Cleaning as an Engineered

Process
Lean Principles for a Neglected Industry
Jeffery L. Campbell, Ph. D. and Kathleen W. Campbell
Facility and Property Management • Brigham Young University • 2013
Acknow|edgements
ManageMen and the Simon Institute provided funding for this research project,
and offered valuable direction and insights. Thanks goes to John Walker, Ben Walker and
Jill Edmunds for their foresight, creativity, and dedication to making a difference in the
cleaning industry. (See http://www.managemen.com/ and http://www.simoninstitute.org/.)
Thanks is also due to the outstanding BYU Facility and Property Management
research students. Their enthusiasm and drive made this research easy. Thanks goes to
Kimberly Mendez, Robert Hyer, Eric Braziel, Robert Salmon, Garrett Strong, Benson
Palmer, Cory Paxton, Cameron Wright, Orlin Clements, Sam Kelly, and Kyle Spindler.
(See http://www.fpm.byu.edu/.)
And most importantly, thanks to my dear wife, Kathy, who is my all-time favorite
friend. She plays a critical role as a sounding board, and is an excellent editor of my
work. (See http://www.campbellcg.com/.)
Disclaimer
The information in this research report is intended to provide helpful information.
The author, students, and Brigham Young University do not directly or indirectly endorse
any product, company or process discussed in the research report. While best efforts have
been used in preparing this research, the author makes no representations or warranties of
any kind and assumes no liabilities of any kind with respect to the accuracy or
completeness of the contents, and specifically disclaims any implied warranties.
References are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute
endorsement of any websites or other sources. Readers should be aware that the websites
ii
listed in the research may change. Every situation is different, thus the advice and
strategies contained herein may not be suitable for all circumstances. The author
recommends seeking the services of competent professionals before undertaking a similar
program.
iii
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 The Definition of Clean 1
1.2 The Importance of a Cleaning Standard 4
Chapter 2: Buildings—The Next 100 Years 8
2.1 The Myopic Past 8
2.2 Key Factors That Will Influence the Future of Buildings 11
2.3 Educating a New Profession 17
Chapter 3: Cleaning as We Know It Today 24
3.1 Cleaning From an Historical Perspective 24
3.2 Janitorial Contracts 28
3.3 Measuring Janitorial Productivity 33
3.4 Lack of a Cleaning Standard 36
Chapter 4: Cleaning Products, Safety, and the Environment 37
4.1 Cleaning Products 37
4.2 The Effects of Cleanliness on Indoor Air and Environmental Quality 45
4.3 Conclusions 47
Chapter 5: Engineering and Process Management 48
5.1 The Importance of Engineering 48
5.2 An Historical View of Engineering 49
iv
5.3 Engineering in the Future 51
5.4 What Is an Engineered Process? 53
Chapter 6: The Practice of Lean and Quality Management 54
6.1 What is TQM? 54
6.2 What is Lean? 55
6.3 What is Six Sigma? 57
6.4 What is ISO 9000? 62
6.5 What is the Balanced Scorecard? 66
6.6 What is the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award? 71
6.7 Summary of Lean Core Concepts 75
Chapter 7: Lean Best Practices in Janitorial Services 80
7.1 (OS1) versus TQM 80
7.2 Comparing (OS1) and TQM Core Concepts 81
7.3 Summary 93
Chapter 8: Research Summary and Conclusions 95
8.1 Profits, Not Cleanliness 95
8.2 The Future of Evidence-based Outcomes 96
8.3 Driving Out Waste in the Cleaning Process 96
8.4 Transparency and Dashboards 97
8.5 The Rise and Fall of Companies and Ideas 98
8.6 High-Performance and Healthy Work Spaces 99
8.7 Lean Process Mapping and Management in the Future 100
v
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 1he Dehn|non of C|ean
"Clean" is a flexible term that is defined differently as it is applied by specific groups
and their unique viewpoints. The Webster Online Dictionary states the process of
cleaning is "to rid of dirt, impurities, or extraneous matter."
1
This broad definition
prompted researchers to review national cleaning organizations to find a more detailed
definition. The American Cleaning Institute (formerly The Soap and Detergent
Association)
2
states yet another broad description, "cleaning is the mechanical removal of
dirt and soil from an object or area." It is interesting to note that definitions were
unavailable from the cleaning industry's top associations, including the United States
1
1 Cleaning. (2u1u). Neiiiam-Webstei 0nline Bictionaiy. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.meiiiam-webstei.com¡uictionaiy¡
cleaning
2 Aiello, Allison E., Laison, Elaine L., anu Seulak, Richaiu. (2uu7). Against Bisease: The
Impact of Bygiene anu Cleanliness on Bealth. The Soap anu Beteigent Association. New Yoik, NY: }NB Euucation Naiketing,
Inc.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the International Sanitary Supply Association
(ISSA), the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), the National Clearinghouse
for Educational Facilities (NCEF), and the Cleaning Management Institute (CMI).
In the book, "Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health," author Dr.
Michael Berry, a university professor and consultant, states, "cleaning is not only an
activity, but is a process and a special form of management."
3
He goes on to state that
cleaning is, "the science of controlling contaminants," and should be based soundly in
scientific principles."
4
In 2001 he specified that the cleaning process locates, identifies,
contains, removes, and properly disposes of an, "unwanted substance from a surface or
environment."
5
This suggests that cleaning is not only an important task, but also a
process that should be carefully executed and, "coordinated with other basic
environmental management strategies: source control, activity management, dilution, and
design intervention."
S
Another aspect of defining clean is to determine the benefits. Why should time and
resources be spent on cleaning? Dr. Berry states the prime benefits of cleaning are:

It puts things in order and immediately improves quality of life.

It restores an object/environment to a pleasing/satisfactory appearance.

Cleaning improves the environmental condition quickly and visible.

It controls the quality of the indoor environment.
2
S Beiiy, Nichael A. (199S). Piotecting the Built Enviionment: Cleaning foi Bealth, p. 2S. Chapel Bill, NC: Tiicomm 21st Piess.
4 Beiiy, Nichael A. (199S). Piotecting the Built Enviionment: Cleaning foi Bealth, pp. 7S-74. Chapel Bill, NC: Tiicomm 21st
Piess.
S Beiiy, Nichael A. (2uu1). Euucational Peifoimance, Enviionmental Nanagement, anu Cleaning Effectiveness in School
Enviionments. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.caipetiug.oig¡puf_woiu_uocs¡u1u4_school_enviionments.puf

Control can reduce human frustration and anxiety.

Cleaning protects human health.
6
The benefits of a clean environment in a school setting have been documented in
numerous studies. Dr. Berry compared the educational performance of students and
teachers at Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, D.C., before and after it
was remodeled. His goal was to find a correlation between the quality of the physical
condition of the school and educational performance. After the building was remodeled, a
higher standard of maintenance and cleanliness were implemented. Using different
environmental factors Dr. Berry uses several different measures to determine the
environmental factors affecting the school. Some examples are temperature, climate,
lighting, safety hazards, teaching space, maintenance practices, bio-pollutants,
furnishings, decor, and dust. Dr. Berry found a strong correlation between the quality of
the physical condition of the school and quality of learning.
7
Dr. Berry has also conducted
other studies within this same general topic of school cleaning and how it relates to
student academic achievement. In his study entitled, "Educational Performance,
Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments," he
concludes, "that effective cleaning programs enhance school and student positive self
image, and may promote overall higher academic attendance and performance."
7
Overall
this can be difficult to quantify, but through several key indicators like absenteeism,
chronic schedule changes, disciplinary incidents, health accident reports, risk behaviors,
3
6 Beiiy, Nichael A. (199S). Piotecting the Built Enviionment: Cleaning foi Bealth, p.24. Chapel Bill, NC: Tiicomm 21st Piess.
7 Beiiy, Nichael A. (2uu1). Euucational Peifoimance, Enviionmental Nanagement, anu Cleaning Effectiveness in School
Enviionments. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.caipetiug.oig¡puf_woiu_uocs¡u1u4_school_enviionments.puf
academic and other performance gauges can be measured. Some key components that Dr.
Berry mentioned include cleaning for health and not for just appearance, which has been
the most popular method in the past. He defines clean as the relation to the whole
environment and not just specific areas.
7
A proper definition of clean should include the process as well as the benefits:
Cleaning is a process that locates, identifies, contains, removes, and properly disposes of
an unwanted substance from a surface or environment, and contributes to the health and
well-being of those who occupy the environment.
One of the challenges in determining the proper definition of clean comes from
the fact that the process of cleaning varies greatly from industry, to sector, to even
building types. If cleaning were to become a standardized process, it would aid in
designing cleaning processes that would be applicable in any sector. Unfortunately, the
research shows that little has been done in establishing a cleaning standard.
1.2 1he Importance of a C|ean|ng Standard
Standards set a level of safety and performance for most industries. Therefore, a
cleaning standard that ensures the building’s quality, safety and health of the people
therein should exist. Research shows that students in K-12 schools have improved
capacity to learn when school environments are clean. Because there is no cleaning
standard for K-12 educational facilities, students are frequently exposed to poor indoor
environments and learning suffers.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defines a standard as, "a
document, established by consensus that provides rules, guidelines or characteristics for
4
activities or their results.”
8
It is difficult to find standards that pertain to the cleaning
industry, especially for organizations that serve K-12 public schools. Teachers often take
it upon themselves to ensure the cleanliness of their classrooms. The National Parent
Teacher Association (PTA) recognizes the link between clean schools and increased
learning. A survey conducted in 2010 showed that cleanliness in schools was so lacking
that 56 percent of teachers in public schools purchase their own cleaning supplies in order
to clean their classrooms (PTA, 2010)
9
. Teachers are not the only ones affected by the
lack of cleaning standards. The National Education Association (NEA) found that school
janitors also struggle. “We [janitors] need better job guidelines. Thirty-eight percent of us
have no job description at all. For those of us who do have a job description, 32 percent
feel it does not accurately describe the amount of work we do. Sixty-two percent of us
have no say about our job descriptions, and 64 percent often or sometimes must perform
work outside our job descriptions.”
10

In an attempt to remedy the situation, the American Federation of Teachers
(AFT), a teachers' union, held a convention in 2001 to develop a cleaning standard,
unfortunately, to date, no standard has been established.
11
The American School &
University reports that the International Sanitary Supply Association (ISSA) and the
Cleaning Industry Research Institute (CIRI) have cleaning standards in the planning
5
8 Ameiican National Stanuaius Institute (ANSI). (2u12). Befinition of a Stanuaiu. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.ansi.oig¡
about_ansi¡faqs¡faqs.aspx.menuiu=1
9 Paient Teachei Association. (2u1u). "Cloiox Clean 0p the Classioom." PTA Eveiy Chilu 0ne
voice. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.pta.oig¡1SS9.htm
1u National Euucation Association. (Apiil 2u1u). Custouial anu Naintenance Seivices. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.nea.oig¡
home¡18978.htm
11 Ameiican Feueiation of Teacheis. (2uu1). PSRP uepaitment kicks off new initiatives. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡aichive.aft.oig¡
pubs-iepoits¡psip_iepoitei¡2uu1¡spiing¡initiatives.htm
stages. In June 2008, ISSA and CIRI convened with the goal to develop science-based
cleaning standards to determine cleanliness in institutions of learning.
12
Though this is a
step in the right direction, no standard has been published.
APPA, an organization that specializes in educational facilities, has created a
visual standard, called the Five Levels of Clean.
13
These levels are:
Level 1 - Orderly Spotlessness
Level 2 - Ordinary Tidiness
Level 3 - Casual Inattention
Level 4 - Moderate Dinginess
Level 5 - Unkempt Neglect
While the levels do not address the physical effects of cleanliness, a study
entitled, Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education, revealed that the appearance of a
room affects learning. Of the 1,481 university students surveyed, 88 percent said that
when a room is at a Level 3 - Casual Inattention, it becomes a distraction to their studies.
Eighty-four percent said they felt a room should be at a Level 2 - Ordinary Tidiness or
Level 1 - Orderly Spotlessness to create a good learning environment.
14

Dr. Berry, an advocate for cleaning for health and not just appearance, did a study
in 2006, where he analyzed the unseen elements of a room after cleaning. He compared
the results of a scientifically-based cleaning system (OS1) to a traditional system. Two
6
12 Wiley, Fiank. (2u1u). Integiateu Cleaning anu Neasuiement in Schools (ICN) | Neasuieu Results Aiticle. Ameiican School &
0niveisity. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡asumag.com¡Naintenance¡integiateu-cleaning-measuiement-schools-2uu9u4¡
1S APPA. (2u12). APPA's Five Levels of Clean. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.localS9tiaining.oig¡couises¡suppoit¡LEEB¡
couise4¡APPA_Five_Levels_of_Clean.puf
14 Campbell, }., anu Biggei, A. (Apiil 2uu8). Cleanliness anu Leaining in Bighei Euucation, APPA, Alexanuiia, vA.
dormitories were chosen for the study at the University of North Carolina. Four elements
were measured after cleaning: dust removal, presence of fungal spores, restroom bacteria
count, and indoor air quality. After one month, the scientific method reduced dust two to
five times more effectively, fungal spores were reduced from 15 percent to 3 percent, and
bacteria in restrooms were reduced by 94 percent. It’s interesting to note that the
traditionally-cleaned restrooms had a higher pathogen count after cleaning than before.
The health effects of the new method had a measurable improvement. Dr. Berry
concluded, "A scientifically-based cleaning process provides an immediate improvement
in the indoor environmental quality of schools. Through an organized environmental
management program that emphasizes effective cleaning, exposure to a range of
microorganisms, particles, and other harmful substances are reduced."
Though there is currently no national standard for cleaning, studies suggest that
establishing a cleaning standard that accounts for both appearance and health would
benefit all building occupants. A cleaning standard would especially benefit educational
facilities. Student focus and learning would improve, and the health of all building
occupants would increase.
7
Chapter 2: Buildings—The Next
100 Years
2.1 1he Myop|c Þast
What does the future hold for buildings and maintenance practices in the
next 100 years? As part of this project, researchers sought to find answers to this
question. A futuristic outlook can provide the imagination, creativity, and new thoughts
needed to improve maintenance effectiveness and efficiency.
It is sometimes difficult to grasp how inventions will impact future
practices. History is filled with examples of this. When Edison invented electricity, many
questioned why electricity would be needed in every home. Not so long ago, the CEO of
Digital Equipment Computer Corporation (DEC) wondered why consumers would need a
computer in their home. Fortunately, Bill Gates came along with the vision of "a
computer on every desk and in every home." Gates’ vision came true; today there are
8
more personal computers than people in the United States. Western Union officials
laughed at Alexander Graham Bell when he proposed the idea of a telephone. Company
officials were skeptical that the public would choose to replace the tried and proven
technology of communicating by telegraph. Today, not only do most businesses and
homes have telephones, but nearly every adult (and teen) carries a cell phone. To top it
off, nearly 80 percent of all cellphones are now smart phones.
Two young engineers pitched an idea to Yahoo and AltaVista, claiming
they had a new way to improve Internet browsing and also increase revenue from online
advertising. Both companies turned them down, so the engineers formed their own
company, building the number one search engine today: Google. Many were skeptical of
the acceptance of Facebook. What’s so great about connecting with friends online?
Today, if Facebook users were the citizens of a country, they would rank third in
population only behind China and India.
One more example: Tom Dolan and John Houbolt were common
engineers in the 1960s. Dolan, who worked for a subcontractor, proposed an idea about
lunar-orbit rendezvous. Luckily, John Houbolt, who worked for NASA, picked up the
idea and championed it. Lunar-orbit rendezvous became the method used to land men on
the moon.
These examples illustrate how new inventions alter how families and
businesses function. It causes one to wonder how buildings will be different 100 years
from today. Most likely, buildings and cities will look similar. Given limited resources,
local economies can’t afford to make wholesale changes but will continue to renovate and
9
reinvent their built environment. There will be a mix of new architecture, older/renovated
buildings, and historic structures. Buildings will be designed and re-designed to be more
flexible and to last much longer. The life cycle of buildings will become more micro-
managed.
A recent finding in a university library disclosed a graduate thesis entitled
“Efficient Cleaning Methods for College Campuses.” The study identified how to labor
load a building, how to calculate the number of employees needed to clean the building,
how to develop cleaning routines, and how to measure productivity. Equipment and
cleaning agents were also identified. Surprisingly, the study was written in 1933, and the
cleaning system and measures of productivity asserted in the study were not all that
different from what is still being practiced today.
A method for increasing efficiency was pioneered by Frederick Taylor in
the late 1890s. Taylor demonstrated how through applying industrial engineering
principles a man could triple the amount of coal shoveled each day. At the beginning of
the study a man could shovel twenty tons of coal per day using a 38-pound shovel scoop.
By incrementally decreasing the scoop size, Taylor learned the ideal size was a 21.5-
pound scoop which allowed a man to move sixty tons of coal per day. Increasing
efficiency is still a mandate in the twenty-first century, though it has become more
complicated than during the industrial revolution.
Another example of improved efficiency is in the production of grain. In
1830 it took about forty hours of farm labor to grow ten bushels of rye or wheat, which
made about 600 loaves of bread. With today’s improved technologies and methods, it
10
only takes about forty minutes to produce ten bushels. This is a perfect example of how
applying best business practices, improved technology, quality education and
documented research can lead to producing more with less. Cleaning is an area of low
hanging fruit where almost immediate improvements can be found by implementing
these principles. Though it has been viewed myopically in the past, it is time look at
cleaning with a broader perspective to determine areas for increasing efficiency and
effectiveness.
2.2 key Iactors 1hat W||| Inßuence the Iuture of 8u||d|ngs
The biggest concern over the next century will not deal with new buildings
(which will constitute only one percent of the built environment), but will deal with
existing real estate (which will constitute the other ninety-nine percent). Keeping existing
buildings functionally viable will be the biggest challenge, and will only be accomplished
through improved business processes and better management of new technology.
These improvements will occur as senior managers and executives are educated
on best practices for managing real estate. Facility asset managers will have a greater role
on the corporate decision-making team because of the magnitude and cost of the built
environment. They will oversee the implementation of a common language for facility
management, drawing on science-based case studies, incorporating benchmarking and
metrics, and utilizing better information systems for risk assessment and decision-
making.
Capitalism and cost-benefit analyses will continue to drive business decisions.
The adoption of new technologies and processes will only take place when a cost-benefit
11
tipping point occurs. There are typically three factors that trigger a tipping point: changes
in the social-economic conscience, regulatory compliance, and man-caused and natural
disasters.
An example of a tipping point triggered by the social-economic conscience is
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification developed by the
US Green Building Council (USGBC). If a company owns a LEED certified building, it
adds to its prestige and improved public perception. The principles of LEED certification
then flow into new codes, regulations and laws like zero carbon legislation and new
taxes.
Unfortunately, new codes and regulations become overwhelming because there
are so many bodies with regulatory jurisdiction. It is estimated that over $6 billion is
spent annually in the healthcare industry just trying to appease all the different regulatory
authorities.
Natural and man-caused disasters, such as 9-11 and school shootings, have
triggered major shifts in how business is conducted. What was once considered an
unlikely target will now be designed and managed differently in the future to ensure
safety.
Facility asset life cycle planning and “total cost of ownership” models will
become core management tools. Buildings, building systems, system components, and
component parts will include interoperability and “smart technology.” Taking a page
from the Starship Enterprise, facilities will be operated at a whole new level of
sophistication unknown to man right now. An IT backbone and “building brain” will
12
manage and manipulate a wide variety of services. This will not be accomplished on
autopilot, however. Well-trained people will be as important as ever to operate these
systems. Buildings being operated by more technology will lead to a growing need for
personal and public privacy as well as cyber security. Facility managers in the future will
need to know as much about IT as they do about buildings.
The future will be focused on balancing efficiency and effectiveness, which will
lead to added value. Already surfacing are new scorecard processes that enable facility
departments to better identify their key performance indicators, chart their profile as to
where they fit in an efficiency and effectiveness model, and then create strategic and
tactical initiatives to deliver greater value. The entire value stream of service and
production is becoming much more lean. The future will belong to those who can clearly
articulate and provide evidence-based outcomes demonstrating added value.
Creativity and innovation will continue to be an important part of the future.
Having teams composed of both left and right-brained thinkers will be critical to success.
Facility management is typically made up of left-brain linear thinkers. This can be a real
problem because a team of such thinkers may not have enough creativity and innovation
to move forward as the global market changes. There is a sentiment in some circles that if
a facility manager is not a licensed engineer then they have no business managing
facilities. This myopic approach sounds like the views of DEC and Western Union when
approached with a new invention. Google encourages its employees to spend 20 percent
of their time working on creative projects that are related to Google but outside their
regular jobs. This leads to greater innovation in the company.
13
One upcoming challenge will be dealing with the population growth. There are
currently 307 million people in the United States. It is projected that by the year 2100 that
number could reach almost one billion, or triple the current population. The global
population is also projected to grow from seven to almost ten billion. This compounding
growth will have dramatic effects on available land, building space, infrastructure and
natural resources. Thus, land usage will become more dense, cities will become more
congested, and the built environment will be pushed beyond its capacity. The good news
is there is room to grow in the United States; most other countries are not as fortunate.
Increased population will also lead to financial resources being spread much thinner.
The method of cleaning buildings will surely change over the next few decades.
There is a new body of science that is beginning to take-hold in the industry that looks at
cleaning as an engineered process, and focuses on health instead of just appearance.
Sandia National Laboratories, the University of Texas, the University of Michigan, and
others are pioneering this new approach. They have taken efficiency and effectiveness in
cleaning to whole new levels.
Following is a list of improvements that have occurred or will occur by treating
cleaning as an engineered process.
(1) Reducing the number of chemicals used for cleaning from 150 to 10. Reducing
indoor pollutants to almost nil. (This is important because about twenty percent of
the population has some type of respiratory challenge.) Reducing costs by nearly
twenty percent (which translated into $2 million in savings over three years at the
University of Michigan).
14
(2) Reducing workplace accidents to almost zero. (According to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics custodial accidents rank between fifth and seventh as the most injured
occupation in the U. S.) Janitorial departments are being recognized as having the
organizations’ best and most comprehensive sustainability practices.
(3) Improving security in building space, chemicals and equipment. A frightening
practice in the janitorial industry stems from hiring. Currently it is possible for an
immigrant to cross the border today, become a janitor tomorrow, and have all the
keys to a building within a few weeks. This opens the door to numerous types of
security threats. In the next thirty years there will be a creation of a new
certification or degree that focuses on safety, security, emergency response, and
maintaining indoor air quality through proper cleaning processes and chemicals.
The janitoiial initiative of viewing cleaning as an engineeieu piocess is a
goou example of how consoliuating iesouices anu impioving value-auueu seivices
woulu affect FN in the futuie. It is based on improved business practices, advanced
technology, and education and research. It is a disruptive technology like camera film to
digital photos. It changes the rules and paradigms just as Edison, Gates, Bell, Google and
Tom Dolan.
The following twenty-two key factors will directly influence or contribute to the
future of how buildings are managed and operated.
• United States population will triple, thus there will be less land per person.
• New buildings will cost more and a shift will be made to better manage existing
buildings and extend their lives.
15
• Many existing buildings will continue to operate as they are now with the
exceptions in improved technologies which will either become more cost effective
or mandated by regulations.
• Sustainability practices will be part of day-to-day design, construction, operations
and remodels.
• New energy sources will increase substantially as dependence on fossil fuels
decrease.
• The world will continue to get smaller as global markets have more
connectedness.
• Global economies will affect all economies.
• Social unrest will see at least two world wars, and probably more.
• Computer security will be more important than ever.
• Buildings will be smart, along with systems, components and parts.
• Technology will tie all building systems together and data will be collected with
vastly improved analytics that will provide key information for management and
better decision-making.
• Financial accountability and management of the total cost of ownership will be
much more important than it is practiced today.
• Indoor environmental quality will be improved and expected in buildings.
• Outsourcing and specialization will dramatically increase as buildings become
more complicated.
• Zero carbon sustainable energy building footprints will be required.
16
• Facility research will dramatically increase.
• New strains of infectious diseases and pandemics will increase global concerns.
• Highly trained labor resources will be at a premium, education will be more
effective and focused on outcomes.
• Labor resources will be cross-trained in information technology and problem
solving, building operations, indoor environmental quality, safety and security,
and overall financial performance. More will be done with less.
• More regulations will be implemented to protect health, safety, and sustainable
buildings/environments.
• Process improvements will be driven by improved innovation and creativity.
• New disruptive technologies will completely change the playing field.
2.3 Lducanng a New Þrofess|on
Foi many, facility management (FN) is an acciuental piofession that has
typically been a stopping place on the ioau to somewheie else. Because facility
management is so new it uoes not yet have a well-uevelopeu bouy of knowleuge anu
ieseaich. The Inteinational Facility Nanagement Association, which is the laigest
FN association in the 0niteu States with about 2u,uuu membeis, was establisheu in
198u. Euiope, a continent with millennia-olu builuings, has a moie matuie
association that ties facilities, constiuction, engineeiing anu aichitectuie togethei in
what is calleu the Royal Institute of Chaiteieu Suiveyois (RICS). RICS began in 1792
anu has 14u,uuu membeis touay. Euiope's colleges anu univeisities aie fully
17
integiateu to euucate facility manages. The Netheilanus alone has foui majoi FN
piogiams incluuing a univeisity with a college of 1,uuu stuuents.
So why isn't FN bettei accepteu in the 0niteu States. Facilities÷as an
acauemic uiscipline÷is a tough sell because it is a multi-uisciplineu, applieu science.
In the 0niteu States, theie aie fewei than ten unueigiauuate anu giauuate piogiams
with the oluest only being about foity yeais olu. Nost piogiams aie an appenuage to
othei moie mainstieam uegiees like mechanical anu enviionmental engineeiing,
aichitectuie, oi constiuction. 0ne of the ieasons FN has not gaineu moie tiaction is
because piofessois teach what they leaineu fiom theii own uegiees. A piofessoi's
ieseaich anu publishing also uiives what is taught in the classioom.
Facility management piofessionals aie often askeu, "Wheie aie the uegiee
piogiams. Wheie aie the euucatois coming fiom. Wheie is the science behinu the
piofession. Wheie aie the peei-ievieweu jouinals." Foitunately, heauway is being
maue in pioviuing uegiee piogiams, tiaineu euucatois, anu sounu ieseaich science.
FN euucation will continue to giow, but it will take anothei uecaue oi two foi the
cuiient senioi geneiation to move on befoie the piofession sees moie iapiu giowth.
Tiaining in the futuie will be moie specializeu anu sophisticateu. 0niveisities aie
focusing moie on leaining outcomes that cieate eviuence-baseu leaining. This new
focus stiesses a balance between knowleuge, skill, attituue anu expeiience.
Theie aie twenty founuational aieas that will be ciitical to FN euucation in
the futuie. All of them focus on leaueiship anu auaptability.
(1) Be a life-long learner. This is the ability and attitude to constantly be learning. If a
facility manager is not a life-long learner, he or she will soon be left behind.
18
(2) Be organized to allow for the management of many things at once. Facility
managers are required to wear many hats and have multiple projects going on at
once. Organization, delegation, training and trust are important skills needed for
being part of a team that can handle many things at once.
(3) Champion environmental sustainability practices. Greening and sustainability start
with the facility manager who makes well thought-out changes that can have an
immediate impact. Don’t wait to be told what to do. Be a leader.
(4) Champion safety and compliance practices: The number one responsibility of
facility managers is the life safety of everyone who occupies their facilities.
Facility managers should never think or speak negatively about OSHA and safety
regulations. It only takes one preventable accident to realize that following safety
procedures make a difference.
(5) Communicate effectively through verbal, written, and other presentations. A
facility manager’s ability to be successful will be no better than his or her ability
to communicate. Facility mangers must interface with stakeholders at all levels of
the business.
(6) Demonstrate a service-oriented and marketing attitude. FM is an important
support function to any business. This means that the facility manager must
always exhibit an attitude of service.
(7) Get along well and work well with others. People follow leaders who are fair and
have a vision. They prefer to be around others who are encouraging and help them
19
be better people. Being a successful team leader means that people want to follow
that leader.
(8) Have positive attitudes. No one wants to be around a grump that can only see dark
clouds and rainy day. Dynamic leaders exhibit a personality that brings light and
hope to those around them.
(9) Identify and manage risk. Facility managers always look to prevent problems;
they are proactive in solving potential problems before they happen. Good facility
managers understand quality process management.
(10) Lead others. FM is all about leadership. Facility managers are students of
leadership practices. They seek to become the best leaders they can possibly
become. They study the lives of great leaders and seek to emulate them.
(11) Listen and learn. An important part of communication and leadership is the
ability to listen and learn from others. A facility manager can never know
everything. Their ability to listen, learn and build relationships of trust will always
contribute to the successful operation of any facility or property.
(12) Manage money and budgets well. Financial performance will always be the final
consideration of whether or not a facility or property has performed well. Whether
a property is publicly or privately owned, sound financial management will
always be the bottom line.
(13) Negotiate. Negotiation is closely tied to communication and leadership. Facility
managers negotiate continually with stakeholders, in-house staff, and outsourced
service providers. Contracting services is an important part of FM.
20
(14) Operate a separate business unit. FM departments stand alone as a business unit,
and facility managers should run the department as such. Financial officers
always seem to be considering whether in-house or outsourced facilities
management provides higher quality at a lower cost.
(15) Perform cost/benefit analysis. Decisions must always be considered from a cost/
benefit perspective. That is not to say that decisions are made strictly from this
perspective, but that it is part of the due diligence required for any decision. Such
an analysis will provide the details and the variables that should be considered in
the decision-making process.
(16) Perform quality project management services. The need for building space is
never static; it is always increasing or decreasing. Because of this, facility
managers spend the majority of their time doing project management. Being able
to deliver building space changes within budget, on time, safely and at the quality
required is critical to facility managers’ work.
(17) Practice correct ethics. Facility managers must always take the high road in all
their business practices. Cheating, lying, embezzling, and simple
misrepresentation not only destroys careers but also people. Facility managers
should decide now to always be ethical.
(18) Practice quality process management and improvement. FM is all about people,
processes (including technology) and place. Processes are often defined by the
“place,” or the facility. Facility managers are the master of the “place.” Facility
managers must work to incorporate quality facility “places” with processes so that
21
the overall goals and objectives of work can be achieved. This work is never
done; continual improvement is the objective of every quality system.
(19) Solve problems. Facility managers must be students of the best problem- solving
theories available. Effective problem-solving involves many of the other
foundational elements that have already been mentioned.
(20) Use technology effectively. Technology is an important element of all work
processes. Technologies are tools that aid in the achievement of important
outcomes. Unfortunately, many facility managers are unaware of emerging
technologies and don’t know what they don’t know. This is true especially for the
older generation. Technologies will continue to play an important part of doing
more with less in the future. Facility managers must know how to adapt and use
these technologies effectively.
Facility management euucation is going to become moie impoitant because
eveiy pait of a builuing is becoming moie complicateu. Builuings will have moie
sensois, moie uashboaiu iepoits, anu moie component monitoiing÷which will all
be manageu using impioveu infoimation analytics. Builuing analytics is cuiiently in
its infancy. To get a glimpse of wheie futuie builuing analytics is going, think about
all the tests anu pioceuuies peifoimeu in hospitals on the human bouy. }ust as the
goal of these tests is to know eveiy uetail about eveiy human system to pievent anu
iepaii pioblems, builuing analytics will leau to unueistanuing eveiy component of a
builuing, anu pioviue the infoimation neeueu to iepaii anu pievent pioblems.
The twenty founuational piinciples uiscusseu above shoulu specifically be
applieu as facility manageis oveisee the opeiations anu maintenance of a builuing.
22
Facility opeiations accounts foi appioximately Su peicent of a facility's buuget,
followeu by eneigy anu geneial maintenance. Cleaning compiises a laige shaie of
the opeiations buugets, but because it is an 'out of sight anu out of minu' component
it is often unuei-manageu. Since most janitois iepoit that the methous they use to
clean a builuing aie the same methous they leaineu fiom theii mothei, euucation
anu tiaining must become a vital pait of impioving the effectiveness anu efficiency
of cleaning builuings.
The futuie of clean builuings must not just involve a visual inspection, but
must incoipoiate many types of analytics, incluuing inuooi aii quality,
enviionmental wellness, infectious uisease, absentee iates, human inteiaction,
vaccinations, sick-builuing synuiome ieu-flags, bettei filtiation, etc. Theie is so
much that can be uone to impiove inuooi enviionments, anu bettei managing
cleaning piactices is a cost-saving place to stait.
23
Chapter 3: Cleaning as We
Know It Today
3.1 C|ean|ng Irom an n|stor|ca| Þerspecnve
Throughout history there is evidence of people's desire for cleanliness. One of the
earliest civilizations to implement cleaning and sanitation techniques were the Romans.
The city of Rome had elaborate bathhouses for personal hygiene, along with sewer and
drainage systems for improved city health. Throughout time, cleaning has been plagued
with the same question, “Do we clean for health or for appearance?” Unfortunately, most
organizations are concerned mainly with appearance. Cleanliness is usually determined
by how a surface or item appears visually.
While cleaning for appearance is important, focus also needs to be on disinfecting
and sterilizing surfaces and objects for health. A disinfectant is a “chemical agent that
24
destroys pathogenic microorganisms.”
15
A sterilizer is an “agent or device that destroys
all living things, including vegetative bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses”
39
Businesses
must be cleaned for both appearance and health. It is important that both methods are
analyzed and engineered in order to ensure productivity and health. The following
highlights organizations and methods that led to better cleaning for health or appearance,
or both.
ISSA—The Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association
The Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association (ISSA) is a nationally recognized
organization that works on developing better cleaning standards. This eighty-nine-year-
old organization has undergone many changes over the years to become one of the
world's leading cleaning advisors. Below is a brief highlight of how it began and evolved
to where it is today.
Alfred Richter founded the National Sanitary Supply Association in 1923.
Although it started with just a few members, it soon grew into a worldwide organization.
In 1966, in order “to reflect its growing international membership, the association
changed its name to the International Sanitary Supply Association.”
16
Then in 2005 the
association joined with other cleaning service providers and changed its name to “ISSA
—The Worldwide Cleaning Industry Association.”
41
25
1S Walkei, }. P., & Campbell, }. (2uuS). Niciobiology foi cleaning woikeis simplifieu. (2u11 eu.). Salt Lake City: Besign Type
Seivice.
16 ISSA.com. (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.issa.com¡.iu=association_histoiy&lg=
Having consistent cleaning standards with measurable results is important. To
assist in this, the ISSA created the “Cleaning Industry Management Standard (CIMS).”
17

The purpose of this certification is to “set forth the policies, processes, procedures and
supporting documentation that guide cleaning organizations in establishing customer-
centered organizations.”
42
In other words, the goal of the program is to help companies
“deliver consistent, quality services.”
42
While theCIMS certification sets standards for
cleaning and helps to optimize results, it does not focus on sanitation—killing the
bacteria and organisms that may be contaminating surfaces.
APPA
APPA is an “international association dedicated to maintaining, protecting, and
promoting the quality of educational facilities.”
18
It helps facility professionals make their
institutions more inviting to all who visit, work or attend classes on campus, which
affects retention and success. “APPA promotes excellence in the administration, planning,
design, construction, maintenance, and operations of educational facilities.”
43
APPA was
founded in Chicago in 1914
4
and was originally called the “Association of
Superintendents of Buildings and Grounds.”
43
In 1991 APPA changed its name to The
Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers. In 2005 the association began
identifying itself simply as APPA, so not to exclude any educational institutions.
43
APPA’s cleaning guidelines mainly focus on cleaning for appearance. In its book,
Custodial Staffing Guidelines, it outlines five levels of appearance, and how they are
26
17 Cleaning Inuustiy Nanagement Stanuaiu. (2uu9). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡hawaii-ieha.oig¡CINS.puf
18 About APPA. (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.appa.oig¡about0s¡
determined. The criteria for each level are based on the physical appearance of the
surface or area being inspected.
EPA—Environmental Protection Agency
The EPA is the United States government agency tasked
with the responsibility of developing and enforcing regulations to
protect both people and the environment. When Congress writes
an environmental law, it is the responsibility of the EPA to enforce
and regulate that law. Through them, companies and individuals can know what is and is
not acceptable in regards to the environment.
The EPA was established in 1970 to consolidate into one agency a variety of
federal tasks, such as “research, monitoring, standard-setting, and enforcement activities
to ensure environmental protection.”
44
The EPA has released numerous guidelines regarding green products and how to
determine which to use. The problem with these guidelines is that they do not consider
whether these green products are as effective at killing germs as proven products; the
main consideration is if they are better for the environment. While protecting the
environment is important, it is just as important to protect the inhabitants of buildings
from dangerous bacteria and viruses. Unfortunately, many of the green products currently
on the market are simply water with food coloring.
27
3.2 Ian|tor|a| Contracts
Another area that could contribute to more effective cleaning would be the
standardization of janitorial contracts. Janitorial contracts are used in every sector and
facility. Whether a cleaning service is outsourced or performed by in-house employees,
janitorial contracts are used to outline cleaning processes, frequencies, and outcomes.
Some achieve this result better than others. Five organizations from different industry
sectors were researched to determine the structure and content of janitorial contracts.
Some areas were similar, while others were quite different. The main points of each are
outlined below.
ManageMen
ManageMen
19
is a cleaning consultation company. It has various contracts on file
to fit the needs of a broad scope of facilities and janitorial work. All contracts had the
following common elements:
(1) Cleaning company introduction and summary
(2) General conditions are detailed, including quality, personnel, training, rules,
supervision, billing, etc.
(3) Work specifications citing specific examples of how the building will be
cleaned, as well as cleaning frequencies and desired outcomes.
28
19
}anitoiial Contiact, }ill Nelton, Nanagemen. Receiveu S.17.1u.
International Facility Management Association (IFMA)
IFMA is an association for facility management professionals with more than
20,500 members in seventy-eight countries. The janitorial contract sample used was
retrieved from the Kansas City Chapter of IFMA.
20
This contract is more in-depth than
the previous contract discussed; it is nineteen pages long.
(1) Bid specifications and general cleaning requirements. This outlines the
contractor’s requirements, i.e., equipment and supplies, highly trained and
proficient staff, frequency of cleaning, etc.
(2) Supervisory requirements. This states a strong supervisory support group will
be provided to assure that high quality standards are maintained. Contractors
must provide a site supervisor as well as a quality control supervisor. Training
is to take place at the contractor’s expense.
(3) Details of general cleaning requirements and employee expectations. It
reiterates the contractor is responsible for supplies as well as any damage
caused by the chemicals or supplies.
(4) Services provided. This details the various areas to be cleaned and the
cleaning frequency.
The main point that differentiates this contract is in detailing what the contractor
will and will not be responsible for.
29
2u
Biu Specifications foi }anitoiial Seivice, IFNA, Kansas City. Retiieveu Nay 17, 2u1u fiom http:¡¡
www.kcifma.com¡uocuments%SCsamplebiuspecificationsfoijanitoiialseivice.uoc
Novell
Novell has offices across the United States and Austria. Its janitorial contract
outlines the cleaning requirements and frequencies for elevators, bathrooms, office areas,
and all other areas of the building. The opening statement of this contract is interesting. It
reads, "It is the intent of this Agreement that the Project be kept neat and clean at all
times in accordance with the standards of cleanliness found in other first-class office
complexes in the Wasatch Front area.”
21

The contiact iefeis to 'stanuaius of cleanliness,' which must iefei to an
unwiitten guiueline foi the aiea. It is also inteiesting to note the veibs useu to
uesciibe a given task: clean, uust, vacuum, etc. While this teiminology is acceptable,
it specifies no iesult anu leaves ioom foi peisonal inteipietation.
City of Redmond, WA
Another contract examined was written by the City of Redmond, Washington,
which is provided on their city website. The sections included are:
(1) Explanation of awarded contract. Because it is a document written for public
viewers, the first portion of the contract explains why the city awarded the
cleaning contract to a certain company: "Overall feedback on contractor
performance has been positive during the past several years with the City
experiencing the least amount of quality issues with this service provider than
30
21
}anitoiial Contiact, Naik Woous, Novell. Receiveu S.14.1u
with any other contracted janitorial cleaning service provider the City has
used.”
22
(2) The next sections outline the scope and completion of work, and policies for
payment, changes, disputes, and termination. National holidays are noted.
(3) As required by OSHA, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are explained
along with how to implement them. MSDSs must also be presented in every
language spoken by the employees.
(4) Safety issues, background checks and accountability are then discussed.
(5) The next section outlines the actual tasks to be completed along with the
frequencies.
(6) The final sections are provisions and amendments to the agreement that have
been made since the first edition was written.
Kansas Department of Administration
23

While overall content of this agreement is similar to the others referenced, there
were a few differences.
(1) All the changes were placed at the beginning of the document. Since the
original contract was written in 1993, many adjustments have been made.
(2) A Quality Assurance Form was referenced, requiring the inspections to be
completed to ensure quality of work. It then details how the contract may be
31
22
}anitoiial Seivice Cleaning Agieement, City of Reumonu. Retiieveu Nay 17, 2u1u. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡222.ieumonu.gov¡insiuecityhall¡citycouncil¡2uu712u4pufs¡C9.puf
2S
Auuenuum, Kansas Bepaitment of Auministiation. Retiieveu Nay 14, 2u1u, fiom http:¡¡
www.ua.ks.gov¡puich¡contiacts¡ContiactBata¡u8u8S.uoc
terminated. "The contractor’s failure to maintain overall cleaning performance at
or above the required standards during any month of the probation may result in
contract cancellation."
The janitorial contracts explored from these five industries show similarities in
that most detail the tasks expected in each area along with the required frequency. Where
major differences occurred were in the areas of clear expectations and accountability.
Several stated rather vague expectations, such as: “A supervisory support group will be
provided to assure that high quality standards are maintained” (IFMA); and “The project
is to be kept neat and clean at all times in accordance with the standards of cleanliness
found in other first-class office complexes” (Novell). These both refer to an unclear
standard. The interpretation of each task is left up to the discretion of a supervisor or
cleaner in determining if an area is acceptably clean. However, two contracts offered
more exact measurement statements: ManageMen details how the building will be
cleaned along with the desired outcomes; and Kansas Department of Administration
includes a Quality Assurance Form with its contract, which specifies expected quality and
frequent inspections. It also states, "The contractor’s failure to maintain overall cleaning
performance at or above the required standards . . . may result in contract cancellation."
The contracts illustrate that cleaning standards are often unclear and subjective.
Fortunately, when procedures and outcomes are clearly specified, cleaning results
improve.
32
3.3 Measur|ng Ian|tor|a| Þroducnv|ty
Another area that is difficult to measure is janitorial productivity. Organizations
usually establish some type of measurement device, but there is no industry-wide
acceptable method. Several websites were searched to determine methods for measuring
productivity, including The National Education Association of Health Information
Network,
24
HealthyCleaning.com,
25
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA),
26
and the Environmental Protection Agency.
27
Many of these resources had
excellent information on custodial safety, but none contained information pertaining to
cleanliness standards or measures of janitorial productivity.
In addition to website searches, personal interviews were conducted with industry
experts. Most had never heard of an industry-wide janitorial productivity standard. Brian
Stewart,
28
a custodian manager who has worked in healthcare facility management and
similar facilities for more than twenty years, developed his own standards. Stewart
measures productivity by:
(1) Making checklists for each area and its designated cleaning worker. Several
times a week he reviews an area with the assigned cleaner, reviewing each
check point. He then rates the performance of each task. If an employee
33
24 NEA Bealth Infoimation Netwoik. (2u1u). NEA Bealth Infoimation Netwoik. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.neahin.oig
2S Bealthy Cleaning. (2u1u). Bealthy Cleaning - a guiue to gieen cleaning: non toxic piouucts foi home anu office. Retiieveu
fiom http:¡¡www.healthycleaning.com
26 0ccupational Safety anu Bealth Auministiation. (2u1u). 0ccupational Safety anu Bealth Auministiation. Retiieveu fiom
http:¡¡www.osha.gov
27 0.S. Enviionmental Piotection Agency. (2u1u). 0S Enviionmental Piotection Agency. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.epa.gov
28
Stewait, B. (2u12, Febiuaiy 12). Inteiview by E. B. Biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj.
consistently underperforms, he or she is reprimanded, and if no improvement
occurs, the employee is terminated.
(2) Performing a white light test. Stewart writes on a surface with an invisible
marker. After the employee has cleaned the area, he checks the surface by
running a white light over the surface. If the date is still there he knows the area
was not cleaned properly.
Stewart said a major hindrance to productivity is lack of funding. Often, when
budget cuts occur, cleaning is an area seen as inessential. Thus many janitorial
departments are understaffed and underfunded. This leads to not expecting janitors to
clean and perform as well as they could and should.
An article in Campus Facility Maintenance points out how difficult it is to deal
with budget cuts. Author Michael Wilson states when budgets are cut, expectations are
lowered. The article then shared how this problem was addressed in a school with careful
allocation of resources and careful management. Through zone cleaning and
implementing ideas from industry experts, the cleaners were more efficient in their use of
time and therefore became more productive.
29
Another way to increase productivity when experiencing decreased funding is to
balance quality and cost. This can be applied to areas, such as determining whether
individual or team cleaning is more efficient, using the right equipment, ensuring proper
training with assistance from standard operating procedures (SOP), giving clear
instructions, and inspecting then streamlining cleaning processes.
34
29 Wilson, Nichael. (2uu4). "Balancing Act." Campus Facility Naintenance.
A foundation for janitorial productivity was given in the book, Custodial Staffing
and Guidelines, published by APPA.
30
This book details factors that influence a employee
productivity. One of the key ways to increase productivity is instilling ownership.
Ownership is basically the reliance upon each individual to perform to the best of their
abilities on a routine basis, and having the responsibility to recognize and complete all
necessary tasks satisfactorily. This point, although difficult to quantify, has great impact.
As an employee takes pride in his or her work, and shares a sense of ownership and
responsibility with others in the company, the employee’s desire to perform increases.
A method of measuring productivity that is widely used in the cleaning industry is
cost-per-square-foot. John Walker of ManageMen shared the challenges with the
reliability of this method. A cleanable square foot of a building could mean a plethora of
different things. Walker pointed out where discrepancies could occur by asking, "Are the
tops of the books on the shelves cleanable square feet? Are the inside and/or outside of
the windows in a room part of the cleanable square footage? Do you include all table
surfaces as well as the floor area?"
31
These and other examples of uncertainties may be
included in the calculation. Walker points out that in order for cost-per-square-foot to be
an accurate measure of productivity, details of cleanable surface space must be outlined
in each job specification, otherwise the measure is useless.
35
Su
APPA, (2u12) APPA's Five Levels of Clean. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.localS9tiaining.oig¡couises¡suppoit¡LEEB¡couise4¡
APPA_Five_Levels_of_Clean.puf
S1
Walkei, }. (2u12, Febiuaiy 2). Inteiview by E. B. Biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj.
3.4 Lack of a C|ean|ng Standard
Research revealed numerous methods for measuring janitorial productivity, such
as visual inspections, frequency of cleaning, janitorial management software, and the
benchmarking by cost-per-square-foot of area cleaned. Federal organizations such as
OSHA give laws and guidelines for safety in the workplace, and the EPA gives measures
for products that are safe on the environment. However, researchers could not find a
measure that effectively rated a building’s cleanliness other than for appearance.
Guidelines and measurements for determining a building’s cleanliness in regards to
health and sanitation are much needed.
36
Chapter 4: Cleaning Products,
Safety, and the Environment
4.1 C|ean|ng Þroducts
While cleaning products abound, information on the contents of such products is
scarce. Unlike foods, consumers cannot simply look at the back of a cleaner and know
what it contains. The US Food and Drug Administration regulates “food, beverages or
drugs that are meant to be ingested.”
32
The US Environmental Protection Agency
regulates chemicals, but requires that manufacturers only list ingredients that are “active
disinfectants or potentially harmful.”
1
According to Sloan Barnett, a consumer advocate,
“The government only requires companies to list ‘chemicals of known concern’ on their
37
S2 Scientific Ameiican. Coipoiate Whitewash.: Why uo Cleaning Piouuct-Nakeis Keep Nost of Theii Ingieuients Seciet.
labels . . . The fact is that the government has no idea whether most of the chemicals used
in everyday cleaning products are safe because it doesn’t test them, and it doesn’t require
manufacturers to test them either.”
45

What we know and false claims
Cleaning products are to be used with care and caution; the backs of most
cleaning agents contain warnings regarding improper use. Consumers assume if they
follow the directions on cleaning labels, their homes will be cleaner and healthier. With
the push for more green cleaning products, many manufacturers are producing
environmentally sensitive cleaners—claiming their green products contain fewer harsh
chemicals and are just as effective other cleaners. Unfortunately, most of these green
products contain nearly seventy-eight percent water and are not as effective as their non-
green counter parts. Claims have been brought against companies such as Clorox for
misrepresenting products. Most recently the National Advertising Division (NAD) told
“Clorox to either discontinue or modify their advertisements for Clorox Green Works, on
the grounds that the cleaners actually do not work as well as traditional cleaners.”
33
It was
the opinion of the NAD that an average consumer could misperceive the Clorox Green
38
SS National Auveitisement Bivision. NAB Examines Cloiox "uieen Woiks" Claims, Following Challenge by Nethou Piouucts.
http:¡¡www.nauieview.oig¡naucontent¡piessuoc¡Su89PR.puf
Works as being a disinfectant because of the language used in the advertisement. This
type of advertising is referred to as greenwashing.
Greenwashing
Greenwashing is a continually growing trend where companies claim their
products or practices are environmentally friendly, but in actuality are not. The driving
factor for this is that “environmental advertising—in the United States at least—is not
tightly regulated.”
34
The only organization with the responsibility to prevent false
advertising is the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). While the FTC attempts to stop
illegitimate claims, consumers must accept responsibility to understand what they are
buying. One challenge to this is that companies are not always forthright in their dealings
with the consumer. Richard Dahl, author of Greenwashing: Do You Know What You’re
Buying? shares the seven sins of greenwashing (or how companies are deceptive about
their products).
39
S4 Richaiu Bahl. uieenwashing: Bo You Know What You'ie Buying. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡ehpuS.niehs.nih.gov¡aiticle.info
%Auoi%2F1u.1289%2Fehp.118-a246
(1) Sin of the hidden trade-off: A product is green based
on an unreasonably narrow set of attributes.
(2) Sin of no proof: An environmental claim that has no
proof.
(3) Sin of vagueness: Claims that are poorly defined or
broad and can cause misunderstanding.
(4) Sin of irrelevance: Claims that are truthful but not important or helpful for
consumers.
(5) Sin of lesser of two evils: Claims that are true but intentionally distract from
health or environmental impacts.
(6) Sin of fibbing: Making false claims.
(7) Sin of false labels: False labels or certifications on products.
Discovering the truth about products can be daunting; for this reason consumer-
advocate groups have published helpful websites like greenerchoices.org.
35
This website
is sponsored by Consumer Reports, and provides information about many different
products, including cleaners. It informs consumers about the labeling of products and
how best to determine what to use.
Lawsuit to disclose ingredients
Until recently, it was nearly impossible to find what ingredients were in cleaners.
This changed because of a 2010 New York court case where consumer-advocacy groups
brought a lawsuit against several major household cleaning manufacturers for not
40
SS Consumei Repoits, (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.gieeneichoices.oig
disclosing the ingredients in their cleaners. In response to the lawsuit, companies began
voluntarily posting cleaner ingredients on their websites. Though still not listed on labels,
consumers can at least find ingredients on websites now.
What's inside?
While the court case in New York has prompted cleaning companies to post their
ingredients, it is not an end-all solution. Only the major ingredients are currently listed.
Furthermore, the quantities of each ingredient are not provided and several components
such as fragrances are not listed in detail. Additionally, reading the name of a chemical
and knowing what it does are two different things. It is important that organizations
properly research the potential benefits or hazards of the cleaners they use. Below is a list
of several major brands and where to find what is contained inside various cleaning
products.
Clorox products: http://www.thecloroxcompany.com/products/ingredients-inside
SC Johnson products: http://www.whatsinsidescjohnson.com
Simple Green: http://www.simplegreen.com/pdfs/MSDS_EN-US_AllPurposeCleaner.pdf
Mr.Clean: http://www.kernair.org/Documents/MSDS/mr%20clean.pdf
41

Watchdog groups and consumer protection
Many groups and organizations have joined forces to persuade cleaning
companies to be more forthcoming with the ingredients in their products. Some are
focused on providing information and help to consumers while others are more action
oriented. Some of the organizations affecting change are Earthjustice, Women’s Voices
for the Earth, and Growing a Green Family. A description of each is listed below.
Earthjustice
Earthjustice
36
is a non-profit law firm based in San Francisco, California. It was
in part due to their help that the lawsuit in New York was made possible, causing
increased attention towards cleaning product companies. This increased publicity was a
factor that motivated companies to post the ingredients of their products online.
Earthjustice was founded in 1971 as the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund but changed its
name to Earthjustice in 1997.
42
S6
Eaithjustice. (2u1S) http:¡¡www.eaithjustice.oig
Women's Voices for the Earth (WVE)
As stated on its website, “Women’s Voices for the Earth is a national organization
that works to eliminate toxic chemicals that impact women’s health by changing
consumer behaviors, corporate practices, and government policies.”
37
The organization
provides information regarding cleaning products, cosmetics, salons, and other household
chemicals. It was founded in 1995 in Missoula, Montana, by a group of women’s
activists. For its first ten years of operation, WVE focused on state-based initiatives in
Montana. Now it works to protect health in the United States, focusing on eliminating
toxic chemicals that contribute to breast cancer, birth defects, asthma, infertility, learning
disabilities, children’s cancers and other illnesses.
Growing a Green Family (GGF)
uuF,
38
wiitten by }ennifei Chait, is one of hundreds of blogs written by
consumers containing information on everyday products. It provides consumer
information, as well as a place for comments, and links to other blogs or websites.
Additional organizations for cleaning products
There are always organizations and groups for both sides of an argument. While
the group for non-disclosure of cleaning ingredients is smaller, it is important to note
advocates of both sides. The American Cleaning Institute is one such organization.
43
S7 Safe Cleaning Piouucts. (2u1u). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.womensvoices.oig¡making-piouucts-safe¡safe-cleaning-
piouucts¡
S8 uiowing a uieen Family (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡giowingagieenfamily.com¡jennifeis-cuiient-blogs¡
American Cleaning Institute (ACI)
The ACI is “Home of the US Cleaning Products Industry®, representing
producers of household, industrial, and institutional cleaning products, their ingredients
and finished packaging.”
39
This includes over 100 manufacturers who make about ninety
percent of all the cleaning products in the United States. Their goal is “advancing public
understanding of the safety and benefits of cleaning products, and protecting the ability of
its members to formulate products that best meet consumer needs.”
39
The ACI does not
support the disclosure of cleaning product ingredients and believes it is “unnecessary,
unworkable, and would further strain scarce taxpayer resources.”
39
The ACI has been
around since 1926, but was then known as the Soap and Detergent Association (SDA).
Air pollutants from cleaners
A research study conducted at Berkeley in May of 2006 found that indoor
cleaning products could emit toxic pollutants. The researchers selected twenty-one
products from major retailers, particularly those containing “significant amounts of
terpenes and ethylene-based glycol ethers.”
40
The study reports that when cleaning
44
S9 ACI Backgiounu. (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.cleaninginstitute.oig¡about¡aci_backgiounu.aspx
4u Stuuy wains of cleaning piouucts iisks. (2uu6). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡beikeley.euu¡news¡meuia¡ielease¡
2uu6¡uS¡22_householuchemicals.shtiml
products are used under ordinary circumstances, the exposure to harmful substances
would not exceed guideline values. However, when high percentages of ozone is in the
air, or when working in confined spaces such as bathrooms, exposure can be greater than
recommended. The most important findings from the research are:

When cleaning, especially in smaller areas, make sure there is proper ventilation
during and after cleaning.

Avoid cleaning when outdoor ozone/smog levels are high.

To prevent injury, products should be used as directed, such as used at diluted
strength as opposed to full strength”
50
4.2 1he Lñects of C|ean||ness on Indoor A|r and Lnv|ronmenta| Çua||ty
A study published in Indoor Air stressed the importance of cleaning. The
researchers of the study set out to see if indoor air pollution had an impact on the
productivity of building occupants. Control groups of six female subjects each were
assigned to work in a clean environment, and experimental groups were assigned to areas
that had the addition of a twenty-year-old carpet acting as a pollutant. The experimental
45
groups had significantly higher levels of sickness and significantly lower levels of work
performance compared to the control groups.
41

A study that looked at the benefits of a clean environment in a school setting was
conducted by Dr. Berry at Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, D.C., in
2002. Dr. Barry’s research revealed that a clean environment contributes to the health of
the student, which “is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. A
cleaning system should enhance the well-being of students, staff, and others.”
42

Another body of research that shows the impact of building cleanliness on health,
compared twenty-four schools with visible moisture and mold problems to eight non-
damaged schools. The mold and moisture had an adverse affect on building occupants,
especially in contaminated schools constructed of concrete or masonry.
43

The research review, “Do Indoor Pollutants and Thermal Conditions in Schools
Influence Student Performance?” showed that nitrogen dioxide (a common indoor
pollutant derived from combustion processes, such as unvented combustion appliances,
vented appliances with defective installations, tobacco smoke and welding
44
), reduces
school attendance. It also showed that low ventilation adversely affects student
performance.
45

46
41 Waigocki, Pawel, Fangei, P. 0le, Clausen, ueo, Baik, Yong K. & Wyon, Baviu P. (1999). Peiceiveu Aii Quality, Sick Builuing
Synuiome (SBS) Symptoms anu Piouuctivity in an 0ffice with Two Biffeient Pollution Loaus. Inuooi Aii, 16S-79 (9.S), 16S-79.
42 Beiiy, Nichael A. (2uu2). Bealthy School Enviionment anu Enhanceu Euucational Peifoimance: The Case of Chailes Young
Elementaiy School Washing, BC. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.caipetiug.oig¡puf_woiu_uocs¡u2u112_Chailes_Young.puf
4S Neklin, T., Nevalainen, A., Noschanuieas, B., Byväiinen, A., Balla-Aho, }., Koivisto, }., vahteiisto, N., Busman, T. &
vepsäläinen, A. (2uu2). Inuooi Aii Niciobes anu Respiiatoiy Symptoms of Chiluien in Noistuie Bamageu anu Refeience
Schools. Inuooi Aii, 12.S, 17S-8S.
44 Enviionmental Piotection Agency (EPA). (2u12). An Intiouuction to Inuooi Aii Quality. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡
www.epa.gov¡iaq¡no2.html
4S Nenuell, Naik }. & Beath, uaivin A. (2u1u). Bo Inuooi Pollutants anu Theimal Conuitions in Schools Influence Stuuent
Peifoimance. A Ciitical Review of the Liteiatuie. Inuooi Aii 1S.1, 27-S2.
4.3 Conc|us|ons
Overall, there are many ways for consumers to obtain information regarding
cleaning products, it just requires a bit more effort than reading a label. Proper cleaning
and correct usage of cleaning products will lead to improved health and performance.
47
Chapter 5: Engineering and
Process Management
S.1 1he Importance of Lng|neer|ng
Engineering is defined as “The application of science to the optimum conversion
of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind . . . [or] the creative application of
scientific principles.”
46
Engineer Theodore von Kármán (knows as the “architect of the
space age”)
47
described science as the study of what is and engineering as the study of
what never was. Engineering serves the purpose of uniting technological advances and
innovations with practical application.
48
46
Engineeiing (science). (2u12) Encyclopeuia Biitannica. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.biitannica.com¡
47
Petioski, Beniy. (2u1u). !"# %&&#'()*+ %',)'##-. /"0 12)#'2# 3+4'# /)++ 54( 14+6# 78- 9+4:*+ ;-4:+#<&= Knopf Boubleuay
Publishing uioup.
An example of this occurred in 1994 when parts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
collided with Jupiter. The amazing brilliance of the explosions that resulted was clearly
visible through small telescopes and even outshone the planet. The explosions were
estimated to have had more magnitude than all of the atomic bombs in our world. This
event brought up a concern to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration: What
would happen if such a collision happened on earth? This problem was presented to
engineers who then set up satellites and other devices to detect and find any object that
was headed for a collision or close encounter with earth. It was through engineering that a
plausible and working solution could be made.
S.2 An n|stor|ca| V|ew of Lng|neer|ng
As technology, science, and information in general increase worldwide, it
becomes more vital that engineers find ways to protect the health and safety of the
masses. A 2008 Chinese milk incident was one of many food-related fiascos that showed
some concerns with growing technology. A milk additive was discovered that would
make dairy products appear to contain more protein. This chemical, called melamine,
passed the standard lab tests, but was later discovered to be harmful to the body. Three-
hundred thousand babies became ill and six died after ingesting melamine.
48
If
engineering had been incorporated with science in the testing of melamine, it may have
ensured the safety of the product before it was released for public consumption.
Research and development (R & D) is part of both science and engineering.
Research is the science side of engineering that deals with the discovery of how things
49
48
2u1u. China uaiiy piouucts founu tainteu with melamine. BBC News Asia-Pacific. }uly 9. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡
www.bbc.co.uk¡news¡1uS6S8S8
function in the universe. Many research labs prior to World War II were set up with the
goal of simply exploring science. This was the style at Corning labs. A chemist with more
than forty patents described the process: “ We were given absolute control over what we
worked on. We were just there and spent the day doing our darnedest to dig up something
new and no one directed us to what we should be working on and put a time limit or
anything of that nature.”
49
This method of R & D ended with the start of World War II, or
what has been called the scientists’ war.
In 1939, Albert Einstein along with other scientists wrote a letter to President
Franklin Roosevelt to inform him of the potential energy and possible harm that lay in
Uranium
50
. Afraid Germany would harness uranium first, Roosevelt responded by
forming the Manhattan Project, an R & D program that produced the atomic bomb that
ended the war. In 1941 a Senator named Harley Kilgore advocated that government
funding should go towards R & D. He proposed that the furthering of science would lead
to many improvements in society that would benefit everyone.
This system worked for a while, promising results from the information and
knowledge that was being gained from the research. But not much happened until the
Russians launched Sputnik in 1957.
51
Suddenly direction was required in the
government-funded research. It was not enough to solely understand what the Russians
had done. Practical application of knowledge was needed as well. In this instance, the
50
49
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Publishing uioup
Su
Einstein-Sziláiu lettei (2u12). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡en.wikipeuia.oig¡wiki¡Einstein-Sziláiu_lettei
S1
Petioski, Beniy. (2u1u) !"# %&&#'()*+ %',)'##-. /"0 12)#'2# 3+4'# /)++ 54( 14+6# 78- 9+4:*+ ;-4:+#<&. Knopf Boubleuay
Publishing uioup
emphasis began to shift to development. The accepted notion of scientific research to
discover truths began to be seen as incomplete. Vannevar Bush, who had helped in the
design of the research system, began to question what had been done.
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It began to be
evident that science and engineering needed to be together like when the atomic bombs
were formed, unity of research and development as two equals was crucial.
The most recent change in the world of engineering occurred in the 1970s. During
this time period private funding of research exceeded government funding. Since that
time, the gap has continued to grow as the value of science and engineering together has
been used for many industries to gain the advantage and excel in one way or another.
Those who can allocate funding to the right type of technology and engineering will see
substantial increase in their respective industries.
S.3 Lng|neer|ng |n the Iuture
With research done in almost every field of study, what remains to be done?
With rapid increases in technology in the past few decades, the amount of information
available in the world is astounding. Perhaps greater application of engineering to
information technologies and science would lead to new findings.
The book, Engineering in History,
53
points out a few things that are preventing
the increase of useful products. One is the vision of engineering and what it is compatible
with. It is customary to think of engineering as a part of a trilogy: pure science, applied
science, and engineering. This trilogy is only one of a triad of trilogies into which
51
S2
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Kiiby, R.S., Withington, S., Bailing, A.B., anu Kilgoui, F.u. (199u). %',)'##-)', )' >)&(4-0 ?@46#- A)6)+ *'B C#2"*')2*+
%',)'##-)',. Bovei Publications
engineering fits. The second is economic theory, finance, and engineering; and the third is
social relations, industrial relations, and engineering. Many engineering problems are as
closely allied to social problems as they are to pure science.
Communication is one of the biggest issues that is involved with the growth of
technology. With the over abundance of information today, it is difficult to process it all,
let alone understand when it is useful. Because every area of an organization must work
together, the engineering needed to fix problems must take into account the
communication within a group. This is complicated by the diverse jargon that is used in
different professions and areas within an organization. The problem is highlighted in the
book, The Essential Engineer: Why Science Alone Will Not Solve Our Global Problems,
when author Henry Petroski quotes Charles Percy Snow. “In our society (that is,
advanced western society) we have lost even the pretense of a common culture. Persons
educated with the greatest intensity we know can no longer communicate with each other
on the plane of their major intellectual concern. This is serious for our creative,
intellectual and, above all, our moral life. It is leading us to interpret the past wrongly, to
misjudge the present, and to deny our hopes of the future. It is making it difficult or
impossible for us to take good action.
54
Clear communication is vital to harnessing
information and helping organizations progress.

52
S4
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Publishing uioup
S.4 What Is an Lng|neered Þrocess?
A process is described as “a natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that
lead toward a particular result.”
55
Another definition states a process is “a series of
actions or operations conducing to an end; especially a continuous operation or treatment
especially in manufacture.”
56
Considering both of these definitions makes it clear why
engineering processes are key to a business’s success. The industry and profit that have
been achieved is a result of mastering and perfecting the processes used in
manufacturing. This is how Henry Ford was able to make mass-produced, inexpensive
cars available to the public. With the exception of the cleaning industry, analyzing and
improving processes is how most major industries are run today. The key is to link
engineering with processes to develop efficient and effective systems.
53
SS
Piocess. (2u12) The Encyclopeuia Biitannica. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.biitannica.com¡
S6
(2uuS). Neiiiam-Webstei's Collegiate Bictionaiy, Eleventh Euition. Neiiiam-Webstei, Incoipoiateu. p. 99u
Chapter 6: The Practice of Lean
and Quality Management
6.1 What |s 1ÇM?
Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to a management system that consists of
values, disciplines, tools, and methodologies, all used to ensure customer satisfaction and
reduce the amount of resources needed. TQM is a culture that embraces efficient and
effective practices, and values quality products and services. A TQM culture often
requires a radical shift in job design where emphasis is placed on innovation, creativity,
and problem solving—all aimed at maximizing the quality of output more than the
quantity of output. It also requires the dedication and cooperation of all divisions and
departments, at all levels of an organization. Employees must understand the
54
fundamentals of TQM; they need to understand their efforts contribute to the success of
the company.
An important aspect of employee dedication is employee empowerment. Effective
managers empower employees, allowing them to solve performance problems on their
own. TQM companies are committed from the top on down. The corporate culture is built
on shared dedication to improve quality and customer service through waste reduction
and continual improvement.
There are several different methodologies and practices used to create a TQM
culture in various industries today. This section looks at five of the best practices that
have been successful and are used throughout the world. These five best practices include
Lean, Six Sigma, ISO 9000, The Balanced Scorecard, and the Malcolm Baldrige National
Quality Award.
6.2 What |s Lean?
Lean is a concept that focuses on efficiency and quality. The main idea of Lean is
to maximize customer value while using less resources and minimizing waste. A
company that is able to improve the quality of its output with little effort while
maintaining a low cost is considered a Lean company. Lean is more than just a system for
getting work done in a more efficient manner; Lean is a shift in thinking. Lean focuses on
maximizing customer value while minimizing waste. The ultimate goal of Lean is to
create a process that takes less time, less human resources, less space, and less capital,
while producing higher quality and less expensive products and services. The shift to
Lean thinking occurs when an organization moves from a compartmentalized view of
55
systems, technologies, and processes, to one where a process is seen as a value stream—
where everything involved in creating an output is thought of as one connected process.
Where did Lean originate?
Lean originally started with Henry Ford and the moving assembly line. It was
then taken further by Kiichiro Toyoda and his Toyota Production System, which
integrated Ford’s ideas with options for more variety within the same system.
57
The
whole process was created by thinking of the flow of the car through a facility and the
complete process. Lean incorporates continual improvement as those involved in the
process share ideas for improvement, and those who are looking from the outside
question why things are done a certain way.
Other names for Lean Manufacturing include the Toyota Production System
(TPS), Just-in Time Production (JIT), Stock-less Production (SP), and Continuous Flow
Manufacturing (CFM). All of these are the building blocks for what is considered today
as Lean. The Toyota Production System was built on Henry Ford’s moving assembly line,
and Just-in-Time Production ideas improved on Toyota’s basic system. Stock-less
Production utilizes the same concepts as Just-in-Time Production: large numbers of
products are not stocked, but are ordered or built as needed—which means less space is
required to store product and less waste occurs. Continuous Flow Manufacturing
incorporates ideas from the other three systems, which leads to manufacturing products in
the quickest and most effective way possible.
56
S7
Womack, }.P., }ones, B.T., anu Roos, B. ( 2uu7 ). !"# C*2")'# ("*( A"*',#B ("# /4-+B= Fiee Piess.
Lean Tools/Concepts
QATS (Quality at the Source) is a concept/tool used in Lean practices. The basic
concept of QATS is to place skills and knowledge in employees’ hands so they have both
the ability and power to correct defects early in the process before value-added activity is
conducted. Inspections should be immediate and take as little time as possible; defects are
corrected at the point of discovery. The idea is that quality will improve and costs will
decline as defects are identified and corrected early in the process. QATS uses a three-
part system to help employees learn the process: training, use of visual aids, and use of
documentation.
Lean is implemented by first understanding the activities and practices that are
considered wasteful and do not add value to the process. It then looks at the process and
identifies what creates value in the process stream and what is wasteful. A culture of
continual improvement must be set up so that those who are in the day-to-day work-flow
are comfortable with approaching management with new ideas on how to improve
processes. Each area also needs to be cleaned and organized so that everything is in its
place. With the preceding steps in place, waste can be eliminated or mitigated, and the
process can become more Lean.’ The process should be re-evaluated often as new ideas
for improvement emerge.
6.3 What |s S|x S|gma?
Six Sigma is more than just a philosophy that implements lean principles; it is an
actual methodology for total quality management. The Six Sigma method is a complex
management tool that can significantly improve the quality and profitability in an
57
organization when implemented successfully. Six Sigma was hatched in the
manufacturing world, and has been used by companies such as General Electric,
Polaroid, Sony, Honda, American Express, Ford, and Motorola. Six Sigma was developed
at Motorola in the mid-1980s as a statistic method for reducing defects and variations in
manufacturing of its electronic parts and products. Six Sigma focuses on reducing
variation in all processes, including administration. This methodology has become a
widely used tool for all types of organizations and business, such as government,
banking, healthcare, and others.
58
What is the meaning of Six Sigma?
The word sigma represents a statistical measure related to the capability of a
process to produce non-deficient products, units or parts. Six Sigma is a measure of six
standard deviations from the mean under a standard normal distribution, more widely
known as a bell curve. The highest rating is Level Six, where the number of defects per
million opportunities is equal to or lower than 3.4. As the sigma levels lower, the defects
per million opportunities significantly increase. The ideal level that companies should
strive for is obviously Level Six, but in theory, companies should strive to eliminate
errors completely.
59
58
S8 Antony, }., & Banuelas, R. (2uu2). Key ingieuients foi the effective implementation of Six Sigma piogiam. Neasuiing
Business Excellence, 6(4), 2u-27. Retiieveu }une 2S, 2u12, fiom http:¡¡www.emeialuinsight.com¡
S9 Bow Six Sigma Nay Belp BR to Impiove Piocesses anu Seivices. (2uu7). BR Focus, 84(12), S.
Six Sigma and Quality Management
The concept of quality management is not new to the business world, but Six
Sigma is unique because it introduces efficient techniques to reduce variation and
improve processes. This places greater value on achieving operational excellence, which
is required to attain financial and marketplace excellence. As with all processes, Six
Sigma has evolved over time. It now encompasses many different elements of business
improvement, including understanding and managing customer requirements, and
delivering sustainable improvements to business processes. According to the Six Sigma
method, quality is much more than striving to create products and services to meet certain
specifications. Quality is broadened to include the economic value and practical utility to
both the company and the customer. Thus, the idea of Six Sigma is to gain a competitive
edge in the marketplace by improving customer satisfaction and continually improving
processes through defect reduction.
60
Cost versus Benefits
Six Sigma has generated substantial returns on investment for those who
implement its methodology. “In fact from 1987 to 1997 Motorola achieved a five-fold
growth in sales with profits climbing nearly 20 percent per year, cumulative savings at
$US14 billion and stock price gains compounded to an annual rate of 21.3 percent.”
61

Motorola was the first winner of America’s Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in
59
6u Nellat-Paiast, N., }ones, E. C., & Auams, S. u. (2uu7, Septembei). Six Sigma anu Baluiige: A Quality Alliance |Electionic
veisionj. Quality Piogiess, 4u(9), 4S-Su.
61 B. Klefsjo, B. Wiklunu, R. Eugeman, (2uu1), "Six sigma seen as a methouology foi total quality management", Neasuiing
Business Excellence, vol. S Iss: 1 pp. S1-SS
1988. Another example of substantial returns is General Electric: with the implementation
of Six Sigma, the company saved one billion dollars over a two-year window.
What are the Principles?
Some of the main principles of Six Sigma include proactive management and
employee empowerment. The concept is the same as the principles of Lean
manufacturing, that is, business quality is at its highest when the costs of delivering high
quality products and services are at the absolute lowest. Another principle that is key to
quality improvement is removing defects at the source. This is made possible by
empowering employees to make quick decisions when defects arise by coming up with
alternative solutions to the problem.
The standard framework for implementing a Six Sigma methodology is broken
down into a five-phase improvement cycle, referred to as DMAIC (define, measure,
analyze, improve and control). The phases are as follows:
(1) Define strategic goals that focus on the customers and the processes that have
the greatest impact on quality.
(2) Measure the current processes and collect data needed for future comparison.
(3) Analyze the data and determine causality of defects. Determine the source of
the problem.
(4) Improve the process by identifying solutions and implementing improvement
methods.
60
(5) Control and develop a plan to continually measure the process and ensure
performance improvement. Set tools that help keep variability within the set
maximum ranges.
Case Study
In April 2007 John Germaine, R.N., director of surgical services at Covenant
Healthcare in Saginaw, Michigan, authored an article in “Materials Management In
Health Care,”
62
recounting the experience of implementing Six Sigma at Covenant
Healthcare. Before implementing the Six Sigma program, Covenant Healthcare was
dealing with inefficiencies that were negatively affecting budgets and satisfaction levels
of physicians, employees, and patients. Infection rates increased the costs to the
organization by 300 percent. The inability to manage time and frequency of delays
hindered patient turnover, causing inefficiencies in the operating room as well. Thus, it
became necessary to implement Six Sigma and improve the quality of their processes.
While implementing the Six Sigma plan, a thorough analysis of several processes
was performed. The results pointed out four major factors affecting the poor level of
performance, including scheduling and start times, room turnover, instrument handling,
and cleaning protocols. Germaine and other Covenant Healthcare leaders were proactive
in implementing the five phases of Six Sigma: They closely examined all their processes
and identified the inefficiencies, collected data, analyzed their data, and made the
necessary steps towards improvement. Some of the steps for improvement were
61
62 ueimaine, R.N., }ohn. "Six Sigma plan ueliveis stellai iesults: Suigical-site infection iate plunges." Nateiials Nanagement in
BealthApi. 2uu7. PioQuest. Web. 21 }une 2u12. <http:¡¡www.matmanmag.com¡matmanmag_app¡jsp¡aiticleuisplay.jsp.
ucipath=NATNANNAu¡PubsNewsAiticleuen¡uata¡u4APR2uu7¡u7u4NNB_FEA_CoveiStoiy&uomain=NATNANNAu>.
improving timelines, reworking room preparation, educating employees, developing an
efficiency team, changing the way instruments are handled, and creating a more thorough
and organized approach to cleaning.
The results were as follows: “Room turnover dropped from an average of 34
minutes to 18 minutes; volume increased by five percent; and satisfaction scores soared
to the ninety-third percentile . . . . Even more importantly, the infection rate plunged from
2.14 percent to 1.07 percent, essentially saving the hospital more than $70,000 in one
year due, in large part, to a decline in antibiotic use for surgical patients”
63
6.4 What |s ISC 9000?
ISO 9000 is a family of standards and guidelines related to quality management
systems and practices. First issued by the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) in 1987, ISO standards now consist of ISO 9000, 9001, 9002, 9003, and 9004. The
concept of ISO 9000 is to provide an international consensus on good quality
management practices through a certification process consisting of standardized
requirements set by the ISO. The ISO 9000 family of standards is designed to help
organizations ensure they meet the needs and expectations of all stakeholders: customers,
suppliers, and organizations. ISO 9000:2005 deals with quality management systems-
fundamentals and vocabulary to help companies sustain and improve quality management
systems. The system-fundamentals found in the ISO 9000 include eight management
principles on which the family of standards is based: (1) Scope, (2) Normative reference,
62
6S ueimaine, R.N., }ohn. "Six Sigma plan ueliveis stellai iesults: Suigical-site infection iate plunges." Nateiials Nanagement in
BealthApi. 2uu7. PioQuest. Web. 21 }une 2u12. <http:¡¡www.matmanmag.com¡matmanmag_app¡jsp¡aiticleuisplay.jsp.
ucipath=NATNANNAu¡PubsNewsAiticleuen¡uata¡u4APR2uu7¡u7u4NNB_FEA_CoveiStoiy&uomain=NATNANNAu>.
(3) Terms and definitions, (4) Quality management system, (5) Management
responsibility, (6) Resource management, (7) Product realization, and (8) Measurement
analysis and improvement.
Certification and ISO 9001
The certification is referred to as ISO 9000 but the actual standard is ISO
9001:2008. ISO 9001 is a thirty-page document, available from the national standards
organization in each country. ISO 9001:2008 provides a set of standardized requirements
that are expected from a quality management system, regardless of what type of business
or organization. The ISO 9001 is the only standard which organizations are audited
against during the certification process.
The certification process entails an audit by an independent third party
organization that is selected by the company that applies for certification. The purpose of
the audit is to verify the implementation of and conformity to the requirements of the ISO
9000 standards. An organization is audited based on an extensive sample of its sites,
functions, products, services, and processes. The eight management standards outlined in
ISO 9000 (above) are used during the auditing process. Once the audit has been
performed, the third party that performed the audit will either recommend or reject the
company for certification based on the number and nature of nonconformities. If a large
number of nonconformities are found, the organization will need to present an
improvement plan of how the problems will be corrected in order for the certification to
be earned. The certification must be renewed at regular intervals, usually once every three
63
years. More than one million organizations worldwide are independently certified,
making ISO 9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the world today.
ISO 9000 and Quality Management
The challenge for many companies is selecting the most appropriate process for
quality management. In order to be competitive, the quality of products and services need
to increase and the cost of production needs to decrease at the same time. The focus of
the ISO 9000 system is to decrease the gap between current quality control methods and
TQM for the majority of companies. Similar to the Six Sigma philosophy, the ISO
standards shift the focus from finished products to the processes that produce these
products. Additionally, these standards improve communication throughout the company,
which increases employee awareness of quality issues and encourages employees to be
more proactive. The real value of these quality assurance standards is primarily based on
the way that companies adopt and implement them. Companies that limit their efforts to
satisfy only the minimum necessary requirements for certification, will not be able to
realize the full potential of the standards and will likely be disappointed. The standards of
ISO 9000 do not guarantee a perfect TQM system for companies that implement these
standards, but they do have the power to help companies significantly improve internal
operations and system quality, which may evolve into a TQM system in the future.
64
64
64 Tummala, v. N. R. (1996). Stiategic quality management, malcolm baluiige anu euiopean quality awaius anu iso 9uuu
ceitification: Coie concepts anu compaiative analysis. Inteinational }ouinal of Quality & Reliability Nanagement,1S(4), 8-S7.
Case Study
A study of manufacturing companies in Saudi Arabia, evaluating the effectiveness
of ISO 9000, was carried out by members of the Department of Management and
Organization from the University of Stirling in the United Kingdom. The purpose of the
study was to assess the implementation of ISO 9000 in manufacturing companies in
Saudi Arabia, one of the leading economies in the world and the leading exporter of oil.
The objectives were to evaluate the benefits of ISO 9000 certification, perform a cost/
benefit analysis, and evaluate satisfaction levels.
The process involved distributing a questionnaire that was developed after
extensive review of ISO 9000 standards. The questionnaire contained closed questions
with a fixed ranged of possible answers, thus making it easier to make a comparative
analysis of participants’ opinions. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed to quality
managers located throughout the country. Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 97 were
collected and 83 were used for final analysis; this represented a response rate of 59.2
percent.
ISO 9000 is a relatively new concept in Saudi Arabia. The vast majority of
manufacturing firms have been registered to ISO for less than five years. Almost two-
thirds of the firms were registered to ISO 9002 and the remaining third were registered to
ISO 9001. (The majority of Saudi firms are joint ventures; such firms receive design and
tech support from their foreign partners, so it isn’t necessary to register for ISO 9001.)
The results of the study suggested that the most important benefits gained form
implementing ISO 9000 were improvement in customer service, improvement of the
65
quality system’s efficiency, and improved product and service quality. The research also
provided evidence that Saudi Arabian companies who have certified through ISO 9000
feel strongly about the benefits gained through certification in comparison to the high
costs.
65
6.S What |s the 8a|anced Scorecard?
The balanced scorecard is a set of measures that allow top executives and
managers to have a more balanced view of the performance of their organization, both
financially and operationally. It enables companies to track financial results while
monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they
require for future growth. The balanced scorecard gives managers important perspectives
of the business by answering: How do our customers see us? What must we excel at?
How can we continue to improve and create value? How do we look to shareholders? In
essence, the four perspectives are: The Customer Perspective, The Internal Perspective,
The Financial Perspective, and The Innovation and Learning Perspective. The idea of the
balanced scorecard is to give senior managers information from various aspects of the
business. Managers develop metrics for each perspective, collect data, and analyze
each.
66
See the following diagram.
66
6S Nagu, B., Kauasah, N., & Cuiiy, A. (2uuS). IS0 9uuu implementation: a stuuy of manufactuiing companies in Sauui Aiabia.
Naageiial Auuiting }ouinal, 4(18), S1S-S22. Retiieveu }une 24, 2u12, fiom Emeialu.
66 Kaplan, R. S., & Noiton, B. P. (1992). The balanceu scoiecaiu-measuies that uiive peifoimance. Baivaiu Business Review,
71-79.
Customer Perspective. How does our company appear to our customers?
The perspective of customers should be a concern for both management and
employees. The balanced scorecard requires managers to select specific measures that
reflect the values of customers. In most industries, customers’ concerns are categorized
into four areas: time, quality, service, and cost. Quality is a measurement perceived by the
customer regarding the defect level of a product or service. The combination of high
quality and performance contribute to creating value for customers. By encouraging
customers to evaluate the performance, businesses can successfully collect and analyze
data from a credible source.
Internal Perspective. What are the core competencies we are using to be
competitive?
The internal processes of the business are the operational factors that affect
customers’ perspectives as well as the financial success of the business. The internal
67
measures of the balanced scorecard should correlate with the processes that have the
greatest impact on customer satisfaction and future financial success of the business.
Company executives should identify core competencies and critical technologies that
ensure a competitive advantage in the market. Once the core competencies have been
identified, management then specifies measures that can be collected and analyzed for the
balanced scorecard. An important part of the internal processes are the employees who
are directly involved at the lower levels of the organization. As managers identify
measures for key processes and competencies, it is important to encourage employees to
be proactive in their actions and decisions, and to provide specific targets that contribute
to the goals of the company.
Innovative and Learning Perspective. Are we being innovative and continually
improving our products and processes?
Due to intense global competition, it is necessary for many businesses to be
innovative and make continual improvements to existing products and processes. This
perspective allows management to assess their ability to launch new products, create
more value for customers, and improve the performance of internal processes. This
perspective should also include the growth of employees in knowledge and abilities. As
technology continues to advance at a rapid pace, it is important that workers continue to
increase their knowledge and training in order to support the growth of the company.
68
Financial Perspective. Are the improvements in operations being translated into
financial success?
Some may argue that financial measures are unnecessary and that the numbers
will take care of themselves by improving operations. This isn’t always the case. The
relationship between improved operating performance and financial success is
insubstantial and inconsistent. The challenge is to learn how to make a definite
relationship between operations and finance. Executives must identify measures that will
translate improved operational performance into improved financial performance. This
may require companies to ensure employees and facilities are working to capacity by
being prepared to remove excess capacity or put it to work. Companies capitalize on their
operational improvements by expanding sales to existing customers, expanding existing
products to new customers, and increasing the flow of new products throughout the
market.
67
Case Study
Philips Electronics has used the balanced scorecard to align company vision,
focus employees on how they fit into the big picture, and educate them on what drives the
business.”
68
69
67 Kaplan, R. S., & Noiton, B. P. (1996). 0sing the balanceu scoiecaiu as a stiategic management system.Baivaiu Business
Review, 1-1S.
68 uumbus, A. & Lyons, B. (2uu2). The balanceu scoiecaiu at Philips Electionics. Stiategic Finance,
How Philips Electronics implemented the balanced scorecard
The Philips Electronics’ management team created its own balanced scorecard
containing the four perspectives of competence, processes, customers, and financial. The
management team of each business unit identified which critical success factors
differentiate them from the rest of the competition. The goal was to translate assumed
relationships such as customer satisfaction and product sales into critical success factors
to measure performance. After each business unit identified their success factors, the next
step was to determine what key indicators would be used to measure the success factors.
Targets were set based on the desired performance for the current year and several years
into the future. By doing so, Philips Electronics enabled its employees to understand
exactly what they needed to do on a daily basis in order to contribute to the goals and
mission of the company. In order to succeed, it is imperative that company managers
share metrics with employees. Philips Electronics was able to implement this principle by
using traffic-light reporting to indicate how the performance was in comparison to the
target set. A green light meant performance was on target, yellow indicated performance
was in-line, and red indicated that performance was below target.
The Philips Electronics balanced scorecard was initially designed to have three
levels. The highest is the strategy review card, next is the operations review card, and
third is the business unit card. The goals in each card level aligned with the goals in the
next level above.
69

70
69 uumbus, A. & Lyons, B. (2uu2). The balanceu scoiecaiu at Philips Electionics. Stiategic Finance,
6.6 What |s the Ma|co|m 8a|dr|ge Nanona| Çua||ty Award?
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) was created in 1987 by
Public Law 100-107 as the highest level of national recognition for performance
excellence that a US business or organization can receive. It is the only performance
excellence award that is awarded by the President himself. The Baldrige award is given
annually for excellence in product quality achievements. There are currently forty-four
states that have a Baldrige Award recognition program. Organizations can apply for the
award in one of four categories: small business, education, healthcare, and nonprofit. The
purpose of the Malcolm Baldrige Award is to motivate American companies to improve
quality and productivity, not just for receiving recognition, but to actually achieve a
competitive edge through increased profits. The award is a strong predictor of long-term
survival and future profitability for an organization or business.
70
Guidelines and Criteria
The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, which manages the MBNQA, has
established guidelines and criteria that can be used by organizations in evaluating their
own quality improvement efforts. There are three current versions of the performance
criteria: business/nonprofit, education, and healthcare. Most companies use the Criteria
Excellence Program as a blueprint to improve quality and their competitive position in
the marketplace. Many commit long-term to developing a new set of standards and
implementing quality management strategies.
71
7u The malcolm baluiige national quality impiovement act of 1987. (2u1u, Febiuaiy 18). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.nist.gov¡
baluiige¡about¡impiovement_act.cfm
The MBNQA is not designed to reward excellence in product or service quality
alone. The other areas that require performance excellence are: leadership, management
of systems, processes, and planning. The application process requires evidence of
improvements made in management philosophy, practices, and policies related to the
pursuit of improved quality. Organizations are then rated in seven areas: leadership,
strategic planning, customer focus, measurement analysis and knowledge management,
workforce focus, operations focus, and business results.
71
Human Resource Improvements
Organizations who have claimed the Baldrige Award have revolutionized nearly
all of their major human resource (HR) policies and procedures, including
communication, job design, training, rewards, health and safety, and performance review
systems. The culture of an award-winning organization is characterized by its constant
efforts to improve customer satisfaction and increase employee involvement. To do so,
there must be clear communication with employees, employees should feel a sense of
empowerment, and employees need to be committed to the goals of the organization. In
order to keep employees consistent and up to date on the performance of the organization,
the communication between management and employees must be more than the
traditional top-down communication channel, which represents a unidirectional flow of
information. An organization that is focused on improving the quality of its practices and
policies must implement a multi-directional system of communication, where employees
72
71 Lee, S.N., Rho, B.-B., Lee, S.-u., (2uuS): Impact of Nalcolm Baluiige National Quality Awaiu Ciiteiia on oiganizational quality
peifoimance, Inteinational }ouinal of Piouuction Reseaich, 41:9, 2uuS-2u2u.
participate on advisory groups, task forces, and cross-functional teams to solve problems
and improve systems. A Baldrige-winning company encourages employees to voice their
concerns about quality, and challenge inefficient policies in order to bring improvements
into the processes. Employees should feel empowered to pursue their ideas and solve
problems that occur firsthand. Training with the focus of quality, provides employees at
every level in the organization with tools necessary to recognize faulty processes, identify
problems, and determine alternative solutions to solve these defects. Baldrige Award-
winning companies encourage their employees to apply their quality skills and assume
ownership for solving problems.
Companies that implement the criteria of the MBNQA create a TQM culture that
provides a positive work environment as well as a healthy and safe environment. Baldrige
companies are known for their dedication to improve the quality of their work
environment. These companies work to eliminate the root causes of safety problems
rather than mitigate the symptoms alone.
“As a result of efforts undertaken by the Baldrige companies regarding the work
environment, improvements occurred in many important health and safety areas. While
hard data are difficult to obtain, a US Government Accountability Study (GAO) of twenty
companies that were among the highest scoring applicants for the Baldrige Award in 1988
and 1989 found that safety and health rates—measured by work days lost to occupational
injury and illness—improved in twelve of fourteen companies with available data.”
72
73
72 Blackbuin, R., & Rosen, B. (199S). Total quality anu human iesouices management: Lessons leaineu fiom baluiige awaiu-
winning comapnies.Acauemy of Nanagement Executive, 7(S), 49-66.
2011 Award Recipient, Healthcare Category
The Southcentral Foundation (SCF) in Anchorage, Alaska, is a nonprofit
healthcare organization that was awarded the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
in the Healthcare category for 2011. “SCF provides a wide range of programs to address
physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual wellness for about 55,000 Alaska Native and
American Indian people. The ASU [an Alaskan native-based organization called
Awakening Spiritual Unity] is served by a network of twenty-four healthcare facilities,
including SCF's two primary care centers (Anchorage and Wasilla) and two clinics
(Iliamna and McGrath), and sixteen sub-regional centers that SCF partners with to
provide regional support. SCF employs 1,487 people—of which fifty-three percent are
Alaska Natives or American Indians—and reported $201.3 million in revenues in
2010.”
73

‘Nuka’ System
SCF’s healthcare delivery system, the Nuka System of Care, is a unique relation-
based healthcare system that is based on four principles: (1) customers drive everything;
(2) customers must know and trust the healthcare team; (3) customers should face no
barriers in seeing care; and (4) employees and supporting facilities are vital to success.
This system brings together medical, behavioral, dental, and traditional practices to
support wellness for the Alaska community. The system is designed, owned, and
managed by the Alaska Native people.
74
74
7S Nalcolm baluiige national quality awaiu 2u11 awaiu iecipient, healthcaie categoiy: Southcential founuation. (2u11,
Novembei 22). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.nist.gov¡baluiige¡awaiu_iecipients¡southcential_piofile.cfm
74 Nalcolm baluiige national quality awaiu 2u11 awaiu iecipient, healthcaie categoiy: Southcential founuation. (2u11,
Novembei 22). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡www.nist.gov¡baluiige¡awaiu_iecipients¡southcential_piofile.cfm
Nuka Achievements
• In 2010, SCF achieved the highest level of the Patient-centered Medical Home
recognition from the National Committee on Quality Assurance for creating a
strong primary care system
• Same-day access to care has led to a fifty percent decrease in costly emergency
room and urgent care visits, sixty-five percent decrease in specialty care, thirty-six
percent decrease in primary care visits, and fifty-three percent decrease in hospital
admissions
• 2010 survey rated SCF at ninety-one percent customer satisfaction
• Staff turnover decreased from thirty-seven percent in 2008 to seventeen percent in
2011
• Total revenue increased from $120.2 million in 2003 to 201.3 million in 2010,
exceeding the Medical Group Management Association’s (MGMA) ninetieth
percentile in 2010
• SCF’s per capita expenditures percentage change has been lower than the MGMA
benchmark since 2005
• Overhead expenses have decreased in recent years as well, meeting a target of
fifteen
6.7 Summary of Lean Core Concepts
This chaptei intiouuceu the five best piactices in Lean management; each
piactice contains similaiities. The top common coie concepts aie: leaueiship,
tiaining, inteinal piocess management, quality, iesouice management, finance,
75
customei focus, measuiement anu analysis, anu health anu safety, anu continuous
impiovement.
Leadership
The concept of leaueiship is a bioau categoiy that incluues seveial uiffeient
viewpoints founu amongst the five best piactices. These uiffeient aspects of
leaueiship aie: employee empoweiment, pioactive management, top-uown
management, team thinking, feeuback, multi-uiiectional communication, anu goal
anu taiget setting. Each of the five best piactices uses the majoiity of these aspects
to successfully caiiy out its goals anu puiposes. The concept of leaueiship can be
summaiizeu as manageis anu employees woik togethei to caiiy out the goals anu
mission of the company. Piopei leaueiship iequiies manageis to be highly involveu
anu pioactive to the point wheie they aie communicating with employees about
goals, setting taigets foi employees, pioviuing feeuback, anu encouiaging continual
impiovement fiom theii employees. Employee empoweiment is an impoitant
piinciple that leaus to efficient opeiations anu ieuuces the numbei of uefects.
Training
Tiaining is an impoitant concept useu in all of the Lean methouologies.
Tiaining involves a system wheie employees aie thoioughly tiaineu anu euucateu;
management not only ensuies the tiaining of employees but paiticipates in tiaining
as well. The most successful companies aie those who have manageis anu
supeivisois who know the piocesses anu ensuie quality by knowing what to expect
fiom employees.
76
Internal Process Management
Inteinal piocess management is one of the top concepts each of the five best
piactices stiess. The puipose of inteinal piocess management is to ieuuce waste,
vaiiation, anu the numbei of uefects founu in both piouucts anu piocesses.
Incieaseu efficiency anu quality aie achieveu when piocesses aie impioveu.
Quality
The puipose of any TQN piactice is to impiove the quality of the piouucts
piouuceu by the company. Customeis expect quality. Companies who hope to gain a
competitive euge anu inciease piofits must pioviue a quality piouuct oi seivice.
Customer Focus
The customei is the ultimate ciitic of any oiganization oi business. A
stakeholuei may also be consiueieu a customei since they aie affecteu by the
actions of a business oi oiganization. The focus of each best piactice is to guaiantee
customei (anu stakeholuei) satisfaction.
Resource Management
While companies stiive to ieuuce waste anu impiove inteinal piocesses, they
must also focus on efficiency in oiuei to see financial iesults. Resouice management
coulu theiefoie be uefineu as impioving efficiency. The goal of each of the five best
piactices is to ieuuce the costs of opeiations while impioving quality. As companies
implement TQN piactices, they soon iealize it takes less iesouices, especially human
capital, to impiove the quality of the company. The uecision to ieuuce the
77
numbei of full-time equivalents (FTEs) is a uifficult uecision, but if it ensuies the
longteim success of a company, it's a uecision that must be maue.
Financial Results
Financial iesults aie what all oiganizations look at aftei launching a new best
piactice. Implementing these piactices can be expensive, anu executives want see a
ietuin on theii investment. Financial success can be seen in incieaseu maiket
competitiveness, gieatei longteim suivival, highei piofitability, anu lowei costs.
Theie aie ceitain steps that companies must take in oiuei to ensuie financial
success. Focusing on coie lean concepts will go fai in achieving the financial aims of
a company.
Measurement and Analysis
This coie concept coiielates with impioving the inteinal piocesses oi
opeiational siue of the business. 0nce the uefects have been iuentifieu, the objective
of most piactices is to iuentify metiics that can be useu foi measuiement anu
analysis. Caieful measuiing anu analyzing will ieuuce uefects anu mitigate iisks of
vaiiation. The piocess of iuentifying metiics is pait of being pioactive uuiing
implementation of any piactice.
Health and Safety
The concept of health anu safety is not stiesseu in all of the five piactices,
howevei, health anu safety aie impoitant in eveiy business anu oiganization.
Ceitain inuustiies must focus on it moie than otheis÷specifically healthcaie,
78
goveinment, anu manufactuiing. This coie concept involves impioving the woik
enviionment by pioviuing a healthy atmospheie anu safe enviionment foi
employees oi any othei peison that is affecteu by the woik enviionment. Cieating a
safei anu healthiei enviionment often iequiies companies to impiove theii cleaning
piocess, pioviue bettei equipment in iespect to eigonomics, anu impiove theii
oiganization anu hanuling of mateiials oi equipment.
Continual Improvement
The piocess of continual impiovement is a nevei-enuing piocess that must
be evaluateu fiequently. Ceitifications such as the IS0 9uuu, iequiies iegulai auuits
to be peifoimeu anu ceitifications to be ieneweu at iegulai inteivals. In oiuei foi
any best piactice to continually pioviue iesults, iequiies businesses to be innovative
anu make iegulai impiovements. Taking into account continual technological
auvances, this coie concept becomes the most impoitant step towaius longteim
suivival.
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Chapter 7: Lean Best Practices
in Janitorial Services
7.1 (CS1) versus 1ÇM
(OS1) is a comprehensive quality management process that uses a team-cleaning
program to approach cleaning in a systematic manner. It incorporates specialized training
procedures to provide adequate training for housekeepers and improve quality in the
cleaning process. The phrase ‘Clean for Health First, Then Appearance’
75
is central to the
philosophy of the (OS1) program.
The purpose of any cleaning program should be to maintain and sustain a built
environment, which is healthy for occupants and supports the functions of facilities. The
majority of cleaning programs, however, focus solely on cleaning for appearance. (OS1)
80
7S NanageNen. (2u12, }uly). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡managemen.com¡0S1¡fiequently-askeu-question¡
is more professionally oriented and science-based than most programs used in the
cleaning industry today. The purpose of (OS1) is to improve the cleaning process by
giving primary attention to the proper care of facilities and the well-being of those who
use and occupy them.
(OS1) was first implement in 1992 at the Delta Center (home of the Utah Jazz).
Since that time, ManageMen, the cleaning industry consulting organization that
developed (OS1), and the (OS1) Users Group, have sought to find and test the best
products available.
76
(OS1) has also made the effort to use environmentally friendly
products that have been approved by Green Seal, the EPA, Design for the Environment,
or CRI Green Label.
77
(OS1) also places a high value on safety. Equipment is tested not
only for cleaning effectiveness, but also for user safety.
7.2 Compar|ng (CS1) and 1ÇM Core Concepts
How does (OS1) compare to Six Sigma, Balanced Scorecard, ISO 9000, Lean, or
Baldrige Award philosophies? Is there evidence to conclude that (OS1) can be considered
a ‘best practice’? The purpose of this section is to evaluate the (OS1) program and
compare its core concepts and principles to the common core concepts of the best
practices discussed in the previous chapter.
81
76 NanageNen. (2u12, }uly). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡managemen.com¡0S1¡fiequently-askeu-question¡
77 NanageNen. (2u12, }uly). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡managemen.com¡0S1¡enviionmental-statement¡iesponsible-piouucts¡
7.2.1 Leadersh|p
“(OS1) assumes responsibility for cleaning knowledge and effectiveness at all
levels—from administrators to managers to supervisors to team members.”
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Any
effective housekeeping system requires leadership and professionalism at all levels. Prior
to implementation, managers and supervisors are required to attend a weeklong training
session at Janitor University where they learn the fundamentals of cleaning,
administrative, managerial and operational components of the (OS1) system.
79
Janitor
University is a comprehensive five-day class where executives are immersed in learning
how to implement the key concepts and elements of a successful (OS1) program.
Expert training courses are held each year. Each organization selects an individual
to be the (OS1) coach responsible for the in-house training of their workers. The (OS1)
coach is required to take part in semi-annual training programs to keep up to date on
current cleaning procedures, chemicals, cleaning tools, training techniques, and new
information in the (OS1) program. All (OS1) trainers and coaches must attend both
annual training sessions in order to keep their certification current and active.
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Another important aspect of leadership is employee empowerment. In (OS1),
employees are given the training needed to reduce waste in cleaning processes and to
practice quality control. Instead of requiring a supervisor to perform daily audits to
ensure quality, team members are expected to practice quality control by checking the
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78 Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 0s1 cleaning piocess vs. tiauitional housekeeping. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
79 Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 0s1 cleaning piocess vs. tiauitional housekeeping. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
8u NanageNen. (2u12). Tiain the tiainei. Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡managemen.com¡euucation¡tiain-the-tiainei-2¡
performance of the previous team member and performing any additional tasks as
needed.
Team members are also given opportunities to specialize in different functions on
a rotating basis, giving them greater task variety and more autonomy in the functions they
perform. The glass ceiling, which exists in many organizations, is removed, allowing
janitors and housekeepers of both sexes opportunities for career advancement in the
industry.
7.2.2 1ra|n|ng
Unfortunately, janitorial workers have traditionally been left without much in the
form of training or guidance. (OS1), however, offers training opportunities, not only for
custodians, but for management as well. As discussed in the leadership section, Janitor
University focuses on leadership skills and professional development for cleaning
organization executives, including facility managers.
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Upon graduation from Janitor
University, graduates are invited to join the (OS1) Users
82
and attend the (OS1) Users
Symposium and the Simon Institute Symposium, which are opportunities for continuous
education and sharing of knowledge.
83
81 NanageNen. (2u12). About managmen.
82 NanageNen. (2u12, }uly). Retiieveu fiom http:¡¡managemen.com¡os1¡os1-useis¡
The training of janitors and custodians is an integral part of the (OS1) program.
Prior to the implementation of (OS1) in an
organization, janitors go through a ‘Boot
Camp’ training. This training period is
generally two to three days where they are
trained on the (OS1) process and safety
procedures. Once the system has started, the
janitors undergo a Team Checklist once a
month where they are audited based on their
performance, and given direction for
improvement. Weekly staff training meetings
also take place to provide information, correction, and review cleaning processes and
safety procedures
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.
7.2.3 Interna| Þrocess Management
“(OS1) approaches cleaning in a systematic manner and incorporates continuous
improvement management processes.”
84
As discussed in the previous chapter, the
ultimate goal for any TQM practice is to provide quality results and satisfy the
expectations of the customer. With the perspective of cleaning, the goal of any
housekeeping or cleaning program is to satisfy building occupants by maintaining a
healthy environment through quality cleaning, In order to consistently provide a healthy
84
8S Bawkins, }. (2u12, }une 28). Inteiview by E. B. Biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj. BNS pilot.
84 Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 0s1 cleaning piocess vs. tiauitional housekeeping. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
and clean environment, a cleaning system needs to improve its processes through better
quality control, better practices, and waste reduction.
Dr. Michael A. Berry, Technical Advisor of the committee that overlooked the
pilot program at the University of North Carolina, reported “(OS1) recognizes the health
protection value and importance of effective cleaning throughout the entire institution and
expects a consistent high level of performance.”
85
(OS1) is a system that focuses on continually improving the process of cleaning;
it expects consistent results throughout the entire scope of team responsibility. (OS1)
improves the cleaning process by providing comprehensive and scheduled cleaning
coverage. It embraces simplicity and makes cleaning more economically efficient, thus
reducing costs, waste, and worker injuries. Benchmarking tools are used to periodically
verify that the management process is on track and performing properly.
7.2.4 Çua||ty
Cleaning plays an impoitant iole in pioviuing a healthy enviionment foi
occupants of a builuing. Effective housekeeping methous ieuuce the iisk of exposuie
to infectious agents that coulu have an auveise effect on occupants.
The (0S1) system has been piloteu, evaluateu, anu implementeu acioss the
0niteu States by numeious oiganizations, incluuing univeisities, ieseaich
institutions, anu inuustiial institutions. Reseaich has shown that (0S1) both
impioves anu ensuies high quality iesults in compaiison to tiauitional cleaning
methous. Accoiuing to a stuuy peifoimeu at the 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina, uust
85
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Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 7&D 2+#*')', E-42#&& 6&= (-*B)()4'*+ "48&#F##E)',. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
concentiation was ieuuceu by moie than a factoi of two, making inuooi aii quality
conuitions much healthiei foi occupants. (0S1) also bettei manageu fungal spoies,
which ieuuceu the iisk of alleigic ieaction of occupants. 0veiall, (0S1) piouuceu a
sanitaiy iesult that was consistently bettei than tiauitional methous like zone
cleaning.
86
One of the greatest benefits of (OS1) is the Clean Building Syndrome, a positive
ripple effect that flows through an organization when its facilities start to be properly
cleaned. An example of this occurred at Dixon Middle School (Dixon), the dirtiest and
oldest school in Provo School District. Dixon implemented (OS1) in 2010 to explore the
option of (OS1) becoming the accepted cleaning program for the entire district. Jeff
Hawkins, head custodian at Dixon, explains how the "Clean Building Syndrome" rippled
through the school. When the Dixon started being cleaned with the (OS1) process, the
principal felt it was necessary to paint the halls to better reflect the schools cleanliness.
The principal then asked teachers to remove clutter from their classrooms and offices,
because "if the custodians can get organized, so can the teachers." The custodians offered
to help the teachers organize their offices, and soon the overall feel of the school was
improved. Students also felt the difference. Graffiti, that once plagued Dixon, became
virtually extinct. Litter became a less frequent sight in the hallways as well. Even teenage
students appreciate a clean learning environment and are willing to help keep it clean.
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Thiough focuseu tiaining anu effective equipment, the (0S1) system ensuies
quality-cleaning iesults. The team cleaning piocess has quality contiol built into its
86
86
Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 7&D 2+#*')', E-42#&& 6&= (-*B)()4'*+ "48&#F##E)',. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
87
Bawkins, }. (2u12, }une 28). Inteiview by e. biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj. Bixon Niuule School Pibt.
system. As team membeis follow up on the tasks of othei team membeis, they
ensuie quality iesults. Anu as supeivisois use checklists to peifoim monthly
assessments, they measuie the peifoimance of employees anu ensuie consistency.
7.2.S Customer Iocus
How do building occupants perceive the quality of cleaning? This should be an
important concern for business owners, managers, supervisors, and employees. Anyone
who enters the facility is a customer—in respect to the health and cleanliness of the
building. The goal for any effective cleaning program should be to provide a clean and
healthy atmosphere for all who set foot in the building and especially those occupants
who are affected daily by the results of its performance.
Cleaning effectiveness is determined by measuring the quantity of unwanted matter
removed. As explained in section 2.4, a common measurement tool used to describe the
cleanliness of a building or space is APPA’s five levels of cleanliness appearance. These
five levels are a good representation of how occupants might rate the clean appearance of
a building.
- Level 1 Orderly Spotlessness
- Level 2 Ordinary Tidiness
- Level 3 Casual Inattention
- Level 4 Moderate Dinginess
- Level 5 Unkempt Neglect
(OS1) cleans for appearance and for health. Dr. Michael Berry said, “(OS1)
recognizes more fully the purpose of cleaning . . . It recognizes the health protection
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value and importance of effective cleaning.”
88
The (OS1) philosophy of ‘Clean for Health
First, Then Appearance’ is more customer focused than traditional cleaning practices.
When (OS1) cleaning is carried out effectively, it creates a healthy condition for
occupants, reduces exposure, and mitigates the risk of adverse affects. Additionally, a
healthy environment enhances human productivity and encourages topophilia-attraction
or “love of place.”
89
7.2.6 kesource Management
An important aspect of a quality management system is efficiency— the intent to
increase productivity or increase the quality of the product or service while using fewer
resources. With this in mind, it is important for companies to realize that some of their
greatest cost savings will come from a reduction in full-time equivalents (FTEs).
The (OS1) philosophy includes “Treat Cleaning Workers as First-class Citizens.”
Through proper training and efficient practices (OS1) is able to make each employee a
valuable asset to the organization. This enables companies to use the exact number of
FTEs needed in order to cut out waste. In most situations, this means a reduction of
FTEs, but there have been instances where the existing number of available workers
could not clean the required area to (OS1) standards.
Organizations using the (OS1) system generally operate with fewer chemicals and
lower inventory levels than buildings that do not. Most organizations keep more chemical
on-hand than necessary, which poses a risk to the occupants and especially to the
88
88
Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 7&D 2+#*')', E-42#&& 6&= (-*B)()4'*+ "48&#F##E)',. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
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Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 7&D 2+#*')', E-42#&& 6&= (-*B)()4'*+ "48&#F##E)',. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
janitorial staff. ManageMen and the (OS1) Users have identified chemicals that pass their
stringent tests offering organizations the highest quality chemicals. By identifying the
most effective chemicals, they reduce the different types of chemicals that are used.
(OS1) also uses just-in-time inventory to decrease the amount of chemical that is held in
reserve, thus reducing exposure to unnecessary amounts of chemical.
The majority of the inventory is held in the head custodian’s office or in a separate
check-in area. Chemicals are stored in a locked cabinet, managed by the head custodian.
The chemicals that are currently being used with (OS1) are PortionPac. These chemicals
are concentrated and come in pre-portioned plastic packages. Janitors are allotted the
exact amount of chemical needed each day plus one extra for contingency. At the end of
each day the packages are rinsed out, returned, and counted. This process allows for an
exact accounting of how much chemical is used per day by the ounce. The head custodian
also manages the bulk storage area, which contains the majority of the materials and
equipment used in the building
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. Equipment usage is logged based on who used it, when
it was used, and how it has been maintained. This provides valuable information for
accurate managing and budgeting of the custodial department.
7.2.7 I|nanc|a| kesu|ts
The best way to uemonstiate the financial impact that (0S1) has on a
facility's buuget is by piesenting case stuuies wheie (0S1) is implementeu.
The University of Massachusetts (UMass) contacted ManageMen in 2008 to test
the (OS1) to see if it could help them lower costs without sacrificing quality. The
89
9u
Bawkins, }. (2u12, }une 28). Inteiview by E. B. Biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj. BNS pilot.
building chosen in this study was the 360,000 square foot Campus Center; it is also the
busiest building on the campus with 12,000 to 15,000 people walking through it each day.
Prior to the implementation of (OS1), the custodial functions of the building required
1,560 hours of labor per week; which translated into 38 FTEs to complete the process. By
the end of (OS1)’s work-loading stage, it was determined that only 31 FTEs were needed
based on an estimated 320 hour reduction in total hours needed. The difference, in direct
work hours per week, reduced the facility budget $360,000, a twenty percent reduction in
cost. While costs were being reduced by a significant margin, the quality of cleaning
performance increased as well from Level 3 to Level 5 on APPA’s level of appearance.
91

In 2009, the University of Michigan also launched (OS1) among its 200 buildings,
which consisted of fifteen million gross square feet. After the first nine months of
implementation, eleven percent of the facility budget was reduced, exceeding their goal
of $2.1 million in savings. Additionally, maintenance issues were reduced by seventy
percent and quality assurance scores improved thirty percent.
92
As (OS1) is carried out in an effective manner, businesses will avoid unnecessary
costs and save thousands if not millions of dollars in their facility budgets each year.
7.2.8 Measurement and Ana|ys|s
(OS1) encourages all users to manage four key metrics. The first is solution usage
and filter changes; this allows head custodians to know how much chemical is being used
each day and if the equipment is being maintained as it should be. It is also an indicator
90
91
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92
Capmbell, }. L. (2u1u). A8(()', 24&(& *'B )<E-46)', 48(24<#& G4- H*')(4-)*+ &#-6)2#&.
of how well custodians are doing their job. Chemical amounts are portioned out based on
the calculated workload. If there is a trend of more or less chemical being used compared
to the calculated amount, then it is likely that the job is being performed incorrectly and
corrective action can be taken.
The next metric is Requests, Complaints, and Mistakes. Anytime one of the
janitors is asked to perform a job, a form is filled out for Requests. This helps track if
there are any cases where the janitors are being used as a personal maid by anyone in the
building. Complaints and Mistakes are tracked similarly. John Walker, founder of
ManageMen explained that Requests represent a customer issue, Complaints represent a
management issue, and Mistakes represent a training issue. This provides excellent
qualitative and quantitative data for management to pinpoint areas that need attention.
The third metric is the equipment log. This log hangs by every piece of equipment
and documents when it was used, by whom, and its condition after each use. This is
checked daily by the manager who signs off on each piece of equipment providing up-to-
date information and avoiding neglected equipment.
The last metric is the team checklist that contains about seventy-five categories that
the worker is inspected on each month to see how well they understand and are following
their instructions. Some of the items that are checked are:

Are they using the right filters in their vacuums?

Do they know where the MSDS is located?

Do they know which chemicals are used where?
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Walkei, }. (2u12, }une S). Inteiview by E. B. Biaziel |Peisonal Inteiviewj.
Beyond these four metrics, an audit is recommended once or twice a year that scores
the cleaning staff jobs performed, cleanliness of the facility, management practices, and
other areas as well. As organizations achieve greater compliance, they receive awards that
recognize them for their efforts.
7.2.9 nea|th and Safety
“Safety is an integral part of (OS1) training throughout all portions of the
program.”
94
The (OS1) program was able to implement safety into its program by
providing documentation that is easy to read and understand as well as a color-coded
system for all safety information, equipment and supplies. Additionally, (OS1) provides a
safer, more sanitary environment for employees by significantly reducing the amount of
chemicals used, reducing the risk of excessive chemical exposure, and requiring better
organization for equipment storage, not to mention the increased level of cleanliness that
(OS1) provides.
From an ergonomics standpoint, it is important to not only provide a healthy work
environment, but also to provide optimal equipment that makes tasks and activities both
comfortable and enjoyable for employees. A satisfied employee will be a productive
employee who contributes to the goals and missions of the company. (OS1) supports the
concept of ergonomics by implementing backpack vacuums that provide less strain on the
back and allows for a better body position than standard upright vacuums.
92
94
Beiiy, N. A. (2uu6). 7&D 2+#*')', E-42#&& 6&= (-*B)()4'*+ "48&#F##E)',. (Boctoial uisseitation, 0niveisity of Noith Caiolina).
7.2.10 Connnua| Improvement
(OS1) processes and products are under constant review by ManageMen, the
(OS1) Users, the Simon Institute, and supporting academic faculty in the industry. There
is a true commitment to applying scientific principles in the development and scrutiny of
(OS1). Individual organizations using (OS1) apply the use of metrics and training
sessions to maintain a high quality facility and encourage continual improvement. There
are also various symposiums, workshops, and classes that allow for management to
continue their education and training as well. Maintaining competencies and learning to
achieve new industry standards helps an organization move forward by promoting cleaner
facilities and shedding costs.
7.3 Summary
While (OS1) shares many of the same qualities as other total quality management
systems, such as Six Sigma, Balanced Scorecard, Lean, Malcolm Baldrige, and ISO
9000, it differs in a few areas as well. (OS1) is continually evolving and refining its
process to improve its cleaning standard. ManageMen, the (OS1) Users, and the Simon
Institute, are all working together to create benchmarks, review products, and overcome
current obstacles making (OS1) a sustainable program. The level of support found with
(OS1) differs from that of other total quality management practices through its level of
collaboration among peers, and the two-way communication between the user groups and
ManageMen. This structure makes the (OS1) process current and applicable for each
user.
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Core
Concepts
Lea
n
S|x
S|gma
ISC
9000
8a|
anced
Scorecard
Ma|
co|m
8a|dr|ge
(CS
1)
Leadersh|p ! ! ! ! ! !
Interna|
Þrocess Management
! ! ! ! ! !
Çua||ty ! ! ! ! ! !
kesource
Management
! ! ! ! ! !
Connnuous
Improvement
! ! ! ! ! !
Customer
Va|ue
! ! ! ! ! !
Measuremen
t Ana|ys|s
! ! ! ! !
nea|th &
Safety
! ! !
1ra|n|ng ! ! ! ! ! !
I|nanc|a| ! ! ! ! ! !
This overview of (OS1) illustrates the relationship it has with quality business
practices. The core concepts that are found in other best practices are also found as
fundamentals of (OS1). Although (OS1) is not the only cleaning system used in the
industry today, it is a cleaning operation that is considered an engineered process
management program and one that has adopted best practices.
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Chapter 8: Research Summary
and Conclusions
8.1 Þrohts, Not C|ean||ness
A suivey of the cleaning inuustiy cleaily inuicates theie is a lack of stanuaius
as well as a common vocabulaiy. uiven the cuiient state of cleaning, it is almost
impossible to benchmaik cleanliness. ISSA, the woilu's laigest cleaning association,
uoes not even focus much on cleanliness; its ceitifieu piogiam focuses on business
piocesses anu impioving piofitability. The puipose of cleaning associations ievolve
aiounu suppoiting the piofitability of cleaning, manufactuiing, anu chemical
companies. Because of this, theie has been little ieseaich peifoimeu on cleaning,
anu little eviuence pioviueu of best cleaning piactices anu goou science behinu
cleanliness.
95
When NanageNen began to seek foi best piactices that follow Lean
engineeiing piactices in the uevelopment of (0S1), it pioveu to be a thieat to the
inuustiy. Reseaicheis have witnesseu how otheis in the inuustiy have tiieu to
uiscieuit (0S1)'s impioveu piactices because it exposes the maiketing of "snake oil"
oi ineffective piouucts. It is alaiming that in the 21st centuiy the cleaning inuustiy
is so fai behinu othei inuustiies. Thus, the title of this papei incluues the notion that
cleaning is a neglecteu inuustiy.
8.2 1he Iuture of Lv|dence-based Cutcomes
There is clear evidence that cleaning will follow the future of operations and
maintenance of buildings. Cleaning will focus on capturing better and detailed data of
evidence-based outcomes. Building systems, components, and parts will have new types
of censors that will collect and capture data in analytic systems that are not currently
practiced or are being developed. Indoor air quality and parts per million contaminations,
along with microbial counts in carpets and floor coverings, will report new evidence of
the cleanliness and safety of buildings.
8.3 Dr|v|ng Cut Waste |n the C|ean|ng Þrocess
Any Lean delivery stream seeks to drive out waste and inefficiencies. In the near
future, cleaning companies and departments will be forced to adopt Lean engineering
processes to improve efficiencies and reduce costs. These improved processes will also
require specific evidence that improvement were made.
(OS1) has blazed the trail in building systems, processes, and measurements that
can serve as a model to the industry as a whole. The United States Postal Service (USPS)
96
recognized this by awarding a sizable contract to ManageMen to implement its (OS1)
process to help the USPS improve efficiencies and reduce costs. This is evidence that a
Lean Engineered approach rings true to sophisticated organizations that must find solid
solutions to change. Recent examples of Lean process management in the cleaning
industry is the work done at the University of Michigan, the University of Texas and
Sandia National Laboratories as discussed in Chapter 2.
8.4 1ransparency and Dashboards
In recent years there has been a push for more transparency in organizations,
which includes identifying and sharing key performance indicators (KPIs). KPIs entail
such things as the number of days without injury in a factory, the number of flights that
left and arrived on time for an airline, or the absenteeism rate for a business. KPIs may be
shared with employees or the public, and are often shared in the format of a dashboard. A
dashboard may be a simple printout on a piece of paper, or elaborate chart of information
on large monitors placed throughout the organization. Dashboards are used to build
teamwork and to accurately provide a score for the game a company is playing
(metaphorically.) A team of researchers at BYU explored and developed an ingenious
dashboard that is inexpensive and provides KPIs. It’s a collaboration space where
individuals and teams can perform and share work. This space, known as the Kolob
Station, is a location to plan, schedule, and install Lean processes. It allows every
stakeholder in each process to monitor the schedule, be part of the implementation, and
celebrate every improvement. Dashboards are critical to the success of an organization.
97
Lean processes should not be hidden away, but should be used to help team members and
organizations move from good to great.
8.S 1he k|se and Ia|| of Compan|es and Ideas
A study of companies like Sears, Woolworth, and Union Pacific show how
difficult it is for companies to remain at the top of their respective market segments. The
following graph illustrates how companies and ideas grow, mature and decline.
In the cycle of growth, there is a critical point when a product or service matures
and the company fails to continue to be innovative and creative. Due to this lack of
reinvention, competition (which is usually much better capitalized) will come in and
sweep up the market. The following graph demonstrates this phenomenon.
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Copying and exploiting (OS1) is ripe for the picking from larger and better-
capitalized companies who have the means to take the principles and concepts to the
masses. It will not take long before the cleaning industry will be forced to make
significant improvements that have been identified in this study. This pressure will come
primarily from forced cost reductions and secondly from improved indoor environments
and healthy buildings. ManageMen and (OS1) must continue to innovate and develop
concepts and practices before competition can catch them.
8.6 n|gh-Þerformance and nea|thy Work Spaces
Since the laboi pool is going to tighten as the baby-boomei geneiation passes
away, companies will be foiceu to offei high tech anu high peifoimance builuings
that aie also veiy healthy anu sustainable. The appeaiance of a builuing will not be
enough to luie anu keep goou woikeis. Employees will begin to shop foi jobs that
have high inuepenuent scoies of builuing safety, secuiity, ieuuceu inuooi pollution,
anu low illness iates anu histoiy of sickness in the builuing.
It is inevitable that as soon as bettei measuies of inuooi enviionmental
quality aie uevelopeu anu employeu, builuing enviionments will become moie
impoitant. The new smait woikei is going to be less woiiieu about a ciazeu shootei
in a builuing anu moie conceineu about what stiain of flu viius is going aiounu anu
the piobability that they may catch it. The same will be tiue foi all spaces, especially
tight confineu space wheie theie aie a laige numbeis of caiiieis of all types of
infectious uiseases, viiuses, anu othei miciobial mattei that can cause illness. Even
now, people aie taking gieatei piecautions on aiiplanes anu othei high tiaffic aieas.
99
8.7 Lean Þrocess Mapp|ng and Management |n the Iuture
The solutions to many of touay's cleaning pioblems aie now available
thiough the piinciples, concepts, anu best piactices piesenteu in this stuuy. As new
piessuies continue to mount, these piinciples will become even moie impoitant.
The eviuence cleaily shows that Lean mapping anu management aie most
applicable in managing cleaning opeiations anu pioblems. Whethei the woiu I#*' is
useu, oi !4(*+ J8*+)(0 C*'*,#<#'( oi A4'()'848& K<E-46#<#'(, the piinciples will
continually be impioveu upon anu iefineu in the futuie.
It will be a long time befoie scientist anu business manageis figuie out how
to engineei people out of the piocess of cleaning. But as this quest continues,
uiffeient foims of technology will be implement in combination with bettei tiaineu
anu empoweieu employees, vastly impioveu piocesses, anu veiifieu anu testeu
equipment anu cleaning agents. As the cleaning piocess is evaluateu, theie will be
many oppoitunities to uiive out inefficiencies anu waste. In Lean vocabulaiy,
L*)M#'
9S
will occui. Kaizen means to "change foi the bettei oi continuous
impiovement." Its goal is to eliminate waste in the value stieam.
When science, engineeiing, anu best business piactices aie applieu to
cleaning anu cleanliness, the inuustiy will piogiess fiom inefficient piactices of the
past to stieamlineu piactices of touay. Piofessionals must iaise the bai fiom meiely
cleaning foi appeaiance, to cleaning foi health, ieuucing oveiall costs, impioving the
lives of cleaning woikeis, anu ueliveiing clean, healthy builuings eveiy uay.
100
9S
Sayei N. anu Williams B., I#*' G4- @8<<)#&N (2uu7), Wiley Publishing Inc.