Concrete Deterioration Mechanisms MSD Sewage Makeup Beam failure discussion Probable causes of beam failure

Concrete Deterioration Mechanisms:
Reinforced concrete consists of steel bars placed in a mix of water, cement, sand and aggregate. he process of concrete hardening is the formation h!drated compounds from cement components and water. hese h!drated compounds form a gel network to gi"e the dr! concrete its strength. he components of the dried cement paste are "arious silicates of calcium, aluminum and iron. hese silicates are cr!stalline structures of calcium oxides with silica, alumina, ferrites and water of cr!stalli#ation. $n mixing cement with water the calcium oxide h!drates to form calcium h!droxide which forms a gel structure to make the dried concrete hard and rigid. Depending on% the ingredients &ualit!, water cement ratio, compaction and other factors the cured concrete is porous to "ar!ing degrees. 'lso reinforced concrete beams de"elop micro cracks on the tension side, which is normal and is taken into consideration while these members are designed. he hardened cement paste is permeable to water and the permeabilit! depends on the porosit! of the concrete. he pores of the concrete ha"e calcium h!droxide as a constituent of the pore wall material. Calcium h!droxide dissol"es appreciabl! in water and will be leached b! water into the exterior surface. he rate of leaching depends on how easil! the water can get into the pores and saturate them. $nce the pores are filled, calcium h!droxide will mo"e from the interior to the outside b! diffusion due to its concentration difference from inside to outside. (f there is a constant flow of water past the concrete it will lose the calcium h!droxide. 's the calcium h!droxide is leached out% the calcium silicates, calcium aluminates start h!drol!#ing and the calcium h!droxide formed in these reactions also gets leached out. he extent of concrete degradation b! this mechanism depends on the porosit! of concrete and the connecti"it! of the pores to the exterior, as also the constant flow of water past the concrete. he calcium h!droxide of the concrete can also react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate. he calcium carbonate formed is precipitated as a solid in the pores of the concrete. he "olume of calcium carbonate formed is greater than the calcium h!droxide from which it was formed and thus creates pressures in pores and forms a dense deposit. (n the absence of more carbon dioxide than was re&uired to precipitate the calcium carbonate, the concrete is protected from further damage b! water ingress b! the sealing action of the precipitated calcium carbonate. (f there is a"ailable excess carbon dioxide o"er that was re&uired to precipitate the calcium carbonate, then the calcium carbonate will be con"erted to the calcium bicarbonate, which dissol"es in water and gets leached awa!. So the deleterious effect of carbon

magnesium or ammonia react with the concrete*s calcium h!droxide. molecules of water of cr!stalli#ation. $ne of these rubber blobs was interesting enough in si#e and shape to ha"e its photograph published in the Courier /ournal. 'nother important cr!stal called etteringite that precipitates. from minerals with which it gets into contact. Most waters contain carbon dioxide which comes from either the atmosphere.dioxide depends on its a"ailabilit! relati"e to the calcium h!droxide in the cement. (n sewage water the sulfates occurs because of the sulfur content of the treated organic matter being con"erted to sulfates especiall! that of ammonia. MSD had found s!nthetic rubber compounds in the influent to its treatment plant. calcium h!droxide or lime stone to bring their p. So the water coming in contact with the bio)roughing tower concrete would be rich in carbon dioxide and can damage it b! the abo"e mentioned mechanism. to neutral or slightl! alkaline range. his process step introduces a lot of calcium chloride which one would not find in the regular municipal sewage. Calcium chloride a "er! common deicer has been found to form chloroalminate cr!stals which could breakup the concrete due to "olumetric changes brought about b! the cr!stalli#ation process. . his cr!stal is about + times more "oluminous than the solid it replaces in concrete hence creates excessi"e destructi"e pressures. hus we see b! what has forgone. he effluent from these are re&uired to be treated b! an alkali like. b! the biological acti"it! of plant and animal matter in the water. potassium. hese precipitates are formed when soluble sulfates like that of sodium. 'lso in the past. that sewage is a "er! demanding material and has enough components that could attack and disintegrate concrete. (t is also likel! that these streams ma! contain sulfates from these operations. which in turn had clogged the pipe lines. he carbon dioxide from biological acti"it!. e&uipment and had caused operational problems. hese industries are in"ol"ed in processes that generate h!drochloric acid as a b!) product of their operations. caustic soda. is especiall! so in sewage treatment facilities where the organic matter is bio)oxidi#ed into carbon dioxide. his situation is further complicated at the Morris -oreman treatment plant because it also treats industrial effluent from the rubber town plants. Certain components of the concrete can react with sulfate and precipitate calcium sulfate in the form of g!psum. he "olume of g!psum is greater than the material from which it is formed and so creates pressure which disintegrates the concrete and starts the crumbling process. is the complex salt of tri)calcium aluminate and calcium sulfate with +. sodium carbonate. Most waters contain sulfates.

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