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A critical discussion concerning evaluation in Physical Education in second level schools of UK

Janua y !"# !$1$

Physical Education Evaluation EVALUATION OF PH !I"AL E#U"ATION IN UK !"HOOL!

Physical Education % PE has to &' '(a d'd as on' o) th' *illa s o) school 'ducation and (iv's su**o t to th' old * ov' & +a sound ,ind in a sound &ody+- A * o*' ly *ac'd cu iculu, and its '))'ctiv' i,*l','ntation can h'l* to st 'n(th'n and condition a child# inc 'as' th' ,'ntal and *hysical )itn'ss and inc 'as' th' sta,ina ./i 0# !$$$1- Cont a y to co,,on &'li')# PE is not a&out &ody&uildin( o tu nin( *a tici*ants into 2,uscula hun0s3- It is )i ,ly &'li'v'd that th' *hysical conditionin( that a child in school und' (o's 4ould hav' a t'llin( '))'ct on its )utu ' and lay th' )oundation )o a con)id'nt# )it and a(il' adult 4ho could *' )o , 4'll acad',ically and * o)'ssionally .Tal&ot# 1""51- Un)o tunat'ly# sinc' PE is not '(a d'd as on' o) th' 'valuation o *assin( su&6'cts in school '7a,s# stud'nts# th'i *a 'nts and th' school

,ana(','nt ta0' it li(htly- As a 'sult# PE do's not ('t th' '8ui 'd su**o t and th' 'ss'ntial &ud('ta y allocations and PE t'ach' s do not ('t su))ici'nt t ainin( and 'co(nition- Th' 'sult is that so,' child 'n ',' (' ) o, school in o&'s' and un)it &odi's that a ' not ca*a&l' to ta0' th' st 'ss and 4'a o) * o)'ssional liv's .9acPhail# !$$:1- This *a*' *' )o ,s a c itical discussion a&out th' 'valuation o) PE in s'cond l'v'l U/ schools# 4ith ')' 'nc' to th' cu 'nt cu iculu,Th' a ticl' 4ould '7a,in' th' advanta('s and disadvanta('s o) PE and th' *olicy as*'cts 'lat'd to PE-

$rief History of PE in UK Ho**' .!$$$1 not's )i st national *olicy on *hysical 'ducation 4as d a)t'd in 1";; and call'd th' Sylla&us o) Physical T ainin( )o Schools- Th' sylla&us 4as a,'nd'd and u*( ad'd ov' th' y'a s a )'4 ti,'s and 4' had th' +Plannin( th' P o( a,,'< *hysical 'ducation in * i,a y school = H9SO+ in 1"": and so on until 4' no4 hav' th' lat'st on' 'l'as'd in !$$>-

Physical Education Evaluation

Th' autho not's that in th' 'a ly P ' ?o ld ?a II y'a s# *hysical 'ducation 'c'iv'd hi(h i,*o tanc'- @oth (i ls and &oys 4' ' '7*'ct'd to &' )it and 'ady to &'co,' soldi' as and 4h'n @ itain n''d'd th', and ,o ' than ! to ; hou s o) *hysical 'ducation and d ill 4as i,*a t'd to stud'nts daily- A)t' ?o ld ?a II# th' int' 'st in PE ( adually d'clin'd and class's 4' ' 'duc'd to on' o t4o hou s *' 4''0-

"urrent "urriculu% of PE Acco din( to P'nn'y .1"":1# in U/# USA and ,any oth' *a ts o) th' 4o ld# th' n''ds o) &usin'ss and indust y a ' s''n as ,o ' i,*o tant and th' only (oals o) schoolin(- Th' ' is an inc 'asin( * 'ssu ' to ,a0' 'ducation 'l'vant to indust y n''ds so that stud'nts 4ho ( aduat' can &' 'adily a&so &'d into th' indust y 4ith th' l'ast t ainin(- Acad',icians la,'nt at this * 'c'd'nc' (iv'n to th' n''ds and int' 'sts o) ca*ital accu,ulation and 'cono,y ath' than th' all= ound d'v'lo*,'nt o) child 'n- To ','dy this (a*# Th' Auali)ications and Cu iculu, Autho ity o) U/ has int oduc'd th' n'4 National Cu iculu, ) o, !$$> and th' *u&lication has a s'*a at' s'ction on *hysical 'ducation .8ca# !$$>1- Th' o&6'ctiv's o) th' cu iculu, a ' to d'v'lo* a (ood an(' o) a&iliti's and s0ills that 4ould allo4 th' child to us' st at'(i's# tactics and co,*ositional id'as )o succ'ss)ul *' )o ,anc'- Th' id'a is to ,a0' child 'n thin0# ta0' d'cisions and act- Th' cu iculu, is &as'd on c' tain 0'y conc'*ts that hav' to &' d'v'lo*'d and d''*'n'd- Th' conc'*ts a '< co,*'t'nc'# *' )o ,anc'# c 'ativity and h'althy activ' li)'styl's- A nu,&' o) 0'y s0ills and * oc'ss's 4ould &' d'v'lo*'d and th'y a '< d'v'lo*in( s0ills in *hysical activityB ,a0in( and a**lyin( d'cisionsB d'v'lo*in( *hysical and ,'ntal ca*acityB 'valuatin( and i,* ovin( and ,a0in( in)o ,'d choic's a&out h'althy activ' li)'styl's- Th' ' a ' di))' 'nt l'v'ls )o attain,'nt ta ('ts# ) o, l'v'l C to l'v'l 5- Each l'v'l has di))' 'nt s0ill l'v'ls

Physical Education Evaluation

that hav' to &' co,&in'd and a**li'd and c' tain advanc'd s0ills that hav' to &' d'v'lo*'dCa*'l .!$$;1 has * o*os'd th' )ollo4in( ai,s )o PE-

Figure 1. Aims and Objectives of Physical Education (Capel !""#$

Th' ACA docu,'nt consid' s th' a(' o) child 'n and has ) a,'d di))' 'nt 0'y sta('s and c' tain '7*'ctations ) o, no ,al child 'n at 'ach 0'y sta('- Th' ' is 0'y sta(' 1# th' child is

Physical Education Evaluation

'7*'ct'd to sho4 c' tain s0ills in danc' and (a,'s 4hil' in 0'y sta(' !# '7*'ctations a ' )o (a,'s# (y,nastic activiti's# athl'tic activiti's and outdoo and adv'ntu ous activiti's- S4i,,in( ',ains as a statuto y '8ui ','nt and stud'nts a ' '7*'ct'd to s4i, unaid'd )o at l'ast !: ,'t 's# d'v'lo* con)id'nc' in 4at' # 0no4 ho' to t 'ad 4at' # )loat and 0no4 a&out s0ills o) 4at' sa)'ty and su vival- Th' ' a ' also oth' sta('s and (a,'s such as ov' th' n't cat'(o y o) (a,'s such as T'nnis and @ad,intonB st i0in( and )i'ldin( (a,'s and oth' such (a,'s .Dai clou(h# !$$!1-

Figure !. %ey &tages of E'pectation in PE Curriculum (Fairclough !""!$ /i 0 .!$$$1 has c iti8u'd th' cu 'nt thin0in( a&out th' 'lation &'t4''n s*o ts *' )o ,anc' and PE and says that th' t aditional ,od'ls o) *y a,ids# )oundation ston's and

Physical Education Evaluation

t ic0l' do4n '))'cts a ' not '))'ctiv'- Th' autho has * o*os'd an alt' nativ' ,od'l 4ith )ou co,*on'nts- Th' co,*on'nts a ' th' us' o) ,odi)i'd (a,'sB cl'a ly a ticulat'd *ath4aysB *olicy d'v'lo*,'nt and 'ducation )o s*o ts# t'ach' and coach- This ,od'l 4ould h'l* to ,''t th' n''ds o) th' ,a6o ity stud'nt *o*ulation )o &'tt' PE and h'l* to ,''t th' n''ds o) s*o ts *' )o ,anc'- Ho4'v' # this ,od'l n''ds to &' t'st'd and ',ains a hy*oth'sis- Dai clou(h .!$$!1 on th' oth' hand s*'a0s o) his '*o t'd th' 'sults o) a su v'y o) :1 h'ads o) PE ) o, di))' 'nt U/ schools- Th' 's'a ch 4as to )ind th' '))'ctiv'n'ss o) li)'ti,' activiti's such as unnin( s4i,,in(# 4al0in(# and t '00in(# ov' t'a, activiti's- PE t'ach' s hav' to und' stand 4hich o) th' activiti's stud'nts 4ould continu' onc' th'y &'co,' adults- Th' 's*ond'nts a( ''d that adults 4ould ,o ' o)t'n * actic' li)'ti,' activiti's than t'a, s*o ts- Da(0as .!$$>1 '*o ts that schools (iv' ,o ' i,*o tanc' to t'a, (a,'s than li)'ti,' activiti's and this is a diss' vic' that schools * o,ot'- This has a di 'ct &'a in( to th' n''d o) th' outsid' 4o ld that has a d',and )o t'a, s*o ts such as )oot&all# c ic0't and so on- Stud'nts 4ho *lay'd th's' (a,'s in school 4ould ,o ' li0'ly to &'co,' *ayin( )ans in lat' li)'- Cu tn' =S,ith .!$$>1 a (u's that th' socio 'cono,ic &ac0( ound o) stud'nts also *lays an i,*o tant ol' and stud'nts ) o, i,* ovis'd o ,iddl'class &ac0( ounds 4ould * ')' s*o ts such as )oot&all# &o7in(# and &as0't&all 4hil' stud'nts ) o, u**' ,iddl' class )a,ili's 4ould * ')' (ol)# c ic0't# t'nnis and 'v'n athl'tics-

Analysis and #iscussion of advantages and disadvantages Th' * 'vious s'ctions hav' * 's'nt'd va ious issu's and )acto s 'lat'd to *hysical 'ducation- A c oss s'ctional analysis o) th' advanta('s and disadvanta('s is * 's'nt'd in this s'ction- Th' ' is co,,on cons'nsus a&out th' advanta('s o) *hysical 'ducation as tau(ht in

Physical Education Evaluation


schools- Stud'nts ('t a ( adual '7*osu ' to di))' 'nt va i'ti's o) s*o ts that h'l*s th', to d'v'lo* th'i ,oto s0ills# inc 'as' conc'nt ation# d'v'lo* )it &odi's that can 4'ath' th' st 'ss o) adult * o)'ssional li)'# inc 'as' t'a, *lay and 'ndu anc' and h'l* in d'v'lo*in( conc'nt ation- Ho4'v' # s*o ts activiti's li0' acad',ic activiti's a ' o i'nt'd to4a ds th' indust y and th' 'cono,ic (ains that s'', to &' th' (oals o) 'v' y stud'nt- Each ( aduatin( stud'nt 4ants to &' i,&i&'d 4ith an acad',ic 'ducation that 4ould * ovid' hi, 'nt anc' to )u th' studi's o o&tain ',*loy,'nt- This is also t u' in th' cas' o) *hysical 'ducation 4h' ' stud'nts a ' tau(ht &asic ,oto s0ills in th' initial sta('s and th'n th'y *a tici*at' in t'a, 'v'nts# i) th'i s0ills *' ,it th',- Ho*')ully# this syst', 4ould * oduc' s*o ts,'n such as David @'c0ha,# 9ic0 Foon'y and so on# 'ls' th' syst', 4ould '8ui* stud'nts 4ith a d'si ' to ',ain )it )o li)'-

Such an a** oach has c' tain disadvanta('s in that th' ' is an ov' ',*hasis on t'a, s*o ts 4ith l'ss' i,*o tanc' (iv'n to li)'ti,' s*o ts such as 4al0in(# s4i,,in(# unnin( and so on- Th' a** oach is a(ain in lin' 4ith th' indust y '8ui ','nt )o )oot&all' s# c ic0't' s# &as0't&all *lay' s and th's' s*o ts,'n a ' 0no4n to ,a0' consid' a&l' ,on'y- Th' ')o '# PE is in lin' 4ith th' acad',ic t 'nd o) tu nin( stud'nts into docto s# 'n(in'' s and so on- Such an a** oach 4ould &' a (u'd as &'in( '7c'ssiv'ly ,on'y ,ind'd# &ut PE t'ach' s and schools hav' to &' * a(,atic- Th' ')o '# th' in)' 'nc' is that th' PE cu iculu, in schools loo0s to4a ds th' co,,' cial s*o ts indust y and it should a(ain not'd that today3s schools hold th' )utu ' @'c0ha,3s o Foon'y3s- @ut th'n a(ain# a school can only * ovid' th' in) ast uctu ' )o 'ducation and t ainin(- 9a0in( us' o) th' )aciliti's is u* to th' stud'nts acu,'n and ca*acity and th' school o th' PE t'ach' cannot &' &la,'d i) so,' stud'nts a ' not int' 'st'd in PE-

Physical Education Evaluation

!u%%ary of Findings Th' *a*' has 'valuat'd *hysical 'ducation cu iculu, in s'cond l'v'l schools o) U/I,*o tant d'tails o) th' cu iculu, hav' &''n '7a,in'd and it has &''n s''n that th' ' a ' di))' 'nt 0'y sta('s in 4hich va yin( l'v'ls o) *hysical and ,'ntal activity a ' tau(ht- Ho4'v' # PE is not an 'valuation su&6'ct and th' ')o ' only int' 'st'd stud'nts ta0' an 'a n'st int' 'st in di))' 'nt ty*'s o) s*o ts- 9o ' '))o ts a ' '8ui 'd ) o, th' d'*a t,'nt o) 'ducation and th' school ,ana(','nt to ti(ht'n th' sco 's '8ui ','nts in s*o ts )o ( aduation- Only a)t' this is don' 4ould stud'nts ta0' PE ,o ' s' iously and ta0' u* activiti's that 4ould 0''* th', )it )o li)'-

Physical Education Evaluation &EFE&EN"E!


Ca*'l# S-# !$$;- (earning to teach physical education in the secondary school) a companion to &chool E'perience- Foutl'd(' Pu&lications# London# U/-

Cu tn' =S,ith# 9-# Jun' !$$>- H'alth=* o,otin( *hysical activity and '7t a=cu icula s*o tEuropean Physical Education *evie+# 1;.!1# **- 1;1=1CC-

Da(0as# S-# Octo&' !$$>- E7*lo in( social and 'nvi on,'ntal )acto s a))'ctin( adol'sc'nts+ *a tici*ation in *hysical activity- European Physical Education *evie+# 1;.;1# **- ;E"=;5C-

Dai clou(h# S-# !$$!- Th' Cont i&ution o) S'conda y School Physical Education to Li)'ti,' Physical Activity- European Physical Education *evie+# 5.11# **- E"=5C

Ho**' # @-# !$$$- ,eaching physical education in the primary school- Foutl'd(' Dal,' Pu&lish' s# London# U/-

/i 0# D-# !$$$- Chall'n(in( Thin0in( A&out th' F'lationshi* @'t4''n School Physical Education and S*o t P' )o ,anc'- European Physical Education *evie+# E.!1# **- 11"=1;C-

9acPhail# A-# !$$:- Th' i,*l','ntation o) a 'vis'd *hysical 'ducation sylla&us in I 'land< ci cu,stanc's# '4a ds and costs- European Physical Education *evie+# 11.;1# **- !5>=;$5

Physical Education Evaluation


P'nn'y# D-# 1"">- Na,in( th' Ga,'< Discou s' and do,ination in *hysical 'ducation and S*o t in En(land and ?al's- European Physical Education *evie+# ;.11# **- !1=;!

8ca# !$$>- Physical education) Programme of study for -ey stage # and attainment target- Th' National Cu iculu, !$$># Auali)ications and Cu iculu, Autho ity# C o4n co*y i(ht# London# U/-

Tal&ot# 9-# 1""5- Physical Education< Cont'st'd Positions# Co,*'tin( Discou s's H Th' N''d )o F'naissanc'I European Physical Education *evie+# C.!1# **- 1$C=11E-