# Routh-Hurwitz Criterion: Special Cases Zero only in the ﬁrst column When forming the Routh table

, replace the zero with a small number ε and evaluate the ﬁst column for positive or negative values of ε. Problem: Determine the stability of the closedloop transfer function: 10 T (s) = 5 s + 2s4 + 3s3 + 6s2 + 5s + 3
s5 s4

(1)
5 3

1 2 1 2
2 −

3 6

s3

3 6 6
7 2 ε 7 2

=0→ε

1 2
2

5 3 3 0
ε

=

7 2

1 2
2

0 0 0 0
ε

=0

s2
− 6ε−7 ε

2 ε

=

6ε−7 ε

2 ε ε

=3 0 0

2 ε ε

=0 0 0

ε

s1 s0

3 3

6ε−7 ε

=

42ε−49−6ε2 12ε−14

− 6ε−7 ε

6ε−7 ε

=0

− 6ε−7 ε

6ε−7 ε

=0

0 1

0

2 . they both indicate the system is unstable with two poles in the rhp.Label s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 First Column 1 2 ε 6ε − 7 ε 42ε−49−6ε2 12ε−14 ε=+ + + + − + + ε=− + + − + + + 3 The changes in sign occur in both instances so it doesn’t matter which we choose.

e. 3 . the system is unstable and has two right half plane (rhp) poles. less computationally expensive method to use when a zero occurs in the ﬁrst column is to create the Routh table using the polynomial that has the reciprocal roots of the original polynomial.33 −1.Another. i. This is the same as the result obtained by using ε for the original polynomial.4 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 (2) (3) since there are two sign changes.75 1 6 3 1. D(s) = 3s5 + 5s4 + 6s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 1 s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 3 5 4.2 1. 10 T (s) = 5 s + 2s4 + 3s3 + 6s2 + 5s + 3 by replacing s with 1/s.

Entire row is zero Problem: Determine the number of right hand plane poles in the closed-loop transfer function: 10 (4) T (s) = 5 4 3 2 s + 7s + 6s + 42s + 8s + 56 s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 7→1 0→ 6 42 → 6 0→ 8 56 → 8 0 Now we are faced with the problem of zeros in the third row. 4 .

Form a new polynomial using the entries in the row above zeros.1. and continue by skipping every other power of s. P (s) = s4 + 6s2 + 8 (5) 2. s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 1 7→1 0→4 → 1 3 1 3 6 42 → 6 0 → 12 → 3 8 0 0 8 56 → 8 0→0 0 0 0 8 We see no sign changes hence no rhp poles. and continue the table. Next we diﬀerentiate the polynomial with respect to s and obtain dP (s) = 4s3 + 12s + 0 ds (6) 3. i. The polynomial will start with power of s in that row.(6).e. 5 . Finally the row with all zeros in the Routh table is replaced with the coeﬃcients in Eq.

• The rows of zeros indicates the possilbility of jω roots.• Why does an entire row of zeros occur? When a purely odd or even polynomial is a factor of the original polynomial.) j ω symmetrical and real j ω symmetrical and imaginary σ σ j ω quadrantal and symmetrical σ • Some polynomial only have roots symmetrical about the origin. 6 . • Routh table from the even polynomial (s4 → s0) is a test of the even polynomial. (s4 + 6s2 + 8 is an even polynomial as it only has even power of s.

s4 . i.e. Rows of zeros of s3.Look at a larger example: T (s) = 20 s8 + s7 + 12s6 + 22s5 + 39s4 + 59s3 + 48s2 + 38s + 20 (7) 1 1 − 10 → −1 20 → 1 1 0→4 → 2 3 2 1 3 s8 s7 s6 s5 s4 s3 s2 s1 s0 12 22 − 20 → −2 60 → 3 3 0→6→ 3 2 0 0 39 59 10 → 1 40 → 2 2 0→0 0 0 0 48 38 20 → 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1. Form a new polynomial using the entries in the row above zeros. P (s) = s4 + 3s2 + 2 7 (8) .

so there are 2 right hand plane poles and 2 left hand plane poles. 4 jω poles.2.(9). • There are two sign changes from s8 to s4. So all four poles must exits on the jω axis. • Final results: 2rhp. 8 . 2lhp. Next we diﬀerentiate the polynomial with respect to s and obtain dP (s) = 4s3 + 6s + 0 ds (9) 3. Finally the row with all zeros in the Routh table is replaced with the coeﬃcients in Eq. and continue the table. • As the entries from s4 to s0 are looking at the even polynomials and there are no sign changes.