Crowell
Chem 6A Final Exam Equation Sheet
Constants and Conversions:
Speed of light in vacuum: c = 2.99792 x 10
8
m/s Plancks Constant: h = 6.62607 x 10
34
Js
Elementary Charge: e = 1.60218 x 10
19
C Electron Mass: m
e
= 9.10938 x 10
31
kg
Proton Mass: m
p
= 1.67262 x 10
27
kg Neutron Mass: m
n
= 1.67493 x 10
27
kg
Avogadros #: N
A
= 6.02214 x 10
23
mol
1
Atomic Mass Unit: 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10
27
kg
Boltzmanns Constant: k
B
or k = 1.38066 x 10
23
J/K Acceleration of free fall: g = 9.80665 m/s
2
Molar Volume, Ideal Gas (@273.15 K, 1 atm): V
m
= 22.414 L Std Atmosphere: 1 atm = 101 325 Pa
Molar Gas Constant: R = 8.31447 J/Kmol = 0.0820574 Latm/Kmol = 0.0831447 Lbar/Kmol
1
( 300 ) / 208 E at K kT hc cm
= =
Rydberg Constant: R
H
= 1.096776 x 10
7
m
1
Conversions:
Mass: 1 metric ton = 10
3
kg, 1 ton (US) = 2000 lb, 1 kg = 2.20462 lb, 1 lb = 16 oz = 453.5924 g
Volume: 1L = 1 dm
3
= 10
3
cm
3
= 10
3
m
3
= 1.057 qt, 1 cm
3
= 1 mL, 1 m
3
= 35.3 ft
3
, 1 gal = 3.78541 L
Length: 1 cm = 10
2
m, 1 m = 10
6
m, 1 nm = 10
9
m, 1 = 10
10
m, 1 pm = 10
12
m, 1 in = 2.54 cm
Pressure: 1 atm = 101,325 Pa, 1 bar = 10
5
Pa = 10
5
N/m
2
, 1 atm = 1.01325 bar, 0.98692 atm = 1 bar,
1 atm = 760 torr, 1 torr = 133.32 Pa, 1 psi = 6895 Pa = 6.895 kPa
Energy: 1 erg = 10
7
J, 1 eV = 1.60218 x 10
19
J, 1 eV = 96.485 kJ/mol, 1 cm
1
= 1.98645 x 10
23
J,
1 cal = 4.184 J, 1 Latm = 101.325 J, 1 J = 1 VC, 1 J = 1 Pam
3
= 1 Nm = 1 kgm
2
/s
2
Power: 1 hp = 745.7 W = 745.7 J/s, 1 kWh = 3600 kJ; Dipole: 1 D = 1 Debye = 3.33564 x 10
30
Cm
Chem 6A Equation Sheet (Final Exam) 2 Prof. Crowell
Soluble Ionic Compounds:
1. All common compounds of Group 1A ions (Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, etc.) & the ammonium ion (NH
4
+
) are soluble.
2. All common nitrates (NO
3

), acetates (C
2
H
3
O
2

), and most perchlorates (ClO
4

) are soluble.
3. All common chlorides (Cl

), bromides (Br

), and iodides (I

) are soluble, except those of Ag
+
, Pb
2+
, Cu
+
,
and Hg
2
2+
. All common fluorides (F

) are soluble, except those of Pb
2+
and Group 2A.
4. All common sulfates (SO
4
2
) are soluble, except those of Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+
, Ag
+
, and Pb
2+
.
Insoluble Ionic Compounds:
1. All common metal hydroxides (M
n+
+ OH

) are insoluble, except those of Group 1A (Li
+
, Na
+
, K
+
, etc.)
and the larger members of Group 2A (i.e. Ca
2+
and larger).
2. All common carbonates (CO
3
2
) & phosphates (PO
4
3
) are insoluble, except those of Group 1A & NH
4
+
.
3. All common sulfides (S
2
) are insoluble, except those of Group 1A, Group 2A, and NH
4
+
.
Strong Acids: HBr, HCl, HI, HNO
3
, H
2
SO
4
, H
2
SeO
4
, HClO
4
, HClO
3
Strong Bases: NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)
2
, Sr(OH)
2
, Ba(OH)
2
, Group I & II oxides (MO) & amides (MNH
2
)
Rules for Assigning an Oxidation Number (O.N.)
1. For an atom in its elemental form (Na, O
2
, Cl
2
, etc.): O.N. =0
2. For a monatomic ion: O.N. =ion charge
3. The sum of O.N. values for the atoms in a molecule or formula unit of a compound equals zero. The sum of
O.N. values for the atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the ions charge.
Rules for Specific Atoms or Periodic Groups:
1. For Group 1A(1): O.N. =+1 in all compounds
2. For Group 2A(2): O.N. =+2 in all compounds
3. For hydrogen (H): O.N. =+1 in combination with nonmetals, O.N. =1 in combination with metals & B.
4. For fluorine (F): O.N. =1 in all compounds.
5. For oxygen (O): O.N. =1 in peroxides, O.N. =2 in all other compounds (except with F).
6. For Group 7A(17): O.N. =1 in combination w/ metals, nonmetals (except O), & halogens lower in the group.
Work =force x distance =Nm =kgm
2
/s
2
=J , Expansion work = P
ex
AV =Pam
3
=J
E =internal energy =KE +PE =system capacity to do work =total energy storage of a system;
Ideal Gas Law: PV nRT = First Law of Thermodynamics: E q w A = + Expansion work against a constant
external pressure:
ext
w P V = A Work of reversible isothermal expansion of an ideal gas: ln( / )
f i
w nRT V V =
m s
Heat Capacity: C = ; Molar Heat Capacity: C = ; Specific Heat Capacity: C =
q q q
T n T m T A A A
At Constant Volume (i.e. using a bomb calorimeter): AE =q +w =q P
ex
AV =q =q
V
At Constant Pressure (i.e. using a coffeecup calorimeter): AH =AE +A(PV) =q P
ex
AV +P
ex
AV =q
P
(constant volume) ; (constant pressure)
V P
V P
q q E H
C C C C
T T T T
A A
= = = = = =
A A A A
Enthalpy:  A state function that is a measure of the energy (heat) associated with a constant pressure process.
Enthalpy = , ( ) H E PV H E PV = + A = A + A STP =1 atm, 273.15 K
For an Ideal Gas: AH =AE +A(PV) =AE +A(nRT) =AE +nR AT (at const #moles)
, , P m V m
C C R = +
AE (atom) =AE
translation
AE (molecule) =AE
translation
+AE
rotation
+ AE
vibration
Enthalpy of Phase Changes:
, , , , , ,
; ;
fus m liq m solid m vap m gas m liq m
H H H H H H A = A =
, , , , , subl m gas m solid m fus m vap m
H H H H H A = = A + A
When a process is reversed:
, ,
reverse m forward m
H H A = A
AH standard state enthalpy change () Reference State
AH
f
standard enthalpy of formation; AH
f
for an element in its standard state is zero.
The change in enthalpy for a given reaction is: ( ) (reactants)
rxn p f R f
p R
H n H products n H A = A A
Chem 6A Equation Sheet (Final Exam) 3 Prof. Crowell
2 2
2
v
; Einstein Equation: ; ;
2 2
1
Photoelectric effect: v ; DeBroglie's Postulate: ;
2 v
Atomic Line Spectra:
photon total photons photons
o
m p hc
E KE E h c E N E
m
h h
KE m h h h
p m
v v
v v v
= = = = = = =
= = u = = =
7 1
H 1 H 2 2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
18
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
1 1 1
= R , n > n , R 1.096776 10
 = 2.18 10 13.6
;
photon final initial H
final initial
x m
n n
Z Z Z Z Z Z
E E E E hc R x J eV
n n n n n n
=
`
)
= A = = =
` ` `
) )
)
2
2
2 2
* *
Schrdinger Equation: ( ) ( ) ; Hamiltonian Operator:
2
1D Probability Density: (x) = (x) (x) ; 1D Probability: (x) = (x) (x) ;
n n n
H x E x H V
m
d dx
t
= = V +
+ = wavefunction = electronic motion; +
2
= probability distribution = orbital
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
Particle in a Box: 1D: 1, 2, 3, ; In 3D: ;
8 8
y z x
n
x y z
n n n n h h
n E E
mL m L L L
 
= = = + + 

\ .
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: xp , Et ;
4 4
h h
t t
> >
2 2
18
2 2
Hydrogenlike 1 electron atoms: , 13.605 2.18 10
1 2 3, , 1, 1 0 1 ; # radial nodes 1, angular nodes;
Radial Distribution function: (
nl l,m
l
nl
Z Z
( r,, ) R (r) Y ( , ) E eV x J
n n
n = , , l < n m = l, l + , l , l n l l
P
= = =
=
2
2
1 1
) ; has ; has ;
2 2
nl spin s spin s
r R (r) r m m o 
= = = = =
2
2
1
Many electron atom: 13.6 , ,
n
nl
i eff nl nl
i
(Z )
= eV E Z Z Z
n
c o
=
= = =
1 1
: ( ) ( ) , 0; : ( ) ( ), IE Atom g ion g e E IE EA Atom g e ion g E EA
+
+ A = > + A =
Rules for forming cations: Main Group last in, first out; Transition Metals first in, first out.
1 2 12
, ,
reactants products
Coulomb's Law: / , BornHaber Cycle: 0
Lattice Enthalpy: ( ) ( ),
Heats of Reaction using Bond Enthalpy :
Al
LE cycle
rxn LE
rxn BE react BE prod
E k Q Q r H H
Ionic Compound s Gaseous Ions g H H
H H H
= A A =
A = A
A = A A
, ,
bonds broken bonds formed
ternatively: ;
Bond Enthalpy ( ) Bond Order (1 / Bond Length) IR Frequency
rxn BE react BE prod
BE
H H H
H
A = A A
A
Electronegativity: ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself;
Electronegativity:
1
0.5 ( ); ;
AB AA BB
IE EA E E E _ + A = A A FONClBrISCH
Lewis Dot Structures: T
val
= N
i
V
i
i
(charge state); N
extra
= T
val
2N
single
; F
C
= V
i
N
NBE
N
bonds
Bond Order (BO) = the number of bonding electron pairs shared by two atoms
Bond Order = (number of shared electron pairs linking atoms X & Y) / (number of XY links)
VSEPR Shape Molecular formula Related Shapes
Linear AX
2
Trigonal planar AX
3
AX
2
E
Tetrahedral AX
4
AX
3
E, AX
2
E
2
Trigonal bipyramidal AX
5
AX
4
E, AX
3
E
2
, AX
2
E
3
Octahedral AX
6
AX
5
E, AX
4
E
2
Dipole Moment: = Q r ; 1 Debye = 3.336 x 10
30
Coulombmeter
Paramagnetism: Atoms, Molecules or Ions with an unpaired electron or electrons
Diamagnetism: Atoms, Molecules, or Ions in which all electrons are paired.
1
1
Infrared Spectroscopy: ;
vib
vib
E hc
E h hc cm
hc
v v v
= = = = = =