The French in North Africa

26/07/2007 07:30:00

French Revolution • did away with the monarchy • killed the king and most of the aristocracy • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821) • started as a second lieutenant • rose through the ranks very rapidly until he took control of the gov’t in a coup in 1799 • very nationalistic, despised the monarchy, although he became emperor • he believed the idea of meritocracy. Rising through the ranks on your own merits • First Consul of the Republic • Emperor of the French • uniform code of law for all the places under his command o striking and inventive for its time • he believed in the declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen o the code insured freedom, trial by jury, legal framework for commerce, contract law. o revolutionized European legal history • centralized gov’t o local prefects that reported on the local issues to the gov’t • eliminated tax exemption • centralized system of schools, universities, and military schools • creates a national bank • believes his reach would go farther than just France • Napoleon dreams of rebuilding the roman empire with a new foundation • Empire Builder o at 29 years old Napoleon leads an expedition into Egypt (1798)

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

 land bridge between Europe and Asia  fertile lands around De Nile  by taking over Egypt he could rival the Ottoman Empire defeats the Mamluks  about 40,000 soldiers  he brought the soldiers and a small army of scholars  167 savants (scholars, engineers, architects) Insitut de ‘Egypte  established a center in Cairo for them to work  tasked them with some questions  is Egypt a good place to build windmills?, etc  biggest part was documenting Egypt Description de l’Egypte  A few years later they come out with a book with pictures and texts showing Egypt and everything they could Liberator  he thought he was coming to Egypt to liberate them  did not go as planned for him  had success in the battle of the pyramids Resistance  he left his army behind in Egypt  they have no way back get back to Europe after he takes the ships Battle of Trafalgar  Most important naval battle for the French  not a single British ship was sunk while the French were completely destroyed Height of Napoleonic Empire 1811 – 1812  empire starts to crumble

  •

tried to attack the Russians Prussian, British and others organize and crush napoleon in 1814

Nationalism o Peninsular War o Guerrillas  from the French war Guerre  local resistors in Spain and Portugal that allied with the British to defeat the French o encouraged popular nationalism o he laid the foundation for nationalist strike o the foundation of the modern foundation state Comparing Napoleon to other Empires of this time • Similarities o Sanctioned by god, but not religious o roman precedent o tries to conquer previous roman empires • Differences o unlike the British, he’s not mainly focused on the trade o emphasis on the knowledge o centered around one man o focused on Europe French Colonies during the 19th century • tropical dependencies • settlement colonies o European occupation o white dominions  neo-Britons (Canada and such)

whites made most of the pop. native pop. has been killed or died from disease they move toward self gov’t; toward parliamentary rule the French learned from the united states and have more freedom for Canada o contested settler colonies  Algeria, Kenya, Hawaii, new Zealand  kind of a conglomerate of the two: tropical and settlement colonies  temperate climates, low disease and attracted European settlers  there were still large indigenous populations and both groups live together and clash over property Algeria o Part of the ottoman empire since the 16th century o local rulers were very important o the deys (term to local leaders) o French conquest during 1827 and 1830  naval blockade  bombarding from the waters  and finally seize the cities o Charles X (Bourbon) overthrown by Louis-Philippe  Charles X had decided to capture Algeria as a distraction for the people of the current problems at home o Louis-Philippe does not pull back the troops in Algeria and says that ruling north Africa was essential o Annexation (1834)  Algeria is annexed and followed by larger amount of French troops o After some debate they decide that they need to colonize it, not just hold it militarily o the French employ brutal tactics o then a large amount of settlers move to Algeria    

26/07/2007 07:30:00

26/07/2007 07:30:00