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477 ACCR Polynomial Design Coefficients

477 ACCR Polynomial Design Coefficients

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477-kcmil

Stress-Strain Polynomial Coefficients for Design Software

Principal Investigator: Dr. Colin McCullough Reviewed by: Mr. Douglas Johnson Date of Report: June 1, 2005

Page 1 of 21

477-kcmil 3MTM Composite Conductor: Stress-Strain Polynomial Coefficients for Design Software Summary

An analysis of the Stress-Strain and Creep raw data generated at Neetrac for 477 ACCR generated the coefficients for transmission design that may be incorporated into Alcoa Sag10TM design software. The Sag10 TM coefficients are summarized in Table 1. A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 AF TREF Aluminum 0 58960 -70248 50188 -26201 75865 71 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 10 yr creep (Al) 0 30028 -23104 -14150 7376 0.00128 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 CF Core 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 46093 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 10 yr creep (core) 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 0.000353 Table 1. Complete Sag10 TM design coefficients for 477 ACCR. The methodology to derive these coefficients from the raw data is documented in the sections below. Reports detailing the experiments to obtain all the relevant raw data are found in the following four references: 477 kcmil, 3M Brand Composite Conductor, Mechanical Properties, Volume 1 Tensile and Stress-Strain Tests, NEETRAC Project Number: 01-121, March 2002. 477 kcmil, 3M Brand Composite Conductor, Stress-Strain Tests on Oak Ridge Test Line Sample, NEETRAC Project Number: 02-097, December 2003. 477 kcmil, 3M Brand Composite Conductor, Mechanical Properties, Volume 2, Roomtemperature Creep, NEETRAC Project Number: 01-121, March 2002. 477-kcmil 3M Brand Composite Conductor: Derivation of Power-Law Creep Parameters, 3M Technical Report, June 2005.

Derivations start with the raw data from Neetrac for 477-kcmil ACCR Conductor (both core and aluminum layers). There are two sets of data and each are treated independently at first. The raw data was obtained from Neetrac in the form of Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets, and all the subsequent analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel Software. The specification for the 477-kcmil ACCR Conductor is provided in Appendix A.

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35000

30000

25000

10000

5000

0 -0.05 -5000 % Strain 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

Figure 1. As measured data (blue), and translated data (red) for 477 ACCR Conductor. The Neetrac test begins strain measurement at 2000 lbs, so the resulting initial curve needs to be translated to zero. An easy mistake is to translate vertically whereas the curve must be translated horizontally to be accurate. The graph in Figure 1 above shows the correct translation, with the experimental data points moved horizontally. The curve fit is not forced through zero by interpolation. The curve is translated until the constant representing the y axis intercept is less than 1. The important issue is one of correctly translating through zero, the raw data generated at Neetrac (y=mx+b type curve), and then fitting with 4th order equations in order to derive the desired coefficients.

Load y=mx+b Load y=mx+b y=mx b

y=m(x+a)+b

Strain

-a

Strain

Incorrect translation

Correct translation

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The incorrect translation is easily made and results in lower loads (& hence stresses) at the higher strains. The correct translation preserves the correct load at higher strains. If there are more than one set of data, then the experimental points are combined as shown below. The experimental points are at 4 stress levels 2000lbs, 30%, 50%, 70% RBS.

477 ACCR Stress-Strain

35000

2

Stress (psi)

20000

15000

10000

5000

0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 % Strain 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

Figure 2. Second order polynomial curve fit through data sets. The curve fit through the data is a nice second order fit (Figure 2). The curve is extrapolated to reach the approximate failure strain of the conductor at 100% RBS which is ~0.6% (Figure 3).

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45000

40000

35000

Stress (psi)

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

Figure 3. Second-order polynomial extrapolated to failure strain At ~0.6%, the stress is ~39,000 psi, whereas the 100% RBS value is 44,700 psi. Thus the extrapolation is poor at higher strains. The 100% RBS value is inserted as a data point (0.6, 44700) and the curve fit shifts. The fit still is within the range of the experimental data (Figure 4).

477 ACCR Stress-Strain 70000

60000

50000

Stress (psi)

20000

10000

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Additionally, the curve is extrapolated beyond the breaking strain to check for a good extrapolation behavior. In Figure 4 the polynomial is reaching an inflection point at approximately 1.2% strain where the slope turns negative which shows the extrapolation is failing. For compatibility with transmission design software programs, the polynomial just needs to behave well (maintain positive slope) to 0.5% strain (Alcoa SAG10 TM) or to the breaking strain (PLS-CAD). Next the intercept is forced to go through zero, as shown below, in Figure 5.

477 ACCR Stress-Strain 60000

50000

20000

10000

Figure 5. Second-order fit with forced zero intercept. Now to fit a fourth order polynomial to this data, the fit is poor due to inflection points which are a poor representation of the true behavior. Thus the second order fit and the equation thereby generated is used to calculate extra points to smooth the curve. In this case an ten points were generated at strains of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.8, 1.0% using the second order polynomial. This creates a smoother curve for a reasonable 4th order curve fit, as shown below in Figure 6, and maintains a high degree of fit to the real data points within the critical design strain range.

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60000

50000

10000

Figure 6. Fourth order polynomial fit to Conductor Stress-strain behavior From this the 4th order polynomial relating stress (psi) to % strain is y = -33577x4 + 64338x3 - 82025x2 + 106506x R2 = 0.9989 A similar procedure is now used to process the raw data generated at Neetrac for the AMC Core, but with some differences. The Neetrac test begins strain measurement at a pre-load, so the resulting initial curve needs to be translated to zero. The translation is adjusted so the fitted 2ndorder polynomial line has a y-axis intercept of less than 1.0. This is shown in Figure 7. Additional data sets for core are treated independently and in the same way, before combining.

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140000

120000

100000

60000

40000

20000

-0.05000

0 0.00000

0.05000

0.10000

0.15000

0.20000

0.25000

0.30000

0.35000

0.40000

-20000 %Strain

Figure 7. Raw Data and translated curves for 477ACCR core. Combined data sets have one additional point added to calibrate the minimum breaking point at (0.64, 200000), and the fit is also forced to go through zero. This gives the graph in Figure 8, which is extrapolated to 1% strain.

477 ACCR Core Stress-Strain

400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 %Strain 0.8 1.0 1.2 y = -25788x2 + 328321x 2 R = 0.9992

Stress (psi)

Figure 8. Core Stress-strain behavior corrected for breaking stress The extrapolation in Figure 8 looks very reasonable, and so this equation is used to create extra data points up to 0.64% strain in order to fit a 4th order polynomial. This is shown in Figure 9. 477-kcmil 3MTM Composite Conductor: Derivation of Stress-strain Coefficients Page 8 of 21

450000 400000 350000 300000 Stress (psi) 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 %Strain 0.8 1.0 1.2

Figure 9. Fourth-order polynomial fit for 477 ACCR core. From this the 4th order polynomial relating stress (psi) to % strain is y = -52423x4 + 100573x3 - 83705x2 + 337942x R2 = 0.9998 These equations are used to numerically derive the aluminum stress-strain curve. 0.01% strain increments were used from 0 to 0.64% using an Excel software spreadsheet with the following column headings.

Conductor Core Conductor Core Stress/psi Stress/psi Load/lbs Load/lbs Al Load/lbs Core Al Al Stress Stress Stress/psi * Af core * Af Al

%Strain

The spreadsheet columns are defined as follows: Conductor stress is the first 4th order polynomial Core stress is the second 4th order polynomial Conductor load = conductor stress * conductor area Core load = core stress * core area Aluminum load = conductor load conductor load Aluminum stress = aluminum load / aluminum area Core stress* Af core = core stress * core area fraction Al stress * Af Al = aluminum stress * aluminum area fraction

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Plotting the aluminum stress-strain curve gives the graph below (Figure 10). The fit is good but the slope of the extrapolation becomes negative at ~0.7% strain. However, this is sufficient for the design software.

Al Stress

25000 20000 Stress ( psi) 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.2 0.4 % Strain 0.6 0.8 1

4 3 2

2

Figure 10. Stress-strain curve for the aluminum layers of 477 ACCR From this the 4th order polynomial relating stress (psi) to % strain is y = -30491x4 + 58405x3 - 81750x2 + 68613x - 2E-08 R2 = 1 To generate the Initial stress-strain curves, the data sets are plotted together on using a normalized stress axis, i.e. stress * constituent area fraction. Thus, conductor stress* Af = conductor stress * 1 (the conductor is the whole area) core stress * Af = core stress * core area fraction (is 14% for 477 ACCR) aluminum stress * Af = aluminum stress * Al area fraction (is 86% for 477 ACCR) The graph is shown below in Figure 11.

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Initial Curves

50000 45000 40000 Stress* Af ( psi) 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 % Strain

Conductor Core

Aluminum

Figure 11. Stress*area fraction vs strain curves for 795 ACCR. Curve fits to the core*area fraction and aluminum* area fraction curves are required to yield the coefficients for the Sag10 TM design software. The full data set to 0.64% is used for the fits.. The 4th order polynomials are: Core: Aluminum: y = -7375.6x4 + 14150x3 - 11777x2 + 47546x + 9E-09 R2 = 1 y = -26201x4 + 50188x3 - 70248x2 + 58960x + 7E-09 R2 = 1

Sag10 TM has a table of coefficients, for which these equations provide some values as shown in Table 2 below. A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 AF TREF Aluminum 0 58960 -70248 50188 -26201 71 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 10 yr creep (Al) 0.00128 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 CF Core 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 10 yr creep (core) 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 0.000353 Table 2. Sag10 TM coefficients for initial curves of 477 ACCR

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The core creep is approximated to zero, so the 10-year creep coefficients (Row D) replicate the initial curve (Row C). is the thermal expansion coefficients (in units of 1x10-4/Fahrenheit) of the constituents. TREF is the temperature at which the stress-strain testing was performed (in Fahrenheit).

Final Modulus

The final modulus can be derived from the raw data. The experimental stress-strain curve is shown in Figure 12.

477 kcmil, Type 16, 3M Composite Conductor y = 121890x - 15806 Initial and Final Modulus y = -68976x2 + 102762x + 2287.6 35000 Stress-strain data Initial modulus data 30000 Final modulus data Linear (Final modulus data) 25000 Poly. (Initial modulus data)

Stress (psi)

20000

15000

10000

5000

0 0.00000

0.05000

0.10000

0.15000

0.20000

0.25000

0.30000

0.35000

0.40000

0.45000

Strain (%)

Figure 12. Experimental Stress-strain curves, showing the load-unload sequence for the conductor The final modulus is derived from the unload curve on from the 70% RBS hold. The modulus value is simply the slope of the linear fit to the unload line. The value is independent of any load offsets or translations. Since two sets of conductors were measured, there are two equations derived which relate stress (psi) to % Strain. These are: Conductor: y = 121890x 15806 y = 122361.49x - 12902.15 Core: y = 326311x + 2020 477-kcmil 3MTM Composite Conductor: Derivation of Stress-strain Coefficients

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y = 332160x - 1623.4 Thus for the core, the average final modulus coefficient is (326311+332160)/2 = 329235 CF is normalized by the area fraction Thus CF = 329235*0.14 = 46093 For each conductor-core pairing, the aluminum final curve is derived numerically just as with the initial aluminum curve. Since the only interest is in the slope of the final lines and these are treated as linear, then the offsets or translations become an arbitrary selection. However for conventional display purposes, the final curves are presented as dropping from the initial curve at 0.45% strain. This is achieved by changing the constant for the y-axis intercept to translate the line until the initial curve is intercepted at 0.45% strain. An example for the conductor and core presentation is shown in Figure 13.

40000 35000 Stress* Area fraction ( psi) 30000 25000

Conductor

Core

20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.1 0.2 % Strain 0.3 0.4 0.5

Figure 13. Initial and final curves for Conductor and core These equations are used to numerically derive the aluminum stress-strain curve. 0.01% strain increments were used from 0 to 0.45% using an Excel software spreadsheet with the following column headings.

Conductor Core Conductor Core %Strain Stress/psi Stress/psi Load/lbs Load/lbs Core Stress Al Stress Al Al Load/lbs Stress/psi * Af core * Af Al

The spreadsheet columns are defined as follows: Conductor stress is the linear equation

Page 13 of 21

Core stress is the linear equation Conductor load = conductor stress * %strain Core load = core stress * %strain Aluminum load = conductor load conductor load Aluminum stress = aluminum load / aluminum area Core stress* Af core = core stress * core area fraction Al stress * Af Al = aluminum stress * aluminum area fraction Fitting the resulting aluminum curve yields the following graph in Figure 14 for one of the conductor-core pairs and the subsequent equation.

Al final Curve

25000 20000 15000 10000 Stress (psi) 5000 0 -5000 0 -10000 -15000 -20000 -25000 % Strain 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 y = 88420x - 18725 2 R =1

Figure 14. Aluminum final stress-strain curve Aluminum: y = 88420x 18725 Likewise for the second conductor-core pairing: y = 88011x 21223 Thus the average final modulus is (88011+88420)/2 = 88215 Normalizing by the area fraction (86%) AF = 75865 Final presentation format of the curves yields a graph as shown in Figure 15 below.

Page 14 of 21

40000 Stress* Area fraction ( psi) 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 % Strain

Figure 15. Initial and final curves for all constituents The coefficients are updated in Table 3. A0 0 B0 C0 0 D0 0 AF TREF Aluminum 75865 71 10 yr creep (Al) 0.00128 C1 C2 C3 C4 CF Core 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 46093 D1 D2 D3 D4 10 yr creep (core) 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 0.000353 Table 3. Sag10 TM coefficients summarizing initial and final curves A1 58960 B1 A2 -70248 B2 A3 50188 B3 A4 -26201 B4

Conductor Core

Aluminum

From the Neetrac Data, the creep rates are derived and extrapolations are made to deduce the creep for 10 years. For the 477 ACCR, the creep strain over time at different tension levels were: a (%) = b*[(hrs)^c]

Page 15 of 21

The derivation of these equations is summarized in a separate document. Thus, Table 4 summarizes the creep coefficients for different stress levels.

RBS 15% 20% 25% 30% b 0.0012 0.003328 0.003748 0.004006 c Stress/psi 0.242343 6705 0.197528 8940 0.212924 11175 0.224918 13410

Table 4. Creep parameters for 477 ACCR From these, the creep strain accumulated over 10 years (87600 hours) can be calculated and is summarized in Table 5.

%strain c Stress/psi 10 yr creep 0.242343 6705 0.0189 0.197528 8940 0.0315 0.212924 11175 0.0423 0.224918 13410 0.0518

Table 5. 10-year creep strain for 477 ACCR The creep strain is added to the initial strain for each of these stress levels (Table 6)

initial % strain at creep stress 0.066152 0.08972 0.11411 0.13935 % strain creep+initial 0.085074 0.121231 0.156394 0.191155

Table 6. Initial strain and added creep strain at stresses used in creep testing. The initial + creep strain data points are plotted compared to the initial curve in Figure 16.

Page 16 of 21

Conductor

0.2

0.4 % Strain

0.6

Poly. (10-year creep)

0.8

10-year creep

Figure 16. Conductor stress-strain plot reflecting initial and 10-year creep strains A 2nd-order fit is made through the 10-year creep data points and through the zero point. However the extrapolation at higher strains is poor, and when this is used to derive the aluminum creep, it gives negative aluminum stresses at higher strains. Thus a single artificial point is introduced to pin the 10-year creep curve to higher strains, to make the extrapolated derivations below more self-consistent. This new pinned curve is shown in Figure 17.

Page 17 of 21

50000 40000 Stress ( psi) 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.2 0.4 % Strain

10-year creep

0.6

0.8

Conductor

Figure 17. Conductor stress-strain plot reflecting initial and 10-year creep strains with an artificial point at (0.6, 34,000) to assist the self-consistency of the extrapolation The 10 year conductor creep curve is thus y = -34881x2 + 77574x R2 = 0.9997 The goal is to derive the aluminum curve after 10-year creep. An assumption is made that the core exhibits zero creep (not measured but compared to the aluminum creep this is not unreasonable). Thus the core initial curve is also the core 10-year creep curve. Thus we numerically subtract the core initial curve from the conductor 10-year creep to deduce the aluminum 10-year creep. These equations are used to numerically derive the aluminum stress-strain curve. 0.01% strain increments were used from 0 to 0.64% using an Excel software spreadsheet with the following column headings.

10-yr %Strain conductor core conductor core load stress/psi stress/psi load/lbs lbs 10 yr 10 yr Al creep Core Stress Al Stress Stress/psi * Af core * Af Al

Al load lbs

The spreadsheet columns are defined as follows: 10-yr Conductor stress is the 2nd order polynomial equation Core stress is the initial 4th order polynomial equation Conductor load = conductor stress * %strain Core load = core stress * %strain Aluminum load = conductor load conductor load

Page 18 of 21

10 yr aluminum creep stress = aluminum load / aluminum area Core stress* Af core = core stress * core area fraction Al stress * Af Al = aluminum stress * aluminum area fraction This gives the graph for aluminum in Figure 18.

20000 18000 16000 Stress* Af ( psi) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000

4 3

Initial

10 yr Creep

y = 7375.6x - 14150x - 23104x + 30028x + 1E-08 R =1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 % Strain 0.5 0.6 0.7

2 2

2000 0

Figure 18. Aluminum initial and 10-year stress-strain curves The 4th order polynomial fit is: y = 7375.6x4 - 14150x3 - 23104x2 + 30028x + 1E-08 R2 = 1 The slope begins to turn negative at about of 0.50% reflecting the difficulties in trying to extrapolate accurately outside of the measured data range. However, for reasonable tension ranges, the extrapolations appear to be good. These coefficients fit the B row in the Sag10 TM table, thus completing the Table 7. A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 AF TREF Aluminum 0 58960 -70248 50188 -26201 75865 71 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 10 yr creep (Al) 0 30028 -23104 -14150 7376 0.00128 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 CF Core 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 46093 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 10 yr creep (core) 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 0.000353 TM Table 7. Complete coefficient Table for Sag10 design software 477-kcmil 3MTM Composite Conductor: Derivation of Stress-strain Coefficients Page 19 of 21

Summary

An analysis of the Stress-Strain and Creep raw data generated at Neetrac for 477 ACCR generated the coefficients for transmission design that may be incorporated into Alcoa Sag10 TM design software. The coefficients are summarized in Tables 8. A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 AF TREF Aluminum 0 58960 -70248 50188 -26201 75865 71 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 10 yr creep (Al) 0 30028 -23104 -14150 7376 0.00128 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 CF Core 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 46093 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 10 yr creep (core) 0 47546 -11777 14150 -7376 0.000353 Table 8. Complete Sag10 TM design coefficients for 477 ACCR. Acknowledgement: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC02-02CH11111. Disclaimer: Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy.

Page 20 of 21

Appendix A: 477-kcmil, 3MTM Composite Conductor Specification (See Product Data and Specification at www.3M.com/accr)

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