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Empires on Display • Great Exhibition of 1851 o The Crystal Palace Massive structure of steel and glass In the middle of Hyde Park, in the middle of London o Huge trade show o Over 14,000 exhibits, over 100,000 objects on display o About 6.2 million people visited o Queen Victoria went 34 times to the exhibit proud of exhibit and her reign • the exhibits became a regular thing on the western empires • National Millenial Exhibition o Hungarian exhibit o designed to show the world that Hungary was a modern country o they were in a position between the west and east they wanted to show they were leaning toward the west o displayed an imperial ideology particularly interested in placing into display their treatment of other nationalities o the highlight of the display was when all the different societies walk down with their national garbs. • this exhibitions where the showcases of the western European modern world
the processes and the fruits of the empires they wanted to have a contrast between the developed west and the undeveloped rest • between the pax Britannica the British looked at the world as their warehouse and their market place o 1815 and 1870s o great diversity of colonies white dominions like Canada conquest territories and India Indian affairs had its own office in the metropole o it was effectively without rivals A new era • Emergence of Rivals o the 1870s start the era of high imperialism global depression new imperialism in the British sense o building of navy Germany and France o start to expand their empires where Britain used to be the only traders o British and Russian fight for Afghanistan o the French become involved in indo-china o recent unified countries like Germany were interested in establishing a colony in china, whether formally or informally • Industrial Competitors
o New empires start to rival the British and their workshop of the world mentality o Germany started slowly, but once it picked up, it jumped dramatically o The British empire dropped about 50% from their height of industrialism Shift in nature and peace of Imperial Acquisition o Very aggressive empire building o British feel that they have to take over other lands, because otherwise some other nation will do so. They reluctantly take over Egypt o Benjamin Disraeli, Crystal Palace speech (1872) He does not like the liberals, calls them anti-imperialist o William Gladstone Leader of the more cautious side. o Egypt Instability in Egypt was threatening the trade canal of Egypt Gladstone won the election, but he felt that he had to keep control of the canal, so they take over Egypt o The Scramble for Africa European leaders got together in a conference and split Africa among themselves they drew arbitrary boarders there was gold and diamonds mostly about gaining lands away from other imperial powers some African involvement, but only on the local end By 1900 western powers partitioned almost all of Africa among themselves
only two countries are left to Africans Imperial Ideologies o supreme confidence and insecurity in the other o Jingoism originated from music halls by Jingoes feverish nationalism extremely patriotic stance (seen in a bad sense) evidence of confidence national pride intertwined with imperial pride o imperial advertising high point in consumerism extensive advertising, packaging advertisers knew that Imperialism sold o Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (1897) (60th anniversary of her empire) All the prime ministers from the dominions went to London to mark her jubilee troops from all over the empire came to see her Kipling writes a poem in which he believes that the British should not be too sure about their power (Recessional) o Race Enlightenment 18th century had been characterized with some respect for the races of other nations • noble savages in Australia
Monogenesis • A theory of the 18th century that human kind had emerged from one source • they were capable of progress Perfectibility • The idea that humans could achieve a higher state o civilization • it wasn't about themselves it was about the situation they were in • if you took somebody from Africa to London they could become an Englishmen Philanthropic Humanitarianism • Africans were brothers and could be remade into valuable Christian subjects Trusteeship • The British had a responsibility to protect vulnerable non-European people The age of race as seen through the age of Enlightenment is changed during the 1900s (Social Darwinism and scientific racism) Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) • proposed the world was eternally changing • he did not say anything about people Others use the term Social Darwinism • race was given a new meaning • in 17th and 18th century race just meant different • by the 19th century race was now the difference, not the environment they blamed race for them being inferior and could not become proper men like whites
important to keep in mind that race consciousness is not inherit it changes over time and is learned race has become a way to self-identification a way for whites to differentiate from others, and those to differentiate from whites Questioning Imperialism • a lot of public debate within advocates of Empires, however, they would all say that Britain should stay as an imperial power • Now there are people that are questioning whether the British should be an empire • at this point the colonial wars are becoming more visible, the general public is starting to change their views • J.A. Hobson, Imperialism, A Study o one of the first critics of empires o author of several dozen books, journalist, economist and book writer o opposes the war o Southern African War (Boer War) Dutch and British are fighting for control of south Africa highly controversial war they were fighting European colonizers o The Pro-Boers Irish nationals that supported the Boers