The Development of Buddhist Art in South India

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p. 724 Amaravati Stupa Amaravati is picturesquely situated on the south bank of the Krsna River close by the modern town of Dharanikota, ancient Dhanyakataka, the capital of Maha-Andhra, about eighteen miles west of Bezwada. The earliest stupa was raised under the patronage of the Andhras about 200 B.C., of which a few archaic sculptures have survived, but most of the exquisite marbles which survive to-day belong to a subsequent restoration about four centuries later. The great Buddhist stupa of Amaravati which was once unrivalled by any other Indian structure of its class in form, dimension and decorative grandeur

p. 725 shared no better fate than the rest of the ancient monuments. "When Huen-tsang visited the place in the year 639 A.D. it had already been deserted for a century, but he speaks of its magnificence and the beauty of its site in more glowing terms than he applies to almost any other monument in India.''(1) From this time onward the monument gradually began to decay and fall into ruins. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the famous mound, the upper part of which rose in a turreted shape encased with bricks to the height of 20ft. with a diameter of about 90

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Sewell. Sonari and Manikyalado.123 2. An inscription of the reign of Palumavi Vasisthiputra tells us that the Amaravati stupa was known as the Mahacaitya or 'Great Caitya' of the Holy One belonging to the Caitika School. there are numerous funeral tumulii. 30 April. but it was reserved for Dr.ntu. any pollution arising to Muhammadan faith from idolatrous substances'. In the first decade of the 20th century. 1910. Report on the Amaravati Tope.. 2 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .edu. 15. when as a result of excavation he recovered some 130 slabs. 1888. neither was it a hollow Caitya containing some relic. Fergusson. which served as the prototypes of the later stately structures in stone or brick. the local Raja Venkatadri Naidu had discovered and disemboweled the mound in a fruitless search after hidden treasures. in conformity with the convention of the day.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. as the earlier stupas at Sanchi. Rea of the Arclaeological Survey.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. vol. Some of the slabs were utilised by the Mussalmans in their mosques.(2) Mackenzie revisited it in 1816.(4) The slabs excavated by Sir Walter were transhipped to England and now adorn the grand stair-case of the British Museum. Burgess. the work was continued. 1880. with ______________________ 1. p. p. at the top. surrounded by rude stone circles. to prevent. made drawings of them and prepared a ground-plan of the stupa. The place was next visited by Sir Walter Elliot in 1845. 1887. The Buddhist Stupas of Amaravati and Jaggayyapeta. by Mr. London. 467. p. Sewell.(1) In the vicinity of Amaravati itself.I. The next excavation was undertaken by Mr.. Madras Govt. p. 726 valuable results. The sculptures which are now in India after surviving the ruthless vandalism through the ages are shared by the Museums of Madras and Calcutta. London. 3. A stupa or Caitya has its origin in the primitive burial mound of both the Arya and the Asura. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture. Burgess to make a shifting and scientific examination of the spot in 1882-83 and incorporate his findings in a voluminous report. as it is said.htm ft. was locally known as Dipaldinne or "Hill of Lights". Colonel Mackenzie who went to the site in 1797 found to his great chagrin that just a year before. 2nd ed. 4. It was a solid structure and rested within a square stone casket. p. but in the meantime 70 pieces of sculptures left behind in the open had been carried away by the enterprising villagers and burnt into lime! (3) It is deplorable that even the Government Public Works Engineers were equally guilty of such acts of vandalism. London. 67. 15.Orders No. The stupa at Amaravati was not a commemorative monument like the ones at Sarnath or Nagarahara. of remote antiquity. on the top of the dome. after 'carefully divesting of every carving by rubbing them on harder stones. he afterwards caused a reservoir to be dug in the centre and used the priceless marble slabs in building the new temple of Amaresvara and the flight of steps to the adjacent tank of Sivaganga.

Feb. Other slabs invariably present us with another 3 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . The very first thing that strikes us. With the march of time the number of these chapels went on increasing. But there was no balustrade to encircle the procession path at the base of the drum as on the great stupa at Sanchi. cit. p.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. Banerjee (vide Modern Review. In this respect it presented a contrast to the stilted hemispheres of the earlier northern examples and was more akin to the soaring forms of the Ceylonese dagobas. and which is visible nowhere in northern India. _______________________ 1." The marble panels were also 'covered' originally with thin plaster. and they have square carved capitals'. These projecting pedestals with the enigmatical columns.(2) In an inscription they are called 'Aryaka Khambhe'. (twice that of Sanchi ) and was more or less bulging in form. As all traces of the great stupa have been wiped away from the site. on the four cardinal points of each stupa. profound and majestic. Burgess of a number of these pillars at the Jaggayyapeta stupa 30 miles north-west of Amaravati. was matched by an exterior at once brilliant and dazzling. unlike the short and stunted dome of Sanchi.80. may correspond to the four shrines in the stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut. in diameter. supporting a frieze and cornice. Further Indian or Indonesian specimens. and with wreaths and medallions either executed in relief or painted'. high. 727 Thus the conception of the whole thing.ntu.coloured and gilt. which slightly projects from the base of the dagoba--the bases are square and sometimes ornamented with carvings of Cakra.. R.D. It is very difficult to ascertain whether the dome rose directly from the drum or rested upon several receding terraces like the Gandhara. The great marble dome of Amaravati. we cannot help looking at one of the numerous panels representing the miniature stupa in order to gain an idea of the original one (see plate). A very illuminating article on the 'Stupas or Caityas' has been recently contributed by Mr. That this was a common feature of the Kalinga Stupas is proved by the recurrence of this element also in the stupas at Bhattiprolu and Ghantasala. and was faced with marble slabs possessing the richest carvings and characterised by the most delicate treatments. the shafts are octagonal. Bodhi Tree and Dagoba.htm The circular base of the stupa was 162 ft. at Sarnath they are doubled while Borobudur simply bristles with them.edu. 'The domical part was covered with stucco. p. 1928).(1) The existence of these novel features on the great stupa is attested by the discovery by Dr. perhaps only 6 ft. Fergusson. depicting miniature representations of the stupa itself and interposed by panels elaborately carved with scenes from the life of Buddha and the Jatakas. and the niches for the Dhyani Buddhas in the dagobas of Ceylon and the Caityas of Nepal. of which we have already spoken. 2. Calcutta. is the five tall stelae 'above the front slab.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. rose to a considerable height of 90 ft. op.

. and if they occur at all (as for example at Sarnath and Sanchi) they are situated outside and not inside the rail. Plate XXXI.(1) Colonel Mackenzie in 1797 Was responsible for starting the theory that the stupa was surrounded by two rails--one inner and another outer. not to speak of Elliot and Sewell. in circumference and 14 ft. Bodh Gaya. upon which the artist devoted his most scrupulous attention and lavished all the splendour he could conceive. holding a tray on his head. 1927. The great rail at Amaravati was about 600 ft. Ibid. 2. is a similar small figure bearing a basin by the doorjamb of the cave at Lonad of the Thana district near Kalyan. It 4 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .. p. They have also a close affinity with innumerable concentric lats."(4) But we think a closer examination of the extant monuments may yet reveal such figures and in fact there are such at Karli and in Orissa. 72. intervening between it and the base.ntu. a dwarf figure standing on each side of the gate. The actual presence of these columns in the great stupa. broad. but the remarkable rail at Amaravati has far surpassed them all in the magnificence of elegant carvings and the marvellous display of intrinsic merit. crowned sometimes with plenty of Chatas. The Tibetan historian Taranatha records that the great Buddhist Acarya Nagarjuna. 72. P. The ornamental detail is simply staggering in its profusion and afford a striking contrast to the plain and simple rail of the great stupa at Sanchi.. 6 and 7. Sanchi and Mathura and we know too their wealth of decoration. A pair of vases with flowers ___________________ 1. We are aware of the extant rails at Bharhut. bearing trays to receive the offerings of the visitors. Figs. 'No example of them has been found and the only analogue I know of. one on each side of the entrance within the enclosure. 502 3.. The appearance of two slender pillars or free-standing lats with small Caitya capitals.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. cit. the founder of the Madhyamika School 'surrounded the great shrine of Dhanyakataka with a railing. p.edu. 728 (mangalakalasa?) prominently placed at the entrance is another regular feature of the sculptured slabs. op. Dr.htm peculiar feature. Burgess. The Rail. The error persisted with veteran archaeologists like Fergusson and Burgess. viz.--The most singular feature of the early Buddhist and Jaina stupas is the rail. is supported by the excavations at Jaggayyapeta and Bhattiprolu. Development of Buddhist Art in South India. cit. in height with a procession path 13 ft. still standing round the Thuparama and Lankarama dagobas in Ceylon--a perpetual enigma to the generations of archaeologists. Sept. It was more than twice the dimension of the rail at Bharhut.(3) Their constant occurrences lead us to believe that in the original structure they represented statues in the round. Burgess. Ghosh. p. 4. op. Indian Historical Quarterly. is also remarkable The paucity of such examples in the northern stupas is striking.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. Burgess opines.

pp. The Amaravati rail has a close resemblance to the rail of Stupa no. p. op. The lotus medallions grew larger in size and became more prominent (those at the top and bottom were often three-quarters and not half) till at last they reached their climax in the rail of the Gautamiputra cave. They were decorated with half lotus discs at the top and the bottom. vol.(2) On the whole the inner side of the rail. 1927. But the most typical characteristic about these pillars. The preference for group composition. occupying the entire surface of the uprights.72. Bodh Gaya and the dancing girls of Mathura. in the usual manner. covered with scenes full of life and movement. Indian Antiquary. 2 at Sanchi. curling leaves carefully corrugated. The rectangular pillars were as usual edged off into shallow flutes. and all different. is very obvious in the swarming of the space between the discs--which was generally left bare and unadorned in the earlier days by vivid and animated delineation of the Jatakas and other incidents. 119f. They have entirely disappeared and their place is occupied by greatly magnified and richly carved lotus discs. 729 rail. such as the graceful statues of Yaksas and Yaksinis of Bharhut. 119. IHQ. grotesquely treated. 2. Nasik. 'From some misunderstanding of the first accounts' he added. this sculptures stupa'. and circular discs in the middle inserted with a full-grown lotus or a scene. in excellence of carving and richness of detail. "The discs were _______________ 1. comical Ganas and an enormous variety of scenic sculptures. The decorative tendency which was strongly evident at Sanchi became more pronounced at Amaravati. was decorated with greater beauty and elaboration than the exterior. the most elaborate of its kind ever made.edu. pp. 486-91. On the massive coping. as opposed to single figures. JASB. carried by moving human figures and dwarfs and interspersed with symbols in the loops. p. 88. Fergusson. but the plinth was richly carved with a frieze of running boys and animals. XII. the meandering creeper of Bharhut was replaced by a long wavy roll. cit.. is the complete absence of the large standing human representations.LI. pp. the facing the inner circle of of the base of the The rail at Amaravati resembled its predecessors in the principal features.. Sept. revised by Burgess.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. The three cross-bars were each embellished with a beautiful lotus disc with concentric bands of petals. p. Schiefner's Taranatha's Geschichte des Buddhismus. 'it was supposed that the Amaravati Stupa had an inner ___________________ 1.ntu.(1) was was a mistake.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. vol.htm was only about two decades ago that Burgess acknowledged and rectified the mistake. The marvellous change which has taken place in the sphere of ornamentation has already been noticed in the previous chapter on Ornamental Representation. where the pillars and cross-bars were adorned with full discs only. 5 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .

at the angles too. Ibid. Dwellings and Palaces.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. let us proceed to discuss the various forms of architectural representations from the extant remains in relief as well as in the round.reveal no dissimilarity between them and their northern prototypes. and the practice of setting up wooden architecture was prevalent in South India till comparatively recent times. the difference in material of domestic architecture from that of civic and military architecture is distinctly shown in the brick 6 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . I.. These instances may lead us to infer that the South had dispensed with all angularity in construction of the roofs of the poor and the common. 7. Other small detached huts show that they were crowned with circular domed roofs. on each side is a lion. buildings and shrines. Burgess. Most of the buildings represented are distinctly ___________________ 1. XXVII. Behar and Orissa and other early sculptures of the North. Plate XLV. p. the conspicuous absence of the characteristic Toranas from the great rail is mysterious indeed.--From the sculptured slabs we can find that the ordinary dwelling places were really oblong shaped huts with barrel-vaulted roofs which unlike the curvilinear forms of Bharhut. 2.htm p. As at Sanchi.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. p.. cit. were not adorned with the beautiful towering Toranas.. carved here as well as on the Jaggayyapeta slabs. caitya windows and arched roofs with finials --which were continued till the time of the Mahaballipur Rathas-. 70.(2) While the reliefs abound with representations of such structures over the city and palace gates. To make the scenes inside visible they are shown in a sort of conventional perspective. above the roll.ntu. This may be a peculiar South Indian feature and differs strikingly from the square-thatched houses of Bengal. The few instances of single and double storied palaces. with their railed verandahs. Fig. 730 multiplied till the pillars almost became evanescent quantities in the composition. Architectural Representations Now that we have a picture of the stupa in the height of its glory. Sanchi and Bodh Gaya are more or less semi-circular in shape. The sides of the entrance are shown instead as coming out in a 'rude sort of perspective and terminating in neat pillars with bases and capitals.'(1) One such lion lying prostrate near the west gate yielded to the spade of Sir Walter Elliot. op. Fig." In spite of all these arresting details. such as we find at Bharhut and Sanchi. crowned by figures of lions. 3. Ibid.edu. we are confronted with the rather astonishing fact that the four openings piercing the great rail at the cardinal points. 731 modern in character as Fergusson conjectures.

XI. Over these gateways. pipe and music. the reliefs afford us with copious examples. I. 2. 732 surrounded by pillars. iii. One type represents two square and carved pillars surmounted by cushion capitals and crowned with crouching animal figures like those at Bharhut. has exceedingly slender and often plain. Such places are now found in all Muhammadan palaces or Nowbatkhanas. solid semi-circular architrave without any volute ends. Rajagrhalaksmanam. p. or within separate structures either oblong or square.ntu. massive palisades.. vol. occurring more frequently.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs.--The method of building temples and shrines does not seem to have made much progress since the days of Bharhut. adorned with hanging balconies and numerous strategic windows facilitating the discharge of arrows from safe from safe quarters. A comparison of the reliefs of Amaravati with the architraves of Sanchi gateways. Gateways. The palace buildings are usually surrounded by high walls on all the four sides with two or more entrance ways.-There is also complete agreement between the southern and northern examples of fortifications. Fig. and xxvii. 1921. ch.'(1) Most of the above features artists in the panels. Madras.(2) Temples.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. 7 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . 2. or it may be even laid out in the form of a semi-circle as in the Karmuka form of town-plan.(1) The second type. lofty towers bristling with turrets and pinnacles set with the usual Buddhist Caitya-window facades. and other apartments invariably fringed with the rail pattern and crowned with gable-shaped roofs. both in the mornings and the evenings. strongly built watch-towers. there are high spires or flag-towers. The construction may be laid out square or circular in accordance with the taste of the kings or owners of the grounds. xi. it must be admitted. ch. Bk. Plate xxv. that it is very difficult to distinguish between a fortress and a palace proper. which in their turn support a superstructure of a very broad.--Although we have no evidence as to actual gateways guarding the entrances of the stupa itself. as in those days every royal abode was a military stronghold and viceversa. were recorded by the Fortifications. 2. carved on a Bharhut pillar). Translated by lyer in Indian Architecture. tiers stories each supreimposed on the other. op. Two different kinds of Toranas can be noticed. will make this apparent in the identical forms of high and broad brickwalls.edu. Fig. where sentinels were stationed and where also play bands or Mangalavadya. however.htm construction of the latter. but generally open and _________________ 1. Indeed one may be easily led to ascribe the shrines represented on some of the earliest slabs of Amaravati to the Bharhut railings. strong gateways. The object of adoration was usually placed and worshipped in a courtyard generally flanked on three sides only by buildings (vide Asoka's temple at Bodh Gaya. Burgess. cit. Manasara.

Fig. This is perhaps the first instance where a Caitya constitutes the crowning emblem instead of the usual animal or other familiar northern conventions. This clearly indicates that in ancient times the original wooden shafts were inserted into metal pots to preserve them from decay and injury. Remarkable plastic examples of this type are found at Bodh Gaya. remains in its entirety--only fragments have been found. op. The earlier types were plain and carved with rail pattern and other Buddhist symbols -----------------------1. lies in the architraves of the former being more curved and the volute ends correspondingly curled up to a greater degree. octagonal or the The Some of the broken fragments of pilasters betray crude craftsmanship and antique characteristics noted below.htm square shafts.--Apart from the pillars which serve architechtonic purpose.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. V. 3. Ibid.(2) The difference in appearance of the Amaravat Toranas from those of Bharhut. 2. carved with dwarfs or hybrid 8 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. Burgess. which 'at once remind us of the Asoka lat in Northern India and Iron pillar at Delhi' and specially the rows of pillars round the Anuradhapur stupas in Ceylon supporting the same cushion capital and inverted slabs. carved with leaf and bead pattern. which points to the frequent use of this particular method in Assyria. rising from pot-bases and crowned with or without cushion capitals. XVIII. Fig. Dr. This theory has been strengthened by the recent discovery of the bronze shoe of a column at Balawat in Assyria.edu. Khandagiri (Ananta Gumpha) and Gautamiputra cave at Nasik. "These slabs so closely resemble those round the Jaggayyapeta stupa that we cannot mistake in ascribing them to the same age. 2.. But unlike the western prototypes. 2. freestanding sculptured lats can be observed on many of the slabs. have miniature dagobas always placed on top of them. 733 while the later examples were adorned with figures of the Buddha and other sculptures. The Ceylonese capitals of the particular type are either topped with a knob or with a flat surface. Burgess judiciously observes. cit. Ibid. the base consists of three thin slabs supporting a vase. Plate v. It can also be noted that perhaps the gateways were not so lavishly enriched with marvellous bas-reliefs as those of Sanchi. Like the Nasik and Junar pillars. Fig. Sanchi and Mathura. There are the usual two or three architraves with volute ends but entirely bare. shafts were square. 2... each ranged above the other. None of the pillars which must have stood at the gates. p. a projecting member.(1) They must have belonged to the early stupa.ntu. There are some with cushion capitals and inverted steps bearing Cakras and other Buddhist symbols(3)The slender columns within the enclosure. Mesopotamia and Persia. the gaps being linked by vertical posts. Pillars and Pilasters. A few of them are carved with geometrical patterns.

on the contrary. Mr. 94. in the west (Bhaja. in the east (Bodh Gaya.ntu."(2) The Eastern Hill. The flutes. it takes precedence as regards the age of the monuments. whether in the north (Bharhut. Udayagiri. Jaggayyapeta etc. 2. and closely resemble the pilasters in the Pithalkora Vihara.(3) So we may conclude characteristics of pillars and _________________________ that the typical 1. rising in tiers over each other culminate in the dominating structure of a great stupa on the summit.neither it is boldly modelled with soft drooping flutes nor facaded like the Karli examples. Alexander Rea. are extremely crude and shallow.) or in the south (Amaravati. But no pillar with cushion capital. where monolithic remains exist in any considerable number. LIV. is also the most frequently used.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs.edu. There are two isolated hills covered all over with monolithic and structural Buddhist remains. "are the earliest of their class in the South of India and constitute one of the most remarkable groups of Buddhist remains in the Presidency. in the Vizagapatam district of the Madras Presidency.). op. 2. very close to the village of Sankaram. like the Bhaja specimens and their significance is further reduced by the intersection of bands of lotus leaves and beads. Nasik. is very slight and do not possess the graceful sweep of the Asokan capitals. Ibid. parallel with those found in Nasik caves are not.. p. etc. besides being one of the most ancient Indian architectural orders. Pithalkora. is that of the Seven Pagodas. rare. the edges of which are slantingly cut off like those of the Bharhut pillars. 734 pilasters during the 2nd and 1st centuries before the Christian era. It is found at all periods." says Mr. Sanchi. The necking consists of the bead and reel pattern which supports the terraced superstructure. Absolutely smooth capitals. etc. Mathura).. The shafts. Generally the double carve of the bell-shaped or lotus capital. first encountered at Kanheri and so often sculptured in the reliefs. Khandagiri. nos. 6.). are adorned with half lotus discs at each and a full one in the middle. Junar.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. and though the Sankaram site is not to be compared with it in point of extent. The grandeur of Borobudur flashes across the mind when we visualize the almost 9 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . "The monuments. Plate XLIV. the monoliths set upon platforms and terraces. Burgess. however. stands over the neck of the body. surmounted by a pair of winged animals seated in juxtaposition. cit.htm creatures and ornamented with the old battlements and other motifs. p."(1) The Ruins of Sankaram and Ramatirtham Let us now take leave of the Krsna district and proceed a little higher up the Kalinga country. is literally strewn with rock-cut caves and dagobas. 5. which is the higher of the two. Karli. has been discovered. similar to those prevalent in other regions. are almost identical throughout India. Havell remarks "The lotus and vase pillar. Indeed the only other known site in the South. no.

735 double caves are cut. The facade is of the Behar caves. a circular dome and the remains of a tree. The remains can be classified into three main heads. short octagon in the centre changing into sixteen sides upwards. Ann. 1907-08. A Buddhist Monastery on the Sankaram Hills. according to 10 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .ntu. 149.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. Vizaga-patam Dt. lotus or bell capital and animal superstructure.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. are also carved in niches beside the facade. 44. p. "over the door which is guarded by figures of Dvarapalas" like the Nasik caves. The Chamber. In Cave I. "Two central piers of the central square have a standing image apparently a Cauri-bearer.. p.. is absolutely square in dimension. 1920. The interior of this cave also differs materially in plan and construction from the early Buddhist Caitya halls." Stranger still. Sur.--The surface of the rock at places is hollowed out into a deep recess in order to provide a vertical wall with a platform before it--just in the manner of the peculiar rock-dwellings in Asia Minor. called the Syppilus. one standing over the other and each of them is entered only by a single rectangular doorway. the Western Caitya halls or the neighbouring caves in the Godavari district. Havell. (I) rock-cut caves. 2. Handbook of Indian Art. Rea. The hall is.htm identical arrangement and the imposing profile of the whole mass in its original and pristine glory. sometimes with attendants. ___________________ 1. stands on a square platform which fills up the space between the four central piers and is situated in the middle of the cave instead of rising precipitously from the floor at the apsidal end of the hall. Rep. in one such wall. these several unskilfully moulded neckings followed by a thin and small torus. Figures of the Buddha." Arch. It is further characterised by the absence of the double row of columns dividing the interior into a central nave and the two side-aisles as in the Western Caitya caves. They belong to a different class altogether--having a square base. Rock-cut Caves. the Buddhist rail and other ornamental devices which decorated the facades of almost all the Buddhist rockcut caves of the early period. the Caityas. We sorely miss the much familiar Caitya-window. The columns are massive in proportion and do not resemble in any way the early types of pillars with a pot base. p. On the Eastern Hill. demarcated into twenty compartments by four cross rows of sixteen pillars. on the contrary.edu." The usual place of the Caitya-windows is usurped by a semi-circular recess occupied by a large-seated image of the Buddha. instead of being oblong in shape with an apsidal end. cut in the front of the base. a Caitya or rock-cut dagoba with a plainly moulded base. "weather-worn traces of an architrave can be traced which include two semi-circular pediments with a cornice over it. viz. London. surmounted again with square block. (2) monolithic dagobas and structural stupas and (3) structural buildings for residential purposes.

.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. into an ante-camber and a shrine The Caitya is replaced inside the shrine by a rectangular stone pedestal with a cavity on top. "The walls of the vestibule are also carved with the Buddha and attendant images and some representations of the dagoba with strikingly bul- p. flat or elongated in shape. So here we are confronted with the unique spectacle of the combination: a Caitya hall and a Vihara combined into one. It has been divided into two compartments by means of the usual partition wall near the apsidal end. Some of them have moulded bases. plain plasters and cornice round the drum. I. only it is more slender and has a fluted(?) or moulded torus. they appear absolutely bare.. the upper part being completed in brick. the type of pillar is identical with that of No. Others are faced with brick or made wholly of brick.. is nearly superimposed on a drum having also stunted or column-like elongated forms. the Caityas are too small to have space or necessity for pillars. also a series of inverted slabs on the relic casket.. Cave II above it consists of two apartments--one rectangular vestibule. the Caitya is placed in a square cavity in the middle of the chamber below the ground level.almost wholly of brick.. Formerly they were all covered with Stucco. in the conventional way. even the essential rail ornament is absent from the rim of the drum. The complete dome must have been a low curve of less than semi-circle.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs." The principal cave on the Western Hill contains another novel feature. The dagobas on the West Hill are comparatively better. disfigured as it is. "There is a lotus patera at the top of each square and pediment at the top of the octagon. this device and the favourite Caitya windows do not occur on the Harmika. It is the main structure round which all other constructions grew up.. They are very crudely worked out and their forms are characterised by the utmost simplicity.--On the eastern end of the top of the highest terrace. 736 bous domes" like some at Amaravati. on which rested the low rock-cut cylinder which formed the lower part of the dome.htm convention.. strewn about the hill and converging upward. "The crowning Stupa rested on a square platform.ntu. There 11 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .. The walls and images were originally coated with plaster. in the Nizam's Dominions. and a shrine which is also rectangular and without pillars. viz. Instead of the Caitya.. Like the one at Ter.edu. The hemispherical ''auda" which is either bulbous." Structural Buildings for Residential Purposes.--Almost all the dagobas. Compared with the monolithic Stupas at Bhaja. The ceilings of these caves are plain and flat. the remains of a structural rectangular Caitya hall made of brick and terminating in an apse. In Cave V. has been excavated. are rock-cut monoliths. there is a seated image of the Buddha on a pedestal on the back wall of Cave III. and as far as it can be guessed. probably meant for an image. Dagobas.

737 is a large stone-paved brick hall. Most of the data utilised here are borrowed from Mr. Near by it. The crudeness may point in either of two ways. were square and never apsidal. and at the base of each.. "'And inside these walls and placed at right angles to them at the same level are the remains of the partition and outer walls of a continuous row of cells and shrines standing on the north. Rea. p. The chambers which occupied this position.htm p.edu. with a stone dagoba resting on a double pedestal. Remnants of other continuous rows of cells have also been dug out around the three sides of the raised Caitya terrace and at the same level with it. in the vicinity of the village of Ramtirtham." Arch. On the Gurubhaktakondu Hill.'' Another peculiar feature is to be met with at the entrance of the hall.(1) One of the range of hills.(2) The Date of the Ruins. in imitation of the Western rock-cut Viharas. "The sculptures in all the ____________________ 1. but at a lower level. Rep.'' The semi-circular slabs at the foot of the flight of stone stairs at once recalls the beautiful 'moonstones' of Ceylonese architecture. east and south sides. Surv. in the Vizagapatam district. it has brick pilasters "with moulded bases and capitals. the most interesting buildings here are the structural Caityas so rare in India. There is a wall across the chord of the hall. apart from the foundations of a large brick stupa. This exceptional arrangement has made it impossible for a quadrangular space to be provided in the middle.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. Like Sankaramm. "Buddhist Monasteries on the Gurubhaktakonda and Durgakonda Hills at Ramatirtham. at a lower level. 2. In agreement with the Caitya at Chezarla. fragments remain of three crouchant lions. The foundations of other Viharas do not show remains of columns. is also studded with the extensive ruins of a Buddhist monastety.--Regarding the remains at Sankaram. with their entrances facing the central passage. there are remains of an apsidal brick Caitya hall.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. 1910-11.ntu. the roof of which was supported by six rows of six piers each--square in section but near the top octagonal. where the highest phases of the sculptor's art are so lavishly represented. while an outer detached row stands parallel to those to the north. 78-81. Ann. faced with pilasters just in front of the Caitya. Alexander Rea in his Report says. It may either represent a very early period of undeveloped workmanship or a 12 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . Rea's Report. in the Western caves. The absence of pillars was perhaps a common characteristic of the stuctural Caityas. p. if at all. which is flanked on either side by apsidal brick structures. 738 caves and on their facades generally are crude and primitive in design and have none of the finished technique so strikingly observable at places like Amaravati. Mr. is the site of a brick Vihara.

p. The inference is therefore that the period represented by these sculptures is earlier than Amaravati or possibly prior to the first century. wooden ribs of the barrel vaulted roof and the wooden screen and the purlins in front of the Caitya hall are indicative of an early age. Report. Kosala. The Buddhists did not survive sufficiently long after Amaravati epoch for any such decadence to have strikingly manifested itself. the square plan of the Caitya Chamber and the situation of the Caitya itself.ntu. Caitya window motif.htm later decadence. are unique in the history of Buddhist architecture in India proper. surely all these features are prominent by their absence at Sankaram. On the contrary. itself does not warrant us to accept the conclusion of Mr. p. The earliest of the remains here or the monoliths probably belong to the period of Asoka himself.The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs. the ceiling is entirely plain and the pillars themselves have not any affinity with the earlier types we are familiar with. in the heart of the Kalinga country. 1907-08. Sur. and betraying obvious signs of degeneration in technique and treatment. Then again the arrangement of the pillars. Rea. Godavari district. is noticed first in the 13 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 . Indeed. no traces of any of them have hitherto been found. Though the sites founded by him are historically and traditionally described as numerous in Southern India. in the centre of the hall and on a pedestal. none of the architectonic features at Sankaram is reminiscent of wooden construction--they are purely lithic in design and conception and indicate a late period when the transition from the wooden to the stone construction has been complete. sloping door jambs." The statement falls to the ground in the face of the discovery of Buddha and Bodhisattva images at Amaravati. Jaggayyapeta and other places belonging to the 6th and 7th centuries A. that the Buddhists and their art "did not survive sufficiently long after Amaravati epoch for any such decadence to have strikingly manifested itself. we cannot concur with the view of Mr. monoliths and other structures. Ann. Again we can hardly ignore the invaluable testimony of the famous Chinese traveller Huen-tsang. If the rail pattern.C. Rea. But we search in vain for these typical details here. The occurrence of the miniature Caitya windows over the door and some of the windows and the so-called "horse-shoe arch" over the entrance of the vestibule.edu. closely resembling the facade of the Lomasa Rsi cave. Arch. 739 The facade is extremely simple in design. The presence of the stupas with square bases. the architecture of the caves.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho."(1) Firstly. foot-note. ________________________ 1. is sufficient proof of their pre-Christian age. Secondly. in some of the Buddhist caves at Guntupalle.158. Rea. many points of similarity can be detected between them and the later cave pillars. who passing through the countries of Kalinga. Andhra and Dhanyakataka in the 7th century noticed stupas and numerous Sangharamas peopled by hundreds of Buddhist priests.

About the former's date. 740 on the other hand. Ibid." It is very probable.D. Rea speaks."(2) So in the absence of any good photographs of the sculptures we have been compelled to take recourse to architecture.htm caves at Kholvi in Rajputana and also at Dhamnar. about which Fergusson remarks "..the whole making a confused mass of chambers and caityas in which all the original parts are confounded and all the primitive simplicity of design and arrangement is lost. Fargusson is of opinion that "they are probably the most modern group of Buddhist caves in India. much less to the age of Asoka--for the outlines of all the stupas.. 600-700. is the natural concomitant of a decayed art. probably between A.. History of Indian vol.. the peculiar combination and arrangement of rows and cells with and around a Caitya..ntu..tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/gho. and in the light of the above facts. 166..I.edu. and Eastern Arch. We come across the bulbous domes for the first time at Amaravati and it is an admitted fact that stunted domes resting upon elongated pedestal is a later development. to such an extent that without previous knowledge they would hardly be recognisable.. The crudeness of the sculptures... 2... that they belong to a much later period. is flat and stunted. Fergusson. ____________________ 1..There are no exact date for determining the age of this cave but like all of these series. they cannot reasonably be assigned to a period earlier than Amaravati.. p. large or small. Mr. of which Mr."(1) As regards the monolithic dagobas. it may not be quite correct to maintain that the period represented by the ruins at Sankaram "is earlier than Amaravati or probably prior to the first century A. when Buddhism was apparently in its last gasps in Southern India.. p.. primarily appears in the caves at Dhamnar. If we also take into account the structural building at Sankaram... it is late. 14 de 14 08/12/2010 17:26 .The Development of Buddhist Art in South India http://ccbs..D..