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# UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DEL NORTE FACULTAD DE INGENIERA Y CIENCIAS GEOLGICAS Departamento de Ingeniera Metalrgica y Minas

Assignment 1

## Advance Metallurgical Kinetic Dr. Yousef Ghorbani

Antofagasta, Chile

## 1. Give two examples for mechanism of a chemical reaction.

Example (a): The global reaction is: 2NO(g) + F2(g) 2NOF(g) The first step of reaction occurs when one molecule of NO molecule. Step 1: NO(g) + F2(g) NOF(g) + F(g) After this, a molecule of NOF(g) is formed to react with F(g) and obtain as a product one molecule of NOF(g). Step 2: NO(g) + Fe(g) NOF(g) Therefore, both reactions represent the mechanism of a chemical reaction.
(g)

strikes with a Fe

Example (b): The global reaction is: NO2(g) + CO(g) NO(g) + CO2(g) The first step of reaction occurs when one molecule of NO 2 (g) strikes with a NO2 molecule. Step 1: NO2(g) + NO2(g) NO(g) + NO3(g) After this, a molecule of NO3(g) is formed to react with CO(g) and obtain as a product one molecule of NO2(g) more CO2 (g) Step 2: NO3(g) + CO(g) NO2(g) + CO2 (g) Therefore, both reactions represent the mechanism of a chemical reaction.
(g)

2. Determine average rate Reaction: Table 1: Time (s) 2 8 To determine the average rate, I can use this equation: R = [ I- ] / t R = -( 0,00101 0,00169 ) / ( 8 2 ) R = - (- 6,8 10-4 )/ 6 R = 1,33 x 10-4 [M/s] So, the average rate for this reaction between 2 and 8 seconds is 1,33 x 10 -4 [M/s] [I-] (M) 0,00169 0,00101 I- + ClO- Cl- + IO

3. Determine average rate of next reaction The initial concentration of NO2 is 0,0100 mol/L and its concentrate after 150 s is 0,0055 mol/L. What are the average rates of this reaction during the first 150 s and during the second 150 s? Reaction: 2NO2(g) 2NO(g) + O2(g)

The equation to solve this problems is: R = - (1/2)*[C]/t R1 = -(1/2) * (0,0055-0,0100) / (150 0) R1= 1,5 x 10-5 [M/s] The same method is used to determine R2: R2 = -(1/2) * ([C] 0,0055) / (300 -150) As you can see, is impossible determine R2, because I need to know the reactant final concentration. It can be inferred according to the information in the problem

that R1 > R2 because the concentration of reactant is lower than the initial in the first 150 s. So, the average rate between 150 300 s is less than rate in the first 150 seconds.

4. Instant rate Consider the reaction of phenolphthalein vs time as you can see in the table 2. Table 2
Time (s) 0 10,5 22,3 35,7 51,1 69,3 91,6 120,4 160,9 230,3 299,6 350,7 391,2 Concentration (M) 0,00500 0,00450 0,00400 0,00350 0,00300 0,00250 0,00200 0,00150 0,00100 0,00050 0,00025 0,00015 0,00010

0.006 0.005

Concentration (M)

## 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 0 100 200

y = 0.005e-0.01x R = 1

## 300 Time (s)

400

500

Series1

Expon. (Series1)

The equation of this reaction is: [C] = 0,005 * e (-0,01*x) R = d[C] / dt R = -0,01* x * 0,005* e(-0,01*x) R = -0,01 * 0,005 * e(-0,01 * 51,1) R = -2,99*10-5 [M/s]

5. Instant rate According with next chemical reaction: Br2(aq) + HCOOH(aq) 2Br-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + CO2(g) From the data shown in Table 3, graph and obtain the instantaneous rate at time 100, 200 and 300 s. Compare with the values given by the teacher in class.

Table 3
Time (s) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Concentration (M) 0,012 0,0101 0,00846 0,0071 0,00596 0,005 0,0042 0,00353 0,00296

0.014 0.012 Concentration (M) 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Series1 Poly. (Series1) 300 400 500 y = 4E-08x2 - 4E-05x + 0.0119 R = 0.9995

The equation of this reaction is: [Br2] = 410-8x2 410-5x + 0,0119 R = d[Br2] / dt R = 2 *4 *10-8 *x 4 * 10-5 Finally, the result for the 100, 200 and 300 seconds are: R (100 s) = -3,2 * 10 -5 (M/s) R (200 s) = -2,4 * 10 -5 (M/s) R (300 s) = - 1,6 * 10 -5 (M/s)