The Age of High Imperialism

31/07/2007 07:31:00

Empires on Display • Great Exhibition of 1851 o The Crystal Palace  Massive structure of steel and glass  In the middle of Hyde Park, in the middle of London o Huge trade show o Over 14,000 exhibits, over 100,000 objects on display o About 6.2 million people visited o Queen Victoria went 34 times to the exhibit  proud of exhibit and her reign • the exhibits became a regular thing on the western empires • National Millenial Exhibition o Hungarian exhibit o designed to show the world that Hungary was a modern country o they were in a position between the west and east  they wanted to show they were leaning toward the west o displayed an imperial ideology  particularly interested in placing into display their treatment of other nationalities o the highlight of the display was when all the different societies walk down with their national garbs. • this exhibitions where the showcases of the western European modern world

the processes and the fruits of the empires they wanted to have a contrast between the developed west and the undeveloped rest • between the pax Britannica the British looked at the world as their warehouse and their market place o 1815 and 1870s o great diversity of colonies  white dominions like Canada  conquest territories and India  Indian affairs had its own office in the metropole o it was effectively without rivals A new era • Emergence of Rivals o the 1870s start the era of high imperialism  global depression  new imperialism in the British sense o building of navy  Germany and France o start to expand their empires where Britain used to be the only traders o British and Russian fight for Afghanistan o the French become involved in indo-china o recent unified countries like Germany were interested in establishing a colony in china, whether formally or informally • Industrial Competitors

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o New empires start to rival the British and their workshop of the world mentality o Germany started slowly, but once it picked up, it jumped dramatically o The British empire dropped about 50% from their height of industrialism Shift in nature and peace of Imperial Acquisition o Very aggressive empire building o British feel that they have to take over other lands, because otherwise some other nation will do so.  They reluctantly take over Egypt o Benjamin Disraeli, Crystal Palace speech (1872)  He does not like the liberals, calls them anti-imperialist o William Gladstone  Leader of the more cautious side. o Egypt  Instability in Egypt was threatening the trade canal of Egypt  Gladstone won the election, but he felt that he had to keep control of the canal, so they take over Egypt o The Scramble for Africa  European leaders got together in a conference and split Africa among themselves  they drew arbitrary boarders  there was gold and diamonds  mostly about gaining lands away from other imperial powers  some African involvement, but only on the local end  By 1900 western powers partitioned almost all of Africa among themselves

 only two countries are left to Africans Imperial Ideologies o supreme confidence and insecurity in the other o Jingoism  originated from music halls by Jingoes  feverish nationalism  extremely patriotic stance (seen in a bad sense)  evidence of confidence  national pride intertwined with imperial pride o imperial advertising  high point in consumerism  extensive advertising, packaging  advertisers knew that Imperialism sold o Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (1897) (60th anniversary of her empire)  All the prime ministers from the dominions went to London to mark her jubilee  troops from all over the empire came to see her  Kipling writes a poem in which he believes that the British should not be too sure about their power (Recessional) o Race  Enlightenment  18th century had been characterized with some respect for the races of other nations • noble savages in Australia

Monogenesis • A theory of the 18th century that human kind had emerged from one source • they were capable of progress  Perfectibility • The idea that humans could achieve a higher state o civilization • it wasn't about themselves it was about the situation they were in • if you took somebody from Africa to London they could become an Englishmen  Philanthropic Humanitarianism • Africans were brothers and could be remade into valuable Christian subjects  Trusteeship • The British had a responsibility to protect vulnerable non-European people The age of race as seen through the age of Enlightenment is changed during the 1900s (Social Darwinism and scientific racism) Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism  Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) • proposed the world was eternally changing • he did not say anything about people  Others use the term Social Darwinism • race was given a new meaning • in 17th and 18th century race just meant different • by the 19th century race was now the difference, not the environment  they blamed race for them being inferior and could not become proper men like whites 

important to keep in mind that race consciousness is not inherit  it changes over time and is learned  race has become a way to self-identification  a way for whites to differentiate from others, and those to differentiate from whites Questioning Imperialism • a lot of public debate within advocates of Empires, however, they would all say that Britain should stay as an imperial power • Now there are people that are questioning whether the British should be an empire • at this point the colonial wars are becoming more visible, the general public is starting to change their views • J.A. Hobson, Imperialism, A Study o one of the first critics of empires o author of several dozen books, journalist, economist and book writer o opposes the war o Southern African War (Boer War)  Dutch and British are fighting for control of south Africa  highly controversial war  they were fighting European colonizers o The Pro-Boers  Irish nationals that supported the Boers 

31/07/2007 07:31:00

31/07/2007 07:31:00