sesamin O Sesaminol O Rearrangement O

Ant-oxidant

Sc k ca Sesamol v sesamolin

Sesamin, mt trong nhng lignans c tm thy nhiu nht trong ht v du m, kim sot huyt p cao. Nhng nh nghin cu i loan thng bo trong trong tp ch Journal of Hypertension thng 12 nm 2004.
sesamin c th kim sot ci thin huyt p bi n kch thch t bo sn xut oxide nitric, t y c kh nng c ch s sn xut ET-1 (ET-1 production) lm gim huyt p i vi bnh cao huyt p. Sesamin cn lm gim thp mc lipid mu, cn c tc dng nh l cht chng oxy ha, v c chc nng iu ha khng th.

nh h hng c ca a sesamin ln qu trnh trnh -oxy h ha a v s t tng h hp ch cht b bo o gan


Cc loi enzyme trong gan Mc hot ng (tng, gim) Kch K ch th thch ch m mt s s enzyme l lm m tng qu trnh trnh -oxy h ha a ch cht b bo o
Palmitoyl-CoA Mitochondrial and peroxisomal Carnitine palmitoyltransferase Acyl-CoA oxidase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 2,4 dienoyl-CoA reductase 3, 2-enoyl-CoA isomerase Tng Tng Tng Tng Tng Tng Tng

Lm L m gi gim m ho hot t ng c ca a m mt s s enzyme t tng h hp ch cht b bo o (Lipogenic activity)


Fatty acid synthase ATP-citrate lyase L-Pyruvate kinase Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Gim Gim Gim Gim

Kh nng chng oxy ha c ch qu trnh hnh thnh gc t do peroxit cht bo ca mt s dn xut sesamin Vitamin E

% Lipid b oxy ha (

Phn ng hydroxid sesamolin bin thnh sesaminol c kh nng ch chng oxy h ha a cao

Sesaminol c nng lc chng oxy ha tt hn sesamolin, do sesaminol c tc dng anti-cancer

Kh nng ch chng oxy h ha a c ca a h ht t m (Sesame Antioxidants)


Ht m l ngun cung cp cht chng oxy ha di giu: Trong ht m rt di giu lignan nh l sesamin, sesaminol, sesamolinol, sesamolin, pinoresinol, vitamin E. y l nhng ngun chng oxy ha rt mnh, v cng l cht chng ung th t nhin c tim lc nht. Ngoi ra cn c lecithin, acid bo myristic, v linoleate. Hort.Purdue.edu/newcrop Lignan l hn hp cc cht chng oxy ha tan trong cht bo gm c: sesaminol, sesamolinol v sesamolin. Nhng cht ny ngn chn s hnh thnh cc gc t do v trung ha cc gc t c do trong c th. c bit l ht m en c cha cc cht chng oxy ha cao hn ht m nu v trng. ift.confex.com

Ht H t m tr tr ng ng, , m nu v m en

Ht m

Lignan trong h ht t m cng cng c trong m mt s s loi loi du n kh khc c, c c coi l ch ch t ch chng oxy h ha a
Lignan trong ht m c hot ng chng oxy ha mnh v ko di hn lignan trong nhng du n khc, kt qu nghin cu t n . Lignan du m c n nh chng oxy ha hn nhng loi du n thc vt khc. V vy du m c tim nng chng oxy ha cao, s l loi du n c s dng trong cng ngh thc phm ngy cng nhiu trn th gii trong tng lai. edible oil; S phi trn du m vi nhng du n khc c a thch s lm tng kh nng chng oxy ha ca du ln nhiu ln. l ngun du n c tim nng ln trong tng lai. Antioxidant. Du thc vt phi hp vi du m s thay th cho du thc vt c bo qun bng cht chng oxy ha nhn to.
wrote the authors in the journal Food Chemistry.

Nh Nh ng Lignan trong h ht t m nh l my my tng l l c ch ch ng oxy h ha a cho Vitamin E t t nhin


S pht hin lignan c cp bn quyn, m ra hng s dng lignan ca ht m lm tng ng k kh nng chng oxy ha ca -tocopherol. Lignan trong du m c coi nh my tng th chng oxy ha cho cc cht chng oxy ha t nhin, cho 2 loi vitamin chng oxy ha trong c th: Vitamin E v vitamin C. Nhng nghin cu trn ngi cho thy khi kt hp -tocopherol vi lignan trong ht m lm tng nng lc chng oxy ha ln 25% nhiu hn hn hp cc tocopherol (-tocopherol/tocotrienols). Da trn gc t do hnh thnh khi t chc m b vim nhim, ngi ta thy rng tocotrienol l cht chng oxy ha c tm nng nht. c hn hp chng oxy ha mnh, c gi thnh thp, ngi ta phi hp -tocopherol vi du m cng cho hiu qu chng oxy ha rt cao. S phi hp Gamma E Tocopherol vi lignan ca ht m c hiu lc chng oxy ha ko di hn, mnh hn, nhng gi thnh thp hn nhiu so vi tocotrienol.

S TNG TC CA CC CHT CHNG OXY HA Vitamin E, E, C v Se vi s chng oxyha sinh hc trong c th

NAD(P)H + H+

NAD(P)-

-Lipoic Acid, GSSG

The Thiol Cycle

DHLA, GSH

Se
(glutathionine peroxidase)

Ascorbate ROOH ROH ROO RO


Peroxyl Radicals

Vitamin E Radical

The Ascorbyl Vitamin C Radical Cycle

The Vitamin E Cycle


Tocopherols Tocotrienols
Lipid Peroxidation

Adapted from Packer, L. In, Vitamin C in Health and Disease. Eds. L.Packer & J. Fuchs. 1997. Pp 95-107. MF9665:114967

Nhng cng tr Nh trnh nh nghin c cu v kh nng ch chng oxy h ha a c ca a h ht t m c c cng b b:


Sesamolin c ch s peroxid lipid (qu trnh hnh thnh gc t do). Nutrition.org Ht m c nh hng khc nhau trn kh nng chng oxy ha. PubMed PubMed Hot lc chng oxy ha ca sesaminol loi b cht bo trong iu kin stress. Nutrition.org PubMed Sesamin lm gim prostaglandin gy vim. PubMed PubMed Sesame nn cao hot lc chng oxy ha ca Vitamin E. Lignans ca ht m lm tit kim Vitamin E, phng nga s tn thng Vitamin E. PubMed DHA (t du c) lm gim mc Vitamin E, du m ngc li lm tng. PubMed DHA (t du c) d to ra th peroxid lipid (g61c t do), lm tn thng t bo hng cu. Ngc li du m lm gim s tn thng cht bo v t bo hng cu, tng mc Vitamin E. PubMed Sesamin lm gim ph hy Vitamin E. PubMed Du m bo v gamma-tocopherol (c bit n rt c ch cho Vitamin E). Nhng lignan trong ht m lm gim thp mc cholesterol, lignan trong ht lanh li khng. PubMed Du m l ci mi lm tng mc gamma tocopherol. Gamma tocophorol cng l mt dng mt ca Vitamin E c hot tnh chng oxy ha cao. PubMed Sesaminol c tc ng chng oxy ha mnh hn alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E). PubMed PubMed PubMed PubMed PubMed PubMed PubMed PubMed

Nhng cng tr Nh trnh nh nghin c cu kh khc c v v tc tc d dng ng ca c a lignan trong h ht t m n n trao i ch cht b bo o Lignans ca ht m ci thin qu trnh tao i cht bo trong gan. PubMed PubMed Sesamin c th kim sot bnh cao huyt p, v phng cc mu ng gy t qu. PubMed PubMed Lignan nh l cht pinoresinol c th ng vai t quan trng trong khu phn n ci thin sc khe ca ngi dn a trng hi ( y ngi ta dng du live, nhng cn ngun tt hn l du m). ClinChem.org PubMed

Du m chng r rm m n nng trn da v ung th da


L ngun chng oxy ha rt mnh bo v t bo da, nhng nh khoa hc Nht Bn chng minh rng du m c kh nng bo v chng li cc gc t do hnh thnh do bc x mt tri tc ng ln t bo da (ng dng vo du v kem xoa). Nhm cc nh nghin cu ch ra rng: Khu phn n giu sesamin gip ch cho c th trnh c thng tn trn da, nh ung th da, hoc do tia cc tm UV gy h hi da. HPSchmid.com H Ht t m c tc tc d dng ng ph phng ng ung th da: Du m c ch s sinh trng ca t bo ung th hc t c tnh, n to ra ci cht apotosis i vi t bo ung th da. ScienceDirect.com

Du m ch ch a v vt s sm m da, da, vt b bng ng


Du m c dng lm thuc m gim i vt sm da, cha mau lnh vt thng trn da. Thuc m bi trn da c tn thng mi l MEBO c cha du m v dc tho. MEBO l loi thuc m bo v da theo kinh nghim c truyn. PubMed Du m cng gip cha lnh vt thng mn tnh, ung th da. IJPS.org Du m cn c s dng cha vt bng trn da. Ayurveda.com.au

Cc hp cht lignan v s chuyn ha bi vi sinh vt ng rut to to th thnh nh Enterolactone


SecoisoSecoisolariciresinol
OH O OH HO

Cht trung gian Enterodiol H vi sinh vt ng rut

O OH

O O

Matairesinol

O HO

Enterolactone H vi sinh vt ng rut


O

O HO O

O OH

O O HO HO

OH

Hydroxymatairesinol
OH

Anti-oxidant AntiAntiAnti -Cancer

Enterolactone (ENL)
ENL l mt loi lignan ca ng vt c v c h tun hon s khai. N c s dng nh l biomarker nguyn thy cho s hp thu lignan thc vt. Trn ngi c s khc nhau ng k trong kh nng trao i cht nhng lignan thc vt nh: Khc nhau v thi gian i qua ng tiu ha Khc nhau v thnh phn vi sinh vt ng rut Khc nhau do s dng cc loi khng sinh

Enterolactone C ch ch hot hot ng ti tim nng ENL trong ph phng ng ch chng b bnh ung th
Hot ng nh l hormon
Gim thp t l 2OHE (2-hydroxyestrone)/16OHE (16-hydroxyestrone) C kh nng gn kt vi SHBG (Sex hormone-binding globulin) c ch hormon, x l ung th v, bung trng: Aromatase inhibition

Hot ng nh l cht chng oxy ha (Antioxidant) Hot ng nh l cht chng vim (Anti-inflammatory) Chng s tng nhanh chng t bo (Anti-Proliferative)/ Khi u cho apotosis (Pro-Apoptoic)
Link Apotosis

Hm lng ENL cao = gi gim m th thp nguy c ung th v


Kiu nghin cu
Case-control

Nhm, N
Ca ung th v Pre-mp =68 Post-mp =126 i chng = 208 Ca ung th v Pre-mp = 220 i chng = 237 Nhng u nang (Papapaple cysts), n= 258

Kt qu
Tng quan nghch c ngha gia ENL huyt thanh vi nguy c ung th v trong c hai trng hp: tin mn kinh v sau mn kinh (Pre-, -post-mp)

Ti liu tham kho


Pietinen et al., Cancer Epidemiol Biom Prev 2001;10:339-44.

Case-control

Piller, et al., Eur J Nguy c ung th v giai on tin mn kinh gim vi s tng ln ENL Cancer Prevent 2006;15:225-32. huyt tng, nhng khng phi genistein. C tng quan ENL gia huyt thanh v dch trong u nang. C tng quan nghch gia ENL trong dch u nang v EGF (Epidermal growth factor)- yu t tng trng. Ung th biu hin m tnh vi ER, s c bo v tt mc trn 20 nmol/L ENL Boccardo et al., Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003;79:17-23.

Cohort study

Cohort study

381 trng hp 381 i chng

Olsen et al., Cancer Epidem Biom Prev 2004;13:2084-9.

ENL v vi s sc kh khe e tim m mch ch


ENL trong huyt thanh lm gim F2-isoprostane huyt tng (nh gi mc peroxid ha lipid) Atherosclerosis 2002;160:4659. Mc ENL huyt thanh c tng quan nghch vi nguy c t vong do bnh tim mch v mch vnh tim. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:10991104.

Cch ng trng m lc tr bng

Cnh ng m trc khi thu hoch

Sn xut du m en

Thu hoch c gii ha cy m nc ngoi

My M y t tch ch h ht t m

Black sesame oil Extraction Yellow sesame oil Extraction

So s snh nh v phn b b s sn sn xu xut ht h t m trn th th gi gi i


Cng ngh p du TG

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