[

y
y +σ
 ∂x
∂y
∂z
 ∂τ

∂τ yz ∂σ∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = 0
z =
ρb = 0
xz
z
E σy −

+ z
+
+
3,33
ν(σ
y +σ
ε = 1
 ∂x
∂z
∂y
3× −

z
r ˆ
r r
x +σ
z =
10 5
ˆ
t (n ) =∇ ⋅⋅σ + ρ b = 0
σ n
σ
3,33
z )=
E z −
(σ +
2 x×a − λ − 4ax 2
−2
31 −
νσ
2 x1 a − λ γ − 4ax 2
rn
x
=
ˆ
,31
10
σ
x
t ()∂σ x ⋅ 0∂
x +σ
8× −
− 4ax 2 5 2ax1 −= σ +n τ xy− + ∂τ xz +y ρ= 1 λ = 0
λ ˆ
z )=
b =
10 5

4ax 2 2ax1x −τ0
−2
y =

∂x
∂y 2 2 z
G xy =
,31
−4
 − λ )− 16 x a γ= 0


2, × 2 2
8 × (2 x1 a − λ )(2ax1
⇒ 2 ∂τ xy λ 1
16 λ − 0
10 −5
 ∂τ xy ∂σ y (2 x1 ayz−= )(2ax1 − λ )−a5− x 2 a −5 =4ax 2 ,348 ×
 ∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ
y =

ρbτ = 0 2 x1 10
10 − 6
=0
2
2
+
+
+
+
+G2 y

ε −4,1

⇒ (2 x1 a − λ ) = (4ax 2 ) ⇒ (
− 24ax 2 2ax1 − λ
∂y

( ax
x = 34
2 ∂a
∂y γ x1x z − λ ) =xy 4= 02 )x1
 ∂x
8× −
 ∂x
−5
dx1 t
0
1
xx a
λ 1 = 2y 1= −14ax 2
2 2
 ∂τ xy ∂σ y ∂τ
E σx − 0 6

λ

a
ν2
⇒ σx1 a − λ = ± ∂τ xz ⇒ τ⇒ + ∂σ − λ τ b = ⇒ (2 x11 a=− xd)(2− 41ax 2λ )− 16 x 2 a = 0
4ax 2 + ∂ yz 2 x a z + = ±4ax0 ⇒ x = 2 λ1t ax −
ε
+
+
ε

G ρy 2
1
x

λ 2 = 21x1 a + 4axz= 0 2 X1 λ = 0 2 + ⇒ x =l2 1 x 
t
y = 1
∂y
∂x
∂y
− yλ + σ 4ax ∂x


∂z
2 x1 a
2 x ) 4ax 2 
 ∂x
⇒ (2 x2 a − λ1 a = (4ax 2 )n σ1 
2
x2  1
=0
z =
E σy −
dt
E X 1x −= t ⇒
 ∂τ
dx2
t

3,3
∂τ
 −(σ 
∂σ


ln νx14ax 2 2ax1 − λ 33 ×

= − λ dt ± εy = ⇒ λ 1 =2 xνaσ 4ax 2 x1 = X xz + yz +
1
z = 1
r (n )
1
x = σ

 +t
= 4ax 2
10 −52 2 t ˆ = σ ⋅ n X⇒x2 x1 a
y +σ
 ∂1 exp t ∂y

2
2
ˆ
X 
⇒ λ 2 =x2 x1 a + 4axz =  x
z ))(2ax
E σz − ⇒1(2 x1 a − λ⇒ − 1 x− λ )− 16 x 2 a = 0
0 2t + 3
=
2
E σlyn 2 
−ν 
dt
νσ 
x3 = X
3,33
1 a X e
2,2 x1= − 1λ xp− 4ax 2
 ( l
ε = 1
t
318 )
⇒(2 x a − λ )2 = (4ax 2×2

3
=
x +
=0
z
 X 2 σx=+n 2t +
2t + 1
r

1
3 τ ⇒ ln xσ1 
σ
− 4ax 20 −5 2ax1 − λ
3 − l n 10 −5
t(
2y
σ
G xy =
z )=
E z −

 ==n−4
3
r 2
−2

νσ
2,5 ×⇒ Xx a − lλ = ±4ax ⇒ λ 1∇ ⋅2σ 1+ ρb ax0


,2t4+ 2 (  − = )(x a −−4λ )r
3 8 2 x a λ 2ax = − 16 x 2 a 2 = 0
γ r r
,31
1
⇒ − l1 λ =
31 n
x

10 2 521
× −
∇ ⋅ σ + xρb = 1
1 + 4 ax
2
y = 0
x +σ
8× −
 2 2 x1 a
2
0 6 3 2 ⇒
10 5
τx
2
y =
G τxy = x1
G y =
⇒ (2 x1 a − λ ) = (4ax 2 )
−4
0 dx
x2 = X
2,5 ×
t
γ
2
1
r r ,348 ×
xy = 1
2
1 + −5
= d

λ = 2 x ta+ 14ax 2
10 − 6
τx
∇ ⋅ σ 0 ρb = 0
t
X1 x1

⇒ x x1 a − ∂= ±4ax 2 xy  ∂1 3 1
 2  λσ
G τxy = x1
y =
∂τ ⇒ τ xz ρ
2 x1 a −
0
ln 1
0 x2
x
∂τ xy ∂τ xz dρ W. V. Chaves λ − 4a
0
+ b + x4ax
+
+ λ 2 = 2 x1 a γ∂σ0 2+ Eduardo =t


=t
x1
x = x
+ bx 0
+
  ∂⇒
 y = 1
− 4ax 2 − 2ax1
∂z
∂y
dx2
 X1 
t
x
2 x1 a λ
∂zX x = dt

 ∂x G τxy
x1 = X
=
dt
1

1
 x (
 ∂τ xy r ∂σ y 1 exp t
y =
∂τ yz ρ  ∂τ
x2
X2

0
0 yz
 ⇒ 2 x1 4 − λ )( 2

+ r +
+ b = xy + ∂σ y + ∂τ x2  ∂ρb =∂τ xy 2 τ xz lnλ 1  =4− a ax 2 2a

0

σ
ε0 2t + 3
y
⋅
ln x2 ∇ σ∂+ ρb = y
ε  x1 ∂0 ∂x z

d+2 x yt+ 0 + x1 a − ρb x− 0ax 2 ⇒ 0
= 1
 X1  = t
x3 = X x
2
+


∂y
∂x z x ∂=
⇒a− = =
 ∂x
∂4

 x =
3
dty
− z ax 2 ⇒ (2 x1− λ1λ )− λ
 X 2  = ln 2σ + τ
2ax1 (2 x a
E σx −
t ∂3 yz− ∂σ
x x
X2
∂τ
E
νσ
ln
ε
∂σ 2

 xz +x − ν σ 3z + ρb  ∂τxxza − ∂τ yz − 4axz2  ∂ρ xy 2t ∂σ y ∂τ yz ρ  x ⇒ (2 x1 a − λ
+
2 1
+
z
y = 1
 = 0 + λ + x =  =τ00z + 0 3 + ⇒ (2 x+a − λ )(21 a 1−− λ )±4
l  2
+ b =
y + σ εy =  1
1 n⇒ 2 xax λ = −
∂x
∂y y ∂zε ⇒ ∂
b y =0
r1 rx


3

X
z 

∂y
∂x z
E σy −
ρb = − 2 = ∂ 2 z 
 X 2 2 = ln 2t 2+
=∂3 x σ ∂τ xy ∂τ∇ ⋅ σxz+= =  0x4ax 2X y 2ax1∂− λ 3∂x
σ y −
E
ρ 3σ
xz
⇒(
− λ ) ⇒ 24ax 2− λ
= (x a )
ν
2
ε2 x=a 1 λ − 4ax(σ
t+ 
 ,33+ × ν(+ r + b x = ,0 3 (
1 −
2
1
E 3 x − x a − λ3 2ax1 − ∂τ − 16 x τa 2 = ∂σ 2 x1 a
2
3 ∂y −σ ∂z n
z
+
x = 0σ εz = 1∂x
10 5 x + t ( ˆ ) = σ ⋅ n ⇒3 2 ν1σ − )( r (n1  λ )xz + ∂2 yz + 0 z + ρb = 0
×1 5
ε

ˆ
ˆ)
σ 2ax1 − λ
λ
− 4ax 2
σ
0
z
z )=
E z −
= ∂⋅ ˆ
λ − ax − 
) =1

∂2
E 2 τ xy − ∂σ y ∂τ yzyz =ρ −σ ⇒ (2 x1 a y− + )2 t (4axσ)2n ∂y ⇒ z x1 a −2 x= ±4λ 2 ⇒4a
− ∂ σz
νσ

λ σz =  2 x
 ,
γ
ν
1a
λ
=
+ Eb 2= −
xy ⇒ ε2 x a − λ )(2ax + λ )− 16 x 2 a 2 310 + σ +
1 1
y
=
= (x = 1
x 1 −σ γ x
1 ∂x 8 ×10y−5 + σ ∂σ x ∂τ,xy 08ν∂τ xz ρ
y = 2
(1 −+5 b = 0 3,333× 1 = 2 x1a − 4ax2 − 4ax 2 2ax
∂ x ε∂x= 1 y 31 × σ
λ

y
1
z z
+
+ x0 + λ
r ˆ
G τ E − λ) =
x
σ
y =
⇒ (2 xxya = 2,x 2 − (4ax 2 )2 = −4,  ∂yτ = ∂τ
G 3τx
ˆ
1
t (n ) = σ ⋅ n
∂x −4 ∂y ⇒ 2∂za − σz =x±4ax 2 ⇒ λ10=−5
σ
1
γ
σ
)=−
5 × ν σγ
2 x1 a + 4ax 2 ⇒ (2 x1 a − λ )(2a
xz
48 × 2,5 × yz + ∂ z E+ ρb34=ν
 2
xy = ε
1
10 −5 xy+ = λ1 =  − + − 1 γ −  ∂τ ,z z − × σ ∂τ
80
y = 1
y

τx
 a 4 6∂


σ 1 τ 2 x1∂x 10 ax 2y 0 xy5 = z 1 xy + ∂σ y 10 −6yz + ρb = 2,318 ×

x +σ
G⇒ 2E1 a σ λ1 = ±4ax 2 ε⇒ z =
+
yx = − x
0
⇒ (2 x1 a − λ )2 =
 τ
y
10 −5
0 y − x γ t x =G1 =y3,=10 +x14ax 2
γ
λ 2 x 23 a
d ν(σ
∂x xy = ∂y
∂x z y = −
x3

G
xy = ε
1 = 1
1
3 dxγ t r ˆ
4,3
z
=xxy+= 1E σ
)
τx
dtσ τ x − ν × 10 1−x= =d t1(n∂τ= σ ⋅ n2,5 × 1 ∂σ
4
5y
X1 x1
⇒ 2 x1 a − λ = ±4
G yE = σ

 2xx a1 − λ −  axxz + ˆ τ yz + 0 −5z + ρb = 8 × 10 −6
x
t4 ⇒ ∂ 
ε z)x
X1
0 y =G1 =y −= ln σ1 
0
0 z −2 ν
1 y 2 x a 0 λ τ − 2 ax

z
− G  x∂ 4 =2 0∂  x1 ∂
x
lx1 y
n=
=t
2,0 1 x2  + 1σ
γ
0
dxσx +t σ E σ 3 8X− 4ax 2 z 2ax1 y xλ 0 dX  =zt
xy = 1
γ − t ⇒ − = − λ  x  t
×11 5= 2= 2ax
2
y −ν
1
x
0
r r
ε
(σ⇒dx2xy−=4ax1λτ t3,33311−=λXX−x x1p=t2r 2dt= ⇒ x1 = X ∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = 0
G τxy =X 2 x2 =z = y dt = −
e
1 4
+ ⇒ ( − dxy λ )( 01−−λ )− ( ˆ 2 =
( σ 2 x a − = 2ax 51 16 x a σ ⋅ 0
x x22 x1 aG )(2ax1 × 1 ) 1 16 x 2 a n )2 0 ⇒
e
2,5 × 0 2t + 3 ,⇒ X 2  x
γ
 x 1  xp t
348 l n
ˆ
t
xy = 1
 0 2 = n ln 1 
0


×  2 z) 21t + 0 ⇒1
x3 = X 10 −5 E σz −

ε
6

ν σ x1⇒−Xrx a =n−223 = (4axx2 )2xln2 x2  =
0 (⇒ l − λ
τx

3 r=X2 1 =− λ ),3 2 = 2 d
γ3
 X1  = t
x = 1
 = 0  (2 x1 a 2t1+ (4ax2  Xt  ln

G y = x1 xy = 1
)3
) d
∇ ⋅ σ + ρb 23

x +σ
8 × − ln 2 = 2  t
0 dx
x1 = X E σ
2t + 3
t
−
120 x5 λ3 = 2 x1 a − 4ax 2
− ln
τx
e

X
2= 1
1
y =
1 εxxp t x1 − ν
2 1 λ ⇒ x a − 4ax
=2
=0
=
= G y =
1

x1 2 − a = ± = ±2 ⇒
 3σ ⇒
τ
dt
2,5 ×  ⇒ 2⇒a−4,λ 4 λ4axx ax 2⇒ = 2tx+a +1 4ax= 2 ln2 x ∂ x + ∂τ xy εy ∂= xz1 + ρ =σ σy +
x1 3 −
4 = λ 0 2 3 x2
X1 γx1
G τxy =
2

+
b
x
1
E 0 
8 × −3 X 3 2 λ 2 = 2 x1 a + 2 ax22    = lnε
4X  X + 
ln10x1 5 
0 x2 xy = 01

 −
X
10 6
t  1 x x 2t 1 2 = ε 2 σy2 t−x+ x − ν
∂E

∂y
z
=+

τ
3 2

3σ− ln = 31 ν1σ
y
dx2 G xy = x∂σ  X∂τxy= t ∂τ ⇒
t
ε
1
1
 ∂τ xy ∂σE = ∂τ − 3 σ ( x + 
1
x
γ
x1 a − 4ax 2
zy

x =0
x yz ν E
=
dt 0  dx1 + t  + xz + ρb1x = X
ρb y⇒0 σ
xx
1
r r  ε + 1 +E σ +σ y =− x
ε
X 2 y 2=

∂z
1 ex p t 1
 ∂x = ∂y
x =
2
x1 a + 4ax 2
y
t
∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = 0  ∂x y = ∂y εz ∂x z z 1− ν + σ ν(σ
G 0 τ2yt + 3 X⇒x1 ln dx2  ⇒
1
x =
x 
γE σ =
x
σ z =
σ
x3 = X
0 x2 ∂τ xy 0∂σ y  =∂τ yz lnρ 1

x
E x −

 ∂τ
∂yτ = y1− σE σ x + σ 3
0
∂ z

3
νσ
+b =ε
ε
 x + X 2  + ln 2t +X y  = t
d ∂x t ∂y
εz xz + yzG+ τxν(σ+ ρzb − = 0 y ,
ν
x = 1
= 1 γ
31 − lny = ⇒
1
∂x z
z

y +σ
y1
 2=
 ∂xγ σ y xy = ∂z =x2,+ σ σx +

dt
3 σ x1 r= Xr e t z

σ
σ
5 ×z ) =
x2
E x −
X2 
E
E ⋅ σy+− b = 0 xp
x
∇ ⇒ρ
1
1
=
∂τ
∂τ
∂σ z
νσ
x2
ν(σ = X 2 γ 3,33 y = z − ν ε τxy1 = 10 −5 −2,3
x
G
ε
σ =
 xz 0+2t +yz + ⇒ + ρnz ε=20  1
3
lb z =
y = 1
2
= × γx− τ r x( ˆ x1
y + σ x3 = X
x +σ
t + xy γ 31 10 G5 = xy 1=xn ) + σ σ2,5 × −


 ∂3x
∂y
∂z
1

y
= σ
σ
t 0 E σ x xˆ=− t 10 5
= d⋅n
3
 X 2  E l n 2t +
z =
y 1
E y −
z )=
xy = xy =
G τ1
z −ν 3 −
3,33
ν(σ
r
G
ln 3 γ −2,3

ε r= 1
2ε5 × τxy1X= x x1= −ν,34
γ
σ
τx , y = 1 01
d
3× −
ρb = 0
z
xy
1
xy = 1
r (n )
x +σ
d0x1 t yt8+
ˆ
×
10 5
∂x xy∂τ ∂τ xz ⇒ = 18τ× γG −= y 1= 0 10 −5
τ +σ
 ∂σ
ˆ
y
t = σ ⋅n
σ
ρb G= 2 =1x0 5 2 E x2 σy −
x σ
x
z )=
= d
y = +
E z −
G τx =  ∂+ x + +xy + ∂τ xz +xρb0 x= X 2 ε x1 τ
y 0 G
=0 t +
−2
y
x(
t

νσ
dx X1 νt1 σ
x
2
γ
,31
 ∂x ,5 x ∂y ∂y ∂zγxy∂4=341 x
z = x11 = 0 2 =
0
z, 8 ×
3 d y1 t x
+
xdt σ
= 1
x +σ
xy = 1
8× −
 ∂ × 10 −5
2
10 5
 ∂τ xy ∂σ
1 −
X
τ
2
y =
 
E =σ xt ⇒
x
σ ∂τ + ρb ρ= 0 6
G τxy = 1∂τ xy y ∂+ y yz∂τ yzG yτxy 0= γ X1 x1 2z d− ν d0 22t +t 3 z
x
−4
∂Gxy xy ∂= xz, ρ
τ
ε ε1
0  + +
τ2 5
σ = 
0
+
,34
γ
x =
∂x dx1 ∂yt ∂ ∂x z ∂ + b y = 0xy x2= 1 x30 = X x x + lnd
+× 1b x− = 0
+
1
1 x
X2
8× −
  ∂x
x
σ2  X
xz
3 2
0 5
dx2 τ t
10 6 E =σ σy = 1 τ
∂z
∂y
= dy
0 yt +
G =xy = x t =
t
G τxy = x1
τ xz xτ
Ex − x −G xy =  ∂X1 ∂1 ∂τ yz∂τ ∂σ⇒ σ ρ  x
ν σν
d
ε ε 1
235 X 3
0
∂σ y 0 τ yz dx ρ t

,
0  x2  +xz + +yz +z ∂+ z b zρb1 γ y 0=2 1 2
ln = 0 x X x
σ
y =
y +σ
1 b =0

−5
2t + 3 × 10⇒
 ∂x ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂z ∂ + z == t
y = 1
+
+ = y
0
y +σ  d

y
z  X1  x = ⇒
ln
τ
z =
x2 x t
τx ∂y
E σy −
dt
∂x z x1
σν
X1
3G Xxy =
z3 =
E y (−


x x1 X
y =
dt
,33x , =
3
3233
0 1 = dx1 expt t
σ ν(σ
γ
0
0 x
lnεzx1=  1
3× 3
X
ε
∂τ
+
1



1

l

)]

ij =

µ X 0

0
2X
0
µ X 0


l2 3
2X
0
−µ
0
 2 3
X 2
−µ 
−µ l
3

0
X 2  X 2

l2
−µ

3

3
ε
X 2 
−µ
2
l
0
 l2
ij =
3
X



−µ
2
2X
X l 
0

0
l 2 3
µ X
2X

2X

0

l 2 3 

2 3


−µ l
ε
0
 ij =  0
X 2
−µ

3
X 2 
l2
0
3

µ X 0
−µ
2

l

X
2X


2X
 0
l2 3

−µ
l 2 3
0

X 2
−µ

3
X 2 
l2
3

−µ
2

X l 

2X
ε
0
ij = 
l 2 3 

0

µ X 0

2X

 0
l2 3
−µ
0

X 2
−µ
3
X 2 
2
l
3

−µ
2
X l 
2X
l 2 3 

[

(

[

)]

]

(

[ [

[

[ [

( (

)] )]∫

)]

]

l



 0

=
0
ij

() ( )
)]

ε

)]

(

−µ

) ( )[
[(

[(

[
(
) ( )[
[
[ (
[
[ ( )]
( )]
[
]
(
[)]

∫(
[ ∫


∫ [∫

∫( ∫
)]

(



 0

[

[

=
0

[

(

ij



0
ij =  
 
ε  00
0
ij =  µ
X
 
2X
0  0
µ X 20 3

− µ l2 X
0


X
−µ
 0
l 3 22 3
X 2 
−µl 2
0
X 2 − − 23  
3
µ Xµ l X 2  
l2
3 
− µ 2lX32   
X2  
l
2X

l 2 3 

ε

ij

(

µ X 0

2X
ε2 3  
0
− µ l ij = 
0

X 2  0 −
ε 3 0

µ X0 
2
µ X 0
ij 2
µ X3 
l = 
2X

 00 − µ X 0l 2 2 X3
2 3
l
µ X 2 Xl 2 
− µ2 X 
0  
0
X 2

X3 2
−µ
0
−µ
3

X 2
ll 22 2 33
X 2 
2
3
 − µ X 2l 
0
3  
−µ
2
−µ
3
µ X 2l 2  
X l 
l2
2X
3
2X  
−µ
2

l 2 3 
X ll 2  3 
2X


l 2 3 

ε

2
2

=
0

3


0

ε

(

0

−µ
X 2 
3

−µ
2
X l 
2X
l 2 3 

−µ l
X 2
3
l2

] ) ( )

[ ∫


0

[

)]

)]

(



 0

=
0

[

X

) ( )


([ )

(( )
)] [
)] [
(
] [
] [
(
)]
(
)]
)] [
]
(
(
)]
)]
[
∫ ]
(∫ ∫
[
)]
)]





[
]
(
( )∫
( )
( )∫
)]
( )

[


 0

(

µ X 0
2X
l2 3
−µ
0

X 2
−µ
3
X 2 
l2
3

−µ
2
X l 
2X
l 2 3 

ε


0

[

(

[

[

0

[

CONTINUUM MECHANICS
(
[
)]

(

ij

ij

]


0

BY MEANS∫ OF


0

[

(

=
0


0

[

(

X

µ X 0
2X
2 3
−µ l
0
X 2
−µ
3
X 2 
l2
3

−µ
2
X l 
2X
l 2 3 

3

2

X l
2X

)]
SOLVING PROBLEMS

[

]

(

ε

X
2


 0

]

)]

)]

[

2
−µ l
X 2
3
l2

µ X

)]

−µ

−µ

3

−ν

Nomenclature

III

Solving Problems by means of
Continuum Mechanics
EDUARDO WALTER VIEIRA CHAVES

IV

MECÁNICA DEL MEDIO CONTINUO

Presentación

n

s
anic
mec
h

dif
fu
sio

Flu

x
Flu

ids

n-

Soil

Co
nv
ec
tio

nsfer
eat tra
H

Presentation

ics
ul
ra
yd
H

Structure

s

ms
ea
B

Plate

s

s
lid
So
IBVP and Numerical Treatment

Rigid Body Motion

Constitutive equations

Fundamental equations of C.M.
Stress
Continuum kinematics

Tensors

VI

MECÁNICA DEL MEDIO CONTINUO

Abbreviations

Abbreviations
IBVP
BVP
FEM
BEM
FDM

Initial Boundary Value Problem
Boundary Value Problem
Finite Element Method
Boundary Element Method
Finite Difference Method

Latin
i.e.
et al.
e.g.
etc.
Q.E.D.
v., vs.
viz.

id est
et alii
exempli gratia
et cetera
Quod Erat Demonstrandum
versus
vidilicet

that is
and the others
for example
and so on
which had to be demonstrated
versus
namely

Operators and Symbols

Operators and Symbols
〈•〉 =

• +•
2


Tr (•)
(•) T
(•) −1
(•) −T
(•) sym
(•) skew
(•) sph
(•) dev

[[•]]

det(•) ≡ •

D•
&
≡•
Dt
cof (•)
Adj(•)
Tr (•)
:
∇2

∇ • ≡ grad(•)
∇ ⋅ • ≡ div (•)

I • , II • , III •
r

ˆ

1
I
I sym ≡ I

Macaulay bracket
Euclidian norm of •
trace of (•)
transpose of (•)
inverse of (•)
inverse of the transpose of (•)
symmetric part of (•)
antisymmetric (skew-symmetric) part of (•)
spherical part of (•)
deviatoric part of (•)
module of •
jump of •
scalar product
determinant of (•)
material time derivative of (•)
cofactor of • ;
adjugate of (•)
trace of (•)
double scalar product (or double contraction or double dot product)
Scalar differential operator
tensorial product
gradient of •
divergence of •
vector product (or cross product)
First, second and third principal invariants of the tensor •
Vector
Unity vector
Second-order unit tensor
fourth-order unit tensor
symmetric fourth-order unit tensor

SI-Units

SI-Units
J = Nm - Joules
J
≡ W watt
s

length

m - metro

energy, work, heat

mass

kg - kilogram

power

time
temperature

s - second
K - Kelvin
m
s
m
s2

permeability

m2

dynamic viscosity

Pa × s

energy

J = Nm - Joules

energy flux

force

N - Newton

thermal conductivity

pressure, stress

Pa ≡

velocity
acceleration

Prefix
pico
nano
micro
mili
centi
deci

N
- Pascal
m2

Symbol

10 n

p
η

10 −12

µ

10 −6

m
c
d

kg
m2s
J
m2s
W
mK
kg
m3

mass flux

10 −9
10 −3
10 −2
10

mass density

Prefix
kilo
Mega
Giga
Tera

Symbol

10 n

k

10 3

M
G

10 6

T

1012

10 9

Nomenclature

Nomenclature
r r
r r
A( X , t ) ≡ a ( X , t )

A

r r
a ( x, t )

B0
B

∂B
r r
b( x , t )

Acceleration (reference configuration)

m
s2

Transformation matrix
Acceleration (current configuration)

m
s2

Continuum medium in the reference configuration at
t=0

Continuum medium in the current configuration at
time t
Boundary of B

Body force (per unit mass)

B

Left deformation Cauchy-Green tensor, Finger
deformation tensor
Piola deformation tensor

B

Entropy created inside

b

local entropy per unit mass per unit time

Ce

c

Elasticity tensor
Elasticity matrix (Voigt notation)
Inelasticity tensor
Cauchy deformation tensor
Calor específico a volumen constante
Calor específico a presión constante
Cohesion

cc

solute concentration

C

Right deformation Cauchy-Green tensor

DV

Dilation

D
r
dA
r
da
dV

Rate-of-Deformation tensor
Area element vector in the reference configuration
Area element vector in the current configuration
Volume element

N
m3

b

[C ]

in

C
c
Cv

Cp

J
sK
J
kg s K
Pa
Pa
Pa

Pa
mol
m3
m
m
m2
m2
m3

or Eulerian finite strain tensor E ˆ ei ˆ. or heat source (per unit mass) XI m m m m Pa m m Pa J K kgm 2 = Js s m3 m3 m m m m mol m2s W J = mK smK J kg m s m sm kg Pa N m3 Pa Pa J m2s J J kg s . or Lagrangian finite strain tensor. t ) spatial displacement gradient tensor r J diffusion tensor K thermal conductivity tensor K Kinetic energy r L Linear momentum l Spatial velocity gradient m M ˆ N mass Mandel stress tensor outward unit normal to the boundary (current configuration) outward unit normal to the boundary (reference configuration) r p body force (per unit volume) P p First Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor thermodynamic pressure r r q( x . t ) Cauchy heat flux (non-convective vector) ˆ n Q Q r r ( x. t ) Orthogonal tensor Thermal work radiant heat constant.Nomenclature E Green-Lagrange strain tensor. or elastic modulus Cartesian basis in symbolic notation Cartesian basis F Deformation gradient (pseudo-tensor) G H shear modulus Biot strain tensor H Total entropy r HO Angular momentum J Jacobian determinant r J ( X . or Green-St_Venant strain tensor e Almansi strain tensor. t) r material displacement gradient tensor j ( x. ˆ. k i j ˆ Young’s modulus.

or vorticity tensor w int r X r x Vector position (material coordinate) Vector position (spatial coordinate) α coefficient of thermal expansion δ ij ε1 . or Lagrangian stretch tensor. t ) Pa J kg s m 2 Pa Pa Displacement vector (Eulerian) m Displacement vector (Lagrangian) m Right stretch tensor. or Levi-Civita tensor components Linear dilatation (volume ratio) (small deformation regime) m s m s m rad = ms s J =W s m m 1 K εV Stress power ε Infinitesimal strain tensor η specific entropy κ bulk modulus m m m m m m J kg K Pa . t ) r U( X . or Eulerian stretch tensor. t ) Velocity (current configuration) W Spin tensor. n) r (N) ˆ t0 r T ( x. t) ≡ v ( X . t ) r V ( x. ε 2 . ε 3 Kronecker delta Principal strains (infinitesimal strain) ε Unit Extension  ijk Permutation symbol. t ) r r u( X . rate-of-rotation tensor. t ) t t0 ≡ t = 0 Biot stress tensor Traction vector (current configuration) Traction pseudo-vector (reference configuration) Pa Temperature Time Initial time & U rate of change of the internal energy u Specific internal energy K s s J =W s J kg r r u( x . t . or spatial stretch tensor r r r r V ( X . t) Velocity (reference configuration) r r v ( x.MECÁNICA DEL MEDIO CONTINUO XII R S Orthogonal tensor of polar decomposition Second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor s r Entropy flux T r ˆ r ˆ t (n) ( x . or material stretch tensor left stretch tensor.

µ ν Lamé constants Poisson’s ratio ρS Solute mass density ρf fluid mass density r ρ 0 (X ) r ρ ( x.Nomenclature κ thermal diffusivity λ Stretch λ. or true stress tensor Normal traction vector Tangential traction vector Mean stress Principal stresses normal octahedral vector tangential octahedral vector Maximum shear stress Kirchhoff stress tensor angle of internal friction ψ Helmholtz free energy. σ 2 . σ 3 r σ oct r τ oct τ max τ φ Cauchy stress tensor. specific (per unit mass) Ψ Helmholtz free energy (per unit volume) Ψ (ε ) = Ψ e Strain energy density ψ Vorticity vector m2 s m m Pa kg m3 kg m3 kg m3 kg m3 m3 kg Pa Pa dilatancy r ω XIII Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa J kg J m3 J m3 rad s . t ) 1 Mass density (reference configuration) Mass density (current configuration) ρ Specific volume σ r σN r σS σm σ1 .

XIV MECÁNICA DEL MEDIO CONTINUO .

(Wolfram MathWorld (Einstein Summation)) 1 Tensors 1. Problem 1. ‘ Ref.1. the module of c can be expressed by means of the following relationship: r c = r a 2 r r r + 2 a b cos β + b r r where β is the angle formed by the vectors a and b .. Pais 1982. p. Solution: Starting from the module definition of a vector it fulfills that: 2 . Indicial Notation Problem 1.1 Solved Problems 1. sec.1 Vectors.2 r r r 2 r Show that: if c = a + b . 5)." (Kollros 1956.1 r r Let a and b be arbitrary vectors.. who later jested to a friend.The indicial notation was introduced by ‘Einstein (1916. "I have made a great discovery in mathematics. Prove that the following relationship is true: r r r r r r r r r r (a ∧ b)⋅ (a ∧ b) = (a ⋅ a)(b ⋅ b) − (a ⋅ b) 2 Solution: r r r r (a ∧ b)⋅ (a ∧ b) ) ( 2 r r 2 r r = a ∧ b = a b sin θ r 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 r = a b sin 2 θ = a b 1 − cos 2 θ = a b 2 r 2 r 2 r r r 2 r 2 r r 2 = a b − a b cos θ = a b − a ⋅ b r r r r r r 2 = (a ⋅ a) b ⋅ b − a ⋅ b ) ( ( ) ( ) r r r ( ) ( ) r r r 2 r − a 2 r 2 b cos 2 θ 2 where we have taking into account that a ⋅ a = a and b ⋅ b = b . 216). I have suppressed the summation sign every time that the summation must be made over an index which occurs twice.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. where it holds that: a<c+b c b<a+c b c<a+b a University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . NOTE: Starting from the equation a + b = a + 2a ⋅ b + b value a + b r a 2 2 r r r +2a b + b ( r r = a + b 2 β = 0º 2 r b r a ) r r r r a+b = a + b 2 r r r r Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 2 r r a+b ( )( ) r r r r = a+b ⋅ a+b r r r r r r r r = a⋅a + a⋅b + b ⋅a + b ⋅b r r r r r r r 2 r r r 2 Taking into account that a ⋅ a = a . then r = a 2 r r r + 2a ⋅ b + b r = a 2 . Chaves (2013) . r r r r a + b ≤ a + b holds: r b r r r r r c = a+b ≤ a + b r r r c = a+b r b r a r r r r r r In a similar fashion we can show that a ≤ c + b and b ≤ a + c which is known as the triangle inequality. we can 2 conclude that: r r a+b 2 r r r r r r r r = a⋅a + a⋅b + b ⋅ a + b ⋅b r = a 2 r r r + 2a ⋅ b + b r = a 2 r r r + 2 a b cos β + b r b 2 β r r with which we demonstrate a + b = r r a−b = r a 2 r r r − 2 a b cos β + b 2 r a 2 r r r + 2 a b cos β + b 2 r r r r r a+b 2 r 2 r r r 2 r 2 we can conclude that the is maximum when β = 0º holds. Then. V. b ⋅ b = b and a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a (commutative). it is easy to show that . for any value of 0º < β ≤ 180 º the outcome a + b will be less than a + b . Then.

defined in the Cartesian coordinate system.−1. C (0.2.3.4 Consider the points: A(1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: σ(ε 1 + ε 2 ) = E [ε1 + ε 2 ] = Eε 1 + Eε 2 = σ(ε1 ) + σ(ε 2 ) (linear transformation) σ(ε) σ (ε 1 + ε 2 ) = σ (ε 1 ) + σ ( ε 2 ) σ (ε 2 ) σ (ε 1 ) ε1 ε2 ε ε1 + ε 2 1 2 ψ(ε1 + ε 2 ) = ψ(ε1 ) + ψ(ε 2 ) has not been satisfied: The function ψ(ε) = Eε 2 does not show a linear transformation because the condition 2 2 ψ(ε1 + ε 2 ) = E[ε1 + ε 2 ]2 = E [ε1 + 2ε1ε 2 + ε 2 ] = Eε1 + Eε 2 + E 2ε1ε 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 = ψ (ε1 ) + ψ (ε 2 ) + Eε 1ε 2 ≠ ψ (ε 1 ) + ψ (ε 2 ) 1 2 1 2 ψ(ε) ψ (ε1 + ε 2 ) ψ (ε1 ) + ψ (ε 2 ) ψ (ε 2 ) ψ (ε1 ) ε1 ε2 ε1 + ε 2 ε Problem 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1) .1) . B (2. V.4 ) .1.1 TENSORS 3 Problem 1.3) and D(1. demonstrate whether these functions show a linear transformation or not. Chaves (2013) .3 1 2 Given the following functions σ(ε) = Eε and ψ(ε) = Eε 2 .

2) Find the volume of the → → → → → parallelepiped defined by AB . we evaluate the vector product as follows: ˆ i r r a∧b= 1 ˆ k ˆ j ˆ − 4 0 = ( − 8) ˆ − 2 ˆ + ( − 6 ) k i j −1 − 2 2 Then. the parallelogram area can be obtained by using the following definition: r r A = a ∧ b = (−8) 2 + (−2) 2 + ( −6) 2 = 104 → 2) Next. AC and AD . 3) Find the projection vector of AB onto BC . Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 4 → → 1) Find the parallelogram area defined by AB and AC . V.5 Rewrite the following equations using indicial notation: 1) a1 x1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 x 3 + a 3 x3 x 3 Solution: a i xi x 3 (i = 1. we can evaluate the vector AD as: ( ) ( ) → → → r ˆ ˆ c = AD = OD − OA = 1ˆ + 2ˆ + 4k − 1ˆ + 3ˆ + 1k = 0ˆ − 1ˆ + 3k i j i j ˆ i j we can obtain the volume of the parallelepiped as follows: ( r r r r r r V (a.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. c ) = c ⋅ a ∧ b ) ( ˆ i j = 0ˆ − 1ˆ + 3k ˆ )⋅ (− 8ˆi − 2ˆj − 6k ) = 0 + 2 − 18 = 16 → 3) The BC vector can be calculated as: → → → ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ BC = OC − OB = 0ˆ + 1ˆ + 3k − 2ˆ − 1ˆ + 1k = −2ˆ + 2ˆ + 2k i j i j ˆ i j → → Hence. b. it is possible to evaluate the projection vector of AB onto BC as follows: → proj BC AB = → → → BC ⋅ AB → → BC ⋅ 4 123 4 BC → BC → BC = ˆ ˆ (− 2ˆi + 2ˆj + 2k )⋅ (1ˆi − 4ˆj + 0k ) (− 2ˆi + 2ˆj + 2k ) ˆ ˆ + 2ˆ + 2k )⋅ (− 2ˆ + 2ˆ + 2k ) ˆ ˆ (− 2i j i j 2 = (− 2 − 8 + 0 ) (− 2ˆ + 2ˆ + 2k ) = 5 ˆ − 5 ˆ − 5 k ˆ ˆ i j i j (4 + 4 + 4 ) 3 3 3 Problem 1.2. Solution: → → 1) Firstly we calculate the vectors AB and AC : ( ) ( ) r ˆ b = AC = OC − OA = (0ˆ + 1ˆ + 3k ) − ( ˆ + 3ˆ + 1k ) = −1ˆ − 2ˆ + 2k i j ˆ 1i j ˆ i j → → → r ˆ a = AB = OB − OA = 2ˆ − 1ˆ + 1k − 1ˆ + 3ˆ + 1k = 1ˆ − 4ˆ + 0k i j ˆ i j ˆ i j → → → Next.3) 2) x1 x1 + x2 x2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

the use of the indicial notation means that the equation becomes very concise.6 Show that: a) δ 3 p v p = v3 . b) δ 3i A ji = A j 3 . Problem 1.Spain + + δ 23  23k Draft (1.4) + + δ 33  33k By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .2)  a11 x + a12 y + a13 z = b x  3) a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = b y   a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = b z Solution:  a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x 3 = b1  a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3 = b2 a x + a x + a x = b 32 2 33 3 3  31 1  a1 j x j = b1  → a 2 j x j = b2   a 3 j x j = b3 dummy index j free index i →  a ij x j = bi As we can appreciate in this problem. then the result is a vector: δ 3i A ji = δ 31 A j1 + δ 32 A j 2 + δ 33 A j 3 = A j 3 (1.1) a) The expression ( δ 3 p v p ) has no free index.1 TENSORS Solution: xi x i 5 (i = 1. then the result is a scalar: δ 3 p v p = δ 31v1 + δ 32 v 2 + δ 33 v 3 = v3 (1.2) b) The expression δ 3i A ji has one free index ( j ). In many cases. if algebraic operation do not use indicial or tensorial notation they become almost impossible to deal with due to the large number of terms involved. V. c) δ ij  ijk . Solution: The Kronecker delta components are: δ 11 δ ij = δ 21  δ 31  δ 12 δ 13  1 0 0 δ 22 δ 23  = 0 1 0    δ 32 δ 33  0 0 1    (1. d) δ i 2 δ j 3 Aij . then the result is a vector: δ ij  ijk = δ 1 j 1 jk 123 δ 1111k + δ 2 j  2 jk + δ 3 j  3 jk 123 4 4 123 + δ 21 21k + + δ 31 31k + δ 12 12 k + δ 22  22 k + δ 32  32 k + + δ 13 13k University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3) c) The expression δ ij  ijk has one free index ( k ).

therefore the result is a scalar. since what must be replaced is the repeated index. it is straight forward to check that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . j = 1.8 Obtain the numerical value of: 1) δ ii δ jj Solution: δ ii δ jj = (δ 11 + δ 22 + δ 33 )(δ 11 + δ 22 + δ 33 ) = 3 × 3 = 9 2) δ α1δ αγ δ γ1 Solution: δ α1δ αγ δ γ1 = δ γ1δ γ1 = δ 11 = 1 NOTE: Note that the following algebraic operation is incorrect δ γ1δ γ1 ≠ δ γγ = 3 ≠ δ 11 = 1 . d) δ i 2 δ j 3 Aij = A23 (1. b) Obtain the numerical value of  ijk δ 2 j δ 3k δ 1i . V.3) Solution: The indices i.5) Problem 1. not the number ■ Problem 1. j are dummy indices.2.  ijk  ijk = 6 and  ijk a j a k = 0 i .7 Expand the equation: Aij x i x j (i. So. and by substituting q for j . Solution: a) Using the equation  ijk  pqk = δ ip δ jq − δ iq δ jp . Note that δ ij  ijk =  iik = 11k +  22 k +  33k = 0 k .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and indicate index summation and there is no free index in the expression Aij x i x j . we expand first the dummy index i and later the index j to obtain: expanding j expanding  Aij x i x j    i → A1 j x1 x j + A2 j x 2 x j + A3 j x 3 x j 1 2 3 1 24 1 24 4 4 4 3 4 3 A11 x1 x1 A21 x 2 x1 A31 x 3 x1 + + + A12 x1 x 2 A22 x 2 x 2 A32 x 3 x 2 + + + A13 x1 x 3 A23 x 2 x 3 A33 x 3 x 3 Rearranging the terms we obtain: Aij x i x j = A11 x1 x1 + A12 x1 x 2 + A13 x1 x3 + A21 x 2 x1 + A22 x 2 x 2 + A23 x 2 x3 + A31 x3 x1 + A32 x 3 x 2 + A33 x 3 x3 Problem 1. Chaves (2013) .9 a) Prove the following is true  ijk  pjk = 2δ ip .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 6 thus δ ij  ijk = 0 k is the null vector. we obtain:  ijk  pjk = δ ip δ jj − δ ij δ jp = δ ip 3 − δ ip = 2δ ip Based on the above result.

as we know. p = 3 b. j = p = 2 c) ( ijk A jp c p A kq c q + δ i1 )( ist A sa c a A tb c b + δ i1 ) where  ijk is the permutation symbol and δ ij is the Kronecker delta.1) i = 1.e. j = q = 2.10 Get the value of the following expressions: a)  ijk δ i1δ j 2 δ 3k b)  ijk  pqk = δ ip δ jq − δ iq δ jp for the following cases: b. and also note that the following is true r r  ijk A jp c p A kq c q = [( A ⋅ c) ∧ ( A ⋅ c )]i = (b ∧ b) i = 0 i . the double scalar product between a symmetric and an antisymmetric second-order tensors is zero. it is antisymmetric in jk and also note that a j a k is a symmetric second-order tensor. b.1 TENSORS 7  ijk  ijk = 2δ ii = 6 c) Note that  ijk = − ikj .Spain k 2 Draft j By: Eduardo W. V.2) i = q = 1. with which we can obtain: r r ( ijk A jp c p A kq c q + δ i1 )( ist A sa c a A tb c b + δ i1 ) = δ i1δ i1 = δ 11 = 1 Reminder: Permutation symbol ijk = 1  ijk =  jki =  kij  ijk = − ikj = − kji = − jik 1 3 ijk = −1 i University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2) 12 k  32 k = 121 321 + 122  322 + 123  323 = = 0 × (−1) + 0 × 0 + 0 × 0 = 0 12 k  21k = 121 211 + 122  212 + 123  213 = 0 × 0 + 0 × 0 + 1 × (−1) = −1 c) Note that the result of A jp c p = b j is a vector. Chaves (2013) .1) b. So. thus: r r  ijk a j a k =  ijk (a ⊗ a ) jk = 0 i r r = (a ∧ a ) i = 0 i b)  ijk δ 2 j δ 3k δ 1i = 123 = 1 Problem 1. i. Solution: a)  ijk δ i1δ j 2 δ 3k = 123 = 1 .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 8 k =3 j =1 i =1 k =2 i=2 j =1 i =1 k =1 i=2 j =1 i =1 0 i=2 0 i=3 0 j=2 0 0 -1 i=3 j =3 0 j=2 0 1 0 0 0 0 i=3 j =3 0 -1 0 -1 j=2 1 0 0 j =3 0 0 0  ij 3 0 0 1  ij 2 0  ij1 Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . 2 r r ⇒ r a = ai ai r r By definition a ⋅ b = a b cos θ where: r ˆ ˆ a ⋅ b = a i e i ⋅ b j e j = a i b j δ ij = a i b i = a j b j Taking into account that the index cannot appear more than twice in a term of the expression. where θ is the angle r r between the vectors a and b . then the following is true: r r aα − b University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .11 r Write in indicial notation: a) the modulus of the vector a .Spain 2 r r r r = (aα − b) ⋅ (aα − b) ≥ 0 r r r r r r r r = a ⋅ aα 2 − a ⋅ bα − b ⋅ aα + b ⋅ b ≥ 0 r 2 r 2 r r = a α 2 − 2a ⋅ bα + b ≥ 0 Draft By: Eduardo W. it is also true that b = b i b i . we can express cos θ as follows: r r a jb j a⋅b cos θ = r r = ai ai b k b k a b Problem 1. b) cos θ . Solution: r a r r ˆ ˆ = a ⋅ a = a i e i ⋅ a j e j = a i a j δ ij = a i a i = a j a j r thus.6) Solution: Let us consider a scalar α . V.12 Show the Schwarz inequality: r r r r a⋅b ≤ a b Schwarz inequality (1.

thus: r r r r r r (a ∧ b)⋅ (a ∧ b) = a ∧ b 2 ( ) ( )( ) r r r r r r r r r = (a ⋅ a) b ⋅ b − a ⋅ b b ⋅ a = a 2 r b 2 ( ) r r − a⋅b 2 which is the same equation obtained in Problem 1.D. if we now obtain the value when α = r 2 we obtain that: a r r  r r 2 r r  r r  r r α = (a ⋅ b)  = a 2  (a ⋅ b)  − 2(a ⋅ b) (a ⋅ b) + b 2 ≥ 0 f r 2  r 2  r 2    a  a  a     r r r r r r r r r 2 r 2 ( a ⋅ b) 2 r r (a ⋅ b) r 2 (a ⋅ b) 2 ( a ⋅ b) 2 = a r 4 − 2 ( a ⋅ b) r 2 + b = r 2 − 2 r 2 + b ≥ 0 a a a a r r 2 r 2 (a ⋅ b ) =− r 2 + b ≥0 a r r r 2 ( a ⋅ b) 2 ⇒ b ≥ r 2 a r 2 r 2 r r a b ≥ ( a ⋅ b) 2 ⇒ r r r r a b ≥ a⋅b ⇒ Q. we obtain: and by applying the equation  ijk  ilm a j b k c l d m = (δ jl δ km − δ jm δ kl ) a j b k c l d m = a l b m c l d m − a m b l c l d m r r (r r ) r r r r r r r r r r r r (a ∧ b)⋅ (c ∧ d) = (a ⋅ c ) (b ⋅ d) − (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) Since a l c l = (a ⋅ c ) and b m d m = b ⋅ d holds true.1. thus we conclude r r r r that a ⋅ b ≤ a b . we can conclude that: r r r r Therefore. Chaves (2013) .: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 TENSORS 9 r r r 2 r 2 2 r r a⋅b f (α ) = a α − 2a ⋅ bα + b ≥ 0 . it is also valid when a = c and b = d . it is possible to express (c ∧ d) as (c ∧ d) =  c d e .13 (r r ) (r r ) r r r r ˆ ˆ Solution: The vector product (a ∧ b ) can be expressed as (a ∧ b ) = a e ∧ b e =  r r r r ˆ Likewise.E. j nlm ijk j k i nlm l m l nlm k l k k ˆ . r r r r NOTE: We can start from the above equation to show a ∧ b = a b sin θ . ijk a j b k e i n ijk n m j j m i n =  ijk  nlm a j b k c l d m δ in =  ijk  ilm a j b k c l d m Taking into account that  ijk  ilm =  jki  lmi  jki  lmi = δ jl δ km − δ jm δ kl =  jki  ilm . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Problem 1. i. thus: r r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a ∧ b)⋅ (c ∧ d) =  a b e ) ⋅ ( c d e ) =   a b c d e ⋅ e Rewrite the expression a ∧ b ⋅ c ∧ d without using the vector product symbol.e. Alternative solution r r r r r r Taking in account that 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 we obtain a ⋅ b = a b cos θ ≤ a b .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. c) Aij A ji is an invariant. with that we can prove that a ∧ b = a b sin θ ≤ a b . V. the above equation can be rewritten as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . b)  ijk a k b 3 δ i1δ j 2 +  ijk a j b 2 δ i1δ k 3 +  ijk a i b1δ j 2 δ k 3 = r r 12 k a k b 3 +  1 j 3 a j b 2 +  i 23 a i b1 = a 3b 3 + a 2 b 2 + a1b1 = a i b i = a ⋅ b Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . Solution: a)  ijk a i a j b k =  ij1a i a j b1 +  ij 2 a i a j b 2 +  ij 3 a i a j b 3 .14 Show that: a)  ijk a i a j b k = 0 . r r b)  ijk (a k b 3δ i1δ j 2 + a j b 2 δ i1δ k 3 + a i b1δ j 2 δ k 3 ) = a ⋅ b . The term  ij1a i a j b1 can be evaluated as follows:  ij1a i a j b1 = 1 j1 a1 a j b1 +  2 j1a 2 a j b1 +  3 j1a 3 a j b1 = 111 a1 a1b1 +  211 a 2 a1b1 +  311 a 3 a1b1 + + 121 a1 a 2 b1 +  221 a 2 a 2 b1 +  321 a 3 a 2 b1 + + 131 a1 a 3 b1 +  231 a 2 a 3b1 +  331 a 3 a 3 b1 =  321 a 3 a 2 b1 +  231 a 2 a 3b1 = −a 3 a 2 b1 + a 2 a 3b1 =0 In the same way we obtain  ij 2 a i a j b 2 =  ij 3 a i a j b 3 = 0 .15 (r r ) (r r ) r [r r r ] r [r r r Prove that a ∧ b ∧ c ∧ d = c d ⋅ (a ∧ b) − d c ⋅ (a ∧ b) ] Solution: Expressing the correct equality term in indicial notation we obtain: [ ] [ ] rr r r rr r r c d ⋅ ( a ∧ b ) − d c ⋅ ( a ∧ b )  = c d  a b − d c  a b   p i ijk j k p i ijk j k  p [ ( ⇒  ijk a j b k c p d i −  ijk a j b k c i d p )] ( ) ⇒ )]  ijk a j b k (c p d i − c i d p ) ⇒ Using the Kronecker delta the above equation becomes: ⇒  ijk a j b k δ pm c m d n δ ni − δ im c m d n δ np [ ( ( ijk a j b k )c m dn (δ pm δ ni − δ im δ np ) and by applying the equation δ pm δ ni − δ im δ np =  pil  mnl .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 10 r r a∧b 2 ( r 2 r 2 r r r 2 r 2 r r = a b − (a ⋅ b) 2 = a b − a b cos θ r )=a 2 2 r 2 r 2 r 2 b 1 − cos 2 θ = a b sin 2 θ ( ) r r r r ⇒ a ∧ b = a b sin θ r r r r r r Note that 0 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 . thus r r r r a∧b ≤ a b Problem 1.

b .16 r r r r Let a . respectively.1 TENSORS ⇒ ( ijk a j b k ) c m d n ( pil  mnl ) 11 [ ]  pil ( ijk a j b k ) ( mnl c m d n ) ⇒ ( ) ( ) r r r r and  mnl c m d n represent the components of a ∧ b and c ∧ d . Since  ijk a j b k we can conclude that: [(r r ) (r r )]  pil [( ijk a j b k ) ( mnl c m d n )] = a ∧ b ∧ c ∧ d p Problem 1. i. β=  ijk a i v j c k  pqr a p b q c r .Spain b1 b2 b3 c 1  α   a1   c 2  β  = a 2   c 3  γ  a 3    Draft b1 b2 b3 c 1   z1    c 2  z 2  = B ij z j  c 3  z 3    By: Eduardo W. r r r Solution: a) The scalar product made up of v and ( b ∧ c ) becomes: r r r r r r r r r r r r v ⋅ (b ∧ c ) = αa ⋅ (b ∧ c ) + β b ⋅ (b ∧ c ) + γ c ⋅ (b ∧ c ) 1 24 4 3 1 24 4 3 =0 ⇒ =0 r r r v ⋅ (b ∧ c ) α= r r r a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) which is the same as: v1 b1 c1 c2 c3 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 c2 c3 v1 v2 = b1 b2 c1 c2 v3 b3 c3 a1 a2 b1 b2 c1 c2 a3 v3 b3 c1 α= v2 b2 b3 c3 =  ijk v i b j c k  pqr a p b q c r One can obtain the parameters β and γ in a similar fashion. c be linearly independent vectors. demonstrate that: r r r r r v = αa + β b + γ c ≠ 0 v i = αa i + β b i + γ c i ≠ 0 i components →  where the scalars α . show that: when interchanging two rows or two r r r columns the sign of the determinant a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) changes. V. γ=  ijk a i b j v k  pqr a p b q c r b) Given three linearly independent vectors.e. Chaves (2013) . β . γ are given by: α=  ijk v i b j c k  pqr a p b q c r . and v be a vector.: r r r r r r r r r r r r v ⋅ (a ∧ c ) = α a ⋅ (a ∧ c ) + β b ⋅ ( a ∧ c ) + γ c ⋅ ( a ∧ c ) 1 24 4 3 1 24 4 3 =0 =0 r r r r r r −  jik a j v i c k v ⋅ (a ∧ c )  ijk v i a j c k a ⋅ (v ∧ c) = r r r ⇒β = r r r = = b ⋅ (a ∧ c )  pqr b p a q c r −  qpr a q b p c r a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) r r r r r r r r r r r r v ⋅ (a ∧ b ) = α a ⋅ ( a ∧ b ) + β b ⋅ ( a ∧ b ) + γ c ⋅ (a ∧ b ) 1 24 4 3 1 24 4 3 =0 =0 r r r r r r  jki a j b k v i a ⋅ (b ∧ v ) v ⋅ (a ∧ b)  ijk v i a j b k ⇒γ = r r r = = = r r r c ⋅ (a ∧ b)  pqr c p a q b r  qrp a q b r c p a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) r NOTE 1: We can restructure the v -components as follows:  v 1   a1   v i =  v 2  = a 2  v  a  3  3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

With that we can state that: Given v i = B ij z j ⇒ zi = B (i ) B Cramer’s rule NOTE 2: Although we have demonstrated for 3 × 3 matrix. β =z 2 = c1 c2  ijk a i v j c k a3 = a1  pqr a p b q c r v3 c3 b1 b2 c1 c2 a3 B (1) v1 v2 a2 = a1 a2 b3 c3 = B (2) B B (3) c3 B where B (i ) is the determinant of the resulting matrix by replacing the column (i) of the r matrix B by the v -components. as Cramer’s Rule. Chaves (2013) . which is known. NOTE 4: If v i = 0 i we have B ij z j = 0 i and B (i ) = 0 i .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 12 where we have denoted by z1 = α . NOTE 3: The solution ( z i ) is possible if B ≠ 0 . (see Problem 1. with that according to Cramer’s rule we have: z i B = B (i ) = 0 i Note that the non-trivial solution z i ≠ 0 i is only possible if and only if B = 0 .51). z 2 = β . z 3 = γ . in which: v1 v2  ijk v i b j c k v3 = a1  pqr a p b q c r b3 c3 b1 b2 c1 c2 a3 b3 c3 a1 a2 γ =z 3 = c1 c2 a2 α =z1 = b1 b2 b1 b2 v1 v2  ijk a i b j v k a3 b 3 = a1 b 1  pqr a p b q c r v3 a2 b2 c1 c2 a3 b3 = B . V. this procedure is also valid for matrices of n-dimensions. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . in the literature.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

b. a] c2 b2 c 3 = − ikj a i b j c k b3 b1 b2 b3 c1 a1 c2 a2 c 3 =  jki a i b j c k a3 = Problem 1. c . Note that the following holds:  ijk =  jki =  kij  ijk = − ikj = − kji = − jik i Thus: a1  ijk a i b j c k = b 1 j a2 b2 a3 b3 c1 k c2 c3 r r r  ijk a i b j c k = [a.Spain } Draft By: Eduardo W. c . V. c ] a1 a2 a3 = − c1 b1 r r r = − ikj a i b j c k = −[a. proving that: ) ) ( ) ( ) ] ) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r a ∧ b ∧ c = (a ⋅ c ) b − a ⋅ b c = b ⊗ c − c ⊗ b ⋅ a r r In the particular case when a = c we obtain: r r r a ∧ b ∧ a r = (a k a k )b r − (a j b j )a r = (a j a j )b p δ rp − (a j b p δ jp )a r [ ( )] [ ] [ ] = (a j a j )δ rp − (a j δ jp )a r b p = (a j a j )δ rp − a p a r b p r r r r r = [(a ⋅ a)1 − a ⊗ a]⋅ b r { University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS r r 13 r r r r b) The determinant defined by a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) = [a. b] r r r =  jki a i b j c k = [b. b.17 Show that ( ) ( ) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r a ∧ (b ∧ c ) = (a ⋅ c ) b − a ⋅ b c = b ⊗ c − c ⊗ b ⋅ a r r r r r r r r a ∧ (b ∧ a) = [(a ⋅ a)1 − a ⊗ a]⋅ b r r r r r Solution: Taking into account that (d) i = b ∧ c i =  ijk b j c k and that a ∧ d q =  qjk b j c k . we ( obtain: r r r [a ∧ (b ∧ c )] ) ( =  rsi a s ( ijk b j c k ) =  rsi  ijk a s b j c k =  rsi  jki a s b j c k r ( ) = δ rj δ sk − δ rk δ sj a s b j c k = δ rj δ sk a s b j c k − δ rk δ sj a s b j c k = asb r c s − asb s c r = ak br c k − a jb j c r r r r r = b r (a ⋅ c ) − c r a ⋅ b r r r rr r = b(a ⋅ c ) − c a ⋅ b r ( = (b r c s − b s c r )a s r r r r r = b ⊗ c − c ⊗b ⋅a r [( ( ) ( )] [ So. c ] in indicial notation becomes  ijk a i b j c k .

Thus.2 r r r Algebraic Operations with Higher Order Tensors Problem 1. by considering that the dot product is commutative.2.18 Show the Jacobi identity: ( ) ( ) r r r r r r r r r r a ∧ b ∧ c + b ∧ (c ∧ a) + c ∧ a ∧ b = 0 r (r r ) r r r (r r ) r Solution: By means of Problem 1. σ ij . Fourth-order tensor: C The number of tensor components is given by the maximum index range value. to the power of the number of free indices which is equal to 4 in the case of C ijkl . F . Second-order tensor: ε . r r r r (b ⋅ c ) = (c ⋅ b). C ijkl . i.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 14 Problem 1.17 in which a ∧ b ∧ c = (a ⋅ c ) b − a ⋅ b c was proven. Φ ijk . the number of independent components in C is given by: 3 4 = (i = 3) × ( j = 3) × (k = 3) × (l = 3) = 81 The fourth-order tensor C ijkl has 81 components. so it follows that: r r First-order tensor (vector): v . i.20 (r r ) r (r r ) r (r r ) (r r ) (r r ) r r Show that a) a ⊗ b ⋅ c = b ⋅ c a .1. b) a ⊗ b ⋅ c ⊗ d = b ⋅ c a ⊗ d Solution: r r r ˆ (a ⊗ b)⋅ c = (a e i a) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Problem 1.e.Spain i ˆ ˆ ⊗ b je j ) ⋅ ck ek ˆ = ai e ib j c k δ jk ˆ = (b k c k )a i e i r r r r r r = (b ⋅ c )a ≡ (b ⋅ c ) ⊗ a Draft By: Eduardo W.19 Define the order of the tensors represented by their Cartesian components: v i .e. l = 1. Determine the number of components in tensor C . k .3 . a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a . we can obtain that: r r r r r r (b ⋅ ra)c − (b ⋅ c )a r r r r r ) (c ⋅ b)a − (c ⋅ a)b r r r b ∧ (c ∧ a) = r r r c ∧ a∧b = ( r r r r (r r ) (r r ) Then. we can conclude that: ( (a ⋅ c )b − (a ⋅ b )c r r r ) ( + r r r r r ) ( )c + (b ⋅ c )a = 0 − r r r r ( )a − (c ⋅ a)b r r r r r r r r r r r a ∧ b ∧ c + b ∧ (c ∧ a) + c ∧ a ∧ b = b ⋅ a r r c ⋅b 1. Third-order tensor: Φ . Solution: The order of the tensor is given by the number of free indices. σ . V. j . i. Fijj . (a ⋅ c ) = (c ⋅ a) . ε ij . Chaves (2013) .

if A is an antisymmetric and ( x ⊗ x ) is a symmetric tensor. Chaves (2013) . Solution: By expanding A ij xi x j we obtain: A ij xi x j = A 1 j x1 x j + A 2 j x 2 x j + A 3 j x3 x j = = A 11 x1 x1 + A 21 x 2 x 1 + A 31 x3 x 1 + (1. Problem 1.10) r r That is. which is a second-order tensor. the double scalar product between them is always equal to zero.8) 2 2 A 22 x 2 + 2 A 23 x 2 x 3 + A 33 x3 b) If A ij = − A ji (antisymmetry) we have A ij xi x j = 0 (1.12) By: Eduardo W.21 Expand and simplify the expression A ij xi x j when a) A ij = A ji .1 TENSORS 15 (r r ) (r r ) b) The expression a ⊗ b ⋅ c ⊗ d . can be expressed in indicial notation as follows: r r r r r r r r [(a ⊗ b)⋅ (c ⊗ d)] = (a ⊗ b) (c ⊗ d) ij ik kj ( ) = (a i b k ) c k d j = a i b k c k d j = b k c k ai d j r r r = (b k c k )(a i d j ) = (b ⋅ c )(a ⊗ d) ij 123 scalar Problem 1.7) A 12 x1 x 2 + A 22 x 2 x 2 + A 32 x 3 x 2 + A 13 x1 x 3 + A 23 x 2 x 3 + A 33 x3 x 3 a) If A ij = A ji (symmetry) we have A ij xi x j = A 11 x12 + 2 A 12 x1 x 2 +2 A 13 x1 x 3 + (1.9) as expected.11) Obtain T : ε . whose Cartesian components are:  5 2 4 ε ij =  − 1 2 1     4 3 6   .  3 1 2 Tij = 4 2 1    1 3 8    (1. Solution: T : ε = Tij ε ij University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . b) A ij = − A ji .Spain Draft (1.22 Let ε and T be second-order tensors. since: r r r r A ij xi x j = x ⋅ A ⋅ x = A : ( x ⊗ x ) (1. V.

Tij ε ij = 5 × 3 + 2 × 1 + 4 × 2 + (−1) × 4 + 2 × 2 + 1 × 1 + 4 × 1 + 3 × 3 + 6 × 8 = 87 (1. b) D ij = B ik B jk .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 16 Tij ε ij = T1 j ε1 j + T2 j ε 2 j + T3 j ε 3 j 1 3 2 123 12 3 T11ε11 + + T21ε 21 + + T31ε 31 + T12 ε12 + T22 ε 22 + T32 ε 32 + + T23 ε 23 + + T33 ε 33 + T13 ε13 (1.19) E ii = E11 + E 22 + E 33 = 35 + 78 + 106 = 219 NOTE: We can verify that the following is true: Tr (B ⋅ B T ) = Tr (B T ⋅ B) = B : B .17) T E = BT ⋅ B (1. D ii .18) Then: C ii = C 11 + C 22 + C 33 = 31 + 48 + 122 = 201 D ii = D11 + D 22 + D 33 = 29 + 35 + 155 = 219 (1.13) thus. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. Chaves (2013) .16) T D = B ⋅ BT 3 2 4  3 2 4  29 25 65  1 5 3 1 5 3 =  25 35 67  =     5 7 9  5 7 9  65 67 155      ⇒ D ij = B ik B jk ⇒ 3 2 4 3 2 4 35 46 60  E ij = B ki B kj = 1 5 3 1 5 3 = 46 78 86        5 7 9  5 7 9  60 86 106       (1.15) Obtain: a) C ij = B ik B kj . d) C ii . c) E ij = B ki B kj .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. E ii Solution: C = B ⋅B ⇒ 3 2 4 3 2 4  31 44 54  C ij = B ik B kj = 1 5 3 1 5 3 =  23 48 46       5 7 9  5 7 9  67 108 122      (1.14) Problem 1.23 Given the B tensor components: 3 2 4 B ij = 1 5 3   5 7 9   (1.

Chaves (2013) .24 Given the B second-order tensor components: 1 0 2 B ij = 0 1 2   3 0 3    Obtain: a) B kk b) B ij B ij c) B jk B kj Solution: a) B kk = B 11 + B 22 + B 33 = 1 + 1 + 3 = 5 b) B ij B ij = B 1 j B 1 j 1 3 2 + B 2 jB 2 j + B 3 jB 3 j 123 123 B 11B 11 + + B 21B 21 + + B 31B 31 + B 12B 12 + B 22B 22 + B 32B 32 + B 13B 13 + + B 23B 23 + + B 33B 33 which the result is: B ij B ij = 1 × 1 + 0 × 0 + 2 × 2 + 0 × 0 + 1 × 1 + 2 × 2 + 3 × 3 + 0 × 0 + 3 × 3 = 28 c) B jk B kj = B 1k B k1 + B 2k B k 2 + B 3k B k 3 12 3 123 B 11B 11 + + B 12B 21 + B 13B 31 + B 22B 22 + + B 23B 32 B 21B 12 + 123 + B 31B 13 + + B 32B 23 + + B 33B 33 B jk B kj = B 11B 11 + B 22B 22 + B 33B 33 + 2B 21B 12 + 2B 31B 13 + 2B 32B 23 = 1 × 1 + 1 × 1 + 3 × 3 + 2(0 × 0) + 2(3 × 2 ) + 2(0 × 2 ) = 23 Problem 1. Obtain the D components for the following cases: a) b) when  2 3 2 Aij = 4 1 1    1 1 5    when  7 13 14 Aik B kj = 11 18 11    16 27 31  .  2 3 1 Bij = 1 2 1    1 2 5   . Aik B jk 13 9 17  = 15 9 13     18 12 32  Solution: a) A : B = 2 × 2 + 3 × 3 + 2 × 1 + 4 × 1 + 1 × 2 + 1 × 1 + 1 × 1 + 1 × 2 + 5 × 5 = 50 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.25 The D tensor is given by the algebraic operation D = A : B .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1 TENSORS 17 Problem 1.

I : I .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we can conclude that A : B = Tr ( A ⋅ B T ) = 13 + 9 + 32 = 54 . Problem 1. Problem 1. b) Are T and E coaxial tensors? Prove it. I : I sym . I : I . Chaves (2013) . V. I : I . I : I . 4 3 1 Fij =  2 0 3    2 0 0   a) Obtain the T tensor components.26 Let us consider the following second-order tensor T = Tr ( E )1 + ( F : E ) E which in indicial notation is Tij = E kk δ ij + ( Fkp E kp ) E ij . I : I .21) I ijkl = δ ij δ kl (1.22) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1 ⊗ 1 = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l where Solution: (I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ ip δ jq δ pk δ ql = δ ik δ jl = I ijkl ( I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ iq δ jp δ pl δ qk = δ ik δ jl = I ijkl University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .27 Obtain the result of the following algebraic operations: I : I . we obtain the following scalars: Tr ( E ) = 2 + 5 + 1 = 8 F : E = 2 × 4 + 1 × 3 + 4 × 1 + 1 × 2 + 5 × 0 + 0 × 3 + 2 × 2 + 0 × 0 + 1 × 0 = 21 Then  2 1 4 50 21 84  1 0 0 0 1 0 + 211 5 0 =  21 113 0  Tij = 8       2 0 1   42 0 29 0 0 1        Two tensors are coaxial when they have the same eigenvectors or when the relationship T ⋅ E = E ⋅ T holds: 50 Tik E kj =  21  42  2 E ik Tkj = 1  2  21 84   2 1 4  289 113 0  1 5 0 = 155    0 29  2 0 1  142    1 4 50 21 84   289 5 0   21 113 0  = 155    0 1   42 0 29 142    155 284 586 84   42 197   155 284 586 84   42 197   with that we conclude that they are coaxial.18 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS b) Taking into account that Tr ( A ⋅ B T ) = Tr ( AT ⋅ B) = A : B and Aik B jk = A ⋅ B T .20) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1⊗1 = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l where I ijkl = δ il δ jk (1. Solution: Next. I : I . I : I . I sym : I . where ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1⊗1 = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l where I ijkl = δ ik δ jl (1. If the components of E and F are given by:  2 1 4 E ij = 1 5 0   2 0 1    . I sym : I sym .

V.3 ( 1 1 I + I = 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we conclude that: 2 2 ( ) Tensor Transpose Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . B and C be arbitrary second-order tensors. Show that: ( ) ( ) A : (B ⋅ C ) = B T ⋅ A : C = A ⋅ C T : B Solution: Expressing the term A : (B ⋅ C ) in indicial notation we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 TENSORS 19 ( I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ ij δ pq δ pq δ kl = δ qq δ ij δ kl = 3I ijkl ( I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ iq δ jp δ pk δ ql = δ il δ jk = I ijkl (I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ ip δ jq δ pl δ qk = δ il δ jk = I ijkl (I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ ip δ jq δ pq δ kl = δ iq δ jq δ kl = δ ij δ kl = I ijkl ( I : I ) ijkl = I ijpq I pqkl = δ iq δ jp δ pq δ kl = δ iq δ jq δ kl = δ ij δ kl = I ijkl We summarize the above in tensorial notation as follows: I : I = (1⊗1) : (1⊗1) = 1⊗1 = I I : I = (1⊗1) : (1⊗1) = 1⊗1 = I I : I = (1 ⊗ 1) : (1 ⊗ 1) = 3(1 ⊗ 1) = 3I I : I = (1⊗1) : (1⊗1) = 1⊗1 = I I : I = (1⊗1) : (1⊗1) = 1⊗1 = I I : I = (1⊗1) : (1 ⊗ 1) = 1 ⊗ 1 = I I : I = (1⊗1) : (1 ⊗ 1) = 1 ⊗ 1 = I Taking into account the definition I sym = I sym : I sym ( [( [ ( ( ) ) )( ) ( ) ) ( ] 1 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 : 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 4 1 = 1⊗1 : 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 : 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 : 1⊗1 + (1⊗1 : 1⊗1) 4 1 = 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 4 1 = 1⊗1 + 1⊗1 2 = I sym = ) ] ) (1 ⊗ 1) : I sym = I : I sym ( ( ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) 1 1 1 I + I : I = I : I + I : I = I + I = I =1 ⊗1 2 2 2 1 1 1 = I : I + I = I :I + I : I = I + I = I =1 ⊗1 2 2 2 I sym : (1 ⊗ 1) = I sym : I = 1.1.28 Let A .

: A ij B ik C kj = B ik A ij C kj = A ij C kj B ik We can now observe that the algebraic operation B ik A ij is equivalent to the components of the second-order tensor (B T ⋅ A ) kj .4 r r = v ⋅ A ⋅u ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = v k e k ⋅ A jl e j ⊗ e l ⋅ u i e i = v k δ kj A jl u i δ il = v j A jl u l Symmetry and Antisymmetry Problem 1.1.30 Show that σ : W = 0 is always true when σ is a symmetric second-order tensor and W is an antisymmetric second-order tensor. Likewise. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ( ) B ik A ij C kj = (B T ⋅ A ) kj C kj = B T ⋅ A : C . i. when we are dealing with indicial notation the position of the terms does not matter. Solution: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ σ : W = σ ij (e i ⊗ e j ) : Wlk (e l ⊗ e k ) = σ ij Wlk δ il δ jk = σ ij Wij (scalar) Thus. Chaves (2013) . thus.e. Problem 1. σ ij Wij = σ1 j W1 j + σ 2 j W2 j + σ 3 j W3 j 123 123 4 4 123 4 4 σ31W31 σ21W21 σ11W11 + + + σ32 W32 σ 22 W22 σ12 W12 + + + σ33W33 σ23W23 σ13W13 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we can state that A ij C kj B ik = (A ⋅ C T ): B .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 20 ( ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A : (B ⋅ C ) = A ij e i ⊗ e j : B lk e l ⊗ e k ⋅ C pq e p ⊗ e q ˆ ˆ ˆ = A ij B lk C pq e i ⊗ e j : δ kp e l ⊗ e q = A ij B lk C pq δ kp δ il δ ( jq ) ) = A ij B ik C kj Note that.29 r r Let u . v be vectors and A be a second-order tensor. Show that the following relationship holds: r r r r u⋅ AT ⋅ v = v ⋅ A ⋅u Solution: r r u ⋅ AT ⋅ v ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u i e i ⋅ A jl e l ⊗ e j ⋅ v k e k u i A jl δ il v k δ jk u l A jl v j 1.

Spain Draft . B are arbitrary second-order tensors. c) Show that the relationship  ijk T jk = 0 i holds. see figure below: r Q ⋅M r r r q (M ) ⋅ M = 0 r r r q (M) = Q skew ⋅ M r M r M b) A :B = ( A sym + A skew ) : (B sym + B skew ) = A sym : B sym + 1sym : B skew + 1skew : B sym + A skew : B skew A 4243 A 4243 =0 = A sym : B sym + A skew : B skew =0 Then. Tij = T ji . With that we conclude that: the projection of r r r an antisymmetric second-order tensor according to the direction ( M ) is a vector ( q (M) ) which r is orthogonal to M . which r r r implies that M and q (M) are orthogonal vectors. σ 32 = σ 23 .e. i. σ 31 = σ13 . Problem 1. it follows that: M⊗ 4 4 3 symmetric tensor r r r r M ⋅ Q ⋅ M = M ⋅ Q sym ⋅ M r r NOTE: We can make the geometric interpretation of M ⋅ Q skew ⋅ M = 0 as follows. b) A : B = A sym : B sym + A skew : B skew where M is a vector. it is also valid that: A : B sym = A sym : B sym University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . A . where T is symmetric.E. σ12 = σ 21 .E. Chaves (2013) . W21 = − W12 . the equation above becomes: σ :W =0 Q. W31 = − W13 .1 TENSORS 21 Taking into account the characteristics of a symmetric and an antisymmetric tensor. thus M ⋅ Q skew ⋅ M = M ⋅ q (M) = 0 . Solution: r r r r r r r r a) M ⋅ Q ⋅ M = M ⋅ (Q sym + Q skew )⋅ M = M ⋅ Q sym ⋅ M + M ⋅ Q skew ⋅ M r r (r r ) Since the relation M ⋅ Q skew ⋅ M = Q skew : 1 2M = 0 holds.D.31 r r r r r Show that a) M ⋅ Q ⋅ M = M ⋅ Q sym ⋅ M . By: Eduardo W. W32 = − W23 . V. Note that r r r r r r r r the algebraic operation Q skew ⋅ M = q (M) is a vector. A : B skew = A skew : B skew Q. and W11 = W22 = W33 = 0 . i.e.D. and Q .

Solution: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ In Problem 1. [ ] [ 1 1 (W ⋅ W) − (W ⋅ W ) T = (W ⋅ W) − W T ⋅ W T 2 2 1 = [(W ⋅ W ) − W ⋅ W ] 2 =0 (W ⋅ W ) skew = ] where we have applied the antisymmetric tensor property W = −W T .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Problem 1.e. the vector components are: i =1 ⇒ 1 jk T jk = 132 T32 + 123 T23 = − T32 + T23 = 0 ⇒ T32 = T23 i=2 ⇒  2 jk T jk =  231 T31 +  213 T13 = T31 − T13 = 0 ⇒ T31 = T13 i=3 ⇒  3 jk T jk =  321 T21 +  312 T12 = − T21 + T12 = 0 ⇒ T21 = T12 with that we demonstrate that if  ijk T jk = 0 i holds.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 22 c)  ijk T jk =  ij1 T j1 +  ij 2 T j 2 +  ij 3 T j 3 = 0 i =  i11 T11 +  i 21 T21 +  i 31 T31 +  i12 T12 +  i 22 T22 +  i 32 T32 +  i13 T13 +  i 23 T23 +  i 33 T33 =  i 21 T21 +  i 31 T31 +  i12 T12 +  i 32 T32 +  i13 T13 +  i 23 T23 = 0 i Then. we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . then we prove that W ⋅ W is symmetric. where the unit vector components are Ni = [1 0 0].33 Let W be an antisymmetric tensor.32 Given a second-order tensor A in which the components of the symmetric part is known in the Cartesian system: sym A ij  4 2 0 =  2 1 0    0 0 3   ˆ ˆ ˆ Obtain N ⋅ A ⋅ N . Chaves (2013) . this implies that T is symmetric. i. Alternative solutions a) Taking into account the definition of antisymmetric tensor W = − W T . V. Solution: a) If we show that (W ⋅ W ) skew = 0 holds. a) Show that W ⋅ W is a symmetric second-order tensor. b) Show also that (W T ⋅ W ⋅ W) : 1 = 0 .31 it was shown that N ⋅ A ⋅ N = N ⋅ A sym ⋅ N with that we obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ N⋅ A ⋅N = N⋅ A sym ⋅ sym ˆ N = N i A ij N j  4 2 0 1  = [1 0 0] 2 1 0 0 = 4     0 0 3  0    Problem 1. T = TT .

we can conclude that: B = A skew ⋅ A sym + A sym ⋅ A skew = A skew ⋅ A sym − A sym ⋅ ( A skew ) T = A skew ⋅ A sym − ( A skew ⋅ A sym ) T = 2( A skew ⋅ A sym ) skew University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . and by taking into account that A skew = −(A skew ) T . Solution: 1 1  1 B pq =  pqs a s =  pqs   sjk B jk  =  pqs  sjk B jk =  pqs  jks B jk 2 2  2 Taking into account the relationship  pqs  jks = δ pj δ qk − δ pk δ qj we obtain: 1 1  pqs  jks B jk = (δ pj δ qk − δ pk δ qj )B jk 2 2 1 = (δ pj δ qk B jk − δ pk δ qj B jk ) 2 1 = (B pq − B qp ) 2 = B skew pq B pq = Alternative solution: Taking into account that B qp =  qps a s and  pqs = − qps . Prove that B is an antisymmetric tensor. Chaves (2013) . V. we can conclude that: B pq =  pqs a s = − qps a s = −B qp ∴ B = −B T (antisymmetric) Problem 1. since the double scalar product between a symmetric tensor (W ⋅ W ) and an antisymmetric tensor ( W ) is zero.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.35 Show that the tensor A skew ⋅ A sym + A sym ⋅ A skew is an antisymmetric tensor. A sym = (A sym ) T .34 1 2 Let B be a second-order tensor such that B pq =  pqs a s with a i =  ijk B jk . Problem 1.1 TENSORS 23 W ⋅ W = −W T ⋅ W = W T ⋅ W T = (W ⋅ W ) T We can also check the symmetry by means of the tensor components:  0 ( W ⋅ W ) ij =  − W12   − W13  W12 0 − W23 − −  =  − W13 W23  W12 W23  2 W12 W13   0 W23   − W12  0   − W13  2 W13 − W13 W23 − 2 W12 2 W23 − − W12 W13 W12 0 − W23 W13  W23   0     − W12 W13  2 2 − W13 − W23   W12 W23 b) (W T ⋅ W ⋅ W ) : 1 = (W pi W pk Wkj )δ ij = W pi (W pk Wki ) = W : (W ⋅ W) = 0 . Solution: Denoting by B = A skew ⋅ A sym + A sym ⋅ A skew .

Check if the relationship r n ⋅ T = T ⋅ n is valid. we can obtain that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . r Solution: Let z be an arbitrary vector. V. Solution: r ˆ ˆ ˆ n ⋅ T = n i e i ⋅ Tkl (e k ⊗ e l ) ˆ = n i Tkl δ ik e l r ˆ ˆ ˆ T ⋅ n = Tlk (e l ⊗ e k ) ⋅ n i e i ˆ = n i Tlk δ ki e l and ˆ = n k Tkl e l ˆ = n k Tlk e l ˆ = (n1 T1l + n 2 T2 l + n 3 T3l )e l ˆ = (n1 Tl1 + n 2 Tl 2 + n 3 Tl 3 )e l With the above we can prove that n k Tkl ≠ n k Tlk . the above equation becomes: r r r r r r r r r r r r r [ x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ] ⋅ z = z ∧ ( x ∧ a ) = (a ∧ x ) ∧ z = 2 w ∧ z with the above we can conclude that: r 1 r r r r w = (a ∧ x ) is the axial vector associated with ( x ⊗ a ) skew 2 Problem 1. Using the definition of an antisymmetric tensor: [ ] r r r r 1 r r 1 r r r r ( x ⊗ a ) skew = ( x ⊗ a ) − ( x ⊗ a ) T = [ x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ] 2 2 r r skew r r r and by replacing it with ( x ⊗ a ) ⋅ z = w ∧ z . it then holds that: r r r r r ( x ⊗ a ) skew ⋅ z = w ∧ z r r r where w is the axial vector associated with ( x ⊗ a ) skew . then: r r n⋅ T ≠ T ⋅n r r If T is a symmetric tensor. and their axial vectors represented r r respectively by w (1) and w ( 2) .36 r Let T be ran arbitrary second-order tensor.17). (see Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 24 Problem 1. Problem 1.37 r r r Obtain the axial vector w associated with the antisymmetric tensor ( x ⊗ a ) skew . and n be a vector.38 Let us consider two symmetric tensors W (1) and W ( 2) . it follows that the relationship n ⋅ T sym = T sym ⋅ n holds.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we obtain: r r r r r r r 1 r r r r r r r [ x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ] ⋅ z = w ∧ z ⇒ [ x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ] ⋅ z = 2w ∧ z 2 r r r r r r r r By using the equation [x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ] ⋅ z = z ∧ ( x ∧ a ) . Show that: r r r r W (1) ⋅ W ( 2 ) = ( w ( 2 ) ⊗ w (1) ) − ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2) )1 r r Tr W (1) ⋅ W ( 2 ) = −2( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2 ) ) [ ] Solution: Given antisymmetric tensor properties. Chaves (2013) .

1 TENSORS 25 r r r W (1) ⋅ a = w (1) ∧ a r r r T r r r a ⋅ W (1) = −a ∧ w (1) and W ( 2) ⋅ a = w ( 2 ) ∧ a r r r (1) − a ⋅ W (1) = −a ∧ w r r r a ⋅ W (1) = a ∧ w (1) r r Then. by applying the dot product a ⋅ W (1) ⋅ W ( 2) ⋅ a we obtain: r r r r r r a ⋅ W (1) ⋅ W ( 2) ⋅ a = (a ∧ w (1) ) ⋅ ( w ( 2 ) ∧ a) ( )( ( )( ) ) We will continue the development in indicial notation: (1 ( ( (a i Wij1) )(W jk) a k ) = ( ijk a j wk1) )( ipq w (p2 ) a q ) [ ] ( ( ( a i (Wij1) W (1) )a k = a j ( ijk  ipq wk1) w (p2 ) )a q = a j (δ jp δ kq − δ jq δ kp ) wk1) w (p2) a q jk [ [w ] ( ( = a j δ jp δ kq wk1) w (p2 ) − δ jq δ kp wk1) w (p2) a q =aj ] ( ( − δ jq wk1) wk2) a q (1) ( 2 ) q wj In tensorial notation the above equation becomes: [ ] [ r ] ⋅a r r r r r r r a ⋅ W (1) ⋅ W ( 2 ) ⋅ a = a ⋅ ( w ( 2 ) ⊗ w (1) ) − ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2 ) )1 r r r r With that we demonstrate that W (1) ⋅ W ( 2) = ( w ( 2) ⊗ w (1) ) − ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2) )1 . Chaves (2013) . b) [ Tr W (1) ⋅ W ( 2) ] [ [ ] r r r r = Tr ( w ( 2) ⊗ w (1) ) − ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2 ) )1 r r r r = Tr ( w ( 2) ⊗ w (1) ) − Tr ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2 ) )1 r r r r = ( w ( 2 ) ⋅ w (1) ) − ( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2) ) 1[1] Tr3 2 ] [ ] =3 r r = −2( w (1) ⋅ w ( 2) ) Alternative solution In this alternative solution we use the tensor components in which it fulfills: ( Wij1)  0  (1 = − W12 ) − W (1) 12  ( Wij 2 )  0  ( = − W122 ) − W ( 2 ) 12  (1 W12) 0 (1 − W12) ( W122 ) 0 (2 − W12 ) (1 W13)   0  ( (1  W23)  =  w31) ( 0   − w21)   ( − w31) 0 w1(1) (2 W13 )   0  ( (2  W23 )  =  w32 ) ( 0  − w22)   ( w21)   − w1(1)  0   ( − w32 ) 0 w1( 2 ) ( w22 )   − w1( 2 )  0   With that we obtain: [W ⇒ (1) ⋅ W ( 2) ]ij ( ( Wik1) Wkj2 ) ( ( = Wik1) Wkj2 )  0  ( =  w31) − w (1)  2 ( ( ( ( − w31) w32 ) − w21) w22 )  ( ( w11) w22) = (  w32 ) w1(1)  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.Spain ( − w31) 0 w1(1) ( w21)   0  ( − w1(1)   w32 ) ( 0  − w22)  ( − w32 ) 0 w1( 2 ) ( w21) w1( 2 ) − ( ( w32 ) w31) − w1(1) w1( 2 ) ( ( w32 ) w21) Draft ( w22 )   − w1( 2 )  0   ( ( w31) w1 2 ) −   ( ( w22) w31)  (1) ( 2 ) ( 2 ) (1)  w2 w2 − w1 w1  By: Eduardo W.

show that: W = µE : E + λ 2 [Tr( E )]2 and P = 4µ 2 E : E + λ (3λ + 4µ )[Tr ( E )] 2 Solution 1: (Indicial notation) ( ) ( ) ( 1 1 1 1 W = Tij E ij = λE kk δ ij + 2µ E ij E ij = λE kk δ ij E ij + 2µ E ij E ij = λE kk E ii + 2µ E ij E ij 2 2 2 2 since E kk = E ii = Tr (E ) and Eij Eij = E : E . NOTE: The alternative solution by means of components was made only as a check.40 1 2 Given that Tij = λE kk δ ij + 2µ Eij . The reader must give priority to the solution via indicial or tensorial notation. in the term (22) we sum and subtract ( ( ( ( the term w22) w21) and in the term (33) we add and subtract the term w32) w31) . Inverse. since the solution via components is not always so simple to obtain. Solution: r r ˆ ˆ Tr (a ⊗ b) = Tr (a i e i ) ⊗ (b j e j ) [ [ ˆ ˆ = a i b j Tr e i ⊗ e j ] ] ˆ ˆ = a i b j (e i ⋅ e j ) = a i b j δ ij = aibi r r = a⋅b Problem 1. ( ( Wik1) Wkj2 )  w1( 2) w1(1)  ( =  w22) w1(1)  w ( 2) w (1)  3 1 ( w1( 2 ) w31)  ( (  w22 ) w31)  + ( ( w32 ) w31)   ( w1( 2) w21) ( ( w22) w21) ( ( w32) w21) ( ( ( (  − w1(1) w1( 2 ) − w21) w22) − w31) w32)  0 +  0  0 0 ( ( ( ( − w1(1) w1( 2 ) − w21) w22 ) − w31) w32 ) 0 0 − ( w1(1) w1 2 ) − ( ( w21) w22 )    ( ( − w31) w32 )   which is the same as: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Wik1) Wkj2 ) = wi( 2) w (j1) − ( w11) w1( 2) + w21) w22) + w31) w32) )δ ij = wi( 2) w (j1) − ( wk1) wk2) )δ ij We leave to the reader to obtain the trace. V. 1. so.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 26 In the term (11) we sum and subtract the term w1( 2) w1(1) . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft λ 2 ) [Tr( E )]2 . we can conclude that W = µ E : E + University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . By: Eduardo W. W = Tij E ij . Particular Tensors.39 r r r r Show that Tr (a ⊗ b) = a ⋅ b .1. and P = Tij Tij .5 Cofactor. Adjugate. Determinant Problem 1.

W = T : E . i. σ ij = σ ij (ε ij ) . V. ε ij = ε ij (σ ij ) .1 TENSORS ( 27 )( P = Tij Tij = λE kk δ ij + 2µ E ij λE qq δ ij + 2µ E ij ) = λE kk δ ij λE qq δ ij + λE kk δ ij 2µ E ij + 2µ E ij λE qq δ ij + 2µ E ij 2µ E ij = λ 2 E kk δ ii E qq + 2µλ E kk E ii + 2µλ E ii E qq + 4µ 2 E ij E ij = 3λ 2 E kk E qq + 4µλ E kk E ii + 4µ 2 E ij E ij = λ (3λ + 4µ )E kk E qq + 4µ 2 E ij E ij With that we demonstrate that P = 4µ 2 E : E + λ (3λ + 4µ )[Tr ( E )]2 . and P = T : T 2 Then 1 1 1 W = T : E = (λTr ( E )1 + 2µ E ) : E = (λTr ( E )1 : E + 2µ E : E ) 2 2 2 1 = (λTr ( E ) Tr ( E ) + 2µ E : E ) 2 = λ 2 [Tr( E )]2 + µ E : E P = T : T = (λTr ( E )1 + 2µ E ) : (λTr ( E )1 + 2µ E ) = [λTr ( E )] 1 : 1 + 2µλ Tr ( E ) 1 : E + 2µλ Tr ( E ) { + (2µ ) 2 E : E E :1 { { 2 =3 = Tr ( E ) = Tr ( E ) = 3λ 2 [Tr ( E )] + 4µλ [Tr ( E )] + 4µ 2 E : E 2 2 = λ (3λ + 4µ )[Tr ( E )] + 4µ 2 E : E 2 Problem 1. and is given by: σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij Tensorial →   σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε where λ and µ are scalars. Starting by the above equation. obtain an expression for ε ij in function of σ ij .e. Chaves (2013) . Express the result in indicial and tensorial notation.41 Let σ ij be the second-order tensor components which are a function of ε ij . Solution 2: (Tensorial notation) In tensorial notation we obtain: 1 T = λTr ( E )1 + 2µ E .Spain ⇒ε= Draft λ 1 σ− Tr (ε )1 2µ 2µ By: Eduardo W. Solution: Indicial notation Tensorial notation σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε ⇒ 2µ ε ij = σ ij − λε kk δ ij ⇒ 2µ ε = σ − λTr (ε )1 ⇒ ε ij = λ 1 σ ij − ε kk δ ij 2µ 2µ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 28 Next. Show that: (T ) = (T ) m T T m and ( ) Tr T T m ( ) = Tr T m .44 Show that if σ and D are second-order tensors.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we need to obtain the following trace ε kk . Chaves (2013) . thus: Tr (T ) = Tr (T ) = Tr (T ) m T = (T ⋅ T L T ) = T T ⋅ T T L T T = T T T m T T m m T m Problem 1.43 Show that T : 1 = Tr (T ) .42 Let T be a second-order tensor. Solution: (T ) ( ) For the second demonstration we can use the trace property Tr (T ) = Tr (T ) . where T is an arbitrary second-order tensor. the following relationship is valid: σ ⋅ ⋅ D = Tr (σ ⋅ D ) Solution: We start with the following definition: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. to do this we obtain the trace of σ ij : Indicial notation σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij Tensorial notation (i = j ) σ : 1 = λTr (ε )1 : 1 + 2µ ε : 1 ⇒ σ ii = λε kk δ ii + 2µ ε ii = λε kk 3 + 2µ ε kk ⇒ σ kk = (3λ + 2µ )ε kk ⇒ ε kk = Tr (σ ) = λTr (ε )3 + 2µ Tr (ε ) 1 σ kk (3λ + 2µ ) ⇒ Tr (ε ) = 1 Tr (σ ) (3λ + 2µ ) Then Indicial notation ε ij = = Tensorial notation 1 λ σ ij − ε kk δ ij 2µ 2µ ε= 1 λ Tr (ε )1 σ− 2µ 2µ 1 1 λ σ ij − σ kk δ ij 2µ 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) ε= 1 λ Tr (σ )1 σ− 2µ 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) Problem 1. Solution: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ T : 1 = Tij e i ⊗ e j : δ kl e k ⊗ e l = Tij δ kl δ ik δ jl = Tij δ ij = Tii = T jj = Tr ( T ) Problem 1.

46 Show that A  tpq =  rjk A rt A jp A kq .1 TENSORS 29 σ ⋅ ⋅ D = σ ij D ji = σ kj D jl δ ik δ il = σ kj D jl δ lk = σ kj D jl δ lk 1 3 2 ( σ⋅D ) kl = (σ ⋅ D) kl δ lk = (σ ⋅ D) kk = (σ ⋅ D) ll = Tr (σ ⋅ D) An alternative demonstration would be: σ ⋅ ⋅ D = σ ij D ji = σ ij D jk δ ik = (σ ⋅ D ) : 1 = Tr (σ ⋅ D ) Problem 1.26) 1 24 4 3 6 det (S ) = 1  pqr  ijk S pi S qj S rk 6 (1.28) we can obtain: A  tpq = A t1 A p 2 A q 3 + A p1 A q 2 A t 3 + A q1 A t 2 A p 3 − A q1 A p 2 A t 3 − A t1 A q 2 A p 3 − A p1 A t 2 A q 3 = A t1  1 jk A pj A qk + A t 2  2 jk A pj A qk + A t 3  3 jk A pj A qk ( ) ( ) ( ) =  rjk A rt A jp A kq =  rjk A tr A pj A qk University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .28) and also taking into account that the term  rjk  tpq can be replaced by:  rjk  tpq δ rt δ rp δ rq = δ jt δ jp δ jq δ kt δ kp δ kq (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .45 Show that: det (S ) ≡ S = 1  rjk  tpq S rt S jp S kq 6 (1. Solution: We start with the following definition: A =  rjk A r1 A j 2 A k 3 ⇒ A  tpq =  rjk  tpq A r1A j 2 A k 3 (1. by substituting (1.25)  pqr  pqr det (S ) =  pqr  ijk S pi S qj S rk (1. V.29) into (1.29) = δ rt δ jp δ kq + δ rp δ jq δ kt + δ rq δ jt δ kp − δ rq δ jp δ kt − δ jq δ kp δ rt − δ kq δ jt δ rp Then.23) Solution: det (S ) =  ijk S 1i S 2 j S 3k (1.24)  pqr det(S ) =  ijk S pi S qj S rk (1.27) Problem 1.

Then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we have shown that A ⋅ B = A B .31) Solution: Expressing in Voigt notation the left side of the above equation we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. Solution: Starting with the definition A  tpq =  rjk A rt A jp A kq . with that we can obtain: A  tpq =  rjk  tpq A r1A j 2 A k 3  A t1  =  A p1  A q1  At2 A p2 A q2 At3   A p 3  =  rjk A tr A pj A qk A q3   Problem 1. Alternative solution: Considering that  tpq δ 1t δ 1 p δ 1q δ 1t δ 2t δ 3t = δ 2t δ 2 p δ 2 q = δ 1 p δ 2 p δ 3 p δ 3 t δ 3 p δ 3 q δ 1q δ 2 q δ 3 q and that A ⋅ B = A B we can obtain: A  tpq δ 1t δ 2t δ 3t A11 A12 A13 =  rjk  tpq A r1A j 2 A k 3 = δ 1 p δ 2 p δ 3 p A 21 A 22 A 23 δ 1q δ 2 q δ 3q A 31 A 32 A 33  δ 1t δ 2t δ 3t   A11   = δ 1 p δ 2 p δ 3 p   A 21  δ 1q δ 2 q δ 3q   A 31   A12 A 22 A 32 A13  A 23   A 33   Note that δ 1t A11 + δ 2t A 21 + δ 3t A 31 = δ st A s1 = A t1 . the relationship (1.47 1 6 Show that A =  rjk  tpq A rt A jp A kq . then we can obtain C = A ⋅ B =  rjk C r1C j 2 C k 3 =  rjk [A ⋅ B ]r1 [A ⋅ B ] j 2 [A ⋅ B ]k 3 =  rjk ( A rt B t1 )( A jpB p 2 )( A kqB q 3 ) =  rjk A rt A jp A kqB t1B p 2B q 3 = A  tpq B t1B p 2B q 3 = A B So. we obtain: A  tpq  tpq =  rjk  tpq A rt A jp A kq (1. Chaves (2013) .48 Show the following property: [ r r r r r r r r r r r r (B ⋅ a) ⋅ (b ∧ c) − (B ⋅ b) ⋅ (a ∧ c) + (B ⋅ c ) ⋅ (a ∧ b) = Tr (B) a ⋅ (b ∧ c) ] (1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 30 NOTE: Let us consider that C = A ⋅ B ( C ij = A ik B kj ). and by multiplying both sides of the equation by  tpq .30) Note that  tpq  tpq = δ tt δ pp − δ tp δ tp = δ tt δ pp − δ tt = 6 .30) becomes: A = 1  rjk  tpq A rt A jp A kq 6 Problem 1.

b. c ] ] (1.33) Problem 1. c linearly independent vectors ⇒ a ⋅ b ∧ c ≠ 0 . (B ⋅ b). (B ⋅ c )] = I B [a. V. Chaves (2013) . b .Spain Draft ) By: Eduardo W.E. It is also valid the following: [ r r r r r r r r r r r r (B ⋅ a) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) + a ⋅ ((B ⋅ b) ∧ c) + a ⋅ (b ∧ (B ⋅ c )) = Tr (B) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [(B ⋅ a). b.49 Show the following property: [ ] [ r r r r r r ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) = det ( A ) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) r r ] (1. b. c ] + [a. and a .32) + (1 jk B 13 +  2 jk B 23 +  3 jk B 33 )(a 3b j c k − b 3 a j c k + c 3 a j b k ) Note that: a1 a 2 1 jk (a1b j c k − b1a j c k + c 1a j b k ) = b1 b 2 c1 c2 a3 b 3 =  ijk a i b j c k c3  2 jk (a1b j c k − b1a j c k + c 1a j b k ) =  3 jk (a1b j c k − b1a j c k + c 1a j b k ) = 0 whereby the equation in (1.D. ( University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .34) r where A is a non-singular second order tensor.1 TENSORS r r 31 r  ijk (B ⋅ a) i b j c k −  ijk (B ⋅ b) i a j c k +  ijk (B ⋅ c ) i a j b k = ⇒=  ijk [(B i1a1 + B i 2 a 2 + B i 3 a 3 )b j c k − (B i1b1 + B i 2 b 2 + B i 3b 3 )a j c k + + (B i1 c 1 + B i 2 c 2 + B i 3 c 3 )a j b k ] ⇒=  ijk [(B i1a1b j c k + B i 2 a 2 b j c k + B i 3 a 3b j c k ) − (B i1b1 a j c k + B i 2 b 2 a j c k + B i 3b 3 a j c k ) + + (B i1 c 1 a j b k + B i 2 c 2 a j b k + B i 3 c 3 a j b k )] ⇒=  ijk [B i1 (a1b j c k − b1a j c k + c 1a j b k ) + B i 2 (a 2 b j c k − b 2 a j c k + c 2 a j b k ) + + B i 3 (a 3b j c k − b 3 a j c k + c 3 a j b k )] ⇒= (1 jk B 11 +  2 jk B 21 +  3 jk B 31 )(a1b j c k − b1a j c k + c 1 a j b k ) + + (1 jk B 12 +  2 jk B 22 +  3 jk B 32 )(a 2 b j c k − b 2 a j c k + c 2 a j b k ) + (1. b and c are linearly independent vectors. Solution: A non-singular tensor ⇒ det( A ) ≡ A ≠ 0 r r r r r r a .32) becomes: [ r r r B 11 ijk a i b j c k + B 22  ijk a i b j c k + B 33  ijk a i b j c k = (B 11 + B 22 + B 33 ) ijk a i b j c k = Tr (B) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ] Q. Note also that: [ r r r r r r r r r r r r (B T ⋅ a) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − (B T ⋅ b) ⋅ (a ∧ c ) + (B T ⋅ c ) ⋅ (a ∧ b) = Tr (B) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ] since Tr (B) = Tr (B T ) . c ] + [a.

then the equation in (1. A k 3 = δ k 3 + αa k b 3 . i.36) By developing the equation (1. similarly for other terms. there was no need to expand the terms  ijk a i a k b1b 3δ j 2 .36).e.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. A i1 = µδ i1 + αa i b1 .46 that A  ijk =  pqr A pi A qj A rk . and by multiply both sides of this equation by the determinant of A we obtain: ( ) r r r a ⋅ b ∧ c A =  ijk a i b j c k A It was proven in Problem 1. If we denote by A ij µδ ij + αa i b j . µ 2 α ( ijk a k b 3δ i1δ j 2 +  ijk a j b 2 δ i1δ k 3 +  ijk a i b1δ j 2 δ k 3 ) = r r µ 2 α (12 k a k b 3 + 1 j 3 a j b 2 +  i 23 a i b1 ) = µ 2 α (a 3b 3 + a 2 b 2 + a1b1 ) = µ 2 α (a k b k ) = µ 2 α (a ⋅ b)  ijk a i a k b1b 3 δ j 2 =  i 2 k a i a k b1b 3 = a1a 3b1b 3 − a 3 a1b1b 3 = 0  ijk a i a j b1b 2 δ k 3 =  ij 3 a i a j b1b 2 = 123 a1a 2 b1b 2 −  213 a 2 a1b1b 2 = 0  ijk a i a j a k b1b 2 b 3 = 0 Notice that. Chaves (2013) .35) can be rewritten as: ( ) r r det µ 1 + αa ⊗ b =  ijk (µδ i1 + αa i b1 ) µδ ( j2 ) + αa j b 2 (µδ k 3 + αa k b 3 ) (1.  ijk a i a j b1b 2 δ k 3 . µ be scalars. thus: ( ) r r r a ⋅ b ∧ c A =  ijk a i b j c k A =  pqr A pi A qj A rk a i b j c k =  pqr ( A pi a i )( A qj b j )( A rk c k ) r r r = ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) [ ] Problem 1. Show that: ( ) r r r r det µ 1 + αa ⊗ b = µ 3 + µ 2 α a ⋅ b (1. a ⋅ b ∧ c =  ijk a i b j c k . Taking into account the above considerations we can prove that: ( ) r r r r det µ 1 + αa ⊗ b = µ 3 + µ 2 α a ⋅ b For the particular case when µ = 1 the above equation becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .35) Solution: The determinant of A is given by A =  ijk A i1 A j 2 A k 3 . thus. A j 2 = µδ j 2 + αa j b 2 . and  ijk a i a j a k b1b 2 b 3 to realize that these terms equal zero. we obtain: ( ) [ r r det µ 1 + αa ⊗ b =  ijk µ 3 δ i1δ j 2 δ k 3 + µ 2 αa k b 3 δ i1δ j 2 + µ 2 αa j b 2 δ i1δ k 3 + µ 2 αa i b 1δ j 2 δ k 3 + + µα 2 a j b 2 a k b 3 δ i1 + µα 2 a i a k b 1b 3 δ j 2 + µα 2 a i a j b 1b 2 δ k 3 + α 3 a i a j a k b 1b 2 b 3 ] Note that: µ 3  ijk δ i1δ j 2 δ k 3 = µ 3 123 = µ 3 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 32 r (r r ) We express the scalar triple product in indicial notation. since r r  ijk a i a k b1b 3 δ j 2 = (a ∧ a) j b1b 3 δ j 2 = 0 .50 r r Let a . b be arbitrary vectors and α .

n are linearly independent. β . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ( A ⋅ h) .51 r r Let A be an arbitrary second-order tensor. and we choose an arbitrary basis {f . we can conclude that: r r r k ⋅ (m ∧ n) A = 0 14 4 2 3 ⇒ A =0 ≠0 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . γ so that: r r r r (r r r ) r r r α ( A ⋅ f ) + β ( A ⋅ g) + γ ( A ⋅ h) = 0 ⇒ A ⋅ αf + β g + γh = 0 ⇒ A ⋅ n = 0 r r r r r r r r where n = αf + β g + γh ≠ 0 since {f . Once more. m . m .49) Due to the fact that det ( A ) ≡ A = 0 . and k ⋅ (m ∧ n) ≠ 0 owing to the fact that k .35) in such a way that: ( ) det µ I sym + αA ⊗ B = µ 3 + µ 2 α A : B (1. if det ( A ) ≡ A = 0 ⇒ n ≠ 0 . r r Solution: Firstly. Show that there is a nonzero vector n ≠ 0 so that r r A ⋅ n = 0 if and only if det ( A ) = 0 . h} is linearly independent. r r r We assume that det ( A ) ≡ A = 0 . This implies that there are nonzero scalars α . ( A ⋅ g) . we can conclude that the vectors ( A ⋅ f ) . then: ( [ ) r r r r r r f ⋅ g ∧ h A = ( A ⋅ f ) ⋅ ( A ⋅ g) ∧ ( A ⋅ h) ] (see Problem 1. Problem 1. since r r r r r det αa ⊗ b = α 3  ijk a i a j a k b1b 2 b 3 = α 3b1b 2 b 3 [a ⋅ (a ∧ a)] = 0 ( ( ) ) NOTE: We can extrapolate the equation in (1. are linearly dependent. A and B are second-order tensors. we show that. it is simple to prove that det αa ⊗ b = 0 . which are linearly independent to n .1 TENSORS ( 33 ) r r r r det 1 + αa ⊗ b = 1 + α a ⋅ b r r Then. Note that det ( I sym ) = (1) 3 + (1) 2 (0)(0 : 0 ) = 1 and det (1 ⊗ 1) = (0) 3 + (0) 2 (1)(1 : 1) = 0 . Chadwick (1976). r r r Now we choose two vectors k . g. V. g. the implication is that: [ ] r r r ( A ⋅ f ) ⋅ ( A ⋅ g) ∧ ( A ⋅ h) = 0 r r r Thus. if r r n ≠ 0 ⇒ det ( A ) ≡ A = 0 .37) where I sym is the symmetric fourth-order unit tensor. h} (linearly independent). Secondly. we apply definition: r r r r r r k ⋅ (m ∧ n) A = ( A ⋅ k ) ⋅ [( A ⋅ m) ∧ ( A ⋅ n)] r r r r r r r r Considering that A ⋅ n = 0 . we show that.

a tensor A is semi-positive r ˆ ˆ ˆ definite if x ⋅ A ⋅ x ≥ 0 holds. by definition r r ˆ ˆ F ⋅ x = 0 with x ≠ 0 if and only if det ( F ) = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 34 Problem 1. Solution a. To prove that the tensors C = F T ⋅ F and b = F ⋅ F T are semi-positive definite tensors. (see Problem 1. Also check in what condition are C and b positive definite tensors. dx ( 2) = F ⋅ dX ( 2) . obtain a relationship between the scalars dV and dV0 in r r r r terms of F . dX ( 2) . for all x ≠ 0 . dx (1) .2) Obtain the relationship between c = dX ( 2) ∧ dX (3) ≠ 0 and r r r r c * = dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx ( 3 ) ≠ 0 . so ( ) [ ] r r r r r r a ⋅ b ∧ c A = ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) r r r r r r ⇒ dX (1) ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) F = ( F ⋅ dX (1) ) ⋅ ( F ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ) ∧ ( F ⋅ dX (3) ) ( University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Thus: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x ⋅ (F T ⋅ F ) ⋅ x = F ⋅ x ⋅ F ⋅ x ˆ ˆ = (F ⋅ x ) ⋅ (F ⋅ x ) ˆ = F ⋅x 2 ≥0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x ⋅ (F ⋅ F T ) ⋅ x = x ⋅ F ⋅ F T ⋅ x T ˆ ˆ = (F ⋅ x) ⋅ (F T ⋅ x) 2 ˆ = FT ⋅x ≥0 Or in indicial notation: x i C ij x j = x i ( Fki Fkj ) x j = ( Fki x i )( Fkj x j ) = Fki x i 2 = x i ( Fik F jk ) x j = ( Fik x i )( F jk x j ) x i bij x j ≥0 = Fik x i 2 ≥0 Thus. a. Then. and they are related to each other as r r r r r r follows dx (1) = F ⋅ dX (1) .1) Considering dV = dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2) ∧ dx (3) ) ≠ 0 and r r r dV0 = dX (1) ⋅ (dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) ) ≠ 0 . Note that r r 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x ⋅C ⋅ x = F ⋅ x equals zero. when x ≠ 0 . the tensors C = F T ⋅ F and b = F ⋅ F T are positive definite if and only if det ( F ) ≠ 0 . Chaves (2013) .e. Solution: Symmetry: C T = (F T ⋅ F )T = F T ⋅ (F T )T = F T ⋅ F = C b T = (F ⋅ F T ) T = (F T )T ⋅ F T = F ⋅ F T = b Thus. we have shown that C = F T ⋅ F and b = F ⋅ F T are symmetric tensors. if F ⋅ x = 0 . dX (3) . Furthermore. Show that the resulting tensors C = F T ⋅ F and b = F ⋅ F T are symmetric tensors and semi-positive definite tensors.. dx (3) be vectors. i. Problem 1. where F is a non-singular r r r second-order tensor and ∃F −1 . V. dx (3) = F ⋅ dX (3) .Spain ) Draft [ ] By: Eduardo W. we proved that C = F T ⋅ F and b = F ⋅ F T are semi-positive definite tensors.52 Let F be an arbitrary second-order tensor.1) Taking into account the problem statement it fulfills that: [ r r r r r r dV = dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = ( F ⋅ dX (1) ) ⋅ ( F ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ) ∧ ( F ⋅ dX (3) ) r (r r ) r [ r r ] ] In Problem 1.53 r r r r r r Let dX (1) .49 it was proven that a ⋅ b ∧ c A = ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c) . dx ( 2) . a.51). we start with the definition of a semi-positive definite tensor.

and let us consider three vectors a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ≠ 0 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS 35 With that we conclude that: [ r r r r r r dV = dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = ( F ⋅ dX (1) ) ⋅ ( F ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ) ∧ ( F ⋅ dX (3) ) r r r = F dX (1) ⋅ (dX ( 2) ∧ dX (3) ) [ ] ] thus dV = F dV0 a. thus by apply the previous definitions we can state: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i. V. b * = B ⋅ b . c * = B ⋅ c . We can rewrite the above equation as follows [ ] [ r r r r dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) = F F −T ⋅ dX ( 2) ∧ dX (3) r r r r ⇒ ( F ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ) ∧ ( F ⋅ dX (3) ) = F F −T ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) ] The tensor F F −T is known as the cofactor of F . cof ( F ) = F F −T with this we define the inverse of a tensor: cof ( F ) = F F −T ⇒ F −1 = ⇒ −T T = [cof ( F )] T ⇒ F F −1 = [cof ( F )] T 1 [cof (F )]T = 1 [adj( F )] F F r dX (1) r r r c = dX ( 2) ∧ dX (3) [F F ] r r dx (1) = F ⋅ dX (1) F r dX ( 3 ) r dX ( 2 ) r r c* ≠ F ⋅c r r c * = [cof ( F )] ⋅ c r r r c * = dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx ( 3 ) r r dx (3) = F ⋅ dX (3) dV = F dV0 r r r dV0 = dX (1) ⋅ (dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) ) ≠ 0 F −1 r r dx ( 2 ) = F ⋅ dX ( 2 ) r dV = dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2) ∧ dx (3) ) ≠ 0 r r r r r NOTE 2: Let us suppose now that F = A ⋅ B .e. r r r r r r and a * = B ⋅ a .2) Taking into account the previous equations we get: dV = F dV0 r r r r r r ⇒ dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = F dX (1) ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) r r r r r r ⇒ dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = F ( F −1 ⋅ dx (1) ) ⋅ dX ( 2) ∧ dX (3) r r r r r r ⇒ dx (1) ⋅ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = dx (1) ⋅ F F −T ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) r r r r ⇒ (dx ( 2 ) ∧ dx (3) ) = F F −T ⋅ dX ( 2 ) ∧ dX (3) r r ⇒ c * = F F −T ⋅ c [ r [ [ ] ( [ ] ] ]) r NOTE 1: Note that c * ≠ F ⋅ c .

38) [adj(A ⋅ B)] = [adj(B)] ⋅ [adj(A)] = ([cof(A)] ⋅ [cof(B)])T A ⋅B ⇒ adj( A ⋅ B) = [adj(B)] ⋅ [adj( A )] = ([cof( A )] ⋅ [cof(B)]) T where we have used the property A ⋅ B = A B . and by multiply both sides by a t b p . we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 36 [ r r r r r r F a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) = ( F ⋅ a ) ⋅ ( F ⋅ b ) ∧ ( F ⋅ c ) ] [ r r r = ( A ⋅ B ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ B ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ B ⋅ c) r r r = ( A ⋅ a*) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b*) ∧ ( A ⋅ c*) r r r = A a * ⋅ (b * ∧ c * ) r r r = A (B ⋅ a ) ⋅ (B ⋅ b ) ∧ (B ⋅ c ) r r r = A B a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) [ ] [ ] ] With that we can conclude that: if F = A ⋅ B then F = A ⋅ B = A B . Solution: Based on the definition of the inverse of a tensor we can say that: B −1 ⋅ A −1 = [adj(B)] ⋅ [adj(A )] B A ⇒ A B B −1 ⋅ A −1 = [adj(B)] ⋅ [adj( A )] = [cof(B)] T ⇒ A B (A ⋅ B ) = [adj(B)] ⋅ [adj( A )] = −1 ⇒AB ⋅ [cof( A)]T ( [cof(A)]⋅ [cof(B)] ) T (1.56 Show that: r r r r ( A ⋅ a) ∧ ( A ⋅ b) = [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ b) (1. a tensor is orthogonal if C −1 = C T holds: C −1 = ( A ⋅ B) −1 = B −1 ⋅ A −1 = B T ⋅ A T = ( A ⋅ B) T = C T Q. Problem 1. Chaves (2013) .46). show that the tensor C = A ⋅ B is also an orthogonal tensor.39) Problem 1.40) Solution: Starting from the equation A  tpq =  rjk A rt A jp A kq (see Problem 1. Problem 1.54 Let A and B be orthogonal tensors.E. V. Also taking into account the definition of adjugate and cofactor we can conclude that: adj( A ⋅ B) = ([cof( A ⋅ B)]) = ([cof( A )] ⋅ [cof(B)]) T ⇒ [cof( A ⋅ B)] = [cof( A )] ⋅ [cof(B)] T (1. Solution: By definition.D.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.55 Show that adj( A ⋅ B) = adj(B) ⋅ adj( A ) and cof( A ⋅ B) = [cof( A )] ⋅ [cof(B)] .

49) r r r r r r r r r r r r ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ (b ∧ c) + a ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ c ) + a ⋅ b ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) = I A a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) A A University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .44) By: Eduardo W.1 TENSORS 37 A  tpq a t b p =  rjk A rt A jp A kq a t b p =  rjk ( A rt a t )( A jp b p ) A kq Multiplying both sides by A −1 we obtain: qs A  tpq a t b p A −1 =  rjk ( A rt a t )( A jp b p ) A kq A −1 =  rjk ( A rt a t )( A jp b p )δ ks =  rjs ( A rt a t )( A jp b p ) qs qs −1 Note that A qs = [cof ( A )] sq holds.48 the following is true: ] r r r r r r r r ([cof( A)] ⋅ a)⋅ (b ∧ c) − ([cof( A)] ⋅ b)⋅ (a ∧ c) + ([cof( A)] ⋅ c )⋅ (a ∧ b) = Tr ([cof( A)])[c ⋅ (a ∧ b)] r r T T r r T where II A = Tr [cof( A )] is the second principal invariant of A . Chaves (2013) .56 it was demonstrated that [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ b) = ( A ⋅ a) ∧ ( A ⋅ b) . thus: [ ] [ ] [ r r r = II A [c ⋅ (a ∧ b)] ] [ r r r r r r r r r r r r a ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ b ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ c = II A a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ] NOTE 1: We can summarize that: [ ] [ ] [ ] (see Problem 1.Spain Draft (1. V.43) (1.57 Show that: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ r r r r r r r r r r r r a ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ b ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ c = Tr ([cof ( A )]) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ] (1. whereby the above equation becomes: A −1 A  tpq a t b p A qs = A  tpq a t b p [cof ( A )] sq A = [cof ( A )] sq  tpq a t b p =  rjs ( A rt a t )( A jp b p ) r r r r ⇒ [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ b) = ( A ⋅ a) ∧ ( A ⋅ b) Problem 1.42) (1.48) r r r r r r r r r r r r a ⋅ [( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c )] + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ [b ∧ ( A ⋅ c )] + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ [( A ⋅ b) ∧ c ] = II [a ⋅ (b ∧ c )] r r r r r r ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ [( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c )] = III [a ⋅ (b ∧ c )] (see Problem 1.41) Solution: r r r r In Problem 1. thus the following relationships hold: [ ] [ ] r r r r r r a ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (b ∧ c ) = a ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) r r r r r r r r r − b ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ c ) = −b ⋅ [( A ⋅ a) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) ] = ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ b ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) r r r r r r r r r c ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ b) = c ⋅ ( A ⋅ a) ∧ ( A ⋅ b) = ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ c [ [ ] ] Summing the above equations we obtain: r r r r r r r r r a ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − b ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ c ) + c ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (a ∧ b) = r r r r r r r r r = a ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ b ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) + ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ c [ ] [ ] [ According to Problem 1.

c ] [a. b. h] . g] . c ]  r r r [h. g]   r r r r r r r r r  γ 1 γ 2 γ 3  [a. b. c ] [a. b. c ] r r r r r r [a. h. b. c] University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . h = A ⋅ c . the above equations can also be written as follows: r r r r r r r r r r r r [( A ⋅ a). b. ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ a). c ] r r r r r r r r r [h. c ] [a. ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ a). c ] ≠ 0 . c ] [a. f ] . b. c ] [a. c ] [a. (see Problem 1. b. and three vectors such as: r r r r f = α 1a + α 2 b + α 3 c r r r r  g = β 1 a + β 2 b + β 3 c r r r r h = γ 1a + γ 2 b + γ 3 c   ⇒ r f  α 1   r   g = β 1  r  γ h   1   r α 2 α 3  a  r  β 2 β 3  b r  γ 2 γ 3  c    (1. c ] [a. f . γ1 = r r r γ2 = r r r γ3 = r r r [a. c] + [a. b.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 38 r r r r r r where I A = Tr (A ) . h] . c ] [a. c ] = P [a. b. f ]  r r r r r r  r r r r r r  r r r 1 r r r [g. A ⋅ c ] = I A [a. b. c ] [a. c ] [a. g. b. . ( A ⋅ c )] = I A [a. c ] r r r r r r By performing the triple scalar product [ f ⋅ (g ∧ h)] ≡ [f . g = A ⋅ b . c ] [a. c ] r r r r r r r r r [g.16). b. α1 = r r r ≡ r r r α2 = r r r α3 = r r r a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) [a. b. A ⋅ b. h. ( A ⋅ b). b.45)   And according to Cramer’s rule. c] + [a. b. b. . h]     r r r r r r For the case when f = A ⋅ a . Using the notation a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ≡ [a. b. b. c ] [a. f ]  α 1 α 2 α 3  r r r r r r   r r r 1 P = β 1 β 2 β 3  = r r r [g. . c ]  γ2 γ3  r r r r r r r r r [ f . II A = Tr ([cof( A )]) . g. c ] [a. c ] [a. b. g. c ] [a. b. b. c ] [a. g. b. b. b. ( A ⋅ b). we can obtain: r r r [ f ⋅ (g ∧ h)] = = α 1 β  1 γ 1  α2 α3  r r r β 2 β 3  [a. b. b. c ] . III A = det (A ) . β1 = r r r β2 = r r r β3 = r r r [a. h. c ] [a. the following relationships are true: r r r r r r r r r r r r f ⋅ (b ∧ c ) [ f . c ] [h. c ] [a. V. b. b. c] + [a. c ] + [a. b. Chaves (2013) . g] [a. c ] [a. b.46) ) r r r r r r r r r 1 I P = Tr ( P ) = r r r [ A ⋅ a. c ] [a. b. ( A ⋅ b). b. c ] = II A [a. c ] r r r r r r NOTE 2: If we consider three linearly independent vectors [a ⋅ (b ∧ c )] ≡ [a. b. f . h]   where r r r r r r r r r [ f . ( A ⋅ b). b. c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r [a. c ] [a.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. b. b. c] r r r r r r [( A ⋅ a). b. b. b. c ] [a. f . b. c ] [a. b. ( A ⋅ c )] = III A [a. c ] [a. b. the principal invariants of P are: ( (1. b.

A ⋅ a. b. c ]) 2 39 r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r  [a.Spain a3   b1 b 2 b 3   b2  1 0 0    c2  a1 a 2 a 3    = 1 − b1 b1 b 2 b 3  A  c1  0 1 0   b1    a1 a 2 a 3   c1  b1 b 2 b 3   0 0 1   a1 a2 Draft b3 − c3 a2 a3 c2 c3 b3 a1 a3 c3 c1 c3 b2 c2 − a1 c1 a2 c2 a3   b2 b3   a1 a 3  − b1 b 3   a1 a 2   b1 b 2   a2 By: Eduardo W. Let us consider the tensor A where the components are:  A11 A ij =  A 21   A 31  A12 A 22 A 32 A13  a1 a 2 A 23  = b1 b 2   A 33   c1 c 2   a3  b3   c3   r r r A = [a.1 TENSORS 1 II P = r r r ([a. f ]  r r r r r r   r r r 1 = r r r [g. c ] [a. b. the inverse P = A −1 . g] r r r r r r [a. g. b. c ] [a. h]    1   b1   c1   0 1  b1 = A   c1    0  b1   c1  0 0 a1 a2 a3 b2 b3 1 0 0 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 1 0 a1 a2 a3 b2 c2 b3 c3 0 c1 1 c2 0 c3 0 b2 1 b3 a1 0 a2 0 a3 1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . b. A ⋅ b] [ A ⋅ a. V. h = e 3 . taking into account the above equation and the equation in (1. c ]  r r r [h. b. c ] [a. A ⋅ b. (see equation (1. b. c ] [a.46)) becomes: A −1 r r r r r r r r r [ f . c ] [a. c ]    = II A III P = III A = det (A ) NOTE 3: Let us consider the Cartesian system where r ˆ ˆ ˆ a = a1e1 + a 2 e 2 + a 3 e 3  r ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ b = b1e1 + b 2 e 2 + b 3 e 3 r  ˆ ˆ ˆ c = c 1e1 + c 2 e 2 + c 3 e 3  r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ Also let us consider that f = e 1 . b. c ] ⇒ Then. b. b. A ⋅ c. c ] [a. b. b. b. f . c ] [a. b. h. A ⋅ c ] [ A ⋅ c. b. A ⋅ c ] [ A ⋅ b. b. A ⋅ a] [ A ⋅ a. A ⋅ b. r a  a 1   r   b  = b1 r c  c    1   ˆ a 3  e1    ˆ b 3  e 2   c 3  e 3   ˆ  a2 b2 c2 so. c ] [a.45) we can conclude that: r f  α r  1   g  =  β 1  r  γ h   1   r α 2 α 3  a  r  β 2 β 3  b r  γ 2 γ 3  c    ⇒   ˆ 1 0 0  e 1  α 1    0 1 0  e = β ˆ   2   1 e   γ 0 0 1  ˆ 3     1 ˆ α 2 α 3   a 1 a 2 a 3  e 1    ˆ β 2 β 3  b1 b 2 b 3  e 2    e  γ 2 γ 3  c1 c 2 c 3   ˆ 3    thus α 1 β  1 γ 1  α 2 α 3   a 1 a 2 a 3  1 0 0  β 2 β 3  b1 b 2 b 3  = 0 1 0     γ 2 γ 3   c 1 c 2 c 3  0 0 1      ⇒ α 1 β  1 γ 1  α 2 α 3   a1 a 2 a 3  β 2 β 3  = b1 b 2 b 3     γ 2 γ 3  c 1 c 2 c 3     −1 With that we can obtain the inverse of a tensor. Chaves (2013) . c ] [a. b. c ] [a. b. c]   r r r r r r  r r r r r + r r r r r r + r  [a. c] [a. g = e 2 . c ] [a.

III C in terms of the scalars I E . we can conclude that: A A Taking into account that A −1 = [cof( A )]ij  b  2  c2  b = − 1  c  1  b1   c1  b3 a2 c2 − c3 a3 c3 b3 a1 a3 c3 c1 c3 b2 − c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 T  b a3   2  b2 b3   c2   a1 a3   a2 −  = − c b1 b 3  2   a2  a1 a 2   b1 b 2   b2   a2 b3 c3 − b1 b 3 c1 c3 a3 a1 a3 c3 c1 c3 a3 b3 − a1 a3 b1 b 3 b1 b 2   c1 c 2   a1 a 2  − c1 c 2   a1 a 2   b1 b 2   Note that the coefficient of the above matrix. II C .47) Obtain the reverse form of the above equations. III C . II C .47) can be restructured as follows:  I C   2 0 0  I E  3         II C  =  4 4 0  II E  + 3  III   2 4 8   III  1   E     C  ⇒ −1  2 0 0   I E   I C  3  4 4 0   II  =  II  − 3   E   C     2 4 8   III E   III C  1         −1  2 0 0  2 0 0   I E   2 0 0    I C  3        ⇒  4 4 0  4 4 0   II E  =  4 4 0    II C  − 3         2 4 8   2 4 8   III E   2 4 8    III C  1              −1  I E  2 0 0  I C − 3         II E  =  4 4 0   II C − 3   III   2 4 8   III − 1   C   E  where University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . can be obtained by solving the determinant of the resulting matrix by removing the i th row and the j th column.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 40 1 [cof( A )]T = 1 [adj( A )] . III E in terms of I C . which result we multiply by (−1) i + j . II E . obtain I E . [cof(A )]ij . Solution: The equations in (1. for example: [cof(A)]12 = (−1) 1+ 2 a1 a 2 b1 b 2 c1 a3 b b3 b3 = − 1 c1 c 3 c3 c2 Problem 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .58 Given the scalars I C . III E : I C = 2I E + 3   II C = 4 I E + 4 II E + 3   III C = 2 I E + 4 II E + 8 III E + 1 (1. V. II E .e. i.

51) =A ( )( ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I : A = δ ij δ kl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l : A pq e p ⊗ e q ˆ ˆ = δ ij δ kl A pq δ kp δ lq e i ⊗ e j ˆ ˆ = δ ij δ kl A kl e i ⊗ e j ( ( ˆ ˆ = A kk δ ij e i ⊗ e j = Tr ( A )1 ( ) ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . II E .1.52) By: Eduardo W.48) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1⊗1 = δ il δ jk e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l (1.59 Find a fourth-order tensor P so that P : A = A dev .1 TENSORS A 2 0 0 = 4 4 0   2 4 8   −1 −1 1 = [cof( A )]T A  4   4  1  0 = − 64  4   0   4  0 41 − 8 0 8 0 0 4 0 2 8 2 0 2 8 − 2 0 4 0 T 4 4    1 2 4   2  −1 2 0 − = 2 4  2   1 2 0   8   4 4    0  0  1 8  0 1 4 −1 8 with that the scalars I E . III E can be obtained as follows:  I E   2 0 0      II E  =  4 4 0  III   2 4 8    E  1.Spain ) ) Draft ) (1.6 −1  1 IC − 3   2   −1   II C − 3  =   III − 1  2   1  C  8   1  0   2 ( I C − 3) I C − 3       1 0   II C − 3  =  ( −2 I C + II C + 3)     4 1   III C − 1  1   8 ( I C − II C + III C − 1)  8    0 1 4 −1 8 Additive Decomposition of Tensors Problem 1. V. Chaves (2013) . we obtain: A = A sph + A dev = Tr ( A ) 1 + A dev 3 ⇒ A dev = A − Tr ( A ) 1 3 By definition the fourth-order tensors are: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1⊗1 = δ ik δ jl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l (1.50) where it holds that: ( )( ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I : A = δ ik δ jl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l : A pq e p ⊗ e q ˆ ˆ = δ ik δ jl A pq δ kp δ lq e i ⊗ e j ( ( ˆ ˆ = δ ik δ jl A kl e i ⊗ e j ˆ ˆ = A ij e i ⊗ e j ( ) ) ) (1. Solution: Taking into account the additive decomposition into spherical and deviatoric parts.49) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ I = 1 ⊗ 1 = δ ij δ kl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l = I ijkl e i ⊗ e j ⊗ e k ⊗ e l (1. where A is a second-order tensor.

1. Then.51).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 42 Referring to the definition of fourth-order unit tensors seen in (1. Holzapfel(2000). Tkl Tlk = Tr ( T ⋅ T ) and det ( T ) are invariants. where: I T = Tr ( T ) = Tii . we can conclude that: 1 P = I − 1 ⊗1 3 The tensor P is known as a fourth-order projection tensor.60 ˆ ˆ Under the base transformation e ′i = a ij e j and by considering that the second-order tensor components in this new base are given by: ′ Tij = a ik a jl Tkl Show that: ′ ′ a) Tii = Tkk = Tr (T ) . III T be scalars. II T = { } 1 2 I T − Tr ( T 2 ) 2 . Chaves (2013) . II T . V. we can now state: A dev = A − Tr ( A ) 1 1  1    1 = I : A − I : A =  I − I  : A =  I − 1 ⊗ 1 : A 3 3 3  3    Therefore. III T = det ( T ) Show that I T .7 Transformation Law of Tensor Components.52). Invariants. III T are invariant with a change of basis. Problem 1. Solution: a) Taking into account the transformation law for the second-order tensor components ′ ′ Tij = a ik a jl Tkl or in matrix form T ′ = A T A T . c) det ( T ′) = det ( T ) Solution: =j ′ ′ a) Tij = a ik a jl Tkl i→ Tii = a ik a il Tkl = δ kl Tkl = Tkk = Tll ′ b) Tij T ′ji = (a ik a jl Tkl )(a jp a iq T pq ) = a ik a iq a jl a jp Tkl T pq = δ kq δ lp Tkl T pq = Tqp T pq = Tkl Tlk 1 31 3 2 2 =δ kq =δ lp with that we show that Tr ( T 2 ) = Tr ( T ⋅ T ) = Tij T ji ′ c) det ( Tij ) = det(a ik a jl Tkl ) = det (a ik )det (a jl )det ( Tkl ) = det( Tkl ) 1 24 1 24 4 3 4 3 =1 =1 we have just shown that Tkk = Tr ( T ) . where the relations I : A = Tr ( A )1 and I : A = A hold. Tii is: ′ Tii = a ik a il Tkl = δ kl Tkl = Tkk = I T University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .61 Let T be a symmetric second-order tensor and I T . b) Tij T ′ji = Tkl Tlk . II T .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Problem 1.1. and (1.

( ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 I C = (C1 + C 2 + C3 ) = C12 + C 2 + C 3 + 2 C1 C 2 + C1 C3 + C 2 C3 ⇒ C12 + C 2 + C 3 = I C − 2 II C 1444 24444 4 3 2 II C 2 So. one only needs to show that Tr ( T 2 ) is one also. Chaves (2013) . so. represent graphically the components of the tensors T and T ′ on both systems.63 Obtain the components of T ′ . b) To prove that II T is an invariant.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: Any combination of invariants is also an invariant. we summarize: C1 + C 2 + C3 = I C 2 2 2 C12 + C 2 + C3 = I C − 2 II C 3 3 3 C13 + C 2 + C3 = I C − 3 II C I C + 3 III C 4 4 4 2 2 C14 + C 2 + C3 = I C − 4 II C I C + 4 III C I C + 2 II C 5 5 5 2 3 2 C15 + C 2 + C3 = I C − 5 II C I C + 5 III C I C + 5 II C I C − 5 III C II C Note also that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( n n n n n n n n C1n +1 + C 2 +1 + C3 +1 = C1n + C 2 + C3 I C − C1 C 2 −1 + C3 −1 − C 2 C1n−1 + C3 −1 − C3 C1n −1 + C 2 −1 ) Problem 1. 4 4 C14 + C 2 + C 3 . C 3 are the eigenvalues of the second-order tensor C . C 2 . given by the transformation: T′ = A ⋅ T ⋅ AT where the components of T and A are shown. as Tij and a ij . we can try to express the above expressions in terms of their principal invariants. ′ ′ Tr ( T ′ 2 ) = Tr ( T ′ ⋅ T ′) = T ′ : T ′ = Tij Tij = ( a ik a jl Tkl )( a ip a jq T pq ) = a ik a ip a jl a jq Tkl T pq 1 31 3 2 2 δ kp δ lq = T pl T pl = T : T = Tr ( T ⋅ T ) = Tr ( T 2 ) c) Matrix form: det ( T ′) = det (T ′) = det (A T A T ) = det (4)det (T )det24 ) = det (T ) A (A T 123 4 1 4 3 =1 =1 Problem 1.1 TENSORS 43 Hence we have proved that I T is independent of the adopted system. since 2 I T is already an invariant. Afterwards. Similarly. we have proved that C12 + C 2 + C 32 is an invariant. Solution: The expression T ′ = A ⋅ T ⋅ A T in symbolic notation is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . given that a ij are the components of the transformation matrix.62 Show that the following relations are invariants: 2 2 C12 + C 2 + C 3 3 3 C13 + C 2 + C 3 . V. so. where C1 . respectively. on this basis. we can obtain the other relationships.

Chaves (2013) . T ′ = A T AT ′ x3 ′ T33 ′ T23 x3 ′ T13 T33 ′ T31 T13 T23 T32 ′ T22 ′ T12 ′ x2 ′ T21 T22 T31 T11 ′ T11 ′ T32 T21 T12 ′ x1 x2 x1 T = AT T ′ A Figure 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 44 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ′ ˆ Tab (e a ⊗ e b ) = a rs (e r ⊗ e s ) ⋅ T pq (e p ⊗ e q ) ⋅ a kl (e l ⊗ e k ) ˆ ˆ = a rs T pq a kl δ sp δ ql (e r ⊗ e k ) ˆ ˆ = a rp T pq a kq (e r ⊗ e k ) To obtain the components of T ′ one only need make the double scalar product with the basis ˆ ˆ (e i ⊗ e j ) . x3 ) . T = A T T ′ A . it holds that A T = A −1 . x 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. Thus. x 2 .1: Transformation law of the second-order tensor components.(x1 . The graphical representation of the tensor components in both systems can be seen in Figure 1. x 3 ) . the result of which is: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ′ ˆ Tab (e a ⊗ e b ) : (e i ⊗ e j ) = a rp T pq a kq (e r ⊗ e k ) : (e i ⊗ e j ) ′ Tab δ ai δ bj = a rp T pq a kq δ ri δ kj ′ Tij = a ip T pq a jq The above equation is shown in matrix notation as: T ′ = A T A T inverse → T = A −1 T ′ A −T  Since A is an orthogonal matrix. x3 ) are given by: (T )ij  3 − 1 0 = Tij = T =  − 1 3 0    0 0 1   ′ ′ ′ Given that the transformation matrix between two systems. Problem 1. (x1 . x 2 .1.64 Let T be a second-order tensor whose components in the Cartesian system (x1 .

z′′′ .2. y .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x 2 . To enable the previous calculation to be carried out in matrix form we use: [ ] ′ Tij = [a i k ] [Tk l ] a l j T Thus T ′ = A T AT  0   2 T ′=   2  2 −  2  1 0   3 − 1 0   0   − 1 3 0  0   0 1     0 1 0    0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 − 2  2  2  2   0    On carrying out the operation of the previous matrices we now have: 1 0 0  T ′ = 0 2 0    0 0 4    Problem 1.2: Rotation. x 3 ) . V. z and x′′′. y′′′. ′ Solution: The transformation law for second-order tensor components is Tij = aik a jl Tkl .1 TENSORS   0  2 A=  2  2 −  2 45  1  0   0  0 2 2 2 2 ′ ′ ′ Obtain the tensor components Tij in the new coordinate system (x1 . z = z′ z ′′ = z ′′′ β y ′′′ y ′ = y ′′ γ α x α y x′ γ x ′′′ x ′′ Figure 1.65 Find the transformation matrix between the systems: x. Chaves (2013) . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . These systems are represented in Figure 1.

z to x′. B r a′ A r a′′ B −1 r a A −1 initial space C −1 CBA C r a′′′ final space A −1B −1 C −1 = (CBA ) −1 if orthogonal s → A T B T C T = (CBA ) T  The coordinate system x′′′. the transformation law from the initial space to the final space is formed by the product of the transformations in the opposite direction.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 46 Solution: Note that: if we have an initial space and successive transformations until the final space. z′′′ can be obtained by different combinations of rotations as follows: ♦ Rotation along the z -axis z = z′ from x. z′  cos α sin α 0 A = − sin α cos α 0    0 0 1   y′ α α x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain y with 0 ≤ α ≤ 360 º x′ Draft By: Eduardo W. (see figure below). Chaves (2013) . V. y . y′. y′′′. That is. we place in the final space and we follow opposite direction of the arrows until the initial space.

y′′. y′′′. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . z′′ to x′′′. y′′. z′ to x′′. y . Chaves (2013) . γ are known as Euler angles and were introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body motion.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. β . y′′′. y′. we obtain: D = CBA (sin α cos β cos γ + cos α sin γ ) − sin β cos γ   (cos α cos β cos γ − sin α sin γ ) ( − cos α cos β sin γ − sin α cos γ ) ( − sin α cos β sin γ + cos α cos γ ) sin β sin γ  D=    cos α sin β sin α sin β cos β   The angles α. V. x ) to ( x′′′. z′′′ β y ′′′ y ′ = y ′′ γ α x α y x′  cos γ C = − sin γ   0  sin γ cos γ 0 0 0   1 with 0 ≤ γ ≤ 360º γ x ′′′ ′′ The transformation matrix from ( x.1 TENSORS ♦ Rotation along the y′ -axis from x′. z′′′ ) is given by z After multiplying the matrices. z′′ z = z′ z ′′ β cos β B= 0   sin β  y ′ = y ′′ α α x 47 0 − sin β  1 0   0 cos β   with 0 ≤ β ≤ 180 º y z = z′ x′ z ′′ x′ β x ′′ x ′′ ♦ Rotation along the z ′′ -axis z = z′ z ′′ = z ′′′ from x′′.

66 If a ij represent the components of the base transformation matrix. Orthogonal Transformation Problem 1.1. j = 3)  (i = 1.67 Let Q be a proper orthogonal tensor. j = 3) (i = 1.e. i. j = 3)  ⇒ 2 2 2 a11 + a12 + a13 = 1 2 2 2 a 21 + a 22 + a 23 = 1 2 2 2 a31 + a 32 + a 33 = 1 a11 a 21 + a12 a 22 + a13 a 23 = 0 a 21 a 31 + a 22 a 32 + a 23 a 33 = 0 a11 a 31 + a12 a 32 + a13 a 33 = 0 Alternative solution: T AA = 1 ⇒  a11 a  21  a 31  a12 a 22 a 32 a13   a11 a 23   a12  a 33   a13  a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31  1 0 0  a 32  = 0 1 0     a 33  0 0 1     Performing the matrix multiplication we obtain: 2 2 2  a11 + a12 + a13   a11 a 21 + a12 a 22 + a13 a 23 a a + a a + a a 12 32 13 33  11 31 1. a ik a jk = a ki a kj = δ ij . show that the following equations are fulfilled: 2 2 2 a11 + a12 + a13 = 1  2 2 2 a 21 + a 22 + a 23 = 1  2 2 2 a 31 + a 32 + a 33 = 1  a11 a 21 + a12 a 22 + a13 a 23 = 0  a 21 a31 + a 22 a 32 + a 23 a 33 = 0 a a + a a + a a = 0 12 32 13 33  11 31 or 2 2 2 a11 + a 21 + a 31 = 1  2 2 2 a12 + a 22 + a 32 = 1  2 2 2 a13 + a 23 + a 33 = 1  a11 a12 + a 21 a 22 + a 31 a 32 = 0  a12 a13 + a 22 a 23 + a 32 a 33 = 0 a a + a a + a a = 0 21 23 31 33  11 13 Solution: We start from the principle that the basis transformation matrix is an orthogonal matrix. Eigenvectors. j = 1)  (i = 2. and E be an arbitrary second-order tensor.8 a11 a 21 + a12 a 22 + a13 a 23 2 2 2 a 21 + a 22 + a 23 a 21 a 31 + a 22 a 32 + a 23 a 33 a11 a 31 + a12 a 32 + a13 a 33  1 0 0   a 21 a 31 + a 22 a 32 + a 23 a 33  = 0 1 0    2 2 2  0 0 1  a 31 + a 32 + a 33    Eigenvalues. Then: a ik a jk = a i1 a j1 + a i 2 a j 2 + a i 3 a j 3 = δ ij (i = 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Show that the eigenvalues of E do not change with the following orthogonal transformation: E* = Q ⋅ E ⋅ QT Solution: We can prove this as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 48 Problem 1. j = 2)  (i = 3. j = 2)  (i = 2. Chaves (2013) . V.

c) If λ 1 . * Solution: A 2 = A* ⋅ A* ( A 2 ) ij = ( A * ⋅ A * ) ij = A * A * ik kj * * = ( Q ⋅ A ⋅ Q T ) ⋅ (Q ⋅ A ⋅ Q T ) = Q⋅A ⋅Q ⋅Q⋅A ⋅Q 123 T = (Q ip A pr Q kr )(Q ks A st Q jt ) T = Q ip A pr Q kr Q ks A st Q jt 123 =1 =δ rs = Q ⋅ A ⋅ A ⋅ QT = Q ip A pr δ rs A st Q jt = Q ip A ps A st Q jt = Q ⋅ A 2 ⋅ QT = Q ip ( A ⋅ A ) pt Q jt = (Q ⋅ A 2 ⋅ Q T ) ij Problem 1. Problem 1. II T and III T . If the orthogonal transformation law to A is given by A * = Q ⋅ A ⋅ Q T . show that A 2 = Q ⋅ A 2 ⋅ Q T .e. Solution: a) The principal invariants of T are: I T = Tr ( T ) = 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 II T = 6 3 2 4 + 5 3 2 4 + 5 3 2 6 = 56 III T = det ( T ) = 60 b) The characteristic polynomial can be obtained by solving the determinant: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . obtain I T .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . i.69 Given the tensor components: 5 3 3  Tij = 2 6 3   2 2 4   a) Obtain the principal invariants of T .68 Let A be a second-order tensor and Q be an orthogonal tensor.1 TENSORS ( ) = det (Q ⋅ E ⋅ Q − λ1) = det (Q ⋅ E ⋅ Q − Q ⋅ λ1 ⋅ Q ) = det [Q ⋅ (E − λ1 ) ⋅ Q ] = det (Q ) det (E − λ1 ) det (Q ) 123 1 24 4 3 0 = det E * − λ1 T T T T T 1 1 = det (E − λ1 ) 49 ( = det (Q = det (Q 0 = det E * − λδ ij ij ) ) ik E kp Q jp − λδ ij ik E kp Q jp − λQ ik Q jp δ kp [ ( ) ) ] = det (Q )det (E − λδ ) det (Q ) = det (E − λδ ) = det Q ik E kp − λδ kp Q jp ik kp kp kp jp kp Thus. Obtain λ 2 and λ 3 > 2 . b) Obtain the characteristic polynomial associated with T . λ 2 and λ 3 are the eigenvalues of T and λ 1 = 10 . V. we have proved that E and E * have the same eigenvalues.

Then: 10 0 0 ′ Tij =  0 2 0    0 0 3    I T = Tr ( T ) = 10 + 2 + 3 = 15  In this space we can check that  II T = 2 × 3 + 10 × 3 + 10 × 2 = 56  III = det ( T ) = 10 × 2 × 3 = 60  T Problem 1. Chaves (2013) .70 Find the principal values and directions of the second-order tensor T . thus λ 3 = 3 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. where the Cartesian components of T are: (T )ij  3 − 1 0 = Tij = T =  − 1 3 0    0 0 1   ˆ Solution: We need to find nontrivial solutions for (Tij − λδ ij ) n j = 0 i . which are constrained by ˆ ˆ n j n j = 1 (unit vector). the above equation is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 50 5−λ 3 2 6−λ 2 2 3 3 =0 ⇒ λ3 − λ2 I T + λ II T − III T = 0 4−λ thus: λ3 − 15λ2 + 56λ − 60 = 0 c) In the principal space the following is true: λ 1 = 10 0 ′ λ2 Tij =  0   0 0     λ 3 > 2  0 0 where the principal invariants are I T = Tr ( T ) = λ 1 + λ 2 + λ 3 = 15 III T = det ( T ) = λ 1λ 2 λ 3 = 60 ⇒ ⇒ λ2 + λ3 = 5 λ 2λ3 = 6 By combining these two equations we obtain:  (1)  λ 3 = 3 2  ⇒ (5 − λ 3 )λ 3 = 6 ⇒ λ 3 − 5λ 3 + 6 = 0 ⇒  ( 2 ) λ 2 + λ 3 = 5 λ 3 = 2  λ 2λ3 = 6 We discard the solution λ(32) = 2 . As we have seen. the nontrivial solution requires that: Tij − λδ ij = 0 Explicitly. V.

namely: λ 1 = 1. As the terms T13 = T23 = T31 = T32 = 0 imply that T33 = 1 is already a principal value. ■ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . then. λ i . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . n (i ) . Principal directions: ˆ Each eigenvalue. the characteristic equation becomes: λ3 − λ2 I T + λ II T − III T = 0 λ3 − 7λ2 + 14λ − 8 = 0 → On solving the cubic equation we obtain three real roots.1 TENSORS T11 − λ T21 T12 T22 − λ T13 T23 T31 T32 T33 − λ 51 3 − λ −1 = −1 3 − λ 0 0 0 0 =0 1− λ Developing the above determinant. the original direction is a principal direction. λ3 = 4 We can also verify that: I T = λ1 + λ 2 + λ 3 = 1 + 2 + 4 = 7 ✓ II T = λ 1 λ 2 + λ 2 λ 3 + λ 3 λ 1 = 1 × 2 + 2 × 4 + 4 × 1 = 14 ✓ III T = λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 = 8 ✓ Thus. λ 2 = 2. NOTE: This solution could have been directly determined by the specific features of the T matrix. we can see that the invariants are the same as those evaluated previously. λ1 = 1 3 − λ 1  −1   0  −1 3 − λ1 0   n1   0  0   n 1  3 − 1 − 1  n  =  − 1 3 − 1 0  n  = 0  0  2    2     n 3   0 0 1 − 1 n 3  0  1 − λ1         0 These become the following system of equations: 2n1 − n 2 = 0    ⇒ n1 = n 2 = 0 − n1 + 2n 2 = 0 0n = 0  3 2 2 n i n i = n1 + n 2 + n 3 = 1 2 Then we can conclude that: λ1 = 1 ⇒ ˆ n i(1) = [0 0 ± 1] . we can obtain the cubic equation: [ ] (1 − λ ) (3 − λ ) 2 − 1 = 0 λ3 − 7 λ2 + 14λ − 8 = 0 We could have obtained the characteristic equation directly in terms of invariants: I T = Tr ( Tij ) = Tii = T11 + T22 + T33 = 7 II T = T 1 Tii T jj − Tij Tij = 22 T32 2 ( ) T23 T33 + T11 T13 T31 T33 + T11 T12 T21 T22 = 14 III T = Tij =  ijk Ti1 T j 2 Tk 3 = 8 Then. We can use the ˆ equation ( Tij − λδ ij ) n j = 0 i to obtain the principal directions. is associated with a corresponding eigenvector. consequently.

Additionally. V. Chaves (2013) . A .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. after which we need an additional equation: 2 2 2 n i n i = n1 + n 2 + n 3 = 1 ⇒ 2n1 = 1 ⇒ n1 = ± 2 1 2 Thus: λ2 = 2 ⇒  1 ˆ n i( 2 ) =  ± 2   ± 1 2  0   λ3 = 4 3 − λ 3  −1   0  −1 3 − λ3 0 0   n 1  3 − 4 − 1 0   n1   0   n  =  − 1 3 − 4 0  2   0  n 2  = 0      1 − λ 3  n 3   0 0 1 − 4  n 3   0          − n1 − n 2 = 0    ⇒ n1 = −n 2  − n1 − n 2 = 0  − 3n = 0 3  2 2 n i n i = n1 + n 2 + n 3 = 1 ⇒ 2n 2 = 1 ⇒ n 2 = ± 2 2 1 2 Then: λ3 = 4 ⇒  ˆ n i(3) =  m   1 2 ± 1 2  0   Afterwards. x3 ) . we can verify that the eigenvectors make up the transformation matrix. x 3 ) .64.64). x 2 . x 2 . we summarize the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of T : λ1 = 1 ˆ ⇒ n i(1) = [0 0 ± 1] λ2 = 2 ˆ ⇒ n i( 2)  = ±   1 2 ± 1 2  0   λ3 = 4 ˆ ⇒ n i(3)  = m   1 2 ± 1 2  0   NOTE: The tensor components of this problem are the same as those used in Problem 1. and the principal space. (see Problem 1. (x1 . (x1 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 52 λ2 = 2 3 − λ 2  −1   0  −1 3 − λ2 0 0   n1  0    n 1  3 − 2 − 1  n  =  − 1 3 − 2 0  n 2  = 0   2       0 1 − 2  n 3   0  1 − λ 2  n 3   0        0 0 n1 − n 2 = 0 ⇒ n1 = n 2   − n1 + n 2 = 0 − n = 0  3 The first two equations are linearly dependent. ■ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ′ ′ ′ between the original system.

The unique scalar which satisfies the expression above is zero. = det[A ] . where p is the direction ˆ associated with the eigenvalue λ = 1 . we conclude that when λ = 1 it fulfills that det[(Q − 1)] = 0 . obtain the new r ˆ ˆ vector originated by the orthogonal transformation Q ⋅ x in the space formed by p . Solution: a) Taking into account the definition of the orthogonal tensor we can conclude that: QT ⋅ Q = 1 ⇒ QT ⋅ Q − QT = 1 − QT ⇒ Q T ⋅ (Q − 1) = −(Q T − 1) ⇒ Q T ⋅ (Q − 1) = −(Q − 1) T Then we obtain the determinant of the two previous tensors: [ ] [ det Q T ⋅ (Q − 1) = det − (Q − 1) T [ ] [ ] ⇒ det Q det[(Q − 1)] = −det (Q − 1) 123 4 4 T [ = (−1) 3 det (Q − 1) T T ] = −det[(Q − 1)] ] = detQ =1 ⇒ det[(Q − 1)] = −det[(Q − 1)] where [ ] det A T we have used the following determinant properties: det[αA ] = α 3 det[A ] . ˆ e3 ˆ ˆ2 q ≡ e* ˆ* ˆ e1 ≡ p ˆ* ˆ* Q ⋅ e1 = e1 ˆ e2 ˆ e1 ˆ ˆ3 r ≡ e* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ3 The symbolic representation of the tensor in the basis e1 . d) Given a vector position x . q ≡ e * . e * . V. Hence. b) Also show that Q can be represented by means of the angle θ as follows: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Q = p ⊗ p + cos θ(q ⊗ q + r ⊗ r ) − sin θ(q ⊗ r − r ⊗ q) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ where p . then λ = 1 is eigenvalue of Q .1 TENSORS 53 Problem 1. i.e. c) Obtain the principal r invariants of Q in function of the angle θ . are unit vectors which form an orthonormal basis. e * is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . there is a direction ˆ* ˆ* ˆ* (eigenvector) satisfying that Q ⋅ e1 = λe1 = e1 . p is an eigenvector of Q .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. det[A ⋅ B ] = det[A ]det[B ] .71 Let Q be a proper orthogonal tensor a) show that Q has one real eigenvalue and equals to 1 . q . Chaves (2013) . then: det[(Q − 1)] = 0 Taking into account the definition of eigenvalue. q . det[(Q − λ1)] = 0 . ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 b) We consider that the vectors p ≡ e1 . r . r ≡ e * form an orthonormal basis.

In addition. in the basis e * . we obtain: ˆ* ˆ* Q ⋅ e 1 = e1 * ˆ* * ˆ* * ˆ* ˆ* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ3 Q ⋅ e1 = [ Q11e1 ⊗ e1 + Q12 e1 ⊗ e * + Q13 e1 ⊗ e * + ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q * e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * + 21 2 22 2 23 2 ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q * e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * 31 3 32 3 33 3 ˆ* ] ⋅ e1 * ˆ* ˆ ˆ = Q11e1 + Q * e * + Q * e * 21 2 31 3 * with that we conclude that Q11 = 1 . 21 31 Remember that two coaxial tensors have the same principal directions (eigenvectors). it holds ˆ* ˆ* ˆ* that Q ⋅ e1 = λe1 = e1 . Q * = 0 . given by (1. then if Q −1 = Q T . and e1 is also principal direction of Q T .53). making the projection of Q . the components of Q . A tensor and its inverse are coaxial tensors. Q13 = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 54 ˆ ˆ Q = Q * e * ⊗ e *j ij i * ˆ* * ˆ* * ˆ* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ3 = Q11e1 ⊗ e1 + Q12 e1 ⊗ e * + Q13 e1 ⊗ e * + (1. Then. this implies that Q T and Q are coaxial ˆ* tensors. the equation (1.53) becomes: ˆ* ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 Q = e1 ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * 22 2 23 2 32 3 33 3 (1.54) ˆi In matrix form. Q12 = 0 . are given by: * x2 Q* ij 1 0 = 0 Q * 22  0 Q * 32  Q* 22 * Q11 = 1 0  Q*  23  Q*  33  Q* 32 Q* 23 * x1 Q* 33 * x3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . then it fulfills that: ˆ* ˆ* Q T ⋅e1 = e1 * ˆ* ˆ* ˆ* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ* ˆ3 Q T ⋅e1 = [ Q11e1 ⊗ e1 + Q * e1 ⊗ e * + Q * e1 ⊗ e * + 21 31 * ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q12 e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * + 2 22 2 32 2 * ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q13 e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * 3 23 3 33 3 ˆ* ] ⋅ e1 * ˆ* * ˆ * ˆ = Q11e1 + Q12 e * + Q13 e * 2 3 * * * with that we conclude that Q11 = 1 . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.53) ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q * e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * + 21 2 22 2 23 2 ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 + Q * e * ⊗ e1 + Q * e * ⊗ e * + Q * e * ⊗ e * 31 3 32 3 33 3 ˆ* Taking into account that e1 is eigenvector of Q associated with the eigenvalue λ = 1 . Chaves (2013) . Q * = 0 . according to ˆ* direction e1 .

or in terms of the ˆi components in the space e * : Q* Q* ki kj 1 ⇒ 0  0  = δ ij [(Q ) [Q Q * 2 22 * * 22 23 1 0 0 Q * 22  0 Q * 23  ⇒ 0 0  1 0 Q *  0 Q * 32   22 *  0 Q * Q 33   32 0 ] [Q Q ] [(Q ) + (Q * ) 2 32 * + Q 32 Q * 33 * * 22 23 * 2 33 0  1 0 0 Q *  = 0 1 0  23    * Q 33  0 0 1      1 0 0  = 0 1 0      0 0 1     (1. Chaves (2013) .55) ] ] + Q* Q* 32 33 + (Q * ) 2 23 The determinant of a proper orthogonal tensor is det (Q) = +1 . we conclude that: ˆ* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ3 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ3 Q = e1 ⊗ e1 + (cos θ) e * ⊗ e * + (− sin θ)e * ⊗ e * + (sin θ)e * ⊗ e * + (cos θ) e * ⊗ e * [ ] [ ˆ* ˆ* ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ3 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ3 ˆ2 = e1 ⊗ e1 + cos θ e * ⊗ e * + e * ⊗ e * − sin θ e * ⊗ e * − e * ⊗ e * ] ˆ ˆ* ˆ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ3 Considering that p ≡ e1 .57).1 TENSORS 55 Once more we use the orthogonality condition Q T ⋅ Q = Q ⋅ Q T = 1 . in the space e * . r ≡ e * .54). and taking into account (1.57) Returning to the equation (1.56) Taking into account (1.56) we obtain the following set of equations: (Q * ) 2 + (Q * ) 2 = 1 22 32  * * * * Q 22 Q 23 + Q 32 Q 33 = 0  * 2 * 2 (Q 33 ) + (Q 23 ) = 1  * * * * Q 22 Q 33 − Q 23 Q 32 = 1 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1  cos θ(− sin θ) + sin θ cos θ = 0  2 2 cos θ + sin θ = 1 cos θ cos θ − (− sin θ)(sin θ) = 1  whereupon we have demonstrated the existence of an angle that meets the above conditions: Q* ij 1 0 = 0 Q * 22  * 0 Q 23  0  1 0 0  0 cos θ − sin θ *  Q 32  =   Q *  0 sin θ cos θ  33    (1. q ≡ e * .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [p⊗p+cos θ(q⊗q+r⊗r )]ij 0 0  0 0 0 = − sin θ  0 sin θ 0  4 14444 244444 3 skew Q* ij ˆ ˆ [−sin θ(q⊗rˆ −rˆ ⊗q) ]ij skew Note that the format of Q * has the same format as the antisymmetric tensor ( W ) in the ij space defined by the axial vector: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .55) and (1. V. we show that: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Q = p ⊗ p + cos θ(q ⊗ q + r ⊗ r ) − sin θ(q ⊗ r − r ⊗ q) It is interesting to note that the additive decomposition of Q in an antisymmetric and a ˆi symmetric part. is: 0 0  1 0 cos θ 0  =  0 0 cos θ   14444244443 sym Q* ij . thus 1 0 0 Q * 22  0 Q * 32  0  Q*  = 1 23  Q*  33  Q* Q* − Q* Q* = 1 22 33 23 32 ⇒ (1.

III Q = 1 . as follows: r ˆ ˆ ˆ x = pp + qq + rr . V.57) it is easy to show that I Q = II Q = 1 + 2 cos θ .3). r ˆ x ⋅r = r Thus.3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . r ˆ x⋅q= q . it holds that: r r ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x = Q ⋅ x = p ⊗ p + cos θ(q ⊗ q + r ⊗ r ) − sin θ(q ⊗ r − r ⊗ q) ˆ ˆ ˆ = pp + (q cos θ − r sin θ)q + (r cos θ + q sin θ)r [ ˆ ˆ ˆ ] ⋅ [ pp + qq + r r ] p θ ˆ* ˆ e1 ≡ p ˆ ˆ2 q ≡ e* r x O r r ~ =Q⋅ x x ˆ ˆ3 r ≡ e* Figure 1. r . it fulfills that: x ⋅ p = ( pp + qq + rr ) ⋅ p = p . Chaves (2013) . r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 56 * Wij 0 0 = 0 0  0 ω  0  − ω  0   where ω is the magnitude of the axial vector. c) By means of (1. q . (see Figure 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. r ˆ ˆ ˆ d) We represent the vector x by means its components and the basis p .

V. we obtain: r r r r p′ = U ⋅ p p′ = U ⋅ p r r r r ⇒ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = U ⋅ p ⇒ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = U ⋅ p r r r r ⇒ R ⋅ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = R ⋅ U ⋅ p ⇒ U −1 ⋅ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = U −1 ⋅ U ⋅ p r r r r r ⇒ 1 ⋅ p ′′ = R ⋅ U ⋅ p ⇒ (R ⋅ U) −1 ⋅ p ′′ = 1 ⋅ p = p r r r r ⇒ p ′′ = (R ⋅ U) ⋅ p ⇒ p = (R ⋅ U) −1 ⋅ p ′′ (1. and considering that p ′′ = R ⋅ p ′ we obtain: r r p ′′ = R ⋅ p ′ r r ⇒ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = R −1 ⋅ R ⋅ p ′ r r r ⇒ R −1 ⋅ p ′′ = 1 ⋅ p ′ = p ′ r r r r Substituting p ′ = R −1 ⋅ p ′′ into p ′ = U ⋅ p . where R is an orthogonal tensor and U is a second-order tensor with U ⋅ U −1 = 1 . Chaves (2013) . ∃ U −1 .72 r 57 r r r Let us consider the tensorial transformations p ′ = U ⋅ p and p ′′ = R ⋅ p ′ . Obtain the r r transformation law between p and p ′′ . we can guarantee that the inverse of r r R exists.1 TENSORS Problem 1. i.58) Or in indicial notation: p ′ = U ij p j i p ′ = U ij p j i − ⇒ R ij1p ′′ = U ij p j j − ⇒ R ij1p ′′ = U ij p j j − ⇒ R ki R ij1p ′′ = R ki U ij p j j − − − ⇒ U ki1R ij1p ′′ = U ki1U ij p j j ⇒ δ kj p ′′ = R ki U ij p j j ⇒ (R ki U ij ) p ′′j = δ kj p j = p k ′ ⇒ p ′k = (R ki U ij )p j ⇒ p k = (R ki U ij ) −1 p ′′ j University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .e.Spain (1.59) −1 Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: The proposed problem can be represented by the following figure: U R r p′ r p ′′ r p ? Taking into account that R −1 = R T (orthogonal tensor).

9 Spectral Representation of Tensors Problem 1. we obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w = wb (n (b) ∧ n (1) ) ⊗ n (1) + wb (n (b) ∧ n ( 2) ) ⊗ n ( 2) + wb (n (b) ∧ n (3) ) ⊗ n (3) = ( ˆ + w (n ˆ + w (n ) ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = w1 n (1) ∧ n (1) ⊗ n (1) + w2 n ( 2) ∧ n (1) ⊗ n (1) + w3 n (3) ∧ n (1) ⊗ n (1) + 1 1 ( ˆ (n ) ˆ )⊗ n ( ˆ (n ) ˆ )⊗ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ∧ n ( 2 ) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + w2 n ( 2 ) ∧ n ( 2) ⊗ n ( 2) + w3 n (3) ∧ n ( 2) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + (1) ˆ ∧n ( 3) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .b =1 a ≠b Demonstrate also that: 3 ˆ ˆ w ⋅ V − V ⋅ w = ∑ w ab (λ b − λ a ) n ( a ) ⊗ n (b) a .b =1 r r ˆ ˆ where we have applied the antisymmetric tensor property w ⋅ n = w ∧ n .Spain ) ˆ )⊗ n (1) ( 3) + w2 ( 2) Draft ˆ ∧n ( 3) ( 3) + w3 ( 3) ˆ ∧n ( 3) ( 3) By: Eduardo W.73 Let w be an antisymmetric second-order tensor and V be a positive definite symmetric tensor whose spectral representation is given by: V= 3 ∑λ a ˆ ˆ n(a) ⊗ n(a) a =1 Show that the antisymmetric tensor w can be represented by: 3 ˆ ˆ w = ∑ w ab n (a ) ⊗ n (b) a . Expanding the above equation. V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 58 r p′ U R U −1 R −1 = R T r p r p ′′ (R ⋅ U) (R ⋅ U) −1 = U −1 ⋅ R T 1.1.b =1 a ≠b Solution: It is true that   3 3  a =1 a =1 r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w ⋅ 1 = w ⋅  ∑ n ( a ) ⊗ n ( a)  = ∑ w ⋅ n (a ) ⊗ n (a ) = ∑ (w ∧ n ( a) ) ⊗ n ( a)   3  a =1 ˆ ∑ w (n 3 = b (b ) ) ˆ ˆ ∧ n(a) ⊗ n(a) a . where w is the axial vector associated with w .

b =1 a ≠b University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the above equation becomes: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w = w 31 n (3) ⊗ n (1) + w 21 n ( 2) ⊗ n (1) + ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ + w 32 n (3) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + w12 n (1) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ + w 23 n ( 2 ) ⊗ n (3) + w13 n (1) ⊗ n (3) which is the same as: 3 ˆ ˆ w = ∑ w ab n (a ) ⊗ n (b) a .b =1 a≠b and   3 3    3 (a ) (a)  (a ) (b ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V ⋅ w =  λa n ⊗ n  ⋅ w ab n ⊗ n  = λ a w ab n ( a) ⊗ n (b)    a .  3   3      (a) (b ) (a) (b ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w ⋅ V − V ⋅ w =  λ b w ab n ⊗ n  −  λ a w ab n ⊗ n   a . Chaves (2013) .b =1    a≠b ∑ = 3 ∑ ∑ 3 ∑λ w ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ λ b w ab n ( a ) ⊗ n (b ) ⋅ n (b ) ⊗ n (b ) = a . V.b =1 a ≠b The terms w⋅V and V ⋅ w can be expressed as follows:   3   3   (a) (b ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w ⋅ V =  w ab n ⊗ n  ⋅  λ b n (b) ⊗ n (b)      b =1  a . it is possible to show that: 3 ˆ ˆ w ⋅ V 2 − V 2 ⋅ w = ∑ w ab (λ2b − λ2a ) n ( a ) ⊗ n (b) a .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.b =1   a .b =1   a ≠b   a≠b  ∑ = 3 ∑w ∑ ab (λ b ˆ ˆ − λ a ) n ( a ) ⊗ n (b ) a . w3 = −w12 = w 21 .b =1 a ≠b Similarly.b =1  a≠b  a≠b ∑ ∑ ∑ Then.b =1 a ≠b b ab ˆ ˆ n ( a ) ⊗ n (b ) a . w2 = w13 = −w 31 .1 TENSORS 59 On simplifying the above expression we obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ w = −w2 (n (3) ) ⊗ n (1) + w3 (n ( 2) ) ⊗ n (1) + ( ) ˆ ˆ (n ) ⊗ n ( ) ˆ ˆ (n ) ⊗ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ + w1 n (3) ⊗ n ( 2 ) − w3 n (1) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + ( 2) − w1 ( 3) + w2 (1) ( 3) Taking into account that w1 = −w 23 = w 32 .b =1  a =1   a .

Chaves (2013) . thus ˆ( ˆ( ˆ ˆ ˆ( ˆ N11) N11) + N (1) N (1) + N 31)N (1) = 1 2 2 3 (1) ˆ (1) (1) ˆ (1) ˆ ˆ ⇒ N N + N N =1 1 1 1 1 1 ˆ( ⇒ N11) = ± 2 1 ˆ( ˆ( ⇒ N 31) = −N11) = m 2 Associated with the eigenvalue γ 3 = 3 we have the following eigenvector: 2 − γ 3  1  ˆ(  N13)  0  ˆ ( 3)  =   2 − γ 3  N 3  0   1 ⇒ ˆ( − 1 1  N13)  0  ˆ (3)  =    1 − 1   N 3  0   ⇒ ˆ( ˆ( N13) = N 33) ˆ ˆ with the restriction Ni(3) Ni(3) = 1 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 60 Problem 1. a =1 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ γ a N( a) ⊗ N(a ) a =1 Calculation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the tensor C . Due to the structure of the C tensor components we already know one eigenvalue γ 2 = 4 ˆ which is associated with the principal direction Ni( 2) = [0 ± 1 0] . thus University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . By means of the spectral representation of C : C= 3 ˆ ∑γ N a (a) ˆ ⊗ N(a ) a =1 ˆ where γ a are the eigenvalues of C . V.74 Let C be a positive definite tensor.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: Note that the tensors C 2 and U = C are coaxial with the tensor C . To calculate the remaining eigenvalues is sufficient to solve the following characteristic determinant: 2−γ 1 =0 1 2−γ ⇒ ( 2 − γ ) 2 = 12 ⇒ γ 1 = 2 − 1 = 1 ( 2 − γ ) = ±1 ⇒  γ 3 = 2 + 1 = 3 Associated with the eigenvalue γ 1 = 1 we have the following eigenvector: 2 − γ 1  1  ˆ( 1  N11)  0  ˆ (1)  =   2 − γ 1  N3  0   ˆ( 1 1 N11)  0  ˆ (1)  =   1 1   N 3  0   ⇒ ˆ( ˆ( N11) = −N 31) ⇒ ˆ ˆ with the restriction Ni(1) Ni(1) = 1 . and N( a ) are the eigenvectors of C . whose Cartesian components are given by: 2 0 1  C ij = 0 4 0   1 0 2    Obtain the following tensors: a) C 2 . c) Check if the tensors C and U are coaxial. we can obtain: C2 = 3 ∑γ 2 ˆ (a) aN ˆ ⊗ N( a) U= C = . b) U = C .

1 TENSORS 61 ˆ( ˆ( ˆ ˆ ˆ( ˆ( N13)N13) + N (23) N (3) + N 33) N 33) = 1 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ N ( 3) N ( 3) + N ( 3) N ( 3) = 1 1 1 1 1 1 ˆ( ⇒ N13) = ± 2 1 ˆ( ˆ( ⇒ N 33) = N13) = ± 2 Summarizing we have: 1   2 2   ± 1 0]  1 1  0 ±  2 2    ˆ N i(1) = ±  ˆ N i( 2 ) = [0  ˆ N i(3) = ±  γ1 = 1 ⇒ γ2 = 4 ⇒ γ3 = 3 ⇒ 1 0 m Transformation →     Matrix    A=    1 0 − 2 0 1 1 0 2 1   2 0  1  2   Then it holds that: C′ = A C AT ⇒ C = AT C′ A In the principal space we have: 1 0 0 ′ C ij = 0 4 0   0 0 3   ⇒  1  2  ′ = 0 C ij   0     U′ = C ′ ij  ij   0 16 0  0 9   1 0  = 0 4 0 0  0 0  1 0  0  = 0 2  3  0 0   0 0  3  Note that the tensor C is a positive definite tensor. V.Spain T 1 0 0 2  0 0      3   0 0 Draft 1 2 0 1 2 0 − 1 0 1   3 +1 0   2  2 2 0 = 0 1   3 −1 0 2   2   3 − 1  2  0  3 + 1 2   By: Eduardo W. which in components becomes: 2 C ij  2 0 1   2 0 1   5 0 4 = C ik C kj = 0 4 0 0 4 0 = 0 16 0      1 0 2 1 0 2  4 0 5       Similarly to (1. Chaves (2013) . In the original space we have the following components:    2 C ij =     1 2 0 1 2 1  0 −  2 1 0  1  0 2   T  1 1 0 0  2 0 16 0  0   0 0 9   1    2 0 − 1 0 1   2  5 0 4  0  = 0 16 0  1   4 0 5   2   (1. so. we obtain the components of U in the original Cartesian system:    U ij =     1 2 0 1 2 0 − 1 0 1   2 0  1  2   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .60).60) Note that this result could have been obtained easily by means of the operation C 2 = C ⋅ C . its eigenvalues are positive.

098 0 3. are given by: 2 0 1  C ij = 0 4 0   1 0 2       R ij =    −  . a2) U = C .74. in the Cartesian system. Solution: 0 3280  3281  0 65536 0  a) Similarly to Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 62 c) The tensors C and U are coaxial.75 Let C be a symmetric second-order tensor and R a proper orthogonal tensor. because the eigenvalues of U were obtained in the principal space of C . the third principal invariant of b can be expressed as follows: C ≡ det (C ) = det (R T ⋅ b ⋅ R ) = det (R T )det (b)det (R ) = det (b) = III b = 12 1 24 4 3 123 = +1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . We can also verify that C and U are coaxial by means of C ⋅ U = U ⋅ C . The components of these tensors.098   2   3 − 1  2 0 1  3. 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 2  1  0   0  a) Obtain the following tensors: a.098 0 3.098 0 2.098 0 2. III C = C =  ijk C i1C j 2 C k 3 = 12 0 2 1 2 0 4 2 c) Taking into account the determinant property. obtain the third principal invariant of b .098     2    3 +1 0   2 U ik C kj =  0 2  3 −1 0  2  Problem 1.098 2  0  0 4 0 =  0 8 0     3 + 1  1 0 2 2. Chaves (2013) . b) Obtain the principal invariants of C .1) C 8 . c) Taking into account that the tensors b and C are related to each other by the following proper orthogonal transformation C = R T ⋅ b ⋅ R .:  3 +1 0 2 0 1   2 C ik U kj = 0 4 0   0 2    3 −1 0 1 0 2     2 3 − 1  3. Answer: C =   3280 0 3281   8 b) I C = Tr (C ij ) = C ii = C11 + C 22 + C 33 = 8 II C = ( ) 4 0 2 1 2 0 1 C ii C jj − C ij C ij = + + = 19 . i.Spain Draft = +1 By: Eduardo W.098 2   8 0  0 = 0  3 + 1 2.e. V.

: 1= 3 ˆ ∑n (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⊗ n ( a ) = n (1) ⊗ n (1) + n ( 2 ) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + n (3) ⊗ n (3) a =1 (1. V.62) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ n ( 2 ) ⊗ n ( 2 ) + n (3) ⊗ n (3) = 1 − n (1) ⊗ n (1) By substituting the above equation into (1. show that S can be represented by: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ S = S 1n (1) ⊗ n (1) + S 2 (1 − n (1) ⊗ n (1) ) ˆ where n (1) is the eigenvector of S associated with the eigenvalue S1 .63) ′ ′ ′ Tij3 − Tij 2 I T + Tij II T − III T δ ij = 0 ij University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i. which fulfils for each eigenvalue λ 1 . S 2 = S 3 and S1 ≠ S 2 .61) we obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ S = S 1n (1) ⊗ n (1) + S 2 (n ( 2) ⊗ n ( 2) + n (3) ⊗ n (3) ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = S 1n (1) ⊗ n (1) + S 2 (1 − n (1) ⊗ n (1) ) 1.1 TENSORS 63 Problem 1.76 Let S be a symmetric second-order tensor with det (S ) ≠ 0 . 1 is the second-order unit tensor. i. Considering that S has two equal eigenvalues. we adopt the principal space of S to make the spectral representation of 1 . Based on this principle. which states that any tensor satisfies its own characteristic equation. Solution: We start from the characteristic equation of the tensor: λ3 − λ2 I T + λ II T − III T = 0 .77 Let T be an arbitrary second-order tensor. show the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: We start from the spectral representation of S : S= 3 ˆ ∑S n a ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⊗ n ( a ) = S 1n (1) ⊗ n (1) + S 2 n ( 2) ⊗ n ( 2) + S 3n (3) ⊗ n (3) (a) a =1 ˆ = S 1n (1) ˆ ⊗n (1) ˆ + S 2 (n ( 2) ˆ ⊗n ( 2) ˆ +n ( 3) (1. then: λ3 − λ2 I T + λ 1 II T − III T = 0 1 1 λ32 − λ22 I T + λ 2 II T − III T = 0 λ33 − λ2 I T + λ 3 II T − III T = 0 3 Restructuring the above equations in matrix form we obtain: λ3 1  0  0  0 λ32 0 0  λ2 1   0−0 λ33   0   0 λ22 0 λ 1 0   0 I T +  0 0 λ2  3  0 λ2 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0   0 1 0 III = 0 0 0 0  II T −   T   0 0 1  0 0 0  λ3       (1. whereby any direction is a principal direction. λ 3 . λ 2 . Chaves (2013) .10 Cayley-Hamilton Theorem Problem 1.e.61) ˆ ⊗n ) ( 3) Remember that 1 is a spherical tensor.e.1.

( A ⋅ c )] = I A [a.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. c ] − [( A ⋅ f ).64) According to the definition of II A it is also true that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ( A ⋅ b). c ] = II A [a. Now if we consider that the r r r vector a is given by a = A ⋅ f we can get: r r r r r r r r r r r r [( A ⋅ a). ( A ⋅ b). c ] + [( A ⋅ f ). b. where Fij is the transformation matrix from the original space ( Tij ) to the 2 − 3 − ′ ′ ′ principal space ( Tij ). Note also that the relationships Tij 2 = Fik Tkp F pj1 and Tij 3 = Fik Tkp F pj1 hold. b. c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r where [a. b. ( A ⋅ b). c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [( A ⋅ A ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ b). c] + [a. c] + [( A ⋅ f ). b. b.68). V. c ] + [( A ⋅ f ). b. b. c ] = −[( A ⋅ f ). c ] + [a. ( A ⋅ b). c ] ≡ a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) ≠ 0 holds with a ≠ 0 . c] + [a. c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [( A 2 ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ c )] = I A [( A ⋅ f ). b. c ] + [a. ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ a). ( A ⋅ b). b. c ] − I A [( A ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ c)] = I A [a. ( A ⋅ c )] = III A [a. ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ a).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 64 Note that in the principal space of T the following relationships are true: λ 1  ′ Tij =  0 0  0 λ2 0 0  0 λ3   λ 1  2 ′ ′ ′ Tij = Tik Tkj =  0 0  0  λ 1  0  0 λ3  0  0 λ2 0 λ 1  3 ′ ′ ′ pj Tij = Tik Tkp T ′ =  0 0  0 λ2 0 0 λ2 0 0  λ 1  0  0 λ3  0  0  λ2 1   0 =0 λ3   0   0 λ2 0 0  0 λ2  3 0 λ22 0 0  λ 1  0  0 λ 3  0   λ3 1   =0  λ3   0   0 λ2 0 0 0 0 λ32 0 0  0 λ33   The component transformation law between spaces for a second-order tensor is − ′ Tij = Fik Tkp F pj1 . (see Problem 1. ( A ⋅ c)] (1. Chaves (2013) . b. b.63) can be rewritten as follows: ′ ′ ′ Tij 3 − Tij 2 I T + Tij II T − III T δ ij = 0 ij 3 2 − − − − ⇒ Fik Tkp F pj1 − Fik Tkp F pj1 I T + Fik Tkp F pj1 II T − III T Fik δ kp F pj1 = 0 ij ( ) 3 2 − ⇒ Fik Tkp − Tkp I T + Tkp II T − III T δ kp F pj1 = 0 ij ( ) 3 2 − − − ⇒ Fsi 1 Fik Tkp − Tkp I T + Tkp II T − III T δ kp F pj1 F jt = Fsi 1 0 ij F jt = 0 st ( ) 3 2 − ⇒ δ sk Tkp − Tkp I T + Tkp II T − III T δ kp δ pt = Fsi 1 0 ij F jt = 0 st 3 2 ⇒ Tst − Tst I T + Tst II T − III T δ st = 0 st ⇒ T 3 − T 2 I T + T II T − III T 1 = 0 Alternative solution: In Problem 1. b. b. c] r r r r r r [( A ⋅ a). ( A ⋅ b).57 (NOTE 1) we have summarized that: r r r r r r r r r r r r [( A ⋅ a). b. b. b. c] r r r r r r r r r r r r [a. b. ( A ⋅ b). c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [( A 2 ⋅ f ). b ≠ 0 . b. c ] + [( A ⋅ f ). With that we can conclude that the equation in (1. c ≠ 0 . ( A ⋅ c)] = I A [( A ⋅ f ). b.

the above equation becomes r T A 2 − I A A + II A 1 − [cof( A )] = 0 r ⇒ A 2 − I A A + II A 1 − A A −1 = 0 r ⇒ A 2 ⋅ A − I A A ⋅ A + II A 1 ⋅ A − A A −1 ⋅ A = 0 ⋅ A r ⇒ A 3 − I A A 2 + II A A − A 1 = 0 Problem 1. ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ f ). c] − [( A ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ c )] − [( A ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ c )] − II A [ f . ( A ⋅ b). b. ( A ⋅ c )] = 0 r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ ( A 2 ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − I A ( A ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c) + II A f ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − f ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) = 0 r r r r In Problem 1. { } so. c] = [f . Chaves (2013) . c ] − I A [( A ⋅ f ). we obtain: T 3 ⋅ T −1 − T 2 ⋅ T −1 I T + T ⋅ T −1 II T − III T 1 ⋅ T −1 = 0 ⋅ T −1 T 2 − TI T + 1 II T − III T T −1 = 0 ⇒ T −1 = University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . b. find the inverse of a tensor T in terms of tensor power. f ≠ 0 . c ] − I A [( A ⋅ f ). we can conclude that r r r r r ⇒ ( A 2 ⋅ f ) − I A ( A ⋅ f ) + II A f − f ⋅ [cof( A )] = 0 r r r r r T ⇒ A 2 ⋅ f − I A A ⋅ f + II A 1 ⋅ f − [cof( A )] ⋅ f = 0 r r T ⇒ A 2 − I A A + II A 1 − [cof( A )] ⋅ f = 0 r T ⇒ A 2 − I A A + II A 1 − [cof( A )] = 0 { } Using the definition A A −1 = [cof( A )]T .Spain ( 1 T 2 − I T T + II T 1 III T Draft ) By: Eduardo W. b.1 TENSORS 65 r r r r r r r r r r r r [f . b. c ] − I A [( A ⋅ f ). c] Taking into account the above equation into the equation (1. b.64) we can obtain: r r r r r r r r r r r r [( A 2 ⋅ f ). Solution: The Cayley-Hamilton theorem states that: T 3 − T 2 I T + T II T − III T 1 = 0 Carrying out the dot product between the previous equation and the tensor T −1 . b. then the [ above equation becomes [ ] ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ( A 2 ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − I A ( A ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c) + II A f ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − f ⋅ ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c ) = 0 r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ ( A 2 ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) − I A ( A ⋅ f ) ⋅ (b ∧ c) + II A f ⋅ (b ∧ c) − f ⋅ [cof( A )]⋅ (b ∧ c) = 0 r r r r r r ⇒ ( A 2 ⋅ f ) − I A ( A ⋅ f ) + II A f − f ⋅ [cof( A )] ⋅ (b ∧ c ) = 0 r r r r r r r r Note that the vectors ( A 2 ⋅ f ) . b. c ] = II A [f . b. ( A ⋅ c )] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [( A 2 ⋅ f ). b. ( A ⋅ b). b. c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [( A 2 ⋅ f ).56 we have shown that ( A ⋅ b) ∧ ( A ⋅ c) = [cof( A )]⋅ (b ∧ c ) holds. c] + II A [f . c ] = −[( A ⋅ f ). ( A ⋅ b). b. b. ( A ⋅ b). ( A ⋅ c )] − II A [ f . ( A ⋅ b). c] = −[( A ⋅ f ). V. c ] − [f . ( A ⋅ b). (f ⋅ [cof(A )]) are not orthogonal to (b ∧ c ) ≠ 0 . b. ( A ⋅ b). ( A ⋅ c )] + [( A ⋅ f ). c ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ [f . ( A ⋅ f ) .78 Based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

79 Check the Cayley-Hamilton theorem by using a second-order tensor whose Cartesian components are given by: 5 0 0  T = 0 2 0    0 0 1    Solution: The Cayley-Hamilton theorem states that: T 3 − T 2 I T + T II T − III T 1 = 0 where I T = 5 + 2 + 1 = 8 . we can verify that the following is true: 125 0 0  25 0 0 5 0 0  1 0 0   0 0 0   0 8 0 − 8  0 4 0 + 17 0 2 0  − 10 0 1 0 = 0 0 0             0 0 1  0 0 1 0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 0            Problem 1.2. and 3 T 5 3  =0 0  0  125 0 0   0 =  0 8 0   1  0 0 1     0 23 0 . III T = 10 . Consider that: 1 2 P= 4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  1 5 3  1 2 4 and 1 0 1= 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 1 0  0 0 1 Solution: By applying the Cayley-Hamilton theorem we obtain: P 4 + P 3 I1 + P 2 I 2 + P I 3 + I 41 = 0 ( ⇒ P (P (P ) ⇒ P P 3 + P 2 I1 + P I 2 + 1 I 3 + I 41 = 0 2 ) ) + P I1 + 1 I 2 + 1 I 3 + I 41 = 0         ⇒ P  P  P P + 1 I 1 + 1 I 2  + 1 I 3  + I 41 = 0 144 44 2 3     C1         ⇒ P  P C1 + 1 I 2 + 1 I 3  + I 4 1 = 0 14 244 4 3   C2   ( ) ( ( ) ) ⇒ P C2 + 1 I 3 + I 4 1 = 0 ⇒ C3 + I 4 1 = 0 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . II T = 10 + 2 + 5 = 17 . V.4) .3. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. a) Obtain the inverse of P . b) the invariants. T 2 5 2  =0 0  0 22 0 0  25 0 0   0 =  0 4 0   1  0 0 1    By applying the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.80 Given the matrix P which is represented by its components Pij (i. y c) the characteristic equation. j = 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 66 Problem 1.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . we can define that: I3 = − Tr (C2 ) 3 . the characteristic equation becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . I1 = − Tr (C0 ) 1 With that we obtain: I1 = − Tr (C0 ) = −(1 + 2 + 5 + 4) = −12 1 ( ) thus we evaluate the matrix C1 = P C0 + 1 I 1 : 1 2 C1 =  4  3 2 3 1   1  2 1 2  2   1 5 3  4   1 2 4  3  I2 = ( 2 3 1 1 0  2 1 2 − 12  0 1 5 3   1 2 4 0 − Tr (C1 ) − (8 − 13 − 16 − 21) − (−42) = = = 21 2 2 2 In turn we get C2 = P C1 + 1 I 2 1 2 C2 =  4  3 I3 = ) 2 3 1   8 6  − 14 − 14 1 0    − 8 − 13 2 1 2  5 −7 + 21 0 1 5 3   − 13 6 − 16 − 3       − 11 1 2 4  2 4 − 21 0 0 0 0   − 37 22 15 − 17    7 −2 −5 −5 1 0 0    = 0 1 0    10 − 12 − 14 2     − 14 − 11 0 0 1   9 5   − Tr (C2 ) − ( −37 − 2 − 14 + 5) − ( −48) = = = 16 3 3 3 ( In turn we get C3 = P C2 + 1 I 3 1 2 C3 =  4  3 I4 = − 14 − 14 0 0 0   8 6     − 8 − 13 −7 1 0 0   5  = − 16 − 3  0 1 0   − 13 6    − 21 0 0 1    − 11 2 4  ) 2 3 1    − 37 22 15 − 17  1 0    7 2 1 2   −2 −5 −5 + 16  0 1 5 3   10 − 12 − 14 2      1 2 4   9 5  − 14 − 11 0  0 0 0   32 0 0 0   1 0 0    0 32 0 0    = 0 1 0    0 0 32 0     0 0 1    0 0 0 32   − Tr (C3 ) − 4(32) = = −32 = det (P ) 4 4 Then.1 TENSORS 67 where we denoted by: C0 = P ( = P (C = P (C ) +1 I ) +1 I ) C1 = P C0 + 1 I 1 C2 C3 1 2 2 3 We can obtain the trace of C3 + I 41 = 0 as follows: Tr (C3 + I 4 1) = Tr (0 ) ⇒ Tr (C3 ) + Tr ( I 4 1) = Tr (C3 ) + I 4 Tr (1) = Tr (C3 ) + 4 I 4 = 0 ⇒ I4 = − Tr (C3 ) 4 Similarly. V. I2 = − Tr (C1 ) 2 .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 68 ⇒ P 4 + P 3 I1 + P 2 I 2 + P I 3 + I 41 = 0 P 4 − 12P 3 + 21P 2 + 16P − 321 = 0 The characteristic equation coefficients could have been obtained by evaluates the determinant: det ( P − λ1) ≡ P − λ1 c) The inverse can be obtained by starting from: P (C2 + 1 I 3 ) + I 4 1 = 0 ( ) ⇒ P −1 P C2 + 1 I 3 + I 4 P −11 = 0 ⇒ P −1 = − ( 1 C2 + 1 I 3 I4 ) ⇔ P −1 = thus: P −1 ( ⇒ ) ⇒ C2 + 1 I 3 + I 4 P −1 = 0 1 adj[P ] det (P )   − 37 22 15 − 17  1  0  −2 −5 −5 1  7 + 16  =−  0 2  (−32)   10 − 12 − 14    9 − 14 − 11 5  0  ∴ ( adj[P ] = − C2 + 1 I 3 ) 0 0 0  15 − 17  − 21 22  7  1 0 0  1  14 −5 −5  = 0 1 0  32  10 − 12 2 2     0 0 1  − 14 − 11 21   9  NOTE 1: This procedure just performed.e. i.:          −1     32               1  2 4 3  0  2 4 3  0  2 4 3  0  2 4 3  0 0 0 2 1 2 1 5 3 1 2 4 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 5 3 2 4 1 0 1 2 5 3 1 2 4 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 5 3 1 2 4 1  1 4 3  1  0 4 3  1  0 4 3  1  0 4 3  2 3 1 0 0 0 1 5 3 1 2 4 2 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 4 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 5 3 1 2 4 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . is called Faddeev-Leverrier method.Spain 5 3 2 4 3 1 1 0 5 3 1  2 1 3  1  2 0 3  1  2 0 3  1  2 0 3  2 3 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 2 4 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 2 4 3 1 1 2 1 0 1 2 4 2 3 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 4 Draft 1  2 4 1  1  2 4 0  1  2 4 0  1  2 4 0  2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5 3 0 0 0 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5 3 1 0 0 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5 3 0 1 0 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 5 3 0 0 1           21    =  −1   −7  32  −10     −9            −22 −15 17  −14 5 5 12 −2 −2   14 11 −21  By: Eduardo W. V. Note that the inverse can also be obtained by using the same procedure as the one used in the equation (1. in the literature. Chaves (2013) .46).

1 TENSORS 69 NOTE 2: We can also obtain the characteristic coefficients by means of the following procedure. i. Chaves (2013) . 1 2 I2 =  4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  + 1 5 3  1 2 4 1 2  4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  + 1 5 3  1 2 4 1 2 +  4  3 2 3 1  1 2 1 2  2  +  1 5 3  4   1 2 4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  + 1 5 3  1 2 4 1 2 +  4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  1 5 3  1 2 4 1 2  4  3 2 3 1 2 1 2  + 1 5 3  1 2 4 5 3  2 2 2 1 1 1  1 3 1 2 =  = 21 +   +   +   +   +   2 4 1 4 1 5 3 4  4 5  2 2 The coefficient I 1 is obtained by the sum of the determinants of the resulting matrices by eliminating 3 rows and 3 columns associated with the main diagonal. i. i. Considering P 4 − P 3 I 1 + P 2 I 2 − P I 3 + I 4 1 = 0 The last coefficient is I 4 = det(P ) = −32 . The coefficient I 3 is obtained by the sum of the determinants of the resulting matrices by eliminating 1 row and 1 column associated with the main diagonal.Spain 2 3 1  1 2 2 1 2  2 2  +  1 5 3  4 1   1 2 4  3 1 Draft 3 1 1 2  5 3  2 4 By: Eduardo W.e. 1 2 I3 =  4  3 2 3 1  1 2 2 1 2  2 2  +  1 5 3  4 1   1 2 4  3 1 3 1  1 2 1 2  2 2  +  5 3  4 1   2 4  3 1 3 1  1 2 1 2  2 2  +  5 3  4 1   2 4  3 1 3 1 1 2  5 3  2 4 2 1 2 1 3 1  1 2 1  1 2 3 = 1 5 3 +  4 5 3 +  2 2 2 +  2 2 1 = −16          1 2 4   3 2 4   3 1 4   4 2 5         The coefficient I 2 is obtained by the sum of the determinants of the resulting matrices by eliminating 2 rows and 2 columns associated with the main diagonal. 1 2 I1 =  4  3 2 3 1  1 2 2 1 2  2 2  +  1 5 3  4 1   1 2 4  3 1 3 1  1 1 2  2  +  5 3  4   2 4  3 = [4] + [1] + [2] + 5 = 12 = Tr (P ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .e.e. V.

: A 3 − A 2 I A + AII A − III A 1 = 0 where I A = [Tr (A )] .65) we obtain: A 3 : 1 − A 2 : 1 I A + A : 1II A − III A 1 : 1 = 0 : 1 Tr ( A 3 ) − Tr ( A 2 ) I A + Tr ( A ) II A − III { A [Tr(1)] = [Tr(0)] } 1 [Tr(A )]2 − Tr(A 2 ) − III A 3 = 0 2 1 1 3 Tr ( A 3 ) − Tr ( A 2 ) Tr ( A ) + [Tr ( A )] − Tr ( A ) Tr ( A 2 ) − III A 3 = 0 2 2 1 3 2 Tr ( A 3 ) − 3 Tr ( A 2 ) Tr ( A ) + [Tr ( A )] − III A 3 = 0 2 Tr ( A 3 ) − Tr ( A 2 ) Tr ( A ) + Tr ( A ) { } with which we obtain: III A = det ( A ) = { } 1 [Tr( A )]3 + 2 Tr(A 3 ) − 3Tr( A 2 ) Tr(A ) 6 or in indicial notation: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Applying the double scalar product between the second-order unit tensor ( 1 ) and the equation in (1. we can conclude that: III A ( )   = Tr [cof ( A )]T = Tr ([cof ( A ) ]) = II A   With that. which states that any tensor satisfies its own characteristic equation. we can obtain: III A Tr ( A −1 ) = II A = Tr ( A 2 ) − ( I A ) 2 + 3 II A ⇒ II A − 3 II A = Tr ( A 2 ) − ( I A ) 2 ⇒ II A = { } 1 ( I A ) 2 − Tr ( A 2 ) 2 b) We start from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. i. III 2 A (1. V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 70 Problem 1.78 that III A A −1 = (A 2 − AI A + 1 II A ) . by applying the double scalar product with the second-order unit tensor we obtain: ( ) III A A −1 : 1 = A 2 − AI A + 1 II A : 1 = A 2 : 1 − A : 1 I A + 1 : 1 II A −1 2 III A Tr ( A ) = Tr ( A ) − Tr ( A ) I A + Tr (1) II A = Tr ( A 2 ) − ( I A ) 2 + 3 II A Taking into account the inverse of a tensor A −1 =  [cof ( A )]T III A Tr ( A −1 ) = Tr ( III A A −1 ) = Tr  III A  III A  [cof ( A )]T . II A = { } 1 [Tr( A )]2 − Tr( A 2 ) .65) = det (A ) are the principal invariants of A . show that: a) II A = { } 1 ( I A ) 2 − Tr ( A 2 ) 2 b) det ( A ) = { } 1 [Tr (A )]3 + 2 Tr( A 3 ) − 3Tr(A ) Tr(A 2 ) 6 Solution: a) It was shown in Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e.81 Let A be a second-order tensor.

and III T { } 1 [Tr( T )]2 − Tr(T 2 ) 2 is the second principal is the third principal invariant (the determinant of T ).82 Show that II T = III T Tr ( T −1 ) . V.: I A = Tr ( A ) { III A } { } 1 1 2 2 I A − Tr ( A 2 ) = [Tr ( A ) ] − Tr ( A 2 ) 2 2 1 3 = det ( A ) = [Tr ( A )] + 2 Tr ( A 3 ) − 3 Tr ( A 2 ) Tr ( A ) 6 II A = { } Problem 1.78: T −1 = ( 1 T 2 − TI T + 1 II T III T ) (1. we obtain T 2 : University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . namely Tr (A ) . and the inverse of a tensor obtained in Problem 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.78 that T −1 = ( ) 1 T 2 − TI T + 1 II T .1 TENSORS III A 71 { 1 A ii A jj A kk + 2 A ij A jk A ki − 3A ij A ji A kk 6 = det ( A ) = } NOTE: It is interesting to note that the principal invariants of A are formed by the three fundamental invariants of a second-order tensor. Chaves (2013) . Tr ( A 2 ) . Tr ( A 3 ) . Solution: r r Let us consider that T = (α1 + β c ⊗ b) . and α and β are scalars. Solution: It was shown in Problem 1.83 Show that: r r 1 (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − α r r r β (c ⊗ b ) r r α (α + β c ⋅ b) r where c and b are vectors. by applying the double III T scalar product with the second-order unit tensor we obtain: T −1 : 1 = Tr ( T −1 ) = ( ) ( 1 1 T 2 − TI T + 1 II T : 1 = T 2 : 1 − T : 1 I T + 1 : 1 II T III T III T ( 1 Tr ( T 2 ) − Tr ( T ) I T + Tr (1) II T III T ) ) 2 ⇒ III T Tr ( T −1 ) = Tr ( T 2 ) − I T + 3 II T 14243 = −2 II T ⇒ III T Tr ( T −1 ) = II T Problem 1. 1 is the second-order unit tensor. then. where II T = invariant of T .66) Next. i.e.

68) or: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .66) becomes: III T T −1 = T 2 − I T T + II T 1 r r r r r r = α 2 1 + 2αβ (c ⊗ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) r r r r r r − 3α + β (c ⋅ b) (α1 + β c ⊗ b) + 3α 2 + 2αβ (c ⋅ b) 1 r r r r r r r r r r = α 2 1 + 2αβ (c ⊗ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) − 3α 2 1 − 3αβ (c ⊗ b) − αβ (c ⋅ b)1 r r r r r r − β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) + 3α 2 1 + 2αβ (c ⋅ b)1 r r r r = 1α 2 + αβ (c ⋅ b)1 − αβ (c ⊗ b) r r r r = (α 2 + αβ c ⋅ b)1 − αβ (c ⊗ b) r r r r 1 T = (α 3 + α 2 β c ⋅ b)1 − αβ (c ⊗ b) = [adj( T ) ] = [cof ( T ) ] [ ] [ ] (1. the above expression can be rewritten as follows: r r r r r r T 2 = α 2 1 + 2αβ (c ⊗ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) and its trace is given by: [ ] r r r r r r Tr ( T 2 ) = Tr α 2 1 + 2αβ (c ⊗ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) r r r r r r = α 2 Tr (1) + 2αβ Tr (c ⊗ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b) Tr (c ⊗ b) r r r r r r = 3α 2 + 2αβ (c ⋅ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b)(c ⋅ b) r r r r = 3α 2 + 2αβ (c ⋅ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b) 2 Next.67) α r r r r Taking into account that T = (α1 + β c ⊗ b) . III T = α 3 + α 2 β c ⋅ b . we calculate the principal invariants of T r r r r r r I T = Tr (α1 + β c ⊗ b) = αTr (1) + β Tr (c ⊗ b) = 3α + β (c ⋅ b) r r 2 r r r r ( I T ) 2 = 3α + β (c ⋅ b) = 9α 2 + 6β (c ⋅ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b) 2 [ ] { } { [ r r r r r r r r 1 1 2 I T − Tr ( T 2 ) = 9α 2 + 6β (c ⋅ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b) 2 − 3α 2 + 2αβ (c ⋅ b) + β 2 (c ⋅ b) 2 2 2 r r 2 = 3α + 2αβ (c ⋅ b) II T = ]} r r r r III T = det (α1 + β c ⊗ b) = α 3 + α 2 β c ⋅ b (see Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 72 r r r r T 2 = T ⋅ T = (α1 + β c ⊗ b) ⋅ (α1 + β c ⊗ b) r r r r r r r r = α 2 1 ⋅ 1 + αβ 1 ⋅ (c ⊗ b) + αβ (c ⊗ b) ⋅ 1 + β 2 (c ⊗ b) ⋅ (c ⊗ b) r r r r r r r r where it fulfills that (c ⊗ b) ⋅ (c ⊗ b) = (c ⋅ b)(c ⊗ b) . Chaves (2013) .50) Then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V.20). the equation in (1. the above equation becomes: T −1 r r r r αβ (c ⊗ b) 1 αβ (c ⊗ b) 1 III T = 1− = 1− r r α III T III T α (α 3 + α 2 β c ⋅ b ) (1. Then. (see Problem 1.

Problem 1. and α and β are scalars.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we obtain: r r r r −1 (c ⊗ b) (1 + c ⊗ b) = 1 − r r 1+ c ⋅b (1. Solution: r r Note that the expression (αA + β a ⊗ b) can be rewritten as follows: r r r r r r r r (αA + β a ⊗ b) = (αA ⋅ 1 + β 1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) = (αA ⋅ 1 + β ( A ⋅ A −1 ) ⋅ a ⊗ b) = A ⋅ (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .72) NOTE 2: The equation in (1. V. show that: α (α + β c ⋅ b ) [ r r r ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A −1 ) r α (α + β b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) β ] (1.69) β (c b ) α (α + β c k b k ) i j Indicial notation (1.73) r where a and b are vectors. With that it is easy to show that ( I sym ) −1 = I sym .69) such that: (α I sym + β A ⊗ B ) −1 = 1 α I sym − β ( A ⊗ B) α (α + β A : B ) where we now have that I sym is the symmetric fourth-order unit tensor. with det ( A ) ≠ 0 ( ∃A −1 ).84 r r Taking into account that (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 = r r 1 (α A + β a ⊗ b) −1 = A −1 − α r 1 α 1− r r β r r (c ⊗ b) .69) or in (1. A is a second-order tensor.71) α (α δ ij + β c i b j ) −1 = [α[1] + β [{c}{b} ] ] T −1 = 1 α 1 α [ 1] − 73 δ ij − NOTE 1: The above equation is also valid for matrices of n-dimensions.70) β [{c}{b}T ] T α (α + β {c} {b}) Matrix notation (1. β = 1 . A and B are secondorder tensors. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS r r 1 (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − r r β r r (c ⊗ b) α (α + β c ⋅ b) Tensorial notation (1.67) can be rewritten as follows: r r 1 T −1 = (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − α [ r r β r r (c ⊗ b ) α (α + β c ⋅ b ) r r r r 2 r r (α + αβ c ⋅ b)1 − βα (c ⊗ b) (α 3 + α 2 β c ⋅ b ) 1 = [adj( T )] det ( T ) 1 = ] with that we conclude that: r r r r r r adj(α1 + β c ⊗ b) = (α 2 + αβ c ⋅ b)1 − βα (c ⊗ b) NOTE 3: We can extend the equation in (1. In the particular case when α = 1 . and α and β are scalars.

with that we rewrite the above equation as follows: r r r r r r (αA + β a ⊗ b) −1 = (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) −1 ⋅ A −1 = (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 ⋅ A −1 1 r r  β −1 = 1− r r (c ⊗ b)  ⋅ A α (α + β c ⋅ b )  α   r r β 1 −1 = 1 ⋅ A −1 − r r (c ⊗ b) ⋅ A α α (α + β c ⋅ b) r r β 1 −1 = A −1 − r r c ⊗b⋅A α α (α + β c ⋅ b ) r β 1 −1 r −1 = A −1 − r r ( A ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A ) α α (α + β c ⋅ b ) r 1 β −1 r −1 r = A −1 − r ( A ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A ) α α (α + β b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) The above equation in indicial notation becomes: (αA ij + β a i b j ) −1 = 1 α − A ij1 − β α (α + β b p A −1 a q ) pq − ( A ik1 a k )(b s A −1 ) sj r r The reader should be aware here with the algebraic operation ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⋅ b ≠ r r A −1 ⋅ ( a ⋅ b ) 14243 . 1 24 1 24 4 3 4 3 1 24 4r3 1 24r 4 3 1 24 4 3 r r r r r r r r b⋅A −1⋅a a⋅A −T ⋅b A −1:(b⊗a) A −T :( a⊗b ) expressions are A −1:( a⊗b )T For the particular case when α = 1 . r r −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 ( A ⋅ a) ⋅ b = b i A ik a k = a k A ik b i = A ik b i a k = A ik a k b i = A ik a k b i . the possible c ⋅ b = c i b i = ( A −1 ⋅ a) i b i = A ik1 a k b i . Invalid Expression the latter has no consistency. the determinant is defined as follows: [ ] [ r r r r r r det (αA + β a ⊗ b) = det A ⋅ (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) = det [A ]det (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) r r = det [A ](α 3 + α 2 β b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we can obtain: [ ] r r r r −1 r r (αA + β a ⊗ b) −1 = A ⋅ (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) = (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) −1 ⋅ A −1 r Note that the result of the algebraic operation A −1 ⋅ a is a vector in which we denote r r c = A −1 ⋅ a . V.Spain Draft ] By: Eduardo W. β = 1 . We can check this fact by means of indicial notation r r r − then.75) (matrix notation) r r NOTE 1: Note that if (αA + β a ⊗ b) = A ⋅ (α1 + β A −1 ⋅ a ⊗ b) .74) (tensorial notation) The above equation in matrix notation becomes [[ A] + [{a}{b} ] ] T −1 = [ A] −1 − { }{  [ A] −1 {a} {b}T [ A] −1   1 + {b}T [ A] −1 {a} r r }   T Sherman-Morrison formula (1. since we can not have a scalar product (contraction) with the r r scalar (a ⋅ b) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 74 Using the inverse property such as ( A ⋅ B ) −1 = B −1 ⋅ A −1 . we fall back on the Sherman-Morrison formula: r r r r −1 ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A −1 ) −1 r ( A + a ⊗ b) = A − r 1 + b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a Sherman-Morrison formula (1. Chaves (2013) .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.73)).73) such that: (α D + β A ⊗ B ) −1 = 1 α D −1 − β α (α + β B : D −1 [(D : A) −1 : A ) ⊗ (B : D −1 ) ] (1. According to Problem 1. show that: r r r r r r r r det (1 + β a ⊗ b + γ b ⊗ a) = 1 + (β + γ )(a ⋅ b) − βγ a ∧ b Solution: r r 2 (1.76) with that we conclude that: [ { r r r r r r adj(αA + β a ⊗ b) = A (α 2 + αβ b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) A −1 − A αβ ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A −1 ) ]} NOTE 2: We can extend the equation in (1.84.73) can be rewritten as follows: [ { r r r r r r 1 (α A + β a ⊗ b) −1 = A (α 2 + αβ b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) A −1 − A αβ ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A −1 ) γ r r r ]} r with γ = det (αA + β a ⊗ b) = A (α 3 + α 2 β b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) .85 r r r (1. where: r r r r det (D) ≡ D = det (α1 + β a ⊗ b ) = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) and University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the equation in (1.77) where we now have that D is a fourth-order tensor. (see equation (1.79) ]} (1. V. (1.81) r r r r r r r r where α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d = det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) represents the determinant of r r r r the tensor C . Chaves (2013) . and α and β are scalars. Note that: (α D + β A ⊗ B ) −1 = {D (α γ 1 2 [ + αβ B : D −1 : A )D −1 − D αβ (D −1 : A ) ⊗ (B : D −1 ) ]} with γ = det (αD + β A ⊗ B ) = D (α 3 + α 2 β B : D −1 : A ) .82) r r We define an auxiliary tensor D = α1 + β a ⊗ b and in turn we have C = (D + γ c ⊗ d) . A and B are second-order tensors.1 TENSORS 75 with that.80) r a) Let C = (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) be a second-order tensor. d = a . c = b .78) where we can conclude that: det (αD + β A ⊗ B ) = det (D )(α 3 + α 2 β B : D −1 : A ) [ { adj(αD + β A ⊗ B ) = D (α 2 + αβ B : D −1 : A )D −1 − αβ D (D −1 : A ) ⊗ (B : D −1 ) Problem 1. (1. b) For the particular case when α = 1 . Show that: r r r r r r [r r r r r r r r r r α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d = α 3 + α 2 γ (c ⋅ d) + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) + αβγ (a ⋅ b)(c ⋅ d) − (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) ] (1. it holds that: r r r r det (D + γ c ⊗ d) = D (1 + γ d ⋅ D −1 ⋅ c ) .

r r r r For the particular case when d = a .Spain Draft 2 By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013) ] . we can say that: r r r r det (D + γ c ⊗ d) = D (1 + γ d ⋅ D −1 ⋅ c ) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] r 1 r r  r r  r β = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b ) (1 + γ d ⋅  1 − r r (a ⊗ b)  ⋅ c  α    α (α + β a ⋅ b )     r r r r  1 r r r  r β = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b ) 1 + γ  d ⋅ 1 ⋅ c − r r d ⋅ (a ⊗ b) ⋅ c   α   α (α + β a ⋅ b )    r r r r  1 r r β  d⋅c − r r (d ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ c )   α  α (α + β a ⋅ b )   r r  r r r r  γ r r αβγ = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b ) 1 + (c ⋅ d) − r r (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c )  α 2 (α + β a ⋅ b )   α   r r r r r r r r r r r r Note that (d ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ c ) = (a2d) ⊗ (b2c ) = (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 76 r r 1 (D ) −1 = (α1 + β a ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − α r r β r r (a ⊗ b) α (α + β a ⋅ b ) With that. we have: [ [ r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) = α 3 + α 2 γ (c ⋅ d) + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) − αβγ (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) − (a ⋅ b)(c ⋅ d) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ b ⊗ a) = α 3 + α 2 γ (b ⋅ a) + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) − αβγ (a ⋅ a)(b ⋅ b) − (a ⋅ b)(b ⋅ a) r r r r r r r r r r = α 3 + α 2 (β + γ )(a ⋅ b) − αβγ (a ⋅ a)(b ⋅ b) − (a ⋅ b)(a ⋅ b) r r 2 r 2 r 2 r r 2 In Problem 1.1 we have shown that a ∧ b = a b − a ⋅ b holds. ⋅ ⋅ 1 3 1 3 r r  = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b ) 1 + γ   scalar scalar [ ] [ [ [ ] ] r r r r  r r  r r r r  γ r r  αβγ det (D + γ c ⊗ d) = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) 1 + (c ⋅ d)  − α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b)  r r (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c )  2  α   α (α + β a ⋅ b )    r  r  r r r r r γ r = α 3 + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) 1 + (c ⋅ d)  − αβγ (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c )  α  r r r r r r r r r r r r = α 3 + α 2 γ (c ⋅ d) + α 2 β (a ⋅ b) + αβγ (a ⋅ b)(c ⋅ d) − αβγ (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) ] Then: [ r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) = α 3 + α 2 γ (c ⋅ d) + α 2 β (a ⋅ b ) + αβγ (a ⋅ b )( c ⋅ d) − (a ⋅ d)(b ⋅ c ) thereby demonstrating the equation (1. thus: [ ] ] ] ( ) r r r r r r r r det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ b ⊗ a) = α 3 + α 2 (β + γ )(a ⋅ b) − αβγ a ∧ b 2 For the particular case when α = 1 we get: r r r r r r r r det (1 + β a ⊗ b + γ b ⊗ a) = 1 + (β + γ )(a ⋅ b) − βγ a ∧ b University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .81). c = b .

87) where θ (1) = θ ( 2) = 1 α −β r r α (α + β a ⋅ b ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . r r p⊗ p p⋅q b.2) If B is a positive definite tensor.83) b.84) which was obtained in Problem 1. Solution: r r r r Denoting by A = (α1 + β a ⊗ b) we obtain C = ( A + γ c ⊗ d) .83 that: r r 1 (α1 + β c ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − α With that we obtain: A −1 r r 1 = (α1 + β a ⊗ b) −1 = 1 − α r r r β (c ⊗ b ) r r α (α + β c ⋅ b) (1. we have r r r r r r r 1 β (a ⊗ b )  r 1 r β (a ⊗ b) r 1 r β (b ⋅ c ) r A ⋅c =  1 − r r ⋅c = 1⋅c − r r ⋅c = c − r r a α α α α (α + β a ⋅ b )  α (α + β a ⋅ b ) α (α + β a ⋅ b )   r r r r r r r r 1 r β (a ⊗ b)  1 r β (a ⊗ b) β ( d ⋅ a) r 1 r −1 d⋅ A = d⋅ 1 − r r  = d ⋅1 − d ⋅ r r = d− r r b α α (α + β a ⋅ b )  α α (α + β a ⋅ b ) α α (α + β a ⋅ b )   −1 With that we conclude that [ ] [ r r r r r r r r r r r r r r (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) −1 = θ (1) 1 + θ ( 2 ) (a ⊗ b) + θ ( 3) θ (1) c + θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c )a ⊗ θ (1) d + θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d)b ] (1.1 TENSORS Problem 1. r r q ⋅ B ⋅q show that: D −1 = B −1 + r r r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) r r [q ⊗ q ] − r 2 r q ⊗ ( B −1 ⋅ p) r r 2 ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) [ ] sym (1.73). and by taking into account r r 1 (α A + β a ⊗ b) −1 = A −1 − α [ r r ( A −1 ⋅ a) ⊗ (b ⋅ A −1 ) r r α (α + β b ⋅ A −1 ⋅ a) β ] (1.1) Given a second-order tensor D = B + r r − r r (B ⋅ q) ⊗ (B ⋅ q) where B = B T and ∃B −1 . obtain the conditions under which D is a non-singular tensor. thus r r ( A + γ c ⊗ d) −1 = A −1 − [ r r γ r ( A −1 ⋅ c ) ⊗ (d ⋅ A −1 ) r (1 + γ d ⋅ A −1 ⋅ c ) ] (1.85) It was shown in Problem 1.86) r β (a ⊗ b) r r α (α + β a ⋅ b ) Furthermore.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.86 r 77 r r r a) Obtain the inverse of the tensor C = (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d) .84. V. Chaves (2013) . (see equation (1.

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 78 θ ( 3) = −γ r r (1 + γ d ⋅ A −1 ⋅ c ) r r 1 r r d ⋅ A −1 ⋅ c = (d ⋅ c ) − α r r r r β r r (d ⋅ a )(b ⋅ c ) α (α + β a ⋅ b ) NOTE: The equation in (1. r r d = (B ⋅ q) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we have: θ (1) = 1 .1) We can rewrite the tensor D as follows: r r r r r r r r p⊗ p p⊗ p (B ⋅ q) ⊗ (B ⋅ q) (B ⋅ q) ⊗ (B ⋅ q) −1 −1 D = B ⋅1 + 1 ⋅ r r − 1 ⋅ = B ⋅ 1 + (B ⋅ B ) ⋅ r r − (B ⋅ B ) ⋅ r r r r p⋅q q ⋅ B ⋅q p⋅q q ⋅B⋅q r r r r r r r r   (B ⋅ q) ⊗ (B ⋅ q)  ( B −1 ⋅ p) ⊗ p ( B −1 ⋅ B ⋅ q ) ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )  p⊗ p = B ⋅ 1 + − = B ⋅ 1 + B −1 ⋅ r r − B −1 ⋅ r r r r r r   p⋅q q ⋅B ⋅q p⋅q q ⋅B⋅q     r r r −1 r  ( B ⋅ p) ⊗ p q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )  = B ⋅ 1 + − r r r r  p⋅q q ⋅B⋅q   and by denoting by r r a = ( B −1 ⋅ p) r r b=p . V. Moreover. 1 β= r r p⋅q . r r c =q . θ ( 2) = −β −1 1 −1 −β = r r r r r r = r r = r r r r α (α + β a ⋅ b) (1 + β a ⋅ b) p ⋅ q (1 + r 1 r ( B −1 ⋅ p) ⋅ p) ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p) p⋅q r r 1 r r d ⋅ A −1 ⋅ c = (d ⋅ c ) − α r r r r β r r (a ⋅ d )(b ⋅ c ) α (α + β a ⋅ b ) r r r r r r −1 = (( B ⋅ q ) ⋅ q ) + r r r (( B −1 ⋅ p) ⋅ ( B ⋅ q ) )( p ⋅ q ) −1 r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B ⋅ p) r r r r r r − ( p ⋅ ( B −T ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) = q ⋅B ⋅q + r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p) −γ 1 1 r = r r r r r r −1 r r − ( p ⋅ ( B −T ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q )  −1 r (1 + γ d ⋅ A ⋅ c ) q ⋅ B ⋅ q  1 + r  q ⋅B⋅q + r r r r r   q ⋅B⋅q ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p )   r r r −1 r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B ⋅ p) = r r r r ( p ⋅ ( B −T ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) −1 −1 θ ( 2 ) θ (3) = r r r −1 r r r r r = r r r r −T −T ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B ⋅ p) ( p ⋅ ( B ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ ( B ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) θ ( 3) = University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . b. .87) is also valid for matrices of n-dimensions. −1 γ= r r q ⋅B ⋅q we get [ r r r r D = B ⋅ 1 + β a ⊗ b + γc ⊗ d [ r r r r ] = B ⋅C ⇒ D −1 = ( B ⋅ C ) −1 = C −1 ⋅ B −1 ] where C = 1 + β a ⊗ b + γc ⊗ d . The inverse of C can be obtained via subsection (a) with α = 1 .

we can obtain: D −1 = C −1 ⋅ B −1 r r r r  r r −1 r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) = 1 + r r r r [q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q ) ] + r r [q ⊗ p ] + L −T ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q )  [ [ = B −1 ] ] r  −1 −1 −1 r L+ r r ( B ⋅ p) ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )  ⋅ B −T ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q )  r r r r −1 r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B ⋅ p) −1 r r −1 −1 + r r r r [q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )] ⋅ B + r r [q ⊗ p ] ⋅ B + L −T ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) r −1 −1 r −1 L+ r r ( B ⋅ p) ⊗ ( B ⋅ q ) ⋅ B −T ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) Note that: r r r r r {[q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )]⋅ B } = [q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )] B = [q ( B ⋅ q ) ]B r r = [q ⊗ ( B ⋅ B ) ⋅ q ) ] r r r r [( B ⋅ p) ⊗ ( B ⋅ q )]⋅ B = ( B ⋅ p) ⊗ ( B ⋅ B ) ⋅ q −1 ij ik −1 kj i k −1 kj [ ] − − = q i ( B kp q p ) B kj1 = q i ( B kp B kj1 q p ) −T ij −1 −1 −1 −T If now we consider the symmetry of B . B = B T .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.87) becomes: [ [ ] [ ] r r r r r r r r r r C −1 = 1 + θ ( 2 ) (a ⊗ b ) + θ ( 3) c + θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c )a ⊗ d + θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d )b r r r r r r r r r r r r C −1 = 1 + θ ( 2 ) a ⊗ b + θ ( 3) c ⊗ d + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d ) c ⊗ b + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c ) a ⊗ d + L r r r r r r 2 L + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c )(a ⋅ d ) a ⊗ b r r r r r r r r r r r r 2 C −1 = 1 + θ ( 2 ) + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c )(a ⋅ d ) a ⊗ b + θ ( 3) c ⊗ d + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d ) c ⊗ b + L r r r r L + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) ( b ⋅ c ) a ⊗ d [ ] ] }[ { [ [ ] ] [ ] [ ] [ [ ] ] ] Note that: { ( 2 ) + θ (3) θ (22 ) (b ⋅ c )(a ⋅ d )}= θ ( 2 ) { + θ (3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c )(a ⋅ d )}= θ ( 2 ) { − 1} = 0 . we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . thus θ 1 1 r r r r [ r r r r ] [ ] [ r r r r r r r r r r C −1 = 1 + θ ( 3) c ⊗ d + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d ) c ⊗ b + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c ) a ⊗ d [ ] [ ] [ ] ] r r r r r r r r r r C −1 = 1 + θ ( 3) c ⊗ d + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (a ⋅ d ) c ⊗ b + θ ( 3) θ ( 2 ) (b ⋅ c ) a ⊗ d r r r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p) −1 r r =1 + r r r r [q ⊗ ( B ⋅ q ) ] + r r [q ⊗ p ] + L −T ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) r −1 −1 r L+ r r ( B ⋅ p) ⊗ ( B ⋅ q ) −T ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) [ ] With that.e. V. i. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS r r θ ( 2 ) θ ( 3) (a ⋅ d ) = r ( p ⋅ (B −T = r ( p ⋅ ( B −T r r θ ( 2 ) θ ( 3) (b ⋅ c ) = r ( p ⋅ (B r r r r −T 79 r −1 −1 r r r r (( B ⋅ p) ⋅ ( B ⋅ q )) ⋅ B) ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q ) r r −1 −1 −T r r r ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) = r r ( p ⋅ q) ⋅ B) ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q ) r r −1 −1 r r r ( p ⋅ q) = r r −T ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ (B ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) θ ( 2 ) θ (3) (b ⋅ c )(a ⋅ d ) = r ( p ⋅ (B −T r r r −1 −1 r r r r (( B ⋅ p) ⋅ ( B ⋅ q ))( p ⋅ q ) = −1 ⋅ B) ⋅ q ) ( p ⋅ q ) The equation in (1.

if the tensor is positive definite so is its inverse. since. By using the equation obtained previously we get: [ r r r r D = B ⋅ 1 + β a ⊗ b + γc ⊗ d ⇒ ( [ ] ]) [ r r r r r r r r det (D) = det B ⋅ 1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d = det ( B )det 1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d ] Note that det ( B ) > 0 . the condition under which [ r r r r D is a non-singular tensor if det 1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d ] ≠ 0 . and B −T ⋅ B = 1 . a ⋅ b = ( B −1 ⋅ p ) ⋅ p = p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p . Chaves (2013) . Problem 1.e. The same apply to ( p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) > 0 .87 Let A = A (τ) and τ be a second-order tensor and a scalar respectively. These two conditions can be replaced by r r r r r r ( p ⋅ q ) > ( p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p )(q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) .2) A tensor is non-singular if det (D ) ≠ 0 . V. Then. p and q can not be orthogonal vectors. the scalar (q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) > 0 is always r r r r positive for any vector q ≠ 0 . the conditions are: p ≠ 0 . due to the symmetry of B . b. Note also that D is a positive definite tensor if r r r r r r r r ( p ⋅ q ) 2 > ( p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p )(q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) and ( p ⋅ q ) > 0 . Another condition that must be met is: r r r r r r r r ( p ⋅ q )( p ⋅ q ) − ( p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p )(q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) ≠ 0 14243 144424443 4 4 >0 >0 r r Note that by the fact that B is positive definite tensor. By using the determinant expression obtained in Problem 1. q ⋅B ⋅q βγ [(a ⋅ d )(b ⋅ c ) − (a ⋅ b )(c ⋅ d ) ] = r r r r r r r [ ] [ r r r r ] r r r r r r −1 −1 r r r ( p ⋅ q )( p ⋅ q ) − ( p ⋅ B ⋅ p )( q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) p⋅q q ⋅B ⋅q 1 Thus: [ ] r r r r r r r r r r 1 −1 r r det 1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d = r r r r ( p ⋅ q )( p ⋅ q ) − ( p ⋅ B ⋅ p )(q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) ≠ 0 ( p ⋅ q )(q ⋅ B ⋅ q ) r r r r r r r r Then. since B is a positive definite tensor. γ (c ⋅ d ) = r r q ⋅ B ⋅ q = −1 . b ⋅ c = p ⋅ q r r r r r r r r r −1 r c ⋅ d = q ⋅ ( B ⋅ q ) = q ⋅ B ⋅ q . a ⋅ d = ( B −1 ⋅ p ) ⋅ ( B ⋅ q ) = p ⋅ q .88) By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 80 r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) r r [q ⊗ q ] + r− 1 r r r r r ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) r r [q ⊗ q ] + r− 1 + r r r r r ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) r r r r ( p ⋅ q + p ⋅ B −1 ⋅ p ) r r + [q ⊗ q ] − r 2 r r r 2 ( p ⋅ q) ( p ⋅ q) D −1 = B −1 + = B −1 = B −1 r r [q ⊗ ( p ⋅ B )] + ( p−⋅1q ) [( B r r −1 r {[qr ⊗ ( p ⋅ B )] + [( B −1 r [q ⊗ ( B −1 −1 −1 ⋅ p) ⊗ q ] r ⋅ p) ⊗ q ] r r r } ⋅ p)] r sym r r r Note that. show that: dA  dA ⋅ A −1  = A Tr  dτ  dτ  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . q ≠ 0 . i.85 we get: [ ] r r r r r r r r r r r r r r det (α1 + β a ⊗ b + γ c ⊗ d ) = α 3 + α 2 γ (c ⋅ d ) − αβγ (a ⋅ d )( b ⋅ c ) − (a ⋅ b )(c ⋅ d ) r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r where α = 1 . ( p ⋅ q ) ≠ 0 . it holds that p ⋅ B −1 = B −1 ⋅ p = s .Spain Draft (1.

91) and (1.92). we can obtain: dτ ) dA dA dA dA dA = A 2 − AI A + II A 1 ⋅ = A2 ⋅ −A⋅ I A + II A dτ dτ dτ dτ dτ and the trace of the above equation is given by: dA  dA dA   2 dA  Tr  A −1 ⋅ −A⋅ I A + II A   III A = Tr  A ⋅ dτ  dτ dτ dτ    dA  dA     dA  = Tr  A 2 ⋅  − Tr  A ⋅  I A + Tr   II A dτ  dτ     dτ  (1. II A = (1.90) { } 1 [Tr ( A )]2 − Tr ( A 2 ) .89) with respect to τ we obtain: { } [ d ( III A ) 1 d [Tr( A )]3 + 2 Tr(A 3 ) − 3Tr( A 2 ) Tr(A ) = dτ dτ 6 d Tr ( A 3 ) d Tr ( A 2 ) d [Tr ( A )] 1 2 d [Tr ( A )] Tr ( A ) − 3 Tr ( A 2 ) = 3[Tr ( A )] +2 −3  dt dτ dτ dτ  6 [ = ] ] 1  dA    dA   2 dA   dA  2 2 3[Tr ( A )] Tr   + 6 Tr  A ⋅  − 6 Tr  A ⋅ dτ  Tr ( A ) − 3Tr ( A ) Tr  dτ   dτ  6       dτ  { } dA  1  dA   dA   2 2 = Tr  A 2 ⋅  − Tr  A ⋅ dτ  Tr ( A ) + 2 [Tr ( A )] − Tr ( A ) Tr  dτ  dτ       or d ( III A ) dA    dA   dA  = Tr  A 2 ⋅ − Tr  A ⋅ I A + II A Tr   dτ dτ  dτ       dτ  Taking the scalar product of the equation in (1. Chaves (2013) . we have demonstrated. V.1 TENSORS 81 Solution: In Problem 1.91) dA . that: III A = det ( A ) = A = { } 1 [Tr( A )]3 + 2 Tr(A 3 ) − 3Tr( A 2 ) Tr(A ) 6 (1.90) with III A A −1 ⋅ ( (1.92) Comparing equations (1. we can conclude that: d ( III A ) dA   dA  ⋅ A −1  = III A Tr  A −1 ⋅   = III A Tr  dτ dτ  dτ    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.78. respectively.89) III A A −1 = A 2 − AI A + II A 1 where I A = Tr (A ) . 2 Note also that the following derivatives are true: d [I A ] d [Tr ( A )] d [A kk ] d [A ik δ ik ] d [A ik ] dA  dA  = = = = δ ik = : 1 = Tr   dτ dτ dτ dτ dτ dτ  dτ  [ ] [ ]  d (A 2 )  d Tr ( A 2 ) dA    dA  = Tr  = 2 Tr  A ⋅  = Tr  2A ⋅ dτ dτ  dτ  dτ       d Tr ( A 3 ) dA   = 3Tr  A 2 ⋅ dτ dτ    Taking the derivative of (1.81 and in Problem 1.

whose components are C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µδ ik δ jl + γδ il δ jk (1.1. µ . Problem 1. l = 2 . δ il δ jk are not sym symmetric. we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Show that C is isotropic. with that we obtain: C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ (δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) Note that δ ij δ kl has major and minor symmetry. C ijkl = C ijlk C ijlk = λδ ij δ lk + µδ il δ jk + γδ ik δ jl ≠ C ijkl We can easily verify this fact by adopting i = 2 .g. Chaves (2013) . Taking into account the equation in (1. while the tensors δ ik δ jl .89 Let C be a fourth-order tensor.11 Isotropic and Anisotropic Tensors Problem 1. γ are scalar. µ are constant real numbers. we conclude that the tensor has major symmetry since C klij = λδ kl δ ij + µδ ki δ lj + γδ kj δ li = C ijkl We check now if the tensor has minor symmetry.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Note also that (δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) = 2I ijkl . thus C ijkl = C 2112 = λδ 21δ 12 + µδ 21δ 12 + γδ 22 δ 11 = γ C ijlk = C 2121 = λδ 21δ 21 + µδ 22 δ 11 + γδ 21δ 12 = µ Then. V.94) where λ . e. a) What kind of symmetry has the tensor C ? b) What conditions must be met to guarantee the symmetry of C ? Solution: The tensor has major symmetry if C ijkl = C klij holds.93) where δ ij are the second-order unit tensor components.82 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 1. j = 1 .88 Let C be a fourth-order tensor.93). and λ. k = 1 . whose components are given by: C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ (δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) (1. the tensor C has minor symmetry if and only if µ = γ . Solution: Applying the transformation law for the fourth-order tensor components: C ′ = a im a jn a kp a lq C mnpq ijkl (1.95) and by replacing the relation C mnpq = λδ mn δ pq + µ (δ mp δ nq + δ mq δ np ) into the above equation.

i. i. the C -components do not change for any transformation basis. b) and c) Starting from the definition of eigenvalue-eigenvector of a tensor σ : ˆ ˆ σ ⋅n = γ σn and by substituting the value of σ obtained previously we can obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .e. a) Given a symmetric second-order tensor ε . 1 is the second-order unit tensor. b) Show that σ and ε have the same eigenvectors. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS [ ( + µ (a 83 C ′ = a im a jn a kp a lq λδ mn δ pq + µ δ mp δ nq + δ mq δ np ijkl = λa im a jn a kp a lq δ mn δ pq ( im a jn a kp a lq )] δ mp δ nq + a im a jn a kp a lq δ mq δ np ) = λa in a jn a kq a lq + µ a ip a jq a kp a lq + a iq a jn a kn a lq ( = λδ ij δ kl + µ δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) ) (1. I ≡ I sym . obtain the eigenvalues of ε . i. c) If γ σ are the eigenvalues (principal values) of σ .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the same principal directions.96) = C ijkl which proves that C is an isotropic tensor. Express the result in indicial and tensorial notation. V. Problem 1. obtain σ which is given by the following algebraic operation σ = C : ε . Solution: a) Tensorial notation: Indicial notation σ ij = C ijkl ε kl [ σ = C :ε )] ( = λδ ij δ kl ε kl + µ δ ik δ jl ε kl + δ il δ jk ε kl ( = λ1 ⊗ 1 : ε + 2µ I : ε { { Tr (ε ) ( = λδ ij δ kl + µ δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ε kl = (λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I ) : ε = λδ ij ε kk + µ ε ij + ε ji ε sym ( ) ) ) sym = λδ ij ε kk + 2µ ε ij = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε = λδ ij ε kk + 2µ ε ij where we have considered the symmetry of the tensor ε = ε T .e. I is the symmetric fourthorder unit tensor.e.90 Let C be a symmetric isotropic fourth-order tensor which is represented by its components as follows: ( C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk C = λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I ) (indicial notation) (tensorial notation) where λ and µ are scalars.

γ σ2) = σ 2 . γ ε3) = ε 3 and γ σ ) = σ1 . (I −1 : 1) = I : 1 = 1 . γ (ε2) = ε 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we obtain: C −1 = ( 2µ I + λ1 ⊗ 1) −1 = [ λ 1 −1 I − (I −1 : 1) ⊗ (1 : I −1 ) −1 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + λ 1 : I : 1) ] Remember that it holds that I −1 = I . if we consider that λ = Eν . β = λ . A = B = 1 . Then we obtain the scalar value of 1 : I −1 : 1 = 1 : I : 1 = 1 : 1 = Tr (1) = 3 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 84 ˆ ˆ (λTr(ε )1 + 2µ ε ) ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ λTr (ε )1 ⋅ n + 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n − λTr (ε )n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ λTr (ε )n + 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ⇒ 2µ ε ⋅ n = (γ σ − λTr (ε ) )n  γ − λTr (ε )  ˆ ˆ n ⇒ ε ⋅n =  σ   2µ   ˆ = γ εn ˆ ⇒ ε ⋅n Note that the last equation is the definition of eigenvalue-eigenvector of ε . and µ > 0 and λ are scalars. λ . where σ and ε are symmetric second-order tensors. (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E . find the possible values of E and ν that guarantee that the tensor C is positive 2(1 + ν) definite.77): (α D + β A ⊗ B ) −1 = 1 α D −1 − β α (α + β B : D −1 [(D : A) −1 : A ) ⊗ (B : D −1 ) ] Denoting by D = I . γ σ3) = σ 3 . And the eigenvalues of ε can be obtained as follows: γε = γ σ − λTr (ε ) 2µ ( ( (1 ( ( If we denote by γ ε1) = ε1 . In addition. V. With that we conclude that σ and ε have the same eigenvectors (they are coaxial). We also express in indicial notation: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . c) Obtain also the reciprocal of the expression σ = C : ε in function of µ > 0 . 1 is the second-order unit tensor. b) Obtain the determinant of C . α = 2µ . The explicit form of the above relationship is given by: ε 1 0  0  0 ε2 0  σ1 where it is also true that  0  0  0 σ1 = 1 0 0 2µ  0 ε3    0 σ2 0  1 0 0  − λTr (ε ) 0 1 0   2µ  0 0 1  σ3     0 0  1 0 0 ε 1  = λTr (ε ) 0 1 0 + 2µ  0     0 0 1  0 σ3      0 σ2 0 0 0 0 ε2 0 0 0  ε3   Problem 1. Chaves (2013) .91 a) Obtain the inverse of the fourth-order tensor C = 2µ I + λ1 ⊗ 1 where I ≡ I sym is the symmetric fourth-order unit tensor. µ= Solution: a) We use the equation obtained in (1.

With that we get:   − 2µλ 3λ 2 λ  + − C : C −1 = I +   2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (1 ⊗ 1) = I  444444 24444444 1 4 3 =0 b) We can directly use the equation (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. (see Problem 1.1 TENSORS sym 1 : I −1 : 1 = 1 : I : 1 = δ ij I ijkl δ kl = δ ij 85 1 (δ ik δ 2 jl + δ il δ jk )δ kl 1 (δ ij δ ik δ jl δ kl + δ ij δ il δ jk δ kl ) 2 1 = (δ jj + δ jj ) = 3 2 = Resulting that: C −1 = ( 2µ I + λ1 ⊗ 1) −1 = 1 λ I− (1 ⊗ 1) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) Let us check whether C : C −1 = I sym ≡ I holds or not:  1  λ C : C −1 = ( 2µ I + λ1 ⊗ 1) :   2µ I − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (1 ⊗ 1)     2µ 2µλ λ λ2 C : C −1 = ( I:I − I : (1 ⊗ 1) + (1 ⊗ 1) : I − (1 ⊗ 1) : (1 ⊗ 1) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) According to Problem 1. Then. A = B = 1 we conclude that: det (2µ I + λ1 ⊗ 1) = (2µ ) 3 + (2µ ) 2 λ 1 : 1 = (2µ ) 3 + (2µ ) 2 λ 3 = (2µ ) 2 (2µ + 3λ ) The tensor C is definite positive if the eigenvalues are positive numbers. by means of Figure 1. V. we can conclude that: µ= E E = >0 2(1 + ν ) 2 y1 2µ + 3λ = ⇒ E E = >0 (1 − 2ν ) y 2  E > 0   y1 > 0   E < 0  y < 0  1 ⇒  E > 0   y 2 > 0   E < 0  y < 0  2 The above conditions must fulfill simultaneously. β = λ . y 2 = (1 − 2ν ) ≠ 0 . Chaves (2013) .5 .50): ( ) det αI sym + β A ⊗ B = α 3 + α 2 β A : B and by denoting by α = 2µ . I : (1 ⊗ 1) = (1 ⊗ 1) : I = 1 ⊗ 1 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .27 it fulfills that I : I = I .4 we can conclude that E > 0 and − 1 < ν < 0. and (1 ⊗ 1) : (1 ⊗ 1) = 3(1 ⊗ 1) . i.: E >0 2(1 + ν) E Eν E 2µ + 3λ > 0 ⇒ 2 +3 = >0 2(1 + ν ) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (1 − 2ν) µ >0⇒µ = Denoting by y1 = (1 + ν) ≠ 0 .e.37).

5 ν Figure 1.5 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .41.5).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 86 y (ν) y2 = (1 − 2ν ) ≠ 0 zone not feasible y1 = (1 + ν) ≠ 0 zone not feasible 1 ν ≠ −1 ( y 2 > 0 ⇒ E > 0) E >0 ( y 1 < 0 ⇒ E < 0) ( y 1 > 0 ⇒ E > 0) ( y 2 < 0 ⇒ E < 0) ν ≠ 0 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. It is interesting to compare this last equation with Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . x3 ε13 C ε 33 ε 23 x1 σ13 ε 32 ε 22 ε 31 ε11 x3 ε 21 ε12 σ 33 σ = C:ε σ 23 σ 32 σ 22 σ 31 x2 σ11 σ 21 σ12 x2 x1 ε = C −1 : σ C −1 Figure 1.4 c) σ = C:ε ⇒ C −1 : σ = C −1 : C : ε C −1 : σ = I sym : ε = ε sym = ε ⇒ ⇒ ε = C −1 : σ  1  λ λ 1 ⇒ε= I− 1 ⊗ 1 : σ = I:σ − 1 ⊗1:σ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )  2µ  λ 1 ⇒ε= σ− Tr (σ )1 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (see Figure 1. V.

ν ) for which Q (N) is a positive definite tensor.50 that. ∃ Q −1 . and is defined as follows: ˆ ˆ ˆ Q e (N) = N ⋅ C e ⋅ N ˆ where N is the unit vector and C e is the isotropic symmetric fourth-order tensor and given e by C e = λ (1 ⊗ 1) + 2µ I . whose components are: C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ (δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) . which is known as the elastic acoustic tensor.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.93 Let Q be a symmetric second-order tensor and given by: ˆ ˆ ˆ Q (N) = µ 1 + (λ + µ )N ⊗ N ˆ where λ .1 TENSORS 87 Problem 1. µ= . With that we obtain: ˆ ˆ Q e qr = µδ qr + (λ + µ )N q N r tensorial →   ˆ ˆ ˆ Q e (N) = µ 1 + (λ + µ )N ⊗ N Problem 1. Obtain the components of the elastic acoustic tensor. determine the possible values of (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) ˆ ( E . the components of Q e (N) are: ˆ ˆ Q e qr = N p C epqrs N s [ ] ˆ ˆ = N p λδ pq δ rs + µ (δ pr δ qs + δ ps δ qr ) N s ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = λδ pq δ rs N p N s + µ (N p δ pr δ qs N s + N p δ ps δ qr N s ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = λN q N r + µ (N r N q + N s δ qr N s ) ˆ ˆ ˆ Note that N is the unit vector.e. Solution: r r a) It was shown in Problem 1. ˆ a) Obtain the eigenvalues of Q (N) and determine the restrictions on λ and µ so that there is ˆ inverse of Q (N) . Solution: Using symbolic notation we obtain: ( )⋅ (C ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Q e (N) = N ⋅ C e ⋅ N = N i e i ˆ ˆ = N i C epqrs N j e ˆ pqrs e p ˆ ˆ δ ip δ sj (e q ⊗ e r ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ⊗ eq ⊗ er ⊗ es ˆ ˆ = N p C epqrs N s ˆ (e q ˆ ˆ )⋅ (N e ) ˆ ⊗ er ) j j ˆ Then. b) Taking into account that λ = Eν E . given the vectors a and b it holds that: ( ) r r r r det β 1 + αa ⊗ b = β 3 + β 2 αa ⋅ b University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. then N s N s = 1 holds. ˆ c) Obtain the inverse of Q (N) . µ are scalars. Chaves (2013) . i. and N is the unit vector.92 ˆ Let Q e (N) be a second-order tensor.

y 3 = ( −2ν 2 − ν + 1) ≠ 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 88 The eigenvalues can be determined by means of the characteristic determinant det (Q − γ1) = 0 . Chaves (2013) . where γ i are the eigenvalues of Q . the components of Q are: µ ′ Qij =  0  0     (λ + 2µ )  0 0 0 µ 0 The inverse of Q exits if the determinant of Q is non-zero: Q = µ 2 × (λ + 2µ ) ≠ 0 ⇒ µ ≠ 0  λ + 2µ ≠ 0 ⇒ λ ≠ −2µ b) A tensor is definite positive if its eigenvalues are greater than zero. V.5   Denoting by y1 = (1 + ν) ≠ 0 . then: E  µ = 2(1 + ν) > 0   Eν E E (1 − ν) λ + 2µ = +2 = >0  (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) (−2ν 2 − ν + 1)  ν ≠ −1 (1 + ν) ≠ 0 ⇒  We check that  ν ≠ −1 2 (−2ν − ν + 1) ≠ 0 ⇒ ν ≠ 0. Then: ( ( ) ) ˆ ˆ det µ 1 + (λ + µ )N ⊗ N − γ1 = 0 ˆ ˆ det (µ − γ )1 + (λ + µ )N ⊗ N = 0 Denoting by β = (µ − γ ) and α = (λ + µ ) we conclude that: ( ) ˆ ˆ det (µ − γ )1 + (λ + µ )N ⊗ N = 0 ˆ ˆ (µ − γ ) 3 + (µ − γ ) 2 (λ + µ )N ⋅ N = 0 { =1 (µ − γ ) [(µ − γ ) + (λ + µ )] = 0 2 (µ − γ ) 2 [(λ + 2µ ) − γ ] = 0 The above characteristic equation has the following solutions: (µ − γ ) [(λ + 2µ ) − γ ] = 0 2 solution   →   γ 1 = µ 2 (µ − γ ) = 0 ⇒   γ 2 = µ [(λ + 2µ ) − γ ] = 0 ⇒ γ = (λ + 2µ ) 3  In the principal space of Q . we can rewrite the restrictions as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. y 2 = (1 − ν) ≠ 0 .

y > 0  3  2   with which we obtain: ⇒ ν ⊂ ]− 1 . i. V. ∞ [ ⇒ ν ⊂ ]− ∞ . the eigenvalues of Q (N) −1 are Q1′ −1 = Q2−1 = 0 1 µ 0 1 µ     0   1  (λ + 2µ )   0 ′ .e. y3 < 0 λ + 2µ = Ey 2 > 0 ⇒    y3  y 2 > 0. y 3 < 0    E < 0 ⇒  y < 0.5[ ∪ ] 1 . we can ˆ express the spectral representation of Q (N) −1 as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 TENSORS 89   E > 0   E  y1 > 0  µ = 2 y > 0 ⇒  E < 0 1    y < 0   1     y2 . Q3 −1 = ∴ Q −1 = 1 µ (λ + 2µ ) 2 1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Moreover. Chaves (2013) . − 1[ y (ν) y 2 = (1 − ν) ≠ 0 1 ν = −1 E<0 zone not feasible E > 0  E < 0 E >0 y1 = (1 + ν) ≠ 0 ν =1 E >0 ν ν = 0 . Recall that a tensor (λ + 2µ ) and its inverse share the same principal space.5 y 3 = ( −2ν 2 − ν + 1) ≠ 0 ˆ ˆ c) The inverse of the Q (N) -components in the principal space of Q (N) are given by: µ ′ Qij =  0  0  0 µ 0   0  (λ + 2µ )  0 inverse →  ′ Qij−1 1  µ =0   0   ˆ ′ Then. y3 > 0  E > 0 ⇒    y2 . 0. they are coaxial tensors.

76.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 90 Q −1 = 3 ∑Q −1 ˆ ( a ) a N ˆ ⊗ N( a ) a =1 − ˆ − ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = Q1−1N (1) ⊗ N (1) + Q2 1N ( 2 ) ⊗ N( 2 ) + Q3 1N (3) ⊗ N (3) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = Q −1 (N (1) ⊗ N (1) + N( 2 ) ⊗ N ( 2 ) ) + Q −1N (3) ⊗ N(3) 1 3 ˆ Q1−1 (1 − N (3) − ˆ ˆ ˆ = ⊗ N(3) ) + Q3 1N (3) ⊗ N (3) − ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = Q1−1 (1 − N ⊗ N) + Q3 1N ⊗ N ˆ ˆ where we have considered that N(3) = N . It is interesting to see Problem 1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and moreover.91). Then: − ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Q −1 = Q1−1 (1 − N ⊗ N) + Q3 1N ⊗ N = = 1 µ 1 µ ˆ ˆ (1 − N ⊗ N) + 1 ˆ ˆ N⊗N (λ + 2µ ) 1 ˆ ˆ N⊗N+ 1 ˆ ˆ N⊗N (λ + 2µ ) 1− µ = = ( ˆ 1 1 ˆ 1− −   µ (λ + 2µ )  N ⊗ N µ    λ+µ  ˆ ˆ 1−   µ (λ + 2µ )  N ⊗ N µ   1 1 ) −1 −1 1 ˆ ˆ −1 ˆ ˆ Note that Q −1 = N ⋅ C e ⋅ N ≠ N ⋅ C e ⋅ N . where C e = I− 2µ ˆ evaluate the tensor Qinv = N ⋅ C e −1 λ (1 ⊗ 1) . We 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) ˆ ⋅N : ˆ ˆ Qinv = N ⋅ C −1 ⋅ N ˆ λ ˆ −1 ˆ ˆ  1 1 (δ δ + δ δ ) − δ ij δ kl Nl ⇒ (Qinv ) jk = N i C ijkl N l = N i  il jk   2µ 2 ik jl 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )   λ 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N i δ ij δ kl N l (N i δ ik δ jl N l + N i δ il δ jk N l ) − ⇒ (Qinv ) jk = 2µ 2 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) ⇒ (Qinv ) jk = λ 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N jNk (N k N j + N l N l δ jk ) − 4µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ )  1 ˆ ˆ λ 1 δ jk +  −  4µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) N j N k  4µ    2µ + λ ˆ ˆ 1 δ jk +  =  4µ (2µ + 3λ ) N j N k  4µ   ⇒ (Qinv ) jk = ⇒ (Qinv ) jk Thus: Qinv =  2µ + λ ˆ 1 ˆ 1+  4µ (2µ + 3λ )  N ⊗ N  4µ   Note that µ ≠ 0 and (2µ + 3λ ) ≠ 0 . V. these conditions are the same as those to guarantee that ∃C −1 (see Problem 1.

1. by comparing the two definitions of eigenvalue-eigenvector of the tensors U and V . Also show that σ and σ dev are coaxial tensors. show that: µ a = λa ˆ ˆ Obtain also the relationship between the eigenvectors N( a ) and n ( a ) . and that can be decomposed as: F = Q ⋅U = V ⋅Q ˆ If U has the eigenvalues λ a associated with the eigenvectors N( a ) .13 Spherical and Deviatoric Tensors Problem 1. and V has the eigenvalues ˆ µ a associated with the eigenvectors n ( a ) .1 TENSORS 91 1. 1.12 Polar Decomposition Problem 1. the index does not indicate summation) and using the definition of F we can obtain the following relationship: QT ⋅ F = QT ⋅ Q ⋅ U = QT ⋅ V ⋅ Q ⇒ QT ⋅ F = U = QT ⋅ V ⋅ Q and considering the definition of eigenvalue-eigenvector of U : ˆ ˆ U ⋅ N(a ) = λ aN( a) ˆ ˆ Q T ⋅ V ⋅ Q ⋅ N(a ) = λ aN( a) ˆ ˆ Q ⋅ Q T ⋅ V ⋅ Q ⋅ N ( a ) = λ a Q ⋅ N( a ) 123 1 we obtain ˆ ˆ V ⋅ Q ⋅ N( a ) = λ a Q ⋅ N ( a ) ˆ ˆ V ⋅ n(a) = λ a n(a) ˆ ˆ where we have assumed that n ( a ) = Q ⋅ N ( a ) .95 Let σ be a symmetric second-order tensor. Solution: Based on the definition of eigenvalue and eigenvector of the tensor U : ˆ ˆ U ⋅ N( a) = λ a N( a) (here.94 Let us consider that F has inverse ( det ( F ) ≠ 0 ). Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ∂σ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. Prove that s: ∂s = s . we can verify the they have the same eigenvalues and different eigenvectors and they are related to each other by the orthogonal ˆ ˆ transformation n ( a ) = Q ⋅ N ( a ) . Furthermore. and s ≡ σ dev be a deviatoric tensor.1.

e. Solution: ⇒ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .96 1 1 Consider that J = [det (b )] 2 = ( III b ) 2 . 3 Afterwards we calculate: I   ∂ σ − σ 1  3  ∂[σ ] 1 ∂[I σ ] ∂s = 1 =  − ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ 3 ∂σ which in indicial notation is: ∂s ij ∂σ kl = ∂σ ij ∂σ kl − 1 ∂ [I σ ] 1 δ ij = δ ik δ jl − δ kl δ ij 3 ∂σ kl 3 Therefore s ij ∂s ij ∂σ kl 1   = s ij  δ ik δ jl − δ kl δ ij  = s ij δ ik δ 3   jl − 1 1 s ij δ kl δ ij = s kl − δ kl s ii { 3 3 =0 = s kl s: ∂s =s ∂σ To show that two tensors are coaxial. In other words. Obtain the partial derivatives of J and ln(J ) with respect to b . i. b = b T .Spain 1   ∂ ( III b ) 2  ∂J  =  ∂b ∂b −1 ∂ III −1 1 1 b = ( III b ) 2 = ( III b ) 2 III b b −T ∂b 2 2 1 1 1 = ( III b ) 2 b −1 = J b −1 2 2 Draft By: Eduardo W. where b is a symmetric second-order tensor.14 Miscellaneous Problems Problem 1. we must prove that σ dev ⋅ σ = σ ⋅ σ dev : σ ⋅ σ dev = σ ⋅ (σ − σ sph ) = σ ⋅ σ − σ ⋅ σ sph = σ ⋅ σ − σ ⋅ Iσ 1 3 Iσ I 1 = σ ⋅σ − σ 1⋅σ 3 3 I   =  σ − σ 1  ⋅ σ = σ dev ⋅ σ 3   = σ ⋅σ − σ ⋅ Therefore.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 92 Solution: First.1. V. they have the same principal directions (eigenvectors). we make use of the definition of a deviatoric tensor: Iσ 1+s 3 σ = σ sph + σ dev = σ sph + s = ⇒ s=σ − Iσ 1. 1. we have shown that σ and σ dev are coaxial tensors.

Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS ⇒ 1   ∂ ln III b 2 ∂[ln( J )]  =  ∂b ∂b    = 93 1 ∂ III b 1 −1 = b 2 III b ∂b 2 1.15 Voigt Notation Problem 1.  σ12  σ 23     σ13     ε11  ε   22  ε  {ε} =  33   2ε 12  2ε 23     2ε 13    b) Write the equation ε = C −1 : σ in Voigt notation. where the tensor C −1 (see Problem 1. the term (1 ⊗ 1)ij = δ ij δ kl in Voigt notation becomes: I ijkl = δ ij δ kl 1 1 1 1    1 1 Voigt → I =  [1 1 1 0 0 0] =    0 0 0 0    0 0    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.91) is given by.97 a) Write the equation σ = C : ε in Voigt notation. and the tensors σ and ε are structured according to Voigt notation as follows:  σ11  σ   22  σ  {σ} =  33  .Spain [] Draft 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 T  = {δ}{δ} 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  By: Eduardo W. where C = λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I is the isotropic symmetric fourth-order tensor.1. C −1 = 1 λ I− 1⊗1 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) Solution: We write the equation σ = (λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I ) : ε in indicial notation: ( ) [ ( )] 1   σ ij = λδ ij δ kl + 2µ δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk  ε kl = λδ ij δ kl + µ δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ε kl 2   The second-order unit tensor in Voigt notation is: 1 1   1 0 0 1  δ ij = 0 1 0 Voigt →{δ} =      0 0 0 1    0   0   Then.

we can conclude that C = λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I in Voigt notation becomes: 1 1  1 [C ] = λ  0 0  0  1 1 0 0 0 1 0  1 1 0 0 0  0 1 1 0 0 0  + 2µ  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0 0  λ + 2µ λ λ   1 0 0 0 0 λ + 2µ λ  λ 0 1 0 0 0  λ λ λ + 2µ = 1 0 0 2 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0  0 0 0   1 0 0 0 0 2  0 0 0   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 µ 0 0 µ 0 0 0  0  0 0  µ  thus σ = (λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I ) : ε Voigt →   λ λ 0 0 0   ε11   σ11  λ + 2µ σ   λ λ + 2µ λ 0 0 0   ε 22    22     σ 33   λ λ λ + 2µ 0 0 0   ε 33     = µ 0 0   2ε12  0 0  σ12   0 σ 23   0 0 0 0 µ 0  2ε 23       0 0 0 0 µ   2ε 13   σ13   0      14444444444 244444444444 4 3 {σ } = [C ]{ε } b) ε = C −1 : σ  1  1 λ λ ⇒ε= I− 1 ⊗ 1 : σ = I:σ − 1 ⊗1:σ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )  2µ  1 λ σ− Tr (σ )1 ⇒ε= 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) ⇒ ε ij = λ 1 σ ij − σ kk δ ij 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) Note that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 94 The symmetric fourth-order unit tensor I ijkl = I ijkl  I1111 I  2211 I 3311 Voigt →[I ] =     I1211 I 2311   I1311  ( ) 1 δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk in Voigt notation is: 2 I1122 I 2222 I1133 I 2233 I1112 I 2212 I1123 I 2223 I 3322 I1222 I 3333 I1233 I 3312 I1212 I 3323 I1223 I 2322 I1322 I 2333 I1333 I 2312 I1312 I 2323 I1323 I1113  1  I 2213  0  I 3313  0 = I1213  0 I 2313  0   I1313  0   0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 2  0 0 0 0 1 2 With these. Chaves (2013) . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

t ) is independent of the x3 -direction. Also. r r If the tensor is independent of any one direction at all points ( x ) . Tensor Fields. if T ( x .6).1 TENSORS 95  µ +λ  1 λ λ σ 11 − (σ 11 + σ 22 + σ 33 )δ 11 =   µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) σ 11 − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (σ 22 + σ 33 )  2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )    µ +λ  λ λ 1 = σ 22 − (σ 11 + σ 22 + σ 33 )δ 22 =   µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) σ 22 − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (σ 11 + σ 33 )  2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )   ε 11 = ε 22  µ +λ  λ λ 1 σ 33 − (σ 11 + σ 22 + σ 33 )δ 33 =   µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) σ 33 − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) (σ 11 + σ 22 )  2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )   λ 1 1 1 = σ 12 − ⇒ (σ kk )δ 12 = 2ε 12 = σ 12 { 2µ σ 12 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ =0 ε 33 = ε 12 2ε 23 = 2ε 13 = 1 µ 1 σ 23 σ µ 13 Restructuring the above in Voigt notation we obtain: µ +λ   µ ( 2µ + 3λ )  λ  ε 11   −    2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) λ ε 22   ε 33   − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )    = 2ε 12    0  2ε 23     2ε 13   0      0   λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ +λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ +λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) − 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 {ε } = [C ] −1 {σ } µ 0 1 µ 0  0  0  σ 11    σ 22    0  σ 33     σ  0   12   σ 23    0  σ 13      1 µ  1. along direction x3 . T13 = T23 = T33 = 0 . V. Chaves (2013) . ■ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the problem becomes a two-dimensional problem (plane state) so that the problem is greatly simplified. r NOTE: We define T ( x .e. t ) as a field tensor. which is expressed in terms of the position r ( x ) and time (t ) .g. bear in mind that the tensor components. (see Figure 1. are equal to zero. the value of T depends on position and time. e.98 r Let T ( x . Problem 1.e.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.16 Tensor-Valued Tensor Function. i.1. i. t ) be a symmetric second-order tensor.

′ ′ ′ d) Draw a graph that shows the relationship between θ and components T11 . Solution: a) Here we can apply the transformation law in Voigt notation {T ′} = [M] {T } . when T11 = 1 .6: A two-dimensional problem (2D). Hint: Use the Voigt Notation. where ′  T11  T′   22  T′  {T ′} =  33  . and express the results in terms of 2θ . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft  T11  T   22  T  {T } =  33   T12   T23     T13    By: Eduardo W. Also. x2  a11 a ij =  a 21   0  ′ x1 ′ x2 a12 a 22 0 0  cos θ sin θ 0 0 = − sin θ cos θ 0    1  0 0 1    θ x1 Figure 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 96 2D x2 T Tij =  11  T12 x2 T12  T22   T22 T22 T12 T12 T12 T11 T11 T11 x1 T12 T22 x3 x1 Figure 1. ′  T12   T23  ′    T13   ′  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . j = 1.7: A two-dimensional problem (2D).2) . V. ′ c) Evaluate the values of Tij . T12 = −4 and θ = 45º . and in which the angle varies from 0º to 360º . obtain the principal values and principal directions. T22 = 2 . ′ ′ ′ ′ a) Obtain T11 . 2 b) Obtain the value of θ so that θ corresponds to the principal direction of T . T22 and T12 . and also find an equation for the principal values of T . T22 . T12 in the new reference system ( x1 − x ′ ) defined in Figure 1. (i.7.

7.97) we obtain: 2 ′  T11   cos θ  T′  = 2  22   sin θ  T12   − sin θ cos θ  ′   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .98) into (1.Spain sin 2 θ cos 2 θ cos θ sin θ Draft 2 cos θ sin θ   T11   − 2 sin θ cos θ   T22    cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ   T12    (1.98) By substituting the matrix components a ij given in (1. after eliminate the role and column associated with the x3 -direction. can be evaluated in terms of a single parameter.97) T ′ = A T AT x2 ′ T22 ′ x2 T22 ′ T12 ′ T11 T12 T11 T11 P P ′ T11 T12 ′ T12 x1 T22 ′ x1 P θ ′ T22 x1 T = AT T ′ A Figure 1.8: Transformation law for (2D) tensor components. a ij . θ:  a11 a ij = a 21   a 31  a12 a 22 a 32 a13   cos θ a 23  =  − sin θ   a 33   0   sin θ cos θ 0 0 0  1  (1. in the plane. The transformation matrix. V. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS  a11 2  2  a 21 2  [M] =  a 31  a 21 a11 a a  31 21  a 31 a11  97 a12 2 a 22 2 a13 2 a 23 2 2a11 a12 2a 21 a 22 2a12 a13 2a 22 a 23 a 32 2 a 33 2 2a 31 a 32 2a 32 a 33 a 22 a12 a 32 a 22 a13 a 23 a 33 a 23 a 32 a12 a 33 a13     2a 31 a 33  (a13 a 21 + a11 a 23 ) (a 33 a 21 + a 31 a 23 )  (a 33 a11 + a 31 a13 )  2a11 a13 2a 21 a 23 (a11 a 22 + a12 a 21 ) (a13 a 22 + a12 a 23 ) (a 31 a 22 + a 32 a 21 ) (a 33 a 22 + a 32 a 23 ) (a 31 a12 + a 32 a11 ) (a 33 a12 + a 32 a13 ) For the particular case shown in Figure 1. the transformation matrix [M] . becomes: ′  T11   a11 T′  =  a 2  22   21  T12  a 21 a11  ′   2 a12 2 a 22 2 a 22 a12   T11    2a 21 a 22   T22  a11 a 22 + a12 a 21   T12    2a11 a12 (1.99) By: Eduardo W.

sin 2 θ = .101) To find the principal values (eigenvalues) we must solve the following characteristic equation: T11 − T T12 T12 =0 T22 − T ⇒ ( ) 2 T 2 − T ( T11 + T22 ) + T11 T22 − T12 = 0 And by evaluating the quadratic equation we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we obtain:   T11 + T22   T11 − T22  ′ +  cos 2θ + T12 sin 2θ  T11 =  2 2        T11 + T22   T11 − T22   ′ −  cos 2θ − T12 sin 2θ  T22 =  2 2        T − T22  ′  T12 = − 11  sin 2θ + T12 cos 2θ  2    (1. hence:  T − T22   T − T22  ′ T12 = − 11  sin 2θ = T12 cos 2θ  sin 2θ + T12 cos 2θ = 0 ⇒  11 2 2     2 T12 2 T12 sin 2θ = ⇒ ⇒ tg(2θ ) = cos 2θ T11 − T22 T11 − T22 Then. we ′ let T12 = 0 .100) b) Recalling that the principal directions are characterized by the lack of any tangential components. Tij = 0 if i ≠ j . (1. the above components are given by:   1 + cos 2θ   1 − cos 2θ  ′  T11 +   T22 + T12 sin 2θ  T11 =  2 2        1 − cos 2θ   1 + cos 2θ   ′  T22 − T12 sin 2θ  T11 +   T22 =  2 2        sin 2θ   sin 2θ  ′  T12 =  −  T11 +   T22 + T12 cos 2θ  2    2   Reordering the previous equation. in order to find the principal directions for the plane case. Chaves (2013) . i. the angle corresponding to the principal direction is:  2 T12  T11 − T22 1 2 θ = arctg      (1.e.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 98 trigonometric identities. V.99) becomes: 2 2 Making use of the following  1 + cos 2θ    2  ′ T11     T ′  =  1 − cos 2θ    22   2    T12   ′    sin 2θ   −   2     1 − cos 2θ    sin 2θ  2     T11   1 + cos 2θ      − sin 2θ   T22  2     T12     sin 2θ  cos 2θ      2   Explicitly. 2 cos θ sin θ = sin 2θ .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 1 − cos 2θ 1 + cos 2θ cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = cos 2θ . cos 2 θ = .

Chaves (2013) . i.5  T22 =   2   2    1 − 2  ′  T12 = −  sin 90º −4 cos 90º = 0.5311   T2 = −2. T12 = −4 and θ = 45º .4375º ) ⇒ r The principal values of T ( x . T22 . j = 1. where T11 = 1 . T12 .5   2   And the angle corresponding to the principal direction is:  2 T12  T11 − T22 1 2 θ = arctg   2 × (−4) =  1− 2  (θ = 41.5        1 + 2  1 − 2  ′ −  cos 90º +4 sin 90º = 5. V.102) 2 + T12 ′ c) We directly apply equation (1.100) and by varying θ from 0º to 360º . 2 ) − [− ( T11 + T22 )] ± = 99 2(1) T11 + T22 ± 2 = ( [− (T11 + T22 )]2 [(T11 + T22 )]2 2 − 4(1) T11 T22 − T12 ( 2 − 4 T11 T22 − T12 4 ) ) By rearranging the above equation we obtain the principal values for the two-dimensional case as: T(1.1 TENSORS T(1. we can obtain ′ ′ ′ different values of T11 . T22 = 2 .2) .:  1 + 2  1 − 2  ′  T11 =  2  +  2  cos 90º −4 sin 90º = −2. which are illustrated in the following graph: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . 2 ) = T11 + T22  T − T22  ±  11  2 2   2 (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) can be evaluated as follows: T(1.e.100) to evaluate the values of the components Tij .5311 d) By referring to equation in (1. (i. 2 ) = T11 + T22  T − T22  ±  11  2 2   2 2 + T12 ⇒  T1 = 5.

437º -6 TS max = 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2) Solution: The symmetric part of the tensor is given by: sym Tij = 5 2 1 Tij + T ji =   2  2 4 ( ) The principal values: 5−λ 2 2 4−λ =0 ⇒ λ2 − 9λ + 16 = 0 The solution of the quadratic equation is given by: λ (1. V.4385 We can draw the Mohr circle (2D) of the tensor T sym : University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .99 Obtain the principal values (eigenvalues) and the principal directions (eigenvectors) of the symmetric part of T .5311 300 350 θ ′ T11 ′ x1 45º T12 150 θ = 86.5311 6 4 T22 2 ′ T12 T11 0 0 50 100 -2 -4 200 250 T2 = −2. 2 ) = − 9 ± (−9) 2 − 4 × (1) × (16) 2 ×1 λ 1 ≡ T1 = 6.437º σ2 Components 8 ′ T22 T1 = 5. j = 1.0311 Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 100 ′ x1 T1 θ = 41.437 º T2 ′ x1 θ = 131. whose components in the Cartesian system are given by: 5 1  Tij =   3 4 (i.5615 ⇒ λ 2 ≡ T2 = 2. Chaves (2013) .

Using indicial notation.103) By: Eduardo W. the principal direction can be obtained by means of the equation: tan(2θ) = sym 2 T12 sym T11 − = sym T22 2×2 =4 5−4 ⇒ θ = 37.100 Find the gradient of the function f ( x1 . ] ∂f ˆ ∂f ˆ e1 + e2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂f = x1 exp x1x2 ∂x 2 [ ] r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ∇ x f ( x1 . and twice continuously differentiable.101 r Let v and ϕ be. V. x 2 ) = cos( x1 ) + exp x1x2 at the point ( x1 = 0.Spain Draft (1.982º Problem 1.1) = [1] e1 + [0] e 2 = 2e1 Problem 1. vector and scalar. j e i University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the gradient of a scalar function is given by: r ∇x f = where: ∂f = − sin( x1 ) + x 2 exp x1x2 ∂x1 [ .5615 sym TN For the plane case. x 2 = 1) . Solution: By definition.1 TENSORS 101 TSsym sym sym (T11 . Chaves (2013) . x 2 ) = − sin( x1 ) + x 2 exp x1x2 e 1 + x1 exp x1x2 e 2 ⇒ ∇ x f (0. show that: r r r r a) ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) = 0 r r r b) ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ϕ ) = ∇ x 2ϕ r r r c) ∇ x (φµ ) = µ ∇ x φ + φ∇ x µ r r r r r r d) ∇ x ⋅ (φv ) = ∇ x φ ⋅ v + φ∇ x ⋅ v r r r e) ∇ x ⋅ ( A ⋅ B) = ∇ x A : B + A ⋅ (∇ x ⋅ B) ( A and B are second-order tensors) Solution: a) Considering that r r r ˆ ∇ x ∧ v =  ijk v k . respectively. T12 ) 2θ TII = 2.4385 TI = 6.

Solution: r r ˆ ˆ r ˆ Observing that a = a j e j .102 r r r r r r r r r Let a and b be vectors. i = a i .104) then r r ∂ ∂ r r ˆ ˆ ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) = ( ijk v k .i v i + φv i .i = φ .i δ ij ) ∂x j ∂x j ∂ϕ . j e i ) ⋅ e l = ( ijk v k .i = φ . jl Note that  ljk is an antisymmetric tensor in lj and vk .107)  ∂ 2ϕ 2 = r =∇x ϕ  ∂x 2 j  c) [∇ xr (φµ )]i = (φµ ) . j = [∇ x A : B ]i + [A ⋅ (∇ x ⋅ B)]i Problem 1.i e i ) ⋅ e j = (ϕ . jl is a symmetric tensor in lj . i +b i . ∇ x = e i ˆ ˆ ∂ (a j e j + b k e k ) ∂x i ˆ ⋅ ei = ∂a j ∂x i ˆ ˆ e j ⋅ ei + r r ∂ r . j B kj + A ik B kj . j . thus:  ljk v k . V.105) =  ljk v k .i r r = µ [∇ x φ ]i + φ[∇ x µ ]i (1.108) r r d) The result of ∇ x ⋅ (φv ) is a scalar which can be expressed as follows: r r ∇ x ⋅ (φv ) = (φvi ) . i = ∇ x ⋅ a + ∇ x ⋅ b University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .106) b) r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ϕ ) = = = ∂ ∂ ˆ ˆ (ϕ . jl = 0 (1. j ) ∂xl (1. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 102 r ∇ x ⋅ (•) = ∂ (•) ˆ ⋅ el ∂xl (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. b = b k e k . j ∂x j ∂ ∂x j = ϕ . Show that the following identity ∇ x ⋅ (a + b) = ∇ x ⋅ a + ∇ x ⋅ b holds. we can express ∇ x ⋅ (a + b) as follows: ∂x i r r ∂b k ∂a ∂b r r ˆ ˆ ek ⋅ ei = i + i = ∇ x ⋅ a + ∇ x ⋅b ∂x i ∂x i ∂x i Working directly with indicial notation we obtain: r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (a + b) = (a i + b i ).i µ + φµ . j = A ik . j δ il ) ∂xl ∂x l = ∂ ( ljk v k . [∇ x ⋅ ( A ⋅ B)]i = ( A ⋅ B) ij . j = ( A ik B kj ) . jj  ∂ϕ   ∂x j  (1. i r r r r = ∇ x φ ⋅ v + φ∇ x ⋅ v r e) Considering that ( A ⋅ B) ij = A ik B kj . thus r r ( A ik B kj ) .

3 ).112) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 TENSORS Problem 1.103 103 r r r Find the components of (∇ x a) ⋅ b . V. b = b k e k . j =1 ⇒ b1 ∂a1 ∂a ∂a + b2 1 + b3 1 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 j = 2 ⇒ b1 ∂a 2 ∂a ∂a + b2 2 + b3 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 j = 3 ⇒ b1 ∂a 3 ∂a ∂a + b 2 3 + b3 3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 Problem 1.110) 2 r r r r r c) ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ a) = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ a) − ∇ x a (1. t ) is a scalar field.111) 2 r r r r r d) ∇ x ⋅ (ψ∇ x φ ) = ψ∇ x φ + (∇ x ψ ) ⋅ (∇ x φ) (1.104 Prove that the following relationship is valid: r q 1 r r 1 r r ∇ ⋅   = ∇ x ⋅ q − 2 q ⋅ ∇ xT T  T T   r r r where q( x . and T ( x . r r ˆ ˆ r ˆ Solution: Bearing in mind that a = a j e j .i   i  1 r r 1 r r = ∇ x ⋅ q − 2 q ⋅ ∇ x T (scalar) T T Problem 1.105 Show that: r r r r r r r r r a) rot (λa) = ∇ x ∧ (λa) = λ(∇ x ∧ a) + (∇ x λ ∧ a) r r r r r r r r r r (1.i − 2 q i T. ∇ x = e i ∂ ( i = 1.i T    .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.109) r r r r r r r r b) ∇ x ∧ (a ∧ b) = (∇ x ⋅ b)a − (∇ x ⋅ a)b + (∇ x a) ⋅ b − (∇ x b) ⋅ a r r r (1. Chaves (2013) . the following is ∂x i true: ˆ  ∂a j ∂a j r r  ∂ (a j e j )  ∂a j  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ r ⊗ e i  ⋅ (b k e k ) =  (∇ x a) ⋅ b =   ∂x e j ⊗ e i  ⋅ (b k e k ) = b k δ ik ∂x e j = b k ∂x e j  ∂x i  i k  i    Expanding the dummy index k . r x Solution: r q 1 1 ∂  qi   qi  r ∇ x ⋅  =  T  ∂x  T  ≡  T  = T q i .2. we obtain: ∂a j bk ∂x k ∂a j = b1 ∂x1 + b2 ∂a j ∂x 2 + b3 ∂a j ∂x 3 Thus. t ) is an arbitrary vector field.

p b j + a i b j .ll [ ] r r r Note that [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ a)]q = a k .i = φ∇ x ψ + (∇ xφ ) ⋅ (∇ xψ ) 2 (1.115) = δ il δ jp a i .kq − a q . j . r r [(∇ a) ⋅ b] = a r x l r l. the result of  ijk  lpk = δ il δ jp − δ ip δ jl and by substituting in the above equation we obtain: r [∇ r x ] r r ∧ (a ∧ b) l =  kij  lpk (a i .116) =  qli  ijk a k . p − a p b l .l (1. p b j − δ ip δ jl a i . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .i = φψ . the above equation becomes: r [∇ r x ] r r r ∧ (∇ x ∧ a) q =  qli  ijk a k .i ).ii + φ . j a k (1. p ) = (δ il δ jp − δ ip δ jl )(a i .113) r r r r = λ(∇ x ∧ a) i  ijk (∇ x λ ) j a k r r r r r = λ(∇ x ∧ a) i (∇ x λ ∧ a) i r r r r r r r r r with that we check the identity: rot (λa) = ∇ x ∧ (λa) = λ(∇ x ∧ a) + (∇ x λ ∧ a) . kq and ∇ x 2 a q = a q . pb p [(∇ . p Note [ ] that r r r (∇ x b) ⋅ a l = a p b l . r x r r ⋅ a)b]l r r = a p.iψ . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. jl Considering that  qli  ijk =  qli  jki = δ qj δ lk − δ qk δ lj . p = al . jl − δ qkδ lj a k . jl (1. p b l + al b p.ll . p ) (1. j a k + λa k . [(∇ r x ⋅ b)a]l r r = al b p. r r r r The components of the vector product (a ∧ b) are given by (a ∧ b) k =  kij a i b j . Then: 123 ci [ ] r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ a) q =  qli c i . Chaves (2013) .118) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. whose components are given by: r [∇ r x ] r ∧ (λa) i =  ijk (λa k ) . p . p − δ ip δ jl a i b j . j =  ijk (λ . p b j + a i b j . p b j + a i b j . p . p (1.114) =  kij  lpk (a i . jl = (δ qjδ lk − δ qkδ lj )a k . p b l . p b p − a p. j ) =  ijk λa k . Then: r [∇ r x ] r r ∧ (a ∧ b) l =  lpk ( kij a i b j ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 104 Solution: r r r a) The result of the algebraic operation ∇ x ∧ (λa) is a vector. r r r c) The components of (∇ x ∧ a) are given by (∇ x ∧ a) i =  ijk a k . p ) b) Considering that  kij =  ijk .117) = δ qjδ lk a k . jl = a k . p b j + δ il δ jp a i b j .l =  qli ( ijk a k . j  ijk λ . j ) . r r d) r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (φ∇ xψ ) = (φψ .

ji = 0 Note that  ij1v1..111) we obtain: r r r r 2r r r r r r ∇ x v = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) r r r r r r = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ x ∧ ω University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .120) r r r r r ⇒ ∇ x ⋅ (φ∇ x ψ − ψ∇ x φ ) = φ∇ x ψ − ψ∇ x φ 2 2 Problem 1. Likewise. it holds that: r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (ω ∧ v ) = (∇ x ⋅ v ) ω − (∇ x ⋅ ω)v + (∇ x ω) ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) ⋅ ω r r r r r r Note that ∇ x ⋅ ω = ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) = 0 . [( Solution: ] ) r [ ] r ˆ r Regarding that: ∇ x ∧ v =  ijk v k .119) r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (ψ∇ x φ ) = ψ∇ x φ + (∇ x ψ ) ⋅ (∇ x φ) 2 Subtracting the two previous identities we obtain: r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (φ∇ x ψ ) − ∇ x ⋅ (ψ∇ x φ) = φ∇ x ψ − ψ∇ x φ 2 2 (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. i. ji ∂xl ∂xl ∂xi r The second derivative of v is symmetrical with ij . a) Show that ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) = 0 and r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x φ ) = 0 . thus:  ijk v k . Chaves (2013) . show that ∇ x ∧ (∇ x 2 v ) = ∇ x 2 (∇ x ∧ v ) = ∇ x 2 ω .e. j e i ( ) r r ∂ ∂ ∂ r r ˆ ˆ ∇x ⋅ ∇x ∧v =  ijk vk . V. v k . and u be a vector field.ij . ji =  ij1v1. r r r r r r r rr r r r r r r r r r r r r b) Show that ∇ x ∧ ∇ x ∧ v ∧ v = (∇ x ⋅ v )(∇ x ∧ v ) + ∇ x (∇ x ∧ v ) ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) . j e i ⋅ e l =  ijk vk . r r r r r r r r r r r r r c) Referring ω = ∇ x ∧ v . ji = 0 since the double scalar product between a symmetric and an antisymmetric tensor is zero.106 r r Let φ be a scalar field. we can show that: r r r r r r ˆ ˆ ∇ x ∧ (∇ x φ ) =  ijk φ . ji +  ij 2 v 2. kj e i = 0 i e i = 0 r r b) Denoting by ω = ∇ x ∧ v we obtain: [( ) ] r r r r r r ∇x ∧ ∇x ∧v ∧v r r r r = ∇ x ∧ (ω ∧ v ) Observing the equation in (1. we can draw the conclusion that: r r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (ω ∧ v ) = (∇ x ⋅ v )ω + (∇ x ω) ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) ⋅ ω r r r rr r r r r r r r r r r = (∇ x ⋅ v )(∇ x ∧ v ) + ∇ x (∇ x ∧ v ) ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) [ ] c) Observing the equation in (1.110). j =  ijk vk . j δ il =  ijk vk . ji = v k .1 TENSORS 105 Another interesting identity originating from the above is: r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (φ∇ x ψ ) = φ∇ x ψ + (∇ x φ ) ⋅ (∇ x ψ ) 2 (1. while  ijk is antisymmetric ( ) ( ) ( ) with ij . Then.  ijk = − jik . i. ji +  ij 3 v3.e.

c.2) (∇ x ∧ T )T = ipq Tqj . a.5) Considering c a constant vector. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. p e i ⊗ e j r r a.i =  ijk a j . r r r ∂u r r c. and a.2) (∇ x ∧ T )T . Chaves (2013) . prove that ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ F )T = 0 . obtain the symbolic notation of a.4) (∇ x ∧ T T )T =  jpq Tiq .107 Show that: r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r a) ∇ x ⋅ (a ∧ b) = (∇ x ∧ a) ⋅ b + a ⋅ (∇ x ∧ b) ≡ rot (a) ⋅ b + a ⋅ rot (b) Solution: r (1. c.3) (∇ x ∧ T T ) = ∂T jq ∂ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e p ∧ T jq (e q ⊗ e j ) = e p ∧ e q ⊗ e j = ipq T jq .111) to express the term ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ω) : [ ] r r r r r r r 2r 2r 2r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x v ) = −∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ω) = −∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ω) + ∇ x ω = −∇ x ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) + ∇ x ω 14 244 4 3 =0 r r 2 r r = ∇ x (∇ x ∧ v ) Problem 1. p e i ⊗ e j ∂x p ∂x p r ˆ ˆ r a. p ei ⊗ e j University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: r r a. p e j ⊗ ei =  jpq Tqi .i b k +  ijk b k . a.1) (∇ x ∧ T ) = ∂Tqj ∂ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e p ∧ Tqj (e q ⊗ e j ) = e p ∧ e q ⊗ e j = Tqj .1) Consider the second-order tensor F = r + 1 .i a j 1 r 3 1 r 2 3 r2 r (∇ ∧a)k (∇ ∧b ) j r r r r r r r r = (∇ x ∧ a) ⋅ b + a ⋅ (∇ x ∧ b) Problem 1.108 r r a) Let T be an arbitrary second-order tensor. p  ipq ei ⊗ e j = ipq Tqj .1) (∇ x ∧ T ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 106 Applying the curl to the above equation we obtain: r r r r r r 2r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x v ) = ∇ x ∧ [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v )] − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ω) 144 2444 4r 3 =0 r r r r r Referring once again to the equation in (1. p ei ⊗ e j ∂x p ∂x p r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ a.3) (∇ x ∧ T T ) . show that: [ ] r r r r r r T r r r ∇ x ∧ ( T ⋅ c) = (∇ x ∧ T ) ⋅ c = c ⋅ ∇ x ∧ T r r r r b) Obtain the symbolic notation of ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T .2) ∂x r r r r ∇ x ∧ F T = 0 . r r r r r r r a.3) Obtain the explicit expression for ∇ x ∧ F components.121) r r The expression ∇ x ⋅ (a ∧ b) is a scalar which can be expressed as follows: r r r ∇ x ⋅ (a ∧ b) = (ijk a j b k ) .4) (∇ x ∧ T T )T .

p c k eiδ jk =  ipq Tqj . p e j ⊗ ei = ipq e s ∧ e j ⊗ e i =  ipq tsj εqj . pjs = uq . Alternative solution: Taking into account that δ it δ ij δ is  iqp  tjs = δ qt δ qj δ qs = δ itδ qjδ ps + δ ijδ qsδ pt + δ isδ pjδ qt − δ isδ qjδ pt − δ qsδ pjδ it − δ psδ qtδ ij δ pt δ pj δ ps then University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . p c j ei r ˆ ˆ r b) We have already shown that (∇ x ∧ ε ) = ipq εqj . p c j e i { =0 r where we have considered that c is constant. r r ˆ ˆ a. thus r r ∂εqj . j into ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T ∂x ∂x j we get: r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ J )T = iqp  tjs J qj . p c j ei + ipq Tqj c j . p ei ∂x p ∂x p ∂x p ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ ipq aq . psj .e. it is symmetric in js . p are the components of (∇ x ∧ T )ij (see (a.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5) Let us make that a = T ⋅ c = ( Tqj c j )e q = aq e q . ps et ⊗ ei = iqp  tjs εqj . p ei = ipq Tqj . jps = uq .1) Note that ∇ x ∧ F = ∇ x ∧  r + 1  = ∇ x ∧  r  + ∇ x ∧ (1) = ∇ x ∧  r  = ∇ x ∧ J . ps et ⊗ e j = (δ tpδ sq − δ tqδ sp ) εqj . r r Note that  ipq Tqj .1 TENSORS 107 ˆ ˆ ˆ where we have considered the definition e j ∧ e k =  ijk ei . thus: r r r ∂aq ∂a ∂ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r e p ∧ aq e q = ∇ x ∧ (T ⋅ c) = ∇ x ∧ a = ipq ei = ipq q e i =  ipq aq . ss )e t ⊗ e j r r r r r r  ∂u  r r  ∂u  r r  ∂u  r r r r r c.1)). p ∂ ˆ r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e s ∧  ipq εqj . p ei = ipq ( Tqj c j ). and the tensor tjs = − tsj is r r ˆ ˆ antisymmetric in js . p ∂ ˆ r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e s ∧ ipq εqj . ps e t ⊗ ei = iqp  tjsuq . p ei =  ipq Tqj . p ei ⊗ e j = ipq e s ∧ e i ⊗ e j = ipq εqj . and ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ F )T = 0ti et ⊗ ei = 0 . ts − εtj . ps )e t ⊗ e j = ( ε sj . i. ps et ⊗ e i ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T = ∂xs ∂xs ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = (− iqp )(− tjs ) εqj . ps tsi et ⊗ e j ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε ) = ∂xs ∂xs ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = its  ipq εqj . jps = 0tqp . p ei ⊗ e j ⋅ c k e k =  ipq Tqj . V. ps et ⊗ e i =  qpi  jst εqj . ps et ⊗ ei ( ) ( ) Note that: r r ∂εqj . ps et ⊗ e j ( ) ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = (δ tpδ sq εqj .e. so tjsuq . where  ∂x   ∂x   ∂x  r r r ∂u ∂u r r we have denoted by J = r . c j . i. ps − δ tqδ sp εqj . Chaves (2013) . p c j ei = (∇ x ∧ T )ij c j ei = (∇ x ∧ T ) ⋅ c i e i = c ⋅ (∇ x ∧ T )T i e i r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (∇ x ∧ T ) ⋅ c = ipq Tqj . jps et ⊗ ei Note that uq . p = ∂c j ∂x p = 0 jp . Taking into account εqj = J qj = q = uq . p e i ⊗ e j . thus [ ] [ ] r r r r r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r r r ∇ x ∧ ( T ⋅ c ) =  ipq Tqj .

3 − J 13. 2 − J 22. 2  = 0ij J 23. jp we get: ipquq.1 J 13.3   J 12. Chaves (2013) . 2    J 32. 21 − u1.1  =  u1. jss + u s . 23 u3.13 − u1. jp ei ⊗ e q = 0 ip ei ⊗ e q Note that uq .33 − u3.1 − J 31.31  J 22. p e i ⊗ e j =  ipquq . 21 u1. 21 − u2. 21 − u1.1 − J 12.12 u2. pj is symmetric in jp meanwhile ipj = − ijp is antisymmetric in jp . jp 123 4 4 + ip 2u2.11 u1.its + ut .3 − J 23. V.3 J 33. 2 − J 12. 2 J 23. ∂x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .33   J 31. jp e i ⊗ e j Expanding the term ipquq .ipp = 0ti Note that δ it u j . j 2 + i 31u1. r r c. pps .13 u3. j1 + + + i 21u1. ppi = ut . jps = δ it u j .1 − J 21.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 108 iqp  tjs Fqj . 2  u1. jps − δ isδ qjδ pt u q .31 u2. jp =  ip1u1.3 − J 31. 23     J 21.1 − J 11. 2 − J 32. 22 − u2.32 − u2. ppi − u j . jps = δ itδ qjδ psu q .32   J 21.13 − u3.13 − u3. 22 u2. 2 − J 21.ipp .1 − J 13.31 − u1.1  J 12.11 − u1. if ε= 1 (J + J T ) 2 ⇒ r r r r 1rr 1rr r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T = ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ J )T + ∇ x ∧ ( ∇ x ∧ J T )T = 0 1 24 4 3 3 2 2 144244 =0 r ∂u where J = r . 2 − J 22.3 r  T r (∇ x ∧ J )ij =  J 11. jti − δ it u s .12 − u2.32 − u3. jps − δ qsδ pjδ it u q .32 − u1.its = u j . 23 u3.3 − J 33.ssp = δ it us .itj = u j . j 3 thus u3. r r c. 2   Note that  J 13. 2 − J 23.1  J 22. 23 − u3.3 − J 32. jp 123 4 4 i11u1. jps − δ psδ qtδ ij u q . j 2 +  i 22u2. pps − ut .Spain Draft =0 By: Eduardo W. jps + δ ijδ qsδ pt uq . 2 J 32. 23 u2.12 u3. j 2 + i 23u3. ut . p ipj ei ⊗ e q ∂x p ∂x p ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ =  ipj J qj . ps = (δ itδ qjδ ps + δ ijδ qsδ pt + δ isδ pjδ qt − δ isδ qjδ pt ) − δ qsδ pjδ it − δ psδ qtδ ij u q .1  u2.1)): r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ∇ x ∧ J =  ipq J qj . p ei ⊗ e q = ipj uq . j1 +  i12u2. u s . jp = uq . 21 − u3.12     Note that.3) We express ∇ x ∧ J in indicial notation (see (a.31 u3. j1 + i13u3. jss = δ it u p .3 − J 33.13 − u2.1 − J 11.1 J 31.3 r    r ∧J) = u (∇ x ij  1.31  =  J 11. jti .3  u1. pss = δ it u p . j 3 + + i 32u2. jps + δ isδ pjδ qt u q . j 3 + + ip 3u3.2) We express ∇ x ∧ J T in indicial notation: r ∂J qj ∂ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r ∇x ∧ J T = e p ∧ J qj (e j ⊗ e q ) = e p ∧ e j ⊗ e q = J qj .3 J 33. jp 123 4 4 +  ip 3u3.32 − u2.12 u2.

13 + u 2 .33 = u1. Chaves (2013) .105 that the following is true: r r r r 2r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ a) = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ a) − ∇ x a indicial →   ilq  qjk ak .Spain Draft ⇒ u1. If we recall the property of an antisymmetric tensor 2 r skew r r r r (∇ x v ) ⋅ a = ϕ ∧ a . jj = u j . 23  3. j a p = (δ pjδ r r r r r ∇ x v − (∇ x v ) T ⋅ a {[ sk ] r r ] } sk v k . jl = a j . 22 + u1. 21 + u3. jj = u j .11 + u 2. 22 + ui .33 = u1.33 = u1. 22 3. V. then r [(∇ r x ] r r ∧ v ) ∧ a s =  sip  ijk v k .13 2 .11 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . jj Then.12 + u3.1i + u 2. ji − ai .33 = u 2. ji ⇒ ui . j a p = (δ pjδ = (v s . Solution: We have proven in Problem 1.11 + u 2.33  3. j )a p s r r r r r If we denote by l = ∇ x v . 21 + u3. ji − ilq  qjk uk . a) show that r r r r r r r r 2r 2r r r r r r r r r ∇ x u = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) when ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) = 0 .1 TENSORS 109 Problem 1. 22 + u1.32 u + u + u = u + u + u 3. s ) a p = Alternative solution: [ r − δ pk δ sj )v k .11 (1. p − v p .3i  u1. j a p .32 u + u 3. b) show that ∇ x u = −∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) when r r r r ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) = 0 . j . we can obtain r r r r r 2r r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ xu) ≡ ∇ x u = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) indicial →  ui .122) By: Eduardo W. it is easy to verify that: r r r r r 2r r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x u) ≡ ∇ x u = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) 14 244 4r 3 a) ⇒ r 2r r r r ∇ x u = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) =0 Components: ui . 2i + u3. jl Then. 22 + u2. 23 3.12 + u2.31  u 2.33 1.31  ⇒ u 2. j −δ pk δ sj v k . we conclude that r skew r r r r ⋅a = ϕ ∧ a (∇ x v ) r 1 r r r r 1 rr r r ∇ x v − (∇ x v ) T ⋅ a = (∇ x ∧ v ) ∧ a 2 2 r r r r r r r v − (∇ r v ) T ⋅ a = (∇ r ∧ v ) ∧ a ∇x x x [ [ ] ] Problem 1. Note that the axial r r r r r vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor (∇ x v ) skew = (v ⊗ ∇ x ) skew is the vector r 1 rr r ϕ = (∇ x ∧ v ) (see Problem 1. 22 + u3. then (∇ x ∧ v ) ∧ a s =  sip  ijk vk . By means of components of u . show that [ r r r r r r r r (∇ x ∧ v ) ∧ a = ∇ x v − (∇ x v )T Solution: r [r r r r r ] ⋅a ] r r If we consider (∇ x ∧ v ) i = ijk vk .33 = u1.110 r r r r Let u = u( x ) be a vector field.11 + u1.37).11 + ui .11 + u 2. Note also that the relationship  sip ijk =  psi  jki = δ pjδ sk − δ pkδ sj holds. 22 = u1.109 r r Let a and v be vectors. then ∇ x v − (∇ x v ) T = 2(∇ x v ) skew = 2l skew .

23 − u2.33 r r r      r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) i = u3.123) u3.13  0 u2. 22 r r r r And if we consider ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) = 0 we get: r [∇ xr (∇ xr ⋅ u)]i = u1. 23 + u1.31 3.32  2. 22 u + u = −u 2 .11  u1. 22 + u3.32 = −u2. 23 3. 22 − u1. 22 + u2.13 = u1.11 + u1.13 ⇒ (1.33 + u3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 32 = u3. 33  1.11 3. 23 − u2.33 + u2. 32  3. 33  1.31 3.122).33 − u2. 21  u − u − u + u  2. 23 − u2.12 + u3.1i + u2. 22 2 . jj = − ilq  qjk uk .13 )  ui .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 110 Note that in the Cartesian System we have: r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u = ui e i = u1e1 + u2 e 2 + u3e3 r r r r  ∂u ∂u   ∂u ∂u   ∂u ∂u  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r (∇ x ∧ u) ≡ rot (u) = (rot (u) )i ei =  3 − 2 e1 +  1 − 3 e 2 +  2 − 1 e3  ∂x  ∂x   ∂x  ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2  2 3 1  4243  4243  4243 1 4 r 4 1 4 r 4 1 4 r 4 = (rot (u) )3 = (rot (u) )1 = (rot (u) )2 r r r r r r r r r  ∂ (rot (u) )3 ∂ (rot (u) )2   ∂ (rot (u) )1 ∂ (rot (u) )3   ∂ (rot (u) )2 ∂ (rot(u) )1  r r ˆ ˆ ˆ e1 +  e 2 +  e 3 − − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) =  −       ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2       r r  ∂ (rot (u) )3 ∂ (rot (u) )2   ∂  ∂u2 − ∂u1  − ∂  ∂u1 − ∂u3      −      ∂x  ∂x  ∂x2 ∂x3  2  1 ∂x2  ∂x3  ∂x3 ∂x1    r r r r  ∂ (rot (u) )1 ∂ (rot (u) )3   ∂  ∂u3 ∂u2  ∂  ∂u2 ∂u1  r     r r  −   − − − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) i =  = ∂x3  ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x2  ∂x3 ∂x1      r r    ∂ (rot (u) ) ∂ (rot (u) )    2 1 −   ∂  ∂u1 − ∂u3  − ∂  ∂u3 − ∂u2         ∂x  ∂x  ∂x1 ∂x2   1  3 ∂x1  ∂x2  ∂x2 ∂x3      [ ] u2.33 + u3. V. 22  1.33 = −(u3.33 + u3.11 + u1.3i = 0i ⇒ u1. 32   1. 22 [ ] which are the same conditions as those presented in equation (1.13    = u3. 21 ) u + u + u = −(u − u − u + u ) 3.11 + u2. jl ⇒ u2. 21  = 0 ⇒ u3. 21 + u3.33 − u2.33 − u2. 2i + u3.11 + u1.31 = 0  u1.33 = −(u2.12 − u1.31 3.32 = 0 u + u + u = 0 2 .12 + u2. 22 r r r r r r If we are considering that ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) = 0 then: u2.11 3. Chaves (2013) . 21 = −u1.11 u − u − u + u  0 u + u    1.31 2 . 22 + u1.12 − u1.31 + u2. 33 1. 22 + u1.11 + u1. 22 − u1. b) r r r r r 2r r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x u) ≡ ∇ x u = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ u) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) 14 r 4 2 3 r r r 2r r r r ∇ x u = −∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ u) ⇒ =0 Components u1.11 3. 21 = u2. 23 3.12 − u1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . 22 − u1.11 + u2.11 + u3.123) we prove that the equality holds.11 3.13 If we replace the above equations into (1.12 + u3.

by: r sym r (∇ x v ) ij 1 0 0 1  ∂vi ∂v j    =  +  = 0 1 0 2  ∂x j ∂xi    0 0 1   . v = v ( x ) . Chaves (2013) . V. w2 .111 r r r 111 r r Let v be a vector field in function of x . d) Obtain the axial vector associated r r with the antisymmetric tensor (∇ x v ) skew .1 TENSORS Problem 1. w3 are the components of the axial vector w associated with the r r antisymmetric tensor W ≡ (∇ x v ) skew . Solution: a) r r ∇ xv  ∂v1   ∂x1 ∂vi  ∂v 2 r components r   →(∇ x v ) ij = = ∂x j  ∂x1   ∂v3  ∂x1  r ∂v = r ∂x r ∂v1   ∂x 3   1 − 5 2  ∂v 2   1 − 3 = 5  ∂x 3  − 2 3 1   ∂v 3  ∂x 3   ∂v1 ∂x 2 ∂v 2 ∂x 2 ∂v3 ∂x 2 r r r b) ∇ x v : 1 = Tr (∇ x v ) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 r r r r r r c) ∇ x v = (∇ x v ) sym + (∇ x v ) skew = [ ] [ ] r r r r 1 1 r r r r (∇ x v ) + (∇ x v ) T + (∇ x v ) − (∇ x v ) T 2 2 144 2444 4 3 144 2444 4 3 r r =(∇ x v ) sym r r r =(∇ x v ) skew r r r Then.124) − w3 0 w1 w2  − w1   0   r where w1 .Spain − w3 0 w1 w2   0 − 5 2  − w1  =  5 0 − 3    0 0  − 2 3    Draft ⇒ w1 = 3   w2 = 2 w = 5  3 By: Eduardo W.e.j  0    1  ∂v =  2 −   2  ∂x1  1  ∂v   3 −   2  ∂x1  W13   0 W23  =  − W12   0   − W13   ∂v1   ∂x 2   ∂v1   ∂x3   W12 0 − W23 1  ∂v1 ∂v 2  − 2  ∂x 2 ∂x1      0 1  ∂v 3 ∂v 2  − 2  ∂x 2 ∂x3      W13   0 W23  =  w3   0   − w2   1  ∂v1 ∂v 3     − 2  ∂x 3 ∂x1     1  ∂v 2 ∂v 3     − 2  ∂x3 ∂x 2       0   (1. whose components are given by: v1 = x1 − 5 x 2 + 2 x3  v 2 = 5 x1 + x 2 − 3 x3 v = −2 x + 3 x + x 1 2 3  3 r r r a) Obtain the gradient of v . then. c) Apply the additive decomposition of the r r tensor ∇ x v into a symmetric and antisymmetric parts. i. the components of (∇ x v ) sym and (∇ x v ) skew are given. b) Obtain ∇ x v : 1 . respectively. r skew r (∇ x v ) ij  0 −5 2  1  ∂vi ∂v j   0 − 3 =  − = 5  2  ∂x j ∂x i    − 2 3 0   d) Remember that [ r r (W) ij ≡ (∇ x v ) skew  0 =  W21   W31  ] ij W12 0 W32 ≡ viskew . to the proposed problem we have:  0  w  3 − w2  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

is w = 3e1 + 2e 2 + 5e 3 . Considering that D = (∇ x v ) sym and W = (∇ x v ) skew .: Note that the resulting tensor (l ⋅ l University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i. By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .35 we have shown that: given an arbitrary second-order tensor l skew ⋅l sym +l sym ⋅l skew = 2( l skew ⋅l l it fulfills that sym skew ) Then. 1 r r (a ∧ x ) is the 2 Alternative solution d) Resorting to Problem 1. the axial vector [ ( ] r skew r r r r (∇ x v ) skew = (v ) ⊗ (∇ x ) associated with the antisymmetric tensor ) is the vector r 1 rr r w = ∇x ∧v .e. V.Spain T ] l ⋅l T −l T −l ⋅ l )T Draft T ⋅ l is symmetric. D = [ 1 l +l 2 T ] . W ⋅ D + D ⋅ W = 2(D ⋅ W ) skew holds. in the Cartesian basis. Then.37 where we have shown that r r axial vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor ( x ⊗ a ) skew . Taking into account the definition of symmetry and Antisymmetry. since: = l ⋅l T −l T ⋅l . 2 ˆ e1 r 1 ∂ w= 2 ∂x1 v1 = ˆ e2 ∂ ∂x 2 v2 ˆ e3 ∂v 1  ∂v ∂ =  3 − 2  ∂x ∂x3 2  2 ∂x3  v3  ∂v   ∂v ∂v ∂v  ˆ ˆ e 1 −  3 − 1 e 2 +  2 − 1  ∂x    ∂x  1 ∂x 2   1 ∂x 3  [   ˆ e 3      ] 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (3 − (−3) )e1 − ((−2) − (2) )e 2 + (5 − (−5))e 3 = 3e1 + 2e 2 + 5e 3 2 Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 112 r ˆ ˆ ˆ The axial vector. show that r r r r W ⋅ D + D ⋅ W = 2(D ⋅ W) skew = (∇ x v ⋅ ∇ x v ) skew = ( l ⋅ l ) skew Solution: In Problem 1. we can conclude that: 2 T W ⋅ D + D ⋅ W = 2(D ⋅ W) skew = [ [ [ ] skew 2 (l + l T ) ⋅ (l − l T ) 4 1 T T T T l ⋅l + l ⋅l − l ⋅l − l ⋅l 2 skew 1 1 T T l ⋅l = 144−2444 + l ⋅ l − l 4l ⋅ l 3 2 2 = ] =0 [ [ [ ] skew T ⋅l T ] skew ] skew 1 = l ⋅ l − ( l ⋅ l )T 2 skew 1 = 2( l ⋅ l ) skew 2 r rr r = ( l ⋅ l ) skew = (∇ x v ⋅ ∇ x v ) skew OBS.112 r r r r r r Let l = ∇ x v be a second-order tensor. W = 1 [l − l ] .

The above equation can also be written as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .126) & & According to the problem statement we have l = F ⋅ F −1 ⇒ F = l ⋅ F . Show that the following is true: r d(J ) & r ≡ J = J (∇ x ⋅ v ) dt (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.46 we have shown that given a second-order tensor F the relationship F  tpq =  rjk Frt F jp Fkq holds. we can obtain: In Problem 1. c s = Fsq w q . with that the & & & following relations Frt = l rs Fst . where A = A (τ) is an  dτ  dτ  arbitrary second-order tensor and τ a scalar. where F ≡ dt represents the time derivative of F .113 Consider the scalar J = F ≡ det(F ) and an arbitrary second-order tensor given by l r & & dF r = ∇ x v = F ⋅ F −1 . and the equation in (1. V. F jp = l js Fsp and Fkq = l ks Fsq hold. The above equation in tensorial notation becomes: [ ] [ r r r r r r r r r DF r r r u ⋅ ( v ∧ w ) = ( l ⋅ a) ⋅ (b ∧ c ) + a ⋅ ( l ⋅ b) ∧ c + a ⋅ b ∧ ( l ⋅ c ) Dt r r r = Tr ( l ) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) [ ] ] where we have used the property of trace (see Problem 1.126) can be rewritten as follows: DF & & &  tpq =  rjk Frt F jp Fkq +  rjk Frt F jp Fkq +  rjk Frt F jp Fkq Dt =  rjk l rs Fst F jp Fkq +  rjk Frt l js Fsp Fkq +  rjk Frt F jp l ks Fsq We multiply both sides of the above equation by ut v p w q we get: DF Dt  tpq u t v p w q =  rjk l rs Fst F jp Fkq u t v p w q +  rjk Frt l js Fsp Fkq u t v p w q +  rjk Frt F jp l ks Fsq u t v p w q =  rjk ( l rs Fst u t )( F jp v p )( Fkq w q ) +  rjk ( Frt u t )( l js Fsp v p )( Fkq w q ) +  rjk ( Frt u t )( F jp v p )( l ks Fsq w q ) =  rjk ( l rs a s )(b j )(c k ) +  rjk (a r )( l js b s )(c k ) +  rjk (a r )(b j )( l ks c s ) where we have denoted by a s = Fst ut .87 we have shown that dF dt = ( ) ( ) ( dJ  dF & = F Tr ⋅ F −1  = J Tr F ⋅ F −1 = J Tr l = J Tr l  dt  dt  sym ) = J Tr(∇ r r xv r r ) = J (∇ x ⋅ v ) Alternative solution: In Problem 1. and if we take the time derivative of it we get: DF D & & & tpq = ( rjk Frt F jp Fkq ) =  rjk Frt F jp Fkq +  rjk Frt F jp Fkq +  rjk Frt F jp Fkq Dt Dt (1.1 TENSORS 113 Problem 1.125) Solution: dA  dA = A Tr ⋅ A −1  holds. Chaves (2013) . Making A = F and τ = t . b j = F jp v p .48).

49). where u is an r ˆ r arbitrary vector and p is orthogonal to the field defined by b( x ) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. With that we can obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 114 [ ] r r r DF r r r u ⋅ ( v ∧ w ) = Tr ( l ) a ⋅ (b ∧ c ) Dt r r r = Tr ( l ){( F ⋅ u) ⋅ [( F ⋅ v ) ∧ ( F ⋅ w ) ]} r r r = Tr ( l ) F u ⋅ ( v ∧ w ) where we have used the property of determinant (see Problem 1. (see Figure 1. Chaves (2013) . r r r Obtain the second-order projection tensor P such that p = P ⋅ u holds.9: Vector field. by considering the vector summation we obtain u = a + p .114 ˆ r Let us consider a vector field represented by the unit vector field b( x ) . V. the vector a can r ˆ ˆ r ˆ r r ˆ be obtained by means of the projection of u onto the direction b : a = a b = (u ⋅ b) b .9). note r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ also that a = (u ⋅ b) b = u ⋅ (b ⊗ b) . with that we conclude that DF = Tr ( l ) F . Solution: The proposed problem can be represented by the following figure: r u r ˆ r r u⊥ b = p = P ⋅ u r r ˆ a = u // b ˆ r b( x ) r r r r And. ˆ r b( x ) Figure 1. Dt Problem 1. In addition.

i = (v ⋅ ∇ x v ) i .1 TENSORS 115 r r r p =u−a r r ˆ ˆ r r ˆ ˆ = u − (u ⋅ b) b = u − (u ⋅ b) ⊗ b r ˆ ˆ r = 1 ⋅ u − (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u ˆ ˆ r = 1 − (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u r = P ⋅u [ p i = ui − ai ˆ ˆ = u i − (u k b k )b i ˆ ˆ =u δ −u b b k ] ik = (δ ik k k i ˆ ˆ − b k b i )u k = Pik u k Thus. Then we can present a vector as follows: [ ] r r ˆ r ˆ ˆ ˆ r ˆ ˆ r u = u // b + u⊥b = (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u + 1 − (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u [ ] r ˆ r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r ˆ ˆ r where u// b = (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u is the vector parallel to b -direction and u⊥b = 1 − (b ⊗ b) ⋅ u is the perpendicular one. We draw the proposed problem from another perspective for better visualization: r ˆ u∧b ˆ r b( x ) r u r ˆ ˆ b ∧ (u ∧ b) r r Taking into account that a ∧ (b ∧ a) = [(a ⋅ a)1 − a ⊗ a]⋅ b .i v k + v k v k . so v 2 = v ⋅ v . show that the following relationship holds: r r r 1 r r r r r ∇ x v ⋅ v = ∇ x (v 2 ) − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) 2 r r r where v is the module of v . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.17). (see Problem 1. we consider a plane normal to v and recalling that the r projection of a second-order tensor onto a direction ( v ) is a vector which does not necessary r r r r have the same direction as ( v ). we can obtain r [ r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ b ∧ (u ∧ b) = (b ⋅ b)1 − b ⊗ b r r r r r r r r ˆ ˆ ] ⋅ u = [1 − b ⊗ b] ⋅ u = p . we conclude that the projection second-order tensor is given by: ˆ ˆ P =1 −b ⊗b The same result could have been obtained by means of vector product. with that we represent the following vectors ∇ x v ⋅ v and r r r v ⋅∇ xv : Note that University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.115 r r Given a vector field v ( x ) . Problem 1.i ) = v k v k . 2 2 2 2 r r At one point of the vector field v .i = (v k . Solution: [ ] r r 1 r 2 1 r r r 1 1 r ∇ x (v ) i = [∇ x (v ⋅ v )]i = (v k v k ) .

c = 0 . the relationship r r r r r rot (v ) ≡ ∇ x ∧ v = 2 w holds. and the vector v is perpendicular to the vector (∇ x ∧ v ) . V. it r r r r r r r r r r fulfills that: (∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v = w ∧ v ⇒ v ⋅ (∇ x v ) skew = v ∧ w . r r r r r r r r r r c = v ⋅ 2(∇ x v ) skew = v ∧ 2 w = v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) (1. the r r r r r r r r r r r r r r following is fulfilled (∇ x v ) skew = 0 . (∇ x ∧ v ) = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 116 r r r ∇ xv ⋅ v r r r (∇ x ∧ v ) r v r r c⊥v r r r r c ⊥ (∇ x ∧ v ) r r r v ⋅∇ xv r r r r r c = v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) Note that. Chaves (2013) . by means of summation of vectors we can obtain: r r r r r r r ∇ xv ⋅ v + c = v ⋅ ∇ xv r r r r r r r ⇒ c = v ⋅∇ xv − ∇ xv ⋅ v r r r r r r r ⇒ c = v ⋅∇ xv − v ⋅ ∇ xv T r r r r r r r r r ⇒ c = v ⋅ (∇ x v − ∇ x v T ) = v ⋅ 2(∇ x v ) skew r r r If we consider that w is the axial vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor (∇ x v ) skew . (see Figure 1. r r r r r r r r r r r When (∇ x v ) = (∇ x v ) skew we have that c = v ⋅ 2(∇ x v ) skew = 2v ⋅ (∇ x v ) . v ⋅ ∇ x v = −∇ x v ⋅ v holds. (∇ x v ) = (∇ x v ) sym . and (∇ x v ) ⋅ v = v ⋅ (∇ x v ) has the r same direction as v .10). University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.127) with that we conclude that: r r r r r r r (∇ x v ) ⋅ v + c = v ⋅ (∇ x v ) r r r r r r r ⇒ (∇ x v ) ⋅ v = v ⋅ (∇ x v ) − c r r r 1 r r r r r ⇒ (∇ x v ) ⋅ v = ∇ x (v 2 ) − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) 2 r r r r r r It is interesting to note that: when (∇ x v ) is a symmetric tensor.127)).e. In addition. r r r r r r r r r r With that. Then. i. (see equation (1.

V. Chaves (2013) . and is independent of x3 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . With these conditions. a) Obtain the components of the differential du . thus 2(∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v = −v ⋅ 2(∇ x v ) skew = −v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) [ ] Problem 1.116 r r r Let u( x ) be a stationary vector field.10 Alternative solution: r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ x v ⋅ v = ((∇ x v ) sym + (∇ x v ) skew ) ⋅ v = (∇ x v ) sym ⋅ v + (∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v r r r r r r r r r r r r = (∇ x v ) sym ⋅ v + (∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v + ((∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v ) r r r r r r r r r = ((∇ x v ) sym ⋅ v − (∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v ) + 2(∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v r r r r r r r 1 r r r r r = (∇ x v + (∇ x v ) T ) − (∇ x v − (∇ x v ) T ) ⋅ v + 2(∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v 2 r r r r 1 r r = (2(∇ x v ) T ) ⋅ v + 2(∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v 2 r r r r r r = v ⋅ (∇ x v ) + 2(∇ x v ) skew ⋅ v r r r 1 r r = ∇ x (v 2 ) − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) 2 r r skew T r r r r r r r r r r r r Remember that (∇ x v ) = −(∇ x v ) skew . b) r r Now. consider that u( x ) represents a displacement field. graphically illustrate the displacement field in the differential area element dx1 dx 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1 TENSORS r r r r (∇ x v ) = (∇ x v ) skew 117 r r r ∇ xv ⋅ v r r c⊥v r r r r c ⊥ (∇ x ∧ v ) r v r r r (∇ x ∧ v ) r rr v ⋅ ∇ xv r r r r r r r r c = v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = 2v ⋅ (∇ x v ) Figure 1.

x + dx ) − u ( x . x3 )  du 2 = u 2 ( x1 + dx1 . x ) 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 3  3 As the field is independent of x3 . Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 118 Solution: According to the differential and gradient definitions. it holds that: r r u( x ) r r r r r r du ≡ u( x + dx ) − u( x ) r r r r du = ∇ x u ⋅ dx x2 r x r dx r r r u( x + dx ) r r x + dx x1 Thus. the displacement field in the differential area element is defined as: ∂u1 ∂u1  du1 = u1 ( x1 + dx1 . x + dx . x3 + dx3 ) − u 2 ( x1 . x 2 + dx 2 . x 2 + dx 2 . V. x3 + dx3 ) − u1 ( x1 . x + dx ) = u ( x . x 2 . x ) + ∂u 2 dx + ∂u 2 dx 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2  2 1 ∂x1 ∂x 2  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x ) = dx1 + dx 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2  2 ∂x1 ∂x 2  or: ∂u1 ∂u1  u1 ( x1 + dx1 . x . x3 ) du = u ( x + dx . x 2 ) + ∂x dx1 + ∂x dx 2  2 1  u ( x + dx . the components are defined as: du i = ∂u i dx j ∂x j ⇒ x3  ∂u1   du1   ∂x1 du  =  ∂u 2  2   ∂x  du 3   1    ∂u 3  ∂x1  ∂u1 ∂x 2 ∂u 2 ∂x 2 ∂u 3 ∂x 2 ∂u1   ∂x3   dx  1 ∂u 2   dx 2   ∂x3     dx3    ∂u 3  ∂x3   or:  ∂u1 ∂u ∂u dx1 + 1 dx 2 + 1 dx3 du1 = ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   ∂u 2 ∂u ∂u  dx1 + 2 dx 2 + 2 dx3  du 2 = ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x 2   ∂u ∂u ∂u du 3 = 3 dx1 + 3 dx 2 + 3 dx 3  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  with du1 = u1 ( x1 + dx1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x + dx ) − u ( x . x 2 ) = ∂x dx1 + ∂x dx 2  2 1  ∂u 2 ∂u 2 du = u ( x + dx . x 2 + dx 2 ) − u1 ( x1 . x 2 + dx 2 ) = u1 ( x1 . x 2 .

u1 Figure 1. The representation of the displacement field in the differential area element is shown in Figure 1.11: Displacement field in the differential area element. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. x 2 + dx 2 ) ( x1 . x 2 ) x2 ∂u 2 dx1 ∂x1 u1 + (u1 ) ∂u1 dx1 ∂x1 dx1 x1 144444444444444444424444444444444444443 = 644444444444444444474444444444444444448 x 2 .11. Chaves (2013) .1 TENSORS 119 Note that the above equation is equivalent to the Taylor series expansion taking into account only up to linear terms.u 2 u2 + ∂u1 dx2 ∂x2 ∂u 2 dx2 ∂x2 B′ B B dx 2 A′ O′ u2 + A O u1 u1 + dx 2 A′ O′ dx1 B′ A ∂u 2 dx1 ∂x1 dx1 ∂u1 dx1 ∂x1 x1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. u2 + ∂u 2 dx 2 ∂x 2 u2 + ( x1 + dx1 . x 2 + dx 2 ) u1 + ∂u 2 ∂u dx1 + 2 dx 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂u1 dx 2 ∂x 2 u1 + r du dx 2 ∂u1 ∂u dx1 + 1 dx 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 u2 + (u 2 ) ( x1 + dx1 . x 2 ) ( x1 .

r Note that on the face normal to x1 + dx1 act the components Ti1 ( x ) + ∂Ti1 dx1 . For the demonstration. 2 dx 2 + Tij .k dx k r = Tij ( x ) + Tij . Solution: r Let us set the tensor field T ( x ) in the differential volume element. r r Once established the field Tij ( x + dx ) in the differential volume element.3 dx3 ∂Tij ∂Tij r ∂Tij = Tij ( x ) + dx1 + dx 2 + dx3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 r r The representation of the field components Tij ( x + dx ) can be appreciated in Figure 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 120 Problem 1. consider the tensor field in a differential volume element dV = dx1 dx 2 dx 3 in the Cartesian system. V. since ∂x1 according our convention.e. Chaves (2013) . according to the directions x 2 and x3 we will obtain.117 r r Given a second-order tensor field T ( x ) . the first index indicate the direction in which points out and the second index indicates the normal plane. r r Total balance of Tij ( x + dx ) in dV according to x1 -direction is equal to zero (there is no source):       ∂T ∂T ∂T  T11 + 11 dx1  dx 2 dx3 +  T13 + 13 dx 3 dx1 dx 2 +  T12 + 12 dx 2 dx1 dx3 − T11 dx 2 dx3       ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x 2       − T13 dx1 dx 2 − T12 dx1 dx3 = 0 By simplifying the above equation we obtain: ∂T ∂T11 ∂T dx1 dx 2 dx3 + 13 dx3 dx1 dx 2 + 12 dx 2 dx1 dx3 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x 2 ⇒ ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 =0 + + ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂x1 Similarly. we apply the total r r balance of the field components Tij ( x + dx ) according to the directions x1 . respectively: ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23 + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 dx1 + Tij . we start r from the definition of the differential of T ( x ) which is defined by means of gradient as follows: r r r dT ≡ T ( x + dx ) − T ( x )  r r r r r r r r r r r  ⇒ T ( x + dx ) − T ( x ) = ∇ x T ⋅ dx ⇒ T ( x + dx ) = T ( x ) + ∇ x T ⋅ dx r dT = ∇ x T ⋅ dx  The above equation in indicial notation becomes: r r r Tij ( x + dx ) = Tij ( x ) + Tij . ∇ x ⋅ T = 0 . For this purpose. x3 . x 2 .Spain and Draft ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 By: Eduardo W. Show that: if there is no source of the field T ( x ) it r r r fulfills that the divergence of T ( x ) is equal to zero.12. i.

2 + T23.1 + T22. j = 0 i ⇔ r (∇ x ⋅ T ) i = 0 i tensorial   →  r r ∇x ⋅T =0 NOTE 1: If we have a tensor field. Chaves (2013) .3 = 0 ⇒  T1 j .1 + T12. we have the following set of equations that must be met simultaneously:  ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 + + =0  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23  + + =0  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 + + =0   ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ⇒  T11. the divergence is zero: Tij . j = 0   T3 j . j = 0   T2 j . e.1 + T32.1 TENSORS 121 x3 Rear face T11 T33 + Rear face T23 + T13 + T21 ∂T33 dx3 ∂x3 ∂T13 dx3 ∂x3 ∂T23 dx3 ∂x3 T32 + T12 T22 T31 + ∂T31 dx1 ∂x1 T32 T12 + T21 + ∂T T11 + 11 dx1 ∂x1 ∂T21 dx1 ∂x1 T31 dx 3 ∂T32 dx2 ∂x2 ∂T12 dx2 ∂x2 T22 + ∂T22 dx2 ∂x2 x2 dx1 T13 T23 x1 Rear face T33 dx 2 Figure 1. 2 + T33.12: Tensor field components in the differential volume element. Then.3 = 0   T21.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. on the contrary if the divergence is negative we have a sink. V. NOTE 2: If the divergence of a tensor field is positive we have a source. 2 + T13. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3 = 0   T31. j = 0 i Thus demonstrating that in the absence of source. the order of the source is a minor order of the tensor. j = 0 ⇒ Tij .g. the source of a vector field is represented by a scalar field.

j ak + Tik ak . p u p a k (1.129) with (1. j a k u j = Tik . where ω = ω ⋅ ω holds. p u p a k = Tik . p u p a k (1. u = u( x ) is a vector field.129) Note also that: r r r gradient r ( T ⋅ a )i = Tik ak   → [∇ x ( T ⋅ a )]ij = ( T ⋅ a ) i .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j ak { =0 r r where we have considered that a is independent of (x ) . and a an arbitrary r vector (independent of ( x ) ). j = Tik . we can conclude that: r r r r r {[∇ x ( T ⋅ a )] ⋅ u}i = [∇ x ( T ⋅ a )]ij u j = Tik . j = ( Tik ak ).130) we show (1. Solution: r r r Note that the term [(∇ x T ) ⋅ u] ⋅ a is a vector.128). this implies that ω is r dω at any time t . With that.128) r r r r r where T = T (x ) is a second-order tensor field.119 r r r Show that if the magnitude of a vector. j = Tik .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 122 Problem 1. j  r r ⇒ [∇ x ( T ⋅ a )]ij = ( Tik ak ).130) { } If we compare (1. ω = ω(t ) . orthogonal to dt Solution: r r r We start from the definition of the magnitude of a vector. which in indicial notation becomes: r r r r r r {[(∇ x T ) ⋅ u] ⋅ a}i = [(∇ x T ) ⋅ u]ik (a ) k [ ] [ ] r = (∇ x T ) ikp u p a k = Tik . Problem 1. is constant with time.118 Show that: r r r r [(∇ xr T ) ⋅ u] ⋅ a = [∇ xr ( T ⋅ a )] ⋅ u (1. thus: r r r r r ( ) = d (ω ⋅ ω) = d (ω) ⋅ ω + ω ⋅ d (ω) = 2ω ⋅ d (ω) = 0 r r r r d ω 2 2 dt dt dt dt dt ⇒ r r dω ω⊥ dt NOTE: A particular case of this problem is the circular motion in which: r v r x = constant  r r dx  r ⇒ x ⊥ r dx dt v=  dt  r x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . V.

Consider the boundary defined by the 2 cylinder x12 + x 2 ≤ 1 . x3 2 x12 + x 2 ≤ 1 S (2) ˆ n ( 2) r r r r =1 h =1 S (1) ˆ n (1) r x x2 ˆ n ( 3) x1 S ( 3) Figure 1.i + ( x3 − x3 ) . Chaves (2013) .i δ i 3 = δ ii + ( x3 − x3 ) .13 r r Calculation of ∫ ∇ x ⋅ F dV : V [ r 2 r ∇ x ⋅ F = Fi .1 TENSORS 123 1.17 Theorems Involving Integrals Problem 1.1.i = x i + ( x3 − x3 )δ i 3 ] . Calculation of ∫ r ˆ F ⋅ ndS S University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3 = 3 + ( 2 x3 − 1) = 2 x3 + 2 Thus ∫ r r ∇ x ⋅ F dV = (2 x3 + 2) dV = ∫ V V x3 =1 ∫ x ∫=(02 x A 3 ∫ + 2)dx3 dA = 3 dA = 3(πr 2 ) = 3π 3 A 2 where A is the area defined by the circle x12 + x 2 ≤ 1 .i 2 2 = xi . 0 ≤ x3 ≤ 1 . V.120 r Check the divergence theorem (Gauss theorem) for the vector field F whose Cartesian 2 components are given by Fi = xi + ( x3 − x 3 )δ i 3 . Solution: The divergence theorem states that: ∫ r r r ˆ ∇ x ⋅ F dV = F ⋅ ndS ∫ V S ˆ where n is the normal to the surface and points outwards.

The normal for each surface are defined as follows: r ˆ n (1) // r 1 ˆ n (1) = ⇒ x12 + 2 x2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( x1 e1 + x 2 e 2 ) . S (3) . Chaves (2013) . ij ] dΩ = ∫ (ω . r r 2ˆ ˆ ˆ The representation of F in the Cartesian basis is given by: F = x1e1 + x 2 e 2 + x3 e 3 . S ( 2) . Further consider that m is a second-order tensor field and ω is a scalar field. namely: S (1) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 124 We decompose the boundary in three areas. then r r ˆ ˆ ∫ F ⋅ ndS = ∫ F ⋅ n (1) S ( 1) S r ˆ ∫F ⋅n dS (1) + ( 2) dS ( 2 ) + S ( 2) r ˆ ∫F ⋅n ( 3) dS (3) S ( 3) r 2 2 2 The components of F are: F1 = x1 + ( x3 − x3 )δ 13 = x1 .Spain ij Γ Ω Γ Ω Draft By: Eduardo W. Show that the following relationship holds: ∫ [m : ∇ r r x (∇ x ˆ r r r ω )]dΩ = ∫ [(∇ x ω ) ⋅ m] ⋅ ndΓ − ∫ [(∇ x ⋅ m) ⋅ ∇ x ω ]dΩ ∫ [m Ω Ω ˆ ω . On the surface S ( 2) it holds that x3 = 1 : ∫ r ˆ F ⋅ n ( 2) dS ( 2 ) = ˆ ∫ (x e 1 S (2) 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ + x 2 e 2 + 1e 3 ) ⋅ (e 3 ) dS ( 2 ) = S (2) ∫ 1dS (2) = πr 2 = π S (2) where we have considered the circle area ( πr 2 = π ). F3 = x3 + ( x3 − x 3 )δ 33 = x3 . j ω . i ] dΩ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V S Problem 1. n ( 2 ) = e 3 .14. On the surface S (3) .13).121 Let Ω be a domain bounded by Γ as shown in Figure 1. (see Figure 1. it holds that x3 = 0 : ∫ r ˆ F ⋅ n (3) dS (3) = S ( 3) ˆ ∫ (x e 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ + x 2 e 2 + 0e 3 ) ⋅ (−e 3 )dS (3) = S ( 3) r ˆ with that: ∫ F ⋅ ndS = S ∫ ∫ 0dS ( 3) =0 S (3) r ˆ F ⋅ n (1) dS (1) + S (1 ) ∫ r ˆ F ⋅ n ( 2 ) dS ( 2 ) + S (2) ∫ r ˆ F ⋅ n (3) dS (3) = 3π S ( 3) r r r ˆ Then. proving the divergence theorem: ∫ ∇ x ⋅ F dV = ∫ F ⋅ ndS = 3π . V. n (3) = −e 3 On the surface S (1) it holds that: r ˆ ∫ F ⋅n (1) ˆ ∫ (x e dS (1) = 1 S ( 1) 1 2ˆ ˆ + x2 e 2 + x3 e 3 ) ⋅ S ( 1) ∫ = S 2 x12 + x 2 x12 ( 1) + 2 x2 dS (1) = ∫ 1dS S 1 x12 (1) + 2 x2 ˆ ˆ ( x1 e1 + x 2 e 2 )dS (1) = 2πrh = 2π (1 ) where we have considered the cylinder area ( 2πrh = 2π ). F2 = x 2 . i m ij )n j dΓ − ∫ [m ij .

j ∫ ˆ dΩ = ω . Ω i ∫ [ω. i m ij . j ∫ Γ ˆ dΩ = v j n j dΓ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ∫ [ω. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . given a tensor field v . V. it is also true that: ∫ N T.1 TENSORS 125 ˆ n Ω x2 x1 Γ Figure 1. j dΩ = ω . here we will start with the definition of the divergence theorem. and by substituting it in the above equation we obtain: ∫v Ω j. i m ij n j dΓ Γ ] ∫ ˆ m ij + ω . i dV V S V r r r r r r r r ˆ ⇒ N ⋅ ∇ x (∇ x T )dV = (∇ x T ⋅ N ) ⊗ ndS − ∇ x T ⋅ ∇ x N dV ∫ V ∫ ∫ S V where we have directly applied the definition of integration by parts. That r is. which is bounded by the r ˆ surface S with the outward unit normal to the surface n . i m ij n j dΓ − Γ ∫ [ω . i n j dS − N i . i ij ∫ ∫ ˆ dV = N i T . Ω ij ∫ [ω. Ω m ij ] . i m ij . Chaves (2013) . j T . If N is a vector field and T is a scalar field.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. it is true that: ∫∇ Ω r x r r ˆ ˆ ⋅ v dΩ = ∫ v ⋅ n dΓ indicial → ∫ v j .14 Solution: We could directly apply the definition of integration by parts to demonstrate the above relationship. j dΩ = ∫ v j n j dΓ  Γ Ω Γ r Observing that the tensor v can be represented by the result of the algebraic operation r r v = ∇ x ω ⋅ m and the equivalent in indicial notation is v j = ω . i m ij n j dΓ Γ ij ] ∫ ˆ m ij dΩ = ω . j dΩ The above equation in tensorial notation becomes: ∫ [m : ∇ Ω r r x (∇ x ˆ r r r ω )]dΩ = ∫ [(∇ x ω ) ⋅ m] ⋅ ndΓ − ∫ [∇ x ω ⋅ (∇ x ⋅ m)]dΩ Γ Ω NOTE: Consider now the domain defined by the volume V . Ω i ] m ij . But.

V. ji =  ijk v k . j n i dS = ( ijk λv k . j ). a) Show that: r r ˆ ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n + n ⊗ x) dS = 2V 1 S ˆ where n is the outward unit vector to surface S . j and by substituting them in the above surface integral we obtain: ˆ ∫ λb n i i ∫ ˆ dS = λ ijk v k . i  ijk v k . Show that: ˆ ∫ λb n i i ∫ d S = λ. j ⇒ b i . i b i + λb i . i ) dV S V V note that b i =  ijk v k . j n i dS S S Applying the divergence theorem we obtain: ˆ ∫ λb n i S i ∫ ∫ ˆ dS = λ ijk v k . ji ) dV = λ.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 126 Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . i dV S V ∫ = ( ijk λ. i b i dV 123 4 4 123 4 4 V bi V 0 Solution 2: ˆ ∫ λb n i i ∫ ∫ dS = (λb i ). which is defined as b = ∇ x ∧ v . i  ijk v k . ji ) dV V ∫ ∫ = (λ. i b i dV = λ.123 Let V be a volume domain which is delimited by surface S . i b i dV S V r where λ = λ( x ) represents a scalar field. i dV = (λ.ij = 0 ˆ ∫ λb n i i ∫ ∫ dS = λ. j + λ  ijk v k . j dV S V V Problem 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.122 r r r r r Let b be a vector field. b) Show also that: ∫ (∇ r x V ∫σ V ik . j +  ijk λv k .i =  ijk v k . k r r ˆ ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x dV = ∫ (σ ⋅ n) ⊗ x S ∫ ∫ dS − σ dV V ∫ ˆ x j dV = σ ik n k x j dS − σ ij dV S V and University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i v k . r r r r Solution 1: The Cartesian components of b = ∇ x ∧ v are b i =  ijk v k .

1 TENSORS r 127 r ˆ ⋅ σ ) dV = ∫ x ⊗ (σ ⋅ n) ∫ x ⊗ (∇ r x ∫x σ ˆ dV = xi σ jk n k dS − σ ji dV V i S ∫ jk .k ) dV V Taking into account that δ jk .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .k = δ ik . k ∫ dS − σ T dV V V ∫ S V where σ is an arbitrary second-order tensor field. V. xi .k xi + δ jk x i . we can obtain: r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n) dS = ∫ ( x ⊗ 1 ⋅ n) dS = ∫ ( x ⊗ 1) ⋅ n dS S S S By applying the divergence theorem we obtain: r r ˆ ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n) dS = ∫ ( x ⊗ 1) ⋅ n dS = ∫ ∇ S S r x r ⋅ ( x ⊗ 1) dV V We will continue the development in indicial notation: ˆ ∫xn i j ∫ ∫ ˆ dS = x i δ jk n k dS = (δ jk x i ) .k dV S S V ∫ = (δ jk .k = 0 j . r ˆ dS = ndS S x2 ˆ n V dS B r x x1 x3 Solution: a) Considering only the first term of the integrand. we conclude that: ˆ ∫xn i j ∫ ∫ dS = δ ji dV = δ ji dV = δ jiV S V r ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n) dS = V 1 V T = V1 S University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

k − σ ji we can obtain: r ∫ x ⊗ (∇ r x V r ∫ x ⊗ (∇ V r r ⋅ σ ) dV = ∫ [∇ x ⋅ (σ ⊗ x )]T ∫ dV − σ T dV V r x V r ˆ ⋅ σ ) dV = ∫ ( x ⊗ σ ) ⋅ n dS − ∫ σ T S dV V S University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . k ∫x σ jk .Spain jk .k = ( xi σ jk ) . k j j ∫ V ∫ ˆ dV = x j σ ik n k dS − σ ij dV S V ∫ ∫ ˆ = (σ ik n k ) x j dS − σ ij dV r ˆ = (σ ⋅ n) ⊗ x dS − σ dV ∫ S ∫ V V V ∫ ∫ dV = ( x j σ ik ) . k ∫x σ r r ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x dV = ∫ ∇ x ⋅ (σ ⊗ x ) dV − ∫ σ dV S V V where we have applied the divergence theorem to the first integral on the right side of equation. k i V i V r ˆ = x ⊗ (σ ⋅ n) dS − σ T dV ∫ ∫x σ ∫ V ∫ V ∫ V ∫ ˆ dV = ( xi σ jk )n k dS − σ ji dV S ∫ V ∫ ˆ = xi (σ jk n k ) dS − σ ji dV S Draft ∫ dV = ( xi σ jk ) .k − σ ij r r r r ⇒ (∇ x ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x = ∇ x ⋅ (σ ⊗ x ) − σ with that we can obtain: ∫ (∇ r x ∫ (∇ r x V V r ∫x σ V r ˆ ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x dV = ∫ (σ ⊗ x ) ⋅ n dS − ∫ σ dV S ik .k = ( x j σ ik ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 128 r ˆ Similarly. With that the following is true: S r r ˆ ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n + n ⊗ x) dS = 2V 1 S b) Note that it holds ( x j σ ik ) .k dV − σ ij dV V V r ik . Taking into account that r r [(∇ xr ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x ]T = [∇ xr ⋅ (σ ⊗ x ) − σ ]T r r T r r ⇒ x ⊗ (∇ x ⋅ σ ) = [∇ x ⋅ (σ ⊗ x )] − σ T In indicial notation xi σ jk .k { = δ jk ⇒ x j σ ik . we conclude that ∫ (n ⊗ x ) dS = V 1 . k dV − σ ji dV V By: Eduardo W.k σ ik + x j σ ik . V.k = x j .

i 2   −1 = −1 r r 1 r r 2 1 (a ⋅ a ) ( a k . Chaves (2013) .i = GM (a ⋅ ∇ x a ) i = GM (a ⋅ ∇ xr a ) i r3 r2 ˆ a r r b) For the particular case when a = x we have: (1. i a k ) a 2 or in indicial notation: r r 1 r r r ∇ x ( a ) = r (a ⋅ ∇ x a ) a (1.i ≡  ∂φ   r   r   = −GM  − 1  ( a ) .i =  r  a  ∂x  . Solution:  − GM ≡ φ . a) r r Obtain the gradient of φ .i = r ( x k .i ≡  ∂φ   r (1. and a is the magnitude of the vector a ≠ 0 .i   (1. b) Obtain the gradient of φ for the particular case when a = x and r draw the field ∇ x φ in the Cartesian space.i ak )  a   a  a  ∂x  .i ) = (a ⋅ a ) 2 ( a k .124 Let φ be a scalar field which is given by: GM a φ=− r r r r where G and M are scalars and constants.1 TENSORS 129 Problem 1.i = ( a ⋅ a ) ( a k a k ) .133) r r a ˆ Moreover.i =  ( a ⋅ a )  = (a ⋅ a ) ( a ⋅ a ) .132) Then.i = GM  r 2  r ( ak .131) becomes:  −1  r  1  1 GM ≡ φ .i  (∇ xr φ ).i x k ) = r (δ ki x k ) = r ( xi ) where r = x = x12 + x 2 + x3 x x x or in tensorial notation: r r 1 r 1 r 1 r r r ˆ ∇ x ( x ) = r ( x ⋅ ∇ x x ) = r ( x ⋅ 1) = r ( x ) = x x x x whereupon University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the equation (1. considering that the unit vector according to the direction a is given by a = r .i a k ) = r ( a k . a we can obtain: r r r r r (∇ x φ ).131) Note that: −1 −1  r r 1 r 1 r r 2 r r 1 r r 2 2 ( a ) .134) a r r 1 1 1 2 2 ( x ) .i 2   . V.i = −GM  r 2  ( a ).i a     GM r r r = r 3 (a ⋅ ∇ x a ) i a r (∇ xφ ).i a k + a k a k .i r   a 2  .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.i ak ) = r 3 (ak .

i. where G = 6. M is the total mass of the planet.i   r r  ( x ) = GM ( x ) i . Chaves (2013) . V.136) can also be written as follows:  − GM ∇φ = ∇   r  GM ˆ ∂  − GM = 2 r=  ∂r  r  r  ˆ ∂φ(r ) ˆ ˆ r = φ ′(r )r r = ∂r  (1. (see Figure 1.15 GM x NOTE: The function φ = − r represents the gravitational potential which has the r r following property b = −∇ x φ .137) x3 Spheres ˆ x r ∇ xφ ˆ x =1 r x r b ∇φ x1 x2 r ∇ xφ r ∇ xφ Figure 1.e. The equation (1. it is normal to the spheres defined by x and r 2 decreases with x = r 2 .136) r r Note that the vector field ∇ x φ is radial.Spain 2 2 Draft By: Eduardo W.135) or in tensorial notation:  − GM r r ∇ xφ = ∇ x  r  x   GM r GM = ˆ r x= r 2 x  x3 x  (1.i =  r  x  ∂x  i  (∇ xr φ )i ≡  ∂φ   r    = −GM  − 1 r   x2  . We check the units:     x   [φ] = − GM  = r m 3 kg kg m m N m J ( Unit of energy per unit mass) = 2 = = kg kg kg s 2 m s kg (specific energy) r Nm [b]= [− ∇ φ] =  ∂φ  = mJkg = m kg = skgm = sm (Unitunit force per uniton) ) of mass r ∂x kg ( of accelerati r x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 130  − GM ≡ φ .i r3  x  (1.67384 × 10 −11 m3 kg s 2 is the gravitational constant.15).

1 TENSORS r r 131 r r r r r It is interesting to check that ∇ x ∧ b = ∇ x ∧ [− ∇ x φ ] = 0 . Chaves (2013) . r We can obtain b on the Earth surface by means of r GM r ˆ b = −∇ x φ = − r 2 x x where the total mass of Earth is M ≈ 5. (see Problem 1. with that we obtain r GM GM ˆ ˆ ˆ b = − r 2 x = − 2 x ≈ −9.37 × 10 6 m . and invoking r r the Newton’s second law ( F = ma ).98 × 10 24 kg and the approximate radius is R ≈ 6.106). s2 r Adopting that the system x ′ has its origin at the center of mass of the body M .138) r We can express the above equation in a generic system ( x ) as shown below: ′ x2 ′ x1 M r x′ r F (Mm) ′ x3 r x (M ) x2 r F ( mM ) m r x (m) r r r x ( M ) + x ′ = x ( m) r r r ⇒ x ′ = x (m) − x (M ) x1 x3 r Then.Spain r r ( x ( m) − x ( M ) ) r r x ( m) − x ( M ) Newton’s law of “universal” gravitation Draft (1.82 m .139) By: Eduardo W. we can obtain the force that act in a body ( m ) due to the r r gravitational field b = −∇ x φ : r r r GMm ˆ F = ma = mb = − r 2 x ′ x′ (1.82 x R x r and its module is denoted by g = b ≈ 9. V. for the system x the force is given by: r F ( mM ) = − GMm r ( m) r ( M ) x −x 2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Problem 1. show that: ˆ ∫ (∇ φ )⋅ ndS = −4π r x (1.124 that  − GM r r ∇ xφ = ∇ x  r  x   GM r GM = ˆ r x= r 2 x  x3 x  (1.140) ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 r r r for r ≠ 0 . with that we can obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .125 Consider that φ = r 1 2 2 where r = x = x12 + x 2 + x3 : r a) Show that: [ ] r r ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ r r ∇ x ⋅ ∇ x φ ( x − 0) ≡ ∇ 2 φ ≡ 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 Laplace equation (1.ii −x   1  x i .i i =  r 3  = − r 3 − xi  r 3   x   x  x   . We use the nomenclature ∇ x φ ( x − 0) to indicate that the origin is not included.i  −3 r  x i . [ ] b) Given a closed surface S containing the origin. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: It was obtained in Problem 1. V.124 it was shown that ∇ x ( x ) = r ( x ) . but of opposite r sense to F (mM ) . Note also that in M we have the same force in direction and magnitude. in addition.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 132 r where we use the nomenclature F (mM ) to indicate the force in m due to the influence of M .144) or in indicial notation: Calculating the divergence of the previous relationship we obtain: r ∇x r ⋅ (∇ x φ ) = φ .142) Denoting by GM = −1 we obtain:  1  −1 r −1 r r ˆ ∇ xφ = ∇ x  r  = r 3 x = r 2 x  x  x x   (1.141) S ˆ where n is the outward unit vector to surface.i   x  x   r 1 x (1. note that xi .143)  −1 r −1 r (∇ x φ ) i =  r 3 x  = r 3 xi   x x i  (1.145) r r In Problem 1.i   .i = − r 3 − x i  r 4 ( x ) .i = δ ii = 3 .

With that.125 we showed that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . That is. where φ =  b) Consider a sphere of radius r = a which represents a planet.147) S ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Note that x ⋅ n = 1 since for the sphere it holds that x // n .148) S r r r r We have demonstrated that ∇ x ⋅ ∇ x φ ( x − 0) = 0 . Then:  −1 −1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x  ⋅ ndS = r 2 x ⋅ ndS = r 2 2  x S x S x  −1 −1 = 2 × ( Area) = 2 × (4πr 2 ) = −4π r r  −1 ˆ ∫ (∇ φ )⋅ ndS = ∫  r  r x S ∫ ∫ dS (1. and M (r ) is the total mass contained into  r  the sphere whose radius is r .i ni dS (1. but that only apply to x ≠ 0 (the origin is not included). c) Obtain the gravitational potential for r < a and r ≥ a .1 TENSORS r ⋅ (∇ x φ ) = − r ∇x 133  −3 r  3 − x i  r 4 ( x ) .148) has r r consistency if at the point x = 0 there is a sink and equal to ( − 4π ).i  r3  x  x    −3 x  3 = − r 3 − xi  r 4 ri  x   x x   3 xi xi 3 =− r 3 + r 5 x x r 2 3x 3 =− r 3 + r 5 =0 x x (1.149)  − GM   is the gravitational potential. V. whose surface area is 4πr 2 .126 a) Show that: ˆ ∫ (∇φ ) ⋅ ndS = 4πGM (r ) S (1. consider that the mass density is constant in the planet ρ = ρ 0 Solution: a) In Problem 1. and S -surface represents the sphere boundary. the result in (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. It is interesting to note that by means of the divergence theorem it fulfills that: ˆ ∫ ∇ ⋅ [∇ φ ]dV = ∫ (∇ φ )⋅ ndS r x r x V ∫φ r x S [ V r r ] . ( ) S Problem 1. Chaves (2013) . In this section.146) c) We adopt an arbitrary sphere of radius r . it is very intuitive to conclude that any closed surface that does not contain the origin the following r ˆ holds ∫ ∇ x φ ⋅ ndS = 0 . taking into account the result in (1.147). Obtain the total mass of the planet in function of the mass density ρ = ρ (r ) .ii dV ∫ = φ .

Chaves (2013) .152) V Note that V = 4 πr 3 ⇒ dV = 4 π3r 2 dr = 4πr 2 dr . Then: 3 3 ∫ M = ρ (r )dV = V r =a ∫ ρ (r )4πr 2 dr (1.137)) we have obtained that r  − GM  GM ˆ ∂  − GM  ˆ ∂φ(r ) ˆ ˆ ∇φ = −b = ∇  r = φ ′(r )r = 2 r =  r = ∂r  r  ∂r  r  r (1.154) By using the equation in (1.150) S By multiply both sides of the equation by GM (r ) we obtain:   1  ˆ − GM (r ) ∇   ⋅ ndS = 4πGM (r )   r  S ∫   − GM (r )   ˆ ⇒ ∇    ⋅ ndS = 4πGM (r ) r    S ∫ ⇒ (1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 134 ˆ ˆ ∫ (∇ φ )⋅ ndS = ∫ ∇ r  ⋅ ndS = −4π      1  S (1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.153) r =0 c) Remember that in Problem 1.124 (see equation (1.151) we get: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .151) ˆ ∫ [∇φ]⋅ ndS = 4πGM (r ) S b) Spherical planet r=a ρ (r ) r The total mass is obtained as follows: ∫ M = ρ (r )dV (1. V.

159) With that the equation (1. thus: φ (1) (r = a) = φ ( 2) (r = a) − 4Gπa 3 ρ 0 2Gπρ 0 2 ⇒ 3 a +C = 3a 3 − 2Gπa ρ 0 − 2Gπa 3 ρ 0 4 3 − 2GM 3 − 3MG ⇒C = = = = a a 34 a 4 2a (1. For values r ≥ a the gravitational potential is given by φ= − GM − 4Gπa 3 ρ 0 = = φ (2) r 3r for (1.Spain MG  r 2 3  −  for 2  2 2 2a  2a  MG for r≥a r Draft r<a (1. V.156) By integrating the above equation we obtain: 4Gπρ 0 rdr = 3 4Gπρ 0 r 2 ⇒ φ(r ) = +C 3 2 2Gπρ 0 2 ⇒ φ (1) (r ) = r +C 3 ∫ dφ = ∫ (1.160) We summarize the gravitational potential as follows:  φ(r ) =    φ(r ) =  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .158) r≥a where M is the total mass of the planet whose value is M = Vρ 0 = 4 πa 3 ρ 0 . Chaves (2013) . Note that the 3 potential φ has to be continuous in r = a .157) where we have denoted φ (1) ( r ) = φ(r ) for r < a .1 TENSORS 135 ˆ ∫ [∇φ] ⋅ ndS = 4πGM (r ) S r ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ − b ⋅ ndS = φ ′(r ) r ⋅ n dS = φ ′(r ) dS = φ ′(r )(4πr 2 ) = 4πGM (r ) 123 ∫ ∫ S ∫ S S =1 (1.157) becomes φ (1) (r ) = 2Gπρ 0 2 2Gπρ 0 2 3MG MG 2 3MG MG  r 2 3 r +C = r − = 3r − = 2 2 −   2a 3 3 2a 2a 2 2a 2a   (1. Then: 3 GM (r ) 4Gπρ 0 r = 3 r2 dφ(r ) 4Gπρ 0 r ⇒ = dr 3 4Gπρ 0 rdr ⇒ dφ ( r ) = 3 φ ′(r ) = (1.161) By: Eduardo W.155) ⇒ φ ′(r )r = GM (r ) GM (r ) ⇒ φ ′(r ) = r2 2 where M (r ) = Vρ 0 = 4 πr 3 ρ 0 . (see Parker (2003)).

Chaves (2013) . b.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. with the Sun at one of the foci of the ellipse. Figure 1.1) First Law: The orbit of a planet is an ellipse. radius.17: Gravitational potential (Ref. Wikipedia: “Gravitational potential”).127 a) Show that the orbit of a planet takes place on a plane. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. b) Prove the Kepler’s laws of planetary motion: b.2) Second Law: The vector position from the Sun to the planet describes one area at a constant rate.16: Gravitational potential vs. Problem 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 136 φ (r ) Planet surface a r − MG a inflection point − 3MG 2a Figure 1.

the relationship T 2 = κa 3 holds. Chaves (2013) . where a 2 = . p2 holds.Mass of the planet r x ˆ x= r x r r dx v= . where κ is a constant. V.Mass of Sun m .18: Orbit of the planet. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3) Third Law: If T (orbital period) represents the time required for the planet to perform a full elliptical orbit. Reminder: Expressions related to the ellipse: x2 r x b f2 θ f1 x1 b a a r Equation of the ellipse: x = r = Eccentricity: e = a 2 − b2 a2 p 1 + e cos θ 0 < e < 1 . dt r ˆ a // x x2 x3 r x Sun r r r c = x∧v r dx r =v dt θ r r r d 2 x dv a= 2 = dt dt ˆ x r r F // a t=0 r h x1 Figure 1.1 TENSORS 137 b. (1 − e 2 ) 2 Area enclosed by an ellipse: A = πab Solution: M . whose major axis of the ellipse is 2a .

We recall the equation (1. which implies that the orbit takes place on a plane. (see Problem 1. the following is true: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . (a ∧ c ) // v : x 2 r r ˆ x .e. we obtain the rate of change of c = x ∧ v : r r r d r r r r r r dc d r r d r = ( x ∧ v ) = ( x ) ∧ v + x ∧ (v ) = v 2v + 1∧ a = 0 ∧ 1 3 x2 3 r r dt dt dt dt =0 =0 r r r Thus we have shown that the vector c = x ∧ v does not change with time.18).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 138 r a) To show that the orbit takes place on a plane. V. the following is true: r ˆ ˆ r r dx d (GM x ) a ∧ c = GM = dt dt Since the vector c does not change with time. c is constant. we must prove that the vector ( c ) normal to r r ˆ the plane which is defined by the vectors x and v does not change with time. and x ⋅ x = x = 1 . i.162) x x r r r Next. Note ˆ ˆ dx dx 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ also that it holds that x ⋅ = 0 since x ⊥ .1) First Law Since the planet’s orbit is performed on a plane.138) of Problem 1. i. (see Figure 1.127: r r r r GMm GM ˆ ˆ F = ma = mb = − r 2 x . then r the vector c has the same direction as x3 . Considering that GM is a dt dt ( ) constant.e.17). r ˆ We express c in term of x : r r d( x ) ˆ r dx d r r dx ˆ ˆ = ( x x) = v= x+ x dt dt dt dt and r  d( x ) ˆ r r r r r dx   = ˆ ˆ c = x ∧ v = ( x x) ∧ x+ x  dt dt    r ˆ r d( x ) r 2 dx ˆ ˆ ˆ = x x2 x 1∧3 + x x ∧ dt r dt =0 ˆ r 2 dx ˆ = x x∧ dt r GM Taking into account that a = − r r r r r direction as v .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. b. we calculate the vector a ∧ c which has the same ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r  GM   r 2 dx  dx  dx dx    ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ a ∧ c = − r 2 x ∧  x x ∧  = −GM x ∧  x ∧  = −GM ( x ⋅ ) x − ( x ⋅ x )   x   dt  dt  dt dt      ˆ dx = GM dt r r r r r r r r r where we have used the property a ∧ b ∧ c = (a ⋅ c )b − (a ⋅ b)c . Chaves (2013) . we take x1 − x 2 as the plane of the orbit. a=− r 2 x (1.

we can obtain the following equation of the ellipse: c2 p c GM ⇒r= = = (GM + h cos θ) (GM + h cos θ) 1 + e cos θ GM 2 where we have considered that: p= c2 GM and e= h GM (1. Then: r c2 = c r r r r r r r r = c ⋅ c = ( x ∧ v ) ⋅ c = (v ∧ c ) ⋅ x r r r r r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = GM x + h ⋅ ( x x ) = x GM x ⋅ x + x h ⋅ x = x GM + x h cos θ r = x (GM + h cos θ) 2 ( ) = r (GM + h cos θ) r where we have considered that r = x .2) Second Law r 1 r A = x ∧ ∆S 2 ∆S →0 →  r 1 r r dA = x ∧ ds 2 x2 ∆S A r x x1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.8).1 TENSORS 139 r r r r r dv r d ( v ∧ c ) a∧c = ∧c = dt dt Thus r r ˆ d (v ∧ c ) d (GM x ) = dt dt Integrating over time the above equation we obtain: r r r ˆ v ∧ c = GM x + h r r where h is constant vector of integration and is not dependent of time. Note that h is located r r ˆ on the plane x1 − x 2 . Chaves (2013) . V. since (v ∧ c ) and x are also on the plane x1 − x 2 . Then. We calculate: r r ˆ ˆ h ⋅ x = h x cos θ = h cos θ r where we have denoted by h = h .163) b. (see Figure 1.

sector EFO sector OCD E D O A A C F Figure 1. according to Figure 1. V.3) Third Law If T is the total time for a complete orbit (orbital period). b.19 as the areas of the sectors OCD and EFO are equal the times to perform C → D and E → F are equal.164) Considering the equation of the eccentricity. we can obtain: e= a 2 − b2 a2 ⇒ b2 = a 2 − a 2e2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . when the planet is closer to the Sun its velocity is greater than when it is far. we conclude that 1 cT = πab .19: Orbit of the planet. the time required to perform their paths are equal. 2 thus: T= 2πab c T2 = ⇒ 4π 2 a 2 b 2 c2 (1.Spain ⇒ Draft b 2 = a 2 (1 − e 2 ) By: Eduardo W. we can obtain: T A= ∫ 0 T D (dA) 1 1 dt = c dt = cT 2 2 Dt 0 ∫ Taking into account the area enclosed by the ellipse: A = πab .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 140 r The rate of change of dA becomes: r r r D(dA) 1 D( x ∧ ds ) = = 2 Dt Dt r r 1 D( x ) = ∧ ds + 2 14 4 Dt2 3 r =0 = 1 2 1 2 r r r 1 r D ( ds ) D( x ) ∧ ds + x ∧ 2 Dt Dt r r x∧v 1r c (constant) 2 and its magnitude: r D (dA) D(dA) 1 r 1 = = c = c Dt Dt 2 2 NOTE: As a consequence of second law it follows that if the areas of two sectors are equal. As result. that is.

165) p 1 = . 2 2 2 (1 − e ) (1 − e ) we can obtain: b 2 = a 2 (1 − e 2 ) ⇒ b 2 = ap ⇒ p= b2 a Whereby the equation (1.1 TENSORS and taking into account a 2 = 141 p2 p ⇒a= ⇒ (1 − e 2 )a = p into the above equation. V.163)). Chaves (2013) .Spain (1.164) can be rewritten as follows: T2 = 4π 2 a 2 b 2 4π 2 a 2 ab 2 4π 2 a 3 p 4π 2 3 = = = a = κ a3 GM c2 c 2a c2 where we have considered that University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . 2 GM c Draft By: Eduardo W. (see equation (1.

142 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V.

: cos θ − sin θ 0 Q ij =  sin θ cos θ 0    0 0 1   So.e. The components of Q are the same as the components of the transformation matrix from the r r x ′ -system to the x -system.1. to c = 0 .1 Solved Problems 2. subjected to rigid body motion which is defined by rotating the continuum counterclockwise by an angle of 30º to the origin. x1 r r r r r r Solution: We apply the rigid body motion equations x = c + Q ⋅ X = Q ⋅ X . Acceleration Problem 2. i. the continuum particles are governed by the equations of motion: . x2 ′ x2 C′ C D′ 30º b A = A′ ′ x1 D B′ 30º B b X 1 . Material Time Derivative. r r Hint: Consider the systems x and X to be superimposed.1 A continuum is defined by a square with sides b . X 2 . Also obtain the new position of particle D .2 Continuum Kinematics 2. Velocity. Find the equations of motion.1 Description of the Motion.

t) =    →V2 = exp t X 1 − exp −t X 2  Dt V = 0  3  (2. t ) componentes   V ( X . V. acceleration in material and spatial descriptions.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 142  x1  cos 30º − sin 30º 0  X 1        x 2  =  sin 30º cos 30º 0  X 2  x   0 0 1  X 3   3    A particle which initially was at point D ( X 1 = 0 . is given by:  x1 = exp t X 1 − exp −t X 2   t −t  x 2 = exp X 1 + exp X 2 x = X 3  3  (2.3) To find the velocity and acceleration components in the spatial description we substitute the equations of motion: Eulerian velocity (spatial description) v1 = x2  v2 = x1 v = 0  3 (2.Spain Draft (2. X 2 = b .5) By: Eduardo W.1) for t > 0 .2 A continuum medium motion. Chaves (2013) . X 3 = 0 ) moves into the following position:  x1D  cos 30º − sin 30º 0 0 − b sin 30º   D       x 2  =  sin 30º cos 30º 0 b  =  b cos 30º  x D   0  0 1 0  0      3   Problem 2. in the material description. Solution: Velocity: V1 = exp t X 1 + exp − t X 2 r r r r Dx ( X .2) Acceleration:  A1 = exp t X 1 − exp −t X 2   t −t  A2 = exp X 1 + exp X 2 A = 0  3  (2.4) Eulerian acceleration (spatial description) a1 = x1 = v 2  a 2 = x 2 = v1 a = 0  3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Find velocity.

6) r T ( x .11) a) Find the temperature field in material description.8) DT = x3 + (0 × x1 + 3 × x2 + tx3 ) Dt = x3 + (3x2 + tx3 ) (2. Chaves (2013) .2tX 2 δ 12 = X 2 x3 = X 3 + 0. V. X 2 = 1. b) Find the rate of change of temperature for one particle that in the reference configuration was at the position (0.4 X 2 Dt For the particle ( X 1 = 0.0) .9) Problem 2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) = 3 x 2 + x3 t (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 143 Problem 2. Solution: The rate of change of any property is given by the material time derivative: r r ∂T  ∂T ∂T ∂T  DT ∂T ( x .3 The velocity field of a fluid is given by: r ˆ ˆ ˆ v = x1e1 + x2 e 2 + x3e 3 (2.4t )X 2 = T ( X . Solution: According to the equations of motion we have: x1 = X 1 + 0. t ) & r ≡ T ( X .2tX 2 x 2 = X 2 + 0.4 Given the following motion: xi = X i + 0.10) and the temperature field (steady): r 2 T ( x ) = 2 x1 + x 2 (2. t ) = 2( X 1 + 0.2tX 2 δ 13 = X 3 Then: [ ] r r 2 r r T ( x ( X .2tX 2 δ 1i (2. t ) = 0 . X 3 = 0) we have: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2tX 2 ) + ( X 2 ) 2 r = 2 X 1 + ( X 2 + 0. t ) b) The material time derivative of temperature is given by: r DT ( X . t )) = 2 x1 ( X . t ) = + + vj =  ∂x v1 + ∂x v 2 + ∂x v 3   ∂t ∂x j ∂t  1 Dt 2 3  (2. t ) + x 2 ( X .1.2tX 2 δ 11 = X 1 + 0.7) and the temperature field is: Find the rate of change of temperature. t ) ∂T ( x .

Chaves (2013) . X 2 = 1. t ) = x ( X . Using the equations of 1 = X 2t 2 2 = X 3t (2. X 3 = 0). thus ∂x1 ∂X 1 ∂x 2 = ∂X 1 ∂x3 ∂X 1 ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x3 ∂X 2 ∂x1 ∂X 3 1 t 2 ∂xi ∂x 2 J= =0 1 ∂X j ∂X 3 0 0 ∂x3 ∂X 3 r The displacement vector field is given by the definition u = motion (2. find the displacement.6 Consider the following equations of motion in the Lagrangian description: r 2  x1 ( X . X 2 = 1.82) we obtain: u1   u 2  u 3  r r (Xr . t ) − X = [X t + X ] − X (X . Find the velocity of P at time t = 1s and t = 2 s .14) Problem 2. t ) = X 2 t 2 + X 1  x1  1 t r      Matrix form   x 2 ( X . Here. t) = U Dt r && & r A =V = U (2. t ) = x ( X . t) = U Dt r r r D r r & A( X . t ) Solution: r r r D r r & V ( X . t ) = X 3 t + X 2    →  x 2  =  0 1 r   x  0 0  3   x3 ( X .13) (2. t) = V = Dt r D2 r r && = 2 U ( X . t ) = x ( Xr. t ) in the material description and the acceleration field A( X . t ) = X 3  0  X 1    t  X 2  1  X 3    (2. t ) − X = [ X ] − X = 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 0 t =1≠ 0 1 r r x − X . velocity and acceleration can be evaluated as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .4 Problem 2. Solution: Motion is possible if J ≠ 0 . t ) = 0. t ) − X = [X t + X ] − X r r (X . V.12) (2. t) = U ( X . velocity and acceleration fields in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. X 3 = 3 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 144 & T (( X 1 = 0. t ) = V ( X .4 X 2 = 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5 r r r r Find the velocity field V ( X . t ) r r of the particle at time t in function of the rate of change of displacement U ( X . Consider a particle P that at time t = 0 was at the point defined by the triple equation X 1 = 2.15) Is the motion above possible? If so.16) 3 which are the components of the displacement vector in the Lagrangian description.

the velocities obtained via the Lagrangian or Eulerian description are the same. X 2 = 1. t ) = 0  u1   u 2  u 3  r 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 (2. t )t = 2( x − tx )t = v ( x .20) 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 (2. t ) = 0 r r r   A (X ( x . t ) r r  r r  V (X ( x . t ). t ). i. t = 0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .17) The inverse form of (2. velocity and acceleration fields in Eulerian description can be evaluated by substituting equation (2.15) provides us the inverse equations of motion (Eulerian description):  X 1  1 − t 2    1  X 2  = 0  X  0 0  3  r t 3   x1   X 1 ( x . t ) = v ( x . t ) r r r (X ( x. t ) = dt dt  r r  du 3 X . t ) = x 2 − tx 3 r 1   x3   X 3 ( x. t ) = dt dt   ( ) ( ) 145 r dV1   A1 ≡ a1 ( X . t ) = u ( x. t ) = 0 r r r r V (X ( x .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ). t ).e. t ) = X ( x. t d = (X 2t ) = 0 V3 ≡ v 3 ( X . the velocity of the particle P can also be evaluated by (2. x3 = X 3 = 3 So. t ) = dt = 2 X 2  r dV 2  =0  A2 ≡ a 2 ( X . t ). Chaves (2013) . the displacement. t ) r r r (X ( x.20) as: r v1 ( x . X 3 = 3 ) at time t = 1s is given by: r r r v1 ( X . t ) = 2 X ( x . t ) = 2( x − tx ) = a ( x . t ) = 2 X ( x . t ).19) 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 (2. t ) = dt dt  r r  du 2 X .17).2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS ( ) r r  d u1 X . t ). t ) = x = v ( x . t ) = 2 X 2 t = 2 m / s . t ) = x3    (2. t ) = dt  r dV  A3 ≡ a 3 ( X . t ) = x1 − t 2 x 2 + t 3 x 3 r    − t   x 2  ⇒  X 2 ( x . t ) = a ( x . t ) = 2( x 2 − tx 3 )t = 2( 4 + 1 × 3) × 1 = 2m / s r  v 2 ( x . v 2 ( X . t ) = X 3 = 3m / s . t ) = X ( x .: r r r (Xr ( x.18) Then. t ) r r r  V (X ( x . t = X 3 = 3m / s r  V3 ≡ v 3 X . t )t = ( x − tx )t = u ( x. t = 2 X 2 t = 2 × 2 × 1 = 4m / s r   V 2 ≡ v 2 X .16) and (2. ( ) (2. since velocity is an intrinsic property of the particle. v 3 ( X .18) into the equations (2. t )t = x t = u ( x. t ) = 0  3 Note that. t ) = X ( x. t d = X 2t 2 = 2 X 2t V1 ≡ v1 ( X . t ) = 0 We can also observe that at time t = 1s the particle P occupies the position: x1 = X 2 t 2 + X 1 = 3 . V. We can also provide the velocity of the particle P at time t = 2 s : ( ) ( ) ( ) r V1 ≡ v1 X . t ). t ) = x 3 = 3m / s r v ( x . t ) = 0  r r r r  A (X ( x . t ) = 3 = 0  dt  . x 2 = X 3t + X 2 = 4 .17). t d  = ( X 3t ) = X 3 V 2 ≡ v 2 ( X . t ) = a ( x . t ).21) 3 Taking into account the Lagrangian description of velocity given in (2. the velocity of particle P ( X 1 = 2. t ) r r  r   A (X ( x .

t = 1s) = [2. t ) r r r = 0 ≠ v ( x .0] NOTE: Note that.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 146 At time t = 2 s the new position of P is: r  x1 ( X . t ) ∂X 3 ( x .3. t )  ∂X 1 ( x . t ) ∂t ∂x 2 ∂x3 Dt  ∂x1  = (0 ) + [0 × 2( x 2 − tx 3 )t + 0 × x3 + 1 × 0] = 0 r r r Remind that u = x − X . V. t = 2s ) = [4.1.7. t ) r  = + v1 ( x . t ) ∂X 3 ( x . t = 1s) = [2. Chaves (2013) . then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) = X 3 = 3  r r As we can verify the Lagrangian description of motion x ( X . t ) + v 2 ( x.0] r Vi P ( X P . t ) + v3 ( x . t ) + v3 ( x. t ) ∂X i ( x .3] t = 1s r Vi ( X P . t ) ∂X 2 ( x. t ) ∂X 1 ( x . t ) ∂X 1 ( x .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.4. t ) = v 2 ( x.3. t ) ∂X i ( x . the Eulerian velocity can not be obtained by means of r r DX ( x .3] t = 2s r viP ( x . t )  ∂X 2 ( x .3.3] P xiP = [6. t ) DX 3 ( x . t ) DX 2 ( x . t ) = X 2 t 2 + X 1 = 6 r    x2 ( X . t ) + v 2 ( x. We can verify this by means of the proposed problem: Dt r r r r r DX i ( x . t ) describes the trajectory of P. t ) + v1 ( x . t ) + v 2 ( x. t ) = + Dt ∂t ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  thus: r r r r r r r ∂X 1 ( x . t ) DX 1 ( x . t ) r r r  v1 ( x . t )  ∂X 3 ( x. t ) r r r  + v 3 ( x. t ) + ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂t Dt  ∂x1  = (− x3 ) + [0 × 2( x 2 − tx 3 )t + 1 × x3 − t × 0] = 0 r r r r r ∂X 3 ( x . Trajectory of particle P r viP ( x . t ) ∂X 2 ( x .0] P P P xiP = [3. t = 2s ) = [4. t ) . t ) = X 3t + X 2 = 7 r   x3 ( X . t )  ∂X i ( x . t ) ∂X i ( x . t ) + v3 ( x .0] t0 X iP = [2.3. t ) ∂t ∂x 2 ∂x 3 Dt  ∂x1  ( ) [ ] = − 2tx 2 + 3t 2 x3 + 1 × 2( x 2 − tx3 )t − t 2 × x3 + t 3 × 0 = 0 r r r r r ∂X 2 ( x. t ) r r r  = + v1 ( x .

28) Draft (2. t ) r r & v ( x . t ) D r r Du( X . t ) = u( x . t ) . Solution: a) Considering that vi = dxi dt v1 = 1 ∫x dx1 x dx dt = 1 ⇒ 1 = dt 1 + t x1 1 + t 1 ∫ 1 + t dt ⇒ Lnx dx1 = 1 1 (2.29) = 3Ln(1 + t ) + LnC 3 ⇒ ⇒ x3 = C3 (1 + t ) University of Castilla-La Mancha (2.22) r a) Obtain the relationship between material and spatial coordinates xi = xi ( X . it fulfills that: r r r r r r r r r r Du( x . t ) ≡ = + r ⋅ v ( x. t ) r r & = u( X . t ) Dt ∂t ∂x Problem 2. v3 = 3 x3 1+ t (2. v2 = 2 x2 1+ t .30) 3 By: Eduardo W. V.24) ⇒ x1 = C1 (1 + t ) The initial condition t = 0 ⇒ x1 = X 1 imply that C1 = X 1 x1 = X 1 (1 + t ) v2 = 1 ∫x dx 2 = 2 (2.7 The velocity field of the continuum. in Eulerian description.23) = Ln(1 + t ) + Ln(C1 ) ⇒ (2.26) = 2Ln(1 + t ) + LnC 2 ⇒ ⇒ x2 = C 2 (1 + t ) (2. b) Obtain the acceleration components by means of the spatial motion description. c) Obtain the acceleration components by means of the Lagrangian motion. t) = Dt Dt Dt ( ) Also.27) 2 for t = 0 ⇒ x 2 = X 2 ⇒ C 2 = X 2 x2 = X 2 (1 + t ) 2 v3 = 1 ∫x dx3 = 3 dx3 3 x3 dx 3dt = ⇒ 3 = dt 1 + t x3 1 + t 3 ∫ 1 + t dt ⇒ Lnx 3 Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .Spain (2. t ) = ≡ u( X . is given by: x1 1+ t v1 = . t ) ∂u( x .25) dx 2 2 x 2 dx 2dt = ⇒ 2 = dt 1 + t x2 1 + t 2 ∫ 1 + t dt ⇒ Lnx 2 (2. t ) ∂u( x . t ) − X ( x .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 147 r r r r r r r r Dx ( X . t ) v ( X .

k )v k ∂t ∂v a i = i + (vi .3 v3 ) ∂t (2. t ) in the spatial description (Eulerian). a1 = University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) = a ( x. 1  x  + 1 + 0 + 0 = 0 (1 + t ) 1 + t 1 + t  2x2 2x 2 2 x2   a2 = − + 0 + 2 + 0 = 2 2 1+ t 1+ t (1 + t )  (1 + t )  x1 a1 = − a3 = − 2 (2.36) dV1 =0 dt dV a2 = 2 = 2 X 2 dt dV a3 = 3 = 6 X 3 (1 + t ) dt (2. we can apply the material time derivative to obtain: r r r r r r r r Dv ( x . 2 v 2 + vi .1 v1 + vi .32) The equations of motion are: r r b) Knowing v ( x . V.34) ai = thus. Chaves (2013) .35) 3x 3  6 x3  + 0 + 0 + 3 = 1 + t 1 + t  (1 + t ) 2 (1 + t )  3 x3 2 c) The Lagrangian velocity components are given by: V1 = X 1  V2 = 2 X 2 (1 + t )  2 V3 = 3 X 3 (1 + t ) (2. t ) + ∇v ( x . t ) ⋅ v ( x .37) thus. t ) = Dt ∂t (2. t ) r r ∂v ( x .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 148 and t = 0 ⇒ x3 = X 3 ⇒ C3 = X 3 x3 = X 3 (1 + t ) 3 (2.33) ∂vi + (v i .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.31)  x1 = X 1 (1 + t )  2  x2 = X 2 (1 + t )  3  x3 = X 3 (1 + t ) (2.

 X1  X  = 1  2  1 − A2 X3   1 − A 2   0  0  0   x1   1 − A  x2    − A 1   x3    0 (2.38) where A is constant. Solution: Displacement vector: r r r u= x−X (2.8 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1   x2 = X 2 + AX 3  x = X + AX 3 2  3 (2. V.44)   X 1 = x1  1  ( x 2 − Ax3 ) X 2 = 1 − A2   1 ( x3 − Ax 2 ) X 3 = 1 − A2  (2.39) u1 = x1 − X 1 = 0  u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = X 2 + AX 3 − X 2 = AX 3 u = x − X = X + AX − X = AX 3 3 3 2 3 2  3 (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 149 Problem 2.43) thus. become: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . in the spatial description.41) 0 A = 1 − A 2  A 1  (2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.40) The equations of motion are obtained as follows: 0   X1  A  X 2    A 1 X3   (2.42)  x1  1  x  = 0  2   x 3  0    1 det 0  0  0 1 0 1 the inverse: 1 − A 2 1   0 1 − A2   0 0   1 − A −A 1   0 (2. Chaves (2013) . Find the displacement vector components in the material and spatial descriptions.45) The displacement vector components.

t) = Dt (2.52) thus. x 2 = 1. X 2 = 0.9 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1   x2 = X 2 + X 3t x = X + X t 3 3  3 (2.1.2) at time t1 = 0 s and t2 = 1 s Solution: The velocity field is given by: r r r r Dx ( X .51) V1 = 0  V2 = 1 V = 1  3 (2. then. x3 = 2) at time t = 1 s . t ) V ( X . was at the point (reference configuration): x1 = 0 = X 1   x 2 = 1 = X 2 + X 3  ⇒ ( X 1 = 0.48) V1 = 0  V2 = X 3 V = X 3  3 (2. X 3 = 2) V1 = 0  V2 = 2 V = 2  3 (2. Chaves (2013) . X 3 = 1) x3 = 2 = X 3 + X 3   (2. V. X 2 = 1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .47) Obtain the velocity of the particles that are passing at point (0.50) The particle that is passing at point ( x1 = 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 150  u1 = x1 − X 1 = 0  A( x3 − Ax 2 ) 1  ( x 2 − Ax3 ) = u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = x 2 − 2 1− A 1 − A2   A( x 2 − Ax3 ) 1 ( x3 − Ax 2 ) = u1 = x3 − X 3 = x3 − 2 1− A 1 − A2  (2.46) Problem 2.49) in components: r r For t = 0 s we have x = X .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ( X 1 = 0.

57) By: Eduardo W. are:   ct   ct       sin  2  x + x 2  − cos x 2 + x 2  0   1  2  2   1  X1     x1   ct   ct   X  = cos       2    x 2 + x 2  sin  x 2 + x 2  0  x 2  2  2   1 X3    1 x    0 0 1  3        University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) = 0 r r r The inverse equations of motion. Obtain the velocity components in spatial and material descriptions. Chaves (2013) . Solution: The velocity components in the material (Lagrangian) description are: r V1 ( X .10 ˆ Given the Cartesian system e i . we can note that the following relationship holds: 2 2 x12 + x2 = X 12 + X 2 (2. t ) =   ct  X 1 cos 2 2 2 X + X2 X1 + X 2  2  1    ct  − X 2 sin  X2 +X2  2  1       r V2 ( X . X = X ( x .53). t ) =   ct  X 1 sin  2 2 2 X +X2 X1 + X 2  2  1    ct  + X 2 cos X2 +X2  2  1       c c r V3 ( X .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 151 Problem 2. the velocity components in the spatial (Eulerian) description are: cx r v1 ( x . t ) = − 2 2 2 x1 + x 2 r v 2 ( x. t ) = 0 (2.Spain Draft (2.56) c x1 x12 2 x2 + r v3 ( x . the particle motion is defined as follows:     ct ct   + X 2 cos x1 = X 1 sin  2 2  2 2  X +X X +X 2  2   1  1    ct ct   x 2 = − X 1 cos 2  X + X 2  + X 2 sin  X 2 + X 2 2  2  1  1 x3 = X 3 (2. t ) .55) Then. V.54) Taking into account (2.53)     where c is a constant. t ) = (2.

t ) = 2 x1 + x 2 − x3 + 1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . X 2 .Spain Draft (2.11 The Eulerian velocity field components are: v1 = x1  x2  v2 = 2t + 3  v3 = 0  (2. V.64) By: Eduardo W.60) with the initial conditions x1 ∫ X1 x2 ∫ X2 t dx1 = dt x1 0 ∫ ⇒  x  Ln 1  = t X   1 t dx 2 dt = x2 2t + 3 0 ∫ ⇒  x Ln 2 X  2 x1 = X 1 exp t ⇒ ( ) ( )   = Ln 2t + 3 − Ln 3   ⇒ x2 = X 2 2 t +1 3 (2.63) r and a physical quantity represented by the scalar field q ( x . Chaves (2013) . x2 = X 2 2 t + 1 . the equations of motion are given by: x1 = X 1exp t . t ) in the Eulerian description: r q ( x . x3 = X 3 3 (2. Solution: To find the path line (trajectory) we must solve the system:  dx1  dt = x1  x  dx 2 = 2  2t + 3  dt  dx3 =0   dt (2.59)  x1 (t = 0) = X 1   x2 (t = 0) = X 2  x (t = 0) = X 3  3 (2.61) x3 = X 3 Then.58) Find the parametric equations of the trajectory of the particle which was at ( X 1 .62) Problem 2. X 3 ) in the reference configuration.12 Consider the following equations of motion:  x1 = X 1   x2 = 2 t X 3 + X 2 x = X 3  3 (2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 152 Problem 2.

t) = Dt (2. i. Solution: r r r r a) To obtain the Lagrangian description we have. t ) V ( X .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 153 a) Obtain the Lagrangian description of the physical quantity.67) b) The velocity vector Lagrangian description The inverse equations of motion:  x1 = X 1   x2 = 2 t X 3 + X 2 x = X 3  3 inverse →  X 1 = x1   X 2 = x 2 − 2 t x3 X = x 3  3 Then.65) r r r r Dx ( X .e. i. q ( x . t ) = q ( x ( X . t ) .71) By: Eduardo W.Spain Draft (2.2) .66) V1 = 0  V2 = 2 X 3 V = 0  3 (2..68) c) The rate of change of the variable is obtain by applying the material time derivative r & D Q( X . t ) = 2 X Q= 3 Dt (2.e.63) into the equation of the variable q ( x . t ) given by (2. t ) = Q( X . the Eulerian velocity components are given by: v1 = 0  v 2 = 2 x3 v = 0  3 (2. t ) = 2 X 1 + X 2 + ( 2t − 1) X 3 + 1 (2. i v i  ∂q ∂q ∂q  =0+ v1 + v2 + v3  = [(2)(0) + (1)(2 x 3 ) + ( −1)(0)] ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂x1 = 2 x3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . c) Obtain the rate of change of the physical quantity. V. d) Obtain the local rate of change of q at the spatial point (1. b) Obtain the Lagrangian and Eulerian velocities. t ) r + ∇ xq ⋅v 123 4∂t4 (2.3. we r substitute the equations of motion (2.70) = 0 ( steady ) & q = 0 + q. t ).: r Q( X .64).69) or & q= r r ∂q ( x .

t ) & We can apply the definition T r ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂t By means of the equation u i = xi − X i we can obtain the equations of motion: u1 = x1 − X 1 ⇒ x1 = X 1 + ktX 2 u 2 = x2 − X 2 ⇒ x2 = X 2 u 3 = x3 − X 3 ⇒ x3 = X 3 The Lagrangian temperature field (material description) can be obtained as follows: r r r T ( x ( X . then the local rate of change is r ∂q ( x ) = 0 at any spatial point. i. t ) & r by simplifying the above we obtain T ( x . t ). Chaves (2013) . the material time derivative becomes: r & T ( X .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ∂t Problem 2. x3 = 1 at t = 1s . we need the equations of motion X ( x . t ) = ( x1 + x 2 ) t a) Find the rate of change of temperature for a particle that at time t = 1s is passing at point (1.72) r d) Note that the physical quantity field is stationary. namely: 1) Finding the position of said particle in the reference configuration and replacing in the above equation. t ) r & q ( x . t ) = Q( X ( x . t ) = dT ( X . t ) = ( x1 + x 2 ) t = (( X 1 + ktX 2 ) + ( X 2 ) ) t = X 1t + kX 2 t 2 + X 2 t = T ( X . t ).1. t ) :  x1 = X 1 + ktX 2   x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 ⇒  X 1 = x1 − ktx 2   X 2 = x2 X = x 3  3 r r & & r T ( X ( x . t ) = x1 + ktx 2 + x 2 . V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 154 & We could have obtained the same result by starting from Q = 2X 3 and substituting X 3 = x3 . t ). t ) = 2 x3 (2. t ) = X 1 + 2kX 2 t + X 2 If we want to find the rate of change of temperature of a particle which is passing through the point x1 = 1. t ) = ∂T + ∂T ⋅ ∂x or T ( X . To do this. thus r r r & & q ( x .1) .e. u3 = 0 and the Eulerian temperature field: r T ( x . t ) = X 1 + 2kX 2 t + X 2 = ( x1 − ktx 2 ) + 2kt ( x 2 ) + ( x 2 ) = T ( x . q = q ( x ) . u2 = 0 . x 2 = 1. 2) obtaining the expression of the rate of change of temperature in the spatial (Eulerian) r r description. we have two possibilities. Then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: r r r r & ( x . t ) Then.13 Given the Lagrangian displacement field: u1 = ktX 2 .

then: & r T ( x . t ) = ∂T + ∂T ⋅ ∂x T r ∂t ∂x ∂t  ∂T ∂x1 ∂T ∂x 2 ∂T ∂x3  = ( x1 + x 2 ) +   ∂x ∂t + ∂x ∂t + ∂x ∂t   2 3  1  = ( x1 + x 2 ) + (tkX 2 + t (0) + (0)(0) ) = x1 + x 2 + tkX 2 Note that x 2 = X 2 . t = 1) = (1 − k ) + 2k + 1 = k + 2 Alternative solution: r r & ( x .73) Is this motion possible? Justify your answer.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: a) Obtaining the Jacobian determinant: 1 0 0 ∂xi t2 t = 0 1 2 =1− J=F = 4 ∂X j t 0 2 1 (2. x 2 = 1. c) Obtain the path line (trajectory equation). b) Obtain the velocity components in the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions.14 Let us consider the following equations of motion:   x1 = X 1  t   x2 = X 2 + X 3 2  t   x3 = X 3 + 2 X 2  a) (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 155 & T ( x1 = 1.75) b) The Lagrangian velocity components:  V = 0  1  D t   X2 + X3  = V2 = 2 Dt     t D  V3 =  X3 + X2  = 2 Dt    X3 2 (2.74) so that motion is possible for: J =1− t2 >0⇒t <2 s 4 (2.76) X2 2 The inverse equations of motion: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) = x1 + x 2 + tkx 2 Problem 2. V. Chaves (2013) . x3 = 1.

79) r The velocity field at point x of a steady fluid is given by: 2 b 2 ( x12 − x 2 ) b2 x x r ˆ ˆ ˆ v =U e1 + 2U 2 1 22 2 e 2 + Ve 3 2 ( x12 + x 2 ) 2 ( x1 + x 2 ) (2. r r Show that ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 and find the Eulerian acceleration field.i = 1 + 2 + 3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 = −2Ub 2 2 x1 ( x12 − 3 x 2 ) 2 ( x12 + x 2 ) 3 + 2Ub 2 2 x1 ( x12 − 3 x 2 ) 2 ( x12 + x 2 ) 3 =0 The acceleration: r r ∂v r r r a= + ∇ xv ⋅ v ∂t r r r = ∇ xv ⋅ v The components of the spatial velocity gradient are given by: 2 2  x1 (3 x 2 − x12 ) − x 2 (3 x12 − x 2 ) 0 r   2Ub 2 2 r (∇ x v ) ij = 2 − x 2 (3 x12 − x 2 ) − x1 (3 x 2 − x12 ) 0 2 3  ( x1 + x 2 )  0 0 0   r r r The acceleration components are given by a i = (∇ x v ) ij (v ) j : 2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .77) By replacing X i into the Lagrangian velocity expression we obtain the velocity in the spatial description: t x2 2 x − tx 2 = 3 22 v1 = 0 . v 2 = 2 t 4−t 2− 2 x3 − t x3 2 = 2 x 2 − tx 3 .78) c) The trajectory can be obtained by eliminating t of the equations of motion (2. v3 = t2 4 − t2 2− 2 x2 − (2.73):  x1 = X 1   ( x3 − X 3 ) X 3 = ( x 2 − X 2 ) X 2  Problem 2. V.80) where U and V are constants.15 ⇒ x3 = X2 X2 x2 − 2 + X 3 X3 X3 (2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 156 J  x1  1 0 0   X 1   X1   x  = 0 1 t   X  inverse → X  = 1  0   2  2  2  2  J t 0  x 3  0 2 1   X 3  X3          0 1 t −2 0   x1  t − 2   x2    1   x3    (2. Solution: ∂v r ∂v ∂v r ∇ x ⋅ v = v i .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 157  − 2 x1U 2 b 4   2 2 3   ( x1 + x 2 )    a i =  − 2 x 2U 2 b 4   2 2 3   ( x1 + x 2 )    0     Problem 2. t ) ∂X ∂φ ( X . t ) can be expressed in the Eulerian (current) configuration by means of the equations of motion. t ) .e. t ) be a scalar field in Lagrangian (material) description.17 Given the following Eulerian velocity field components: v1 = 0 . t ). t ) = φ( x .: r r r r φ ( X .e. V. ∇ x φ( x . t ) ⋅ F ∂x ∂x ∂X ∂X In addition we have the inverse form: r r r r r r r ∂φ( x .16 r Let φ ( X . b) Obtain the mass density ( ρ ). X 2 )t  C3  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) ∂x ∂φ ( x . x 2 ) x3 a) Find the particle trajectory. r Solution: Remember that a Lagrangian variable φ ( X . t ) ⋅ F −1 r = ∂x ∂x ∂X ∂X Problem 2. dt dx 2 = v 2 = 0 ⇒ x 2 (t ) = C 2 at t = 0 ⇒ x 2 = X 2 ⇒ x 2 (t = 0) = C 2 = X 2 dt dx3 dx3 = v3 = f ( x1 . C 2 ) x3 ⇒ = dt x3 ∫ ∫ f (C . v2 = 0 . Solution: dx1 = v1 = 0 ⇒ x1 (t ) = C1 at t = 0 ⇒ x1 = X 1 ⇒ x1 (t = 0) = C1 = X 1 . ∇ X φ( X . i. t ) = r ⋅ r= r ⋅ F −1 = ∇ X φ( X . t ) .e. v3 = f ( x1 . C 2 )t + k denoting by k = Ln(C 3 ) we obtain: Ln( x3 ) − Ln(C 3 ) = f ( X 1 . X 2 )t ⇒ x3 = C 3 exp f ( X 1 . t ) . t ) ∂φ ( X ( x . and the spatial gradient of r r r φ ( x . from the scalar gradient definition we obtain: r r r r r r r ∂φ( X . t ) r r ∇ X φ( X . X 2 )t ⇒ 3 = exp f ( X 1 . t ) . t ) = r = ⋅ r= r r ⋅ F = ∇ x φ( x. X 2 )t x ⇒ ln 3 C  3  x  = f ( X 1 . x 2 ) . C 1 2 ) dt ⇒ Ln( x 3 ) = f (C1 . Chaves (2013) . x 2 ) x3 = f (C1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. i. t ) ∂φ ( x ( X . t ). t ) . t ) r r ∇ x φ( x . knowing that at t = 0 we have ρ = f ( x1 . i. t ) = φ( X ( x . Find the relationship r r r between the material gradient of φ ( X . Then. t ).

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . t ) = X 1t 2 . t ) ∂φ( x . t ) = x1t 2 : (1 + t ) r r r r r ∂φ( x . t ) ∂φ( x . X 2 )t The values marked by ( ? ) are not necessary to obtain the determinant. t )  ∂φ( x . (1 + t ) r a) Material time derivative of φ ( X . X 2 )t The mass density: ρ= ρ0 with F 1 0 Fij = 0 1 Fij = 0 0 ∂xi ∂X j = exp f ( X 1 . and according to the equations in (2. X 2 ) . t ) = +∇x + vi ∂t ∂t Dt ∂xi r r r r ∂φ( x . t ) v3  v2 + v1 + + = ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂t   ∂x1 r 2  ∂  x t   ∂φ( x .81) we conclude that ρ 0 = f ( X 1 . t ) =  1 + v1 + 0 + 0  (1 + t )  ∂t     ∂x1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .81) x3 = X 3 exp f ( X 1 . t ) D rφ ⋅ v = φ( x. t ) = 2 X 1t Dt r b) Material time derivative of φ ( x . t ) = Solution: x1t 2 . ρ = f ( x1 . t ) = X 1t 2 : r r D & φ( X . X 2 ) exp f ( X 1 . t ) ∂φ( x . t = 0 . r Spatial description: φ ( x . x 2 ) . t ) ≡ φ( X . then: ρ= ρ0 F = f (X1. Problem 2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 158 at t = 0 ⇒ x3 = X 3 ⇒ x3 (t = 0) = C 3 = X 3 Summarizing: x1 = X 1 x2 = X 2 (2. X 2 )t Note that according to the problem statement.18 Calculate the material time derivative described as follows: D for the property φ when said property is Dt r Material description: φ ( X . V. t )  ∂φ( x . X 2 )t ? ? exp f ( X 1 .

t ) = 2 X 1t Dt r r r r x D & & r ⇒ φ( X ( x. t ) ≡ φ( X .82) Find the components of the displacement vector in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. V. t ) ≡ φ ( X . t ). t ) = X 1t 2 r r x1t 2 r ⇒ φ( X ( x. t ) =  v1  Dt ∂t  (1 + t )   ∂x1    2 2  2 x1t  xt   t X1  = − 1 2 +  (1 + t ) (1 + t )     (1 + t )   2 x1t x t2 = − 1 2  (1 + t ) (1 + t )  2 x1t = (1 + t )   t2  x + 2 1 t    (1 + t ) (1 + t )  We could also have obtained the same result by starting from and also knowing the equations of motion X 1 = r r D & φ( X . t ) = φ ( x .e.19 Consider the following equations of motion in the Lagrangian description:  x1 = X 1t 2 + 2 X 2 t + X 1  x1  Matrix     form 2   x 2 = 2 X 1t + X 2 t + X 2   →  x 2  = x  x = 1 X t + X  3 3  3 2 3   t 2 + 1 2t  2 t +1  2t  0 0  0  X 1    0  X 2  1 t + 1  X 3  2   (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 159 We need to know the velocity component v1 . t) = Dt x r ˆ v ( x. t ) = 2 X 1t Dt x1 . t ) = (1 + t ) ⇒ X1 = x1 (1 + t ) The velocity becomes: ( ) r D ˆ X 1t 2 = 2 X 1t e 1 v( X . i. t ) = 2 1 t e1 (1 + t ) ⇒ Returning to the material time derivative we obtain: r r D ∂  x1t 2   ∂φ( x .: (1 + t ) r r D & φ ( X . t ). Chaves (2013) . t ). t ) ≡ φ( X ( x. t ) ≡ φ( x. t )  + φ( x .82) we obtain: u1 = x1 − X 1 = X 1t 2 + 2 X 2 t   2 u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = 2 X 1t + X 2 t  1 u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = 2 X 3 t  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: r r r The displacement vector can be obtained as follows u = x − X . We start from the principle that a property is intrinsic to the particle. then: r φ ( X . t ) = 2 1 t Dt (1 + t ) Problem 2. By replacing the equations of motion (2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

The particle which occupies position O (origin) at t = 0 has material coordinate: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .20 The following equations describe the motion of a body (continuum medium):  x1 = X 1 + 0. x2 C Reference configuration 1 B 1 E 1 A O D X 1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. the cubic body (with sides 1) has one vertex at the origin of the system which is indicated by point O.82). which the result is: 2tx 2 − x1 (1 + t )   X1 = 3 3t − 1 − t − t 2 x   0 1    2 x1t 2 − x 2 (1 + t 2 ) 0  x2  ⇒  X 2 = 3t 3 − 1 − t − t 2 3t 3 − 1 − t − t 2   x 3      2 x3 1 (t + 2)   X 3 = 2 (t + 2)    − (1 + t ) 2t X1   1   2 − (1 + t 2 ) 2t X 2  = 3 2   X  3t − 1 − t − t   3 0  0   r r r We can also use the definition u = x − X .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 160 which are the displacement components in the Lagrangian description (material). Solution: To obtain the current configuration of the body at time t = 2 s . Chaves (2013) .2 X 2 t  x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 X 2 . To obtain the Eulerian displacement we need to obtain the inverse equations of motion (2. Obtain the configuration of the body at time t = 2 s . (see Figure 2.1: Reference configuration t = 0 . x3 Figure 2. At time t = 0 . we will analyze the particle motion. but now we replace the material coordinate to obtain the displacement vector components in the Eulerian description: 2tx 2 − x1 (1 + t )  u1 = x1 − X 1 = x1 − 3 3t − 1 − t − t 2   2 x t 2 − x 2 (1 + t 2 ) u 2 = x2 − X 2 = x2 − 1 3  3t − 1 − t − t 2   2 x3 u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = x 3 − (t + 2)  Problem 2. x1 G X 3 .1).

X 2 = 0. V. in the initial configuration.4  x2 = X 2 = 1 x = X = 0 3  3 Then. Chaves (2013) . will move to positions:  x1 = X 1 + 0. In spatial coordinates:  x1 = X 1 + 0. X 2 = 0.2 X 2 t = X 1  x2 = X 2 = 0 x = X = 0 3  3 That is.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. all particles belonging to line OA do not move during motion. The particles belonging to line OC at t = 0 . (see Figure 2. X 2 = 0.2 X 2 t = 0 + 0.2 × 0 × 2 = X 1  x2 = X 2 = 0 x = X = 0 3  3 The particles belonging to line CB ( X 1 .4 X 2  x2 = X 2 x = X = 0 3  3 Following the same procedure for the remaining particles. X 2 = 0. X 3 = 0. X 2 = 1. have the reference coordinate ( X 1 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Similarly. t ) ⇒  x 2 = 0 x = 0  3 Then. all particles belonging to line CB will move 0. we can verify that the line ( X 1 .2 × 1 × 2 = X 1 + 0.2). The particles occupying the line OA .2 × 2 × X 2 = 0.4 according to x1 -direction. X 3 = 0) . we obtain the final configuration of the body at time t = 2 s .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 161 X1 = 0  X 2 = 0 X = 0  3 Substituting in the equations of motion:  x1 = 0  x i ( X 1 = 0. X 3 = 1) does not move:  x1 = X 1 + 0. we conclude that the particle does not change its position during motion. X 3 = 1) in the reference configuration ( X 1 . X 3 = 0) at time t = 2 s will move according to:  x1 = X 1 + 0.

5 s ) is passing at point xi = (1. Obtain the velocity and acceleration −4 components of the particle P that was originally at X i = (16 .e. we obtain:  x1 = 1 + 2t 2   2 x2 = 2 + t x = 1  3  The above equations represent the motion of the particle. To obtain the trajectory. NOTE: Consider the International System of Units (SI-Units). The graphical representation follows University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1) .2. 2) Consider the current configuration at t = 0. V.1) . Problem 2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1) . 15 3) Obtain the equations of motion in the Eulerian description.:  x1 − 2 x 2 = −3   x3 = 1 which indicates that the particle moves in a straight line defined by ( x1 − 2 x 2 = −3) on the plane x3 = 1 . 15 .1) .5 s .0.4 0.4 C’ 1 C E B Current configuration at B’ t = 2s E’ 1 A=A’ O x1 1 D G=G’ x3 Figure 2. Chaves (2013) . we eliminate the time of the equations of motion. 4) Obtain the velocity and acceleration components of one particle that at time ( t = 0. Solution: 1)Using the equations of motion and by replacing the material coordinates of the point X i = (1.2.21 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 + t 2 X 2  x1  Matrix     form 2   x 2 = t X 1 + X 2   →  x 2  = x  x = X 3  3  3  1  2 t 0  0  X 1    0  X 2  1  X 3    t2 1 0 1) Obtain the trajectory of particle Q which originally ( t 0 ) was at X i = (1. i.162 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS x2 0.2: Current configuration at time t .

t) =    → V 2 = 2tX 1  Dt V = 0  3  A1 = 2 X 2 r r r Dv  components    →  A2 = 2 X 1  A( X .5 s .1) can be obtained by means of velocity and acceleration in Eulerian description: Velocity: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x2 X 1 . we have: 15 −4 −4 V1 = 2 × 0. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5 s ) is passing through the point xi = (1. 15 .5 × (15 ) = 15 m / s V = 0  3 and −8 −4  A1 = 2 × 15 = 15 m / s 2   2 16 32  A2 = 2 × (15 ) = 15 m / s A = 0  3  3) The inverse equations of motion can be obtained as follows:  x1 = X 1 + t 2 X 2 ⇒ X 1 = x1 − t 2 X 2   2 2 x2 = t X 1 + X 2 ⇒ X 2 = x2 − t X 1 x = X ⇒ X = x 3 3 3  3   x − t 2 x2 X1 = 1  1− t4   x − t 2 x1  ⇒ X 2 = 2 1− t4   X 3 = x3    4) The velocity and acceleration of the particle that at time ( t = 0.5 × 15 = 15 m / s  16 16 V 2 = 2 × 0. Chaves (2013) .1) . at t = 0. t ) = Dt A = 0  3 −4 Then. to the particle originally located at the point X i = (16 . x3 ( x1 − 2 x 2 = −3) x3 = 1 X 2 .0. x1 2) The velocity and acceleration components of the particle P are given by: V1 = 2tX 2 r r r Dx  components V ( X .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 163 Particle trajectory X 3 .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. It is logical that we have obtained the same velocity and acceleration using either the material or spatial description. Problem 2. V.5 s  0 →  A2 = 2 X 1    → a 2 = 2 1  4 X1 .22 The acceleration vector field is described by: r r r r r r D v ∂v r = a ( x .5 2 )(1) 4  = =− X 2 = 4 4 15 1− t 1 − (0.1) :  x − t 2 x 2 1 − (0.5 2 )(0) 16 = = X1 = 1  15 1− t4 1 − (0. xi (1. Chaves (2013) .5)  X = x = 1 3  3   We can verify that it is the same particle P referred to in paragraph 2. 01) 1− t V = 0   3 v 3 = 0    −4  v1 = 15 m / s  16  m/s v 2 = 15  v 3 = 0   Acceleration:  x − t 2 x1 a1 = 2 2  1− t4  A1 = 2 X 2   x − t 2 x2   substituti ng t = . t) = + ∇ xv ⋅ v Dt ∂t Show that acceleration can also be written as: r r  v2 Dv ∂v r = +∇x  2 Dt ∂t  r r  r  v2 r ∂v r r  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = +∇x   2 ∂t   r  r  v2 r ∂v r  − v ∧ rot v = +∇x   2 ∂t    r r  + rot v ∧ v   Solution: To prove the above relationship one need only demonstrate that:  v2 r r r r ∇ xv ⋅v = ∇ x   2  r  r r r  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v )   Expressing the terms on the right of the equation in symbolic notation we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 164  x − t 2 x1 v1 = 2t 2  1− t4  V1 = 2tX 2   x − t 2 x2   substituti ng t = . since the velocity and acceleration are intrinsic of the particle.5) 4   x 2 − t 2 x1 0 − (0.0.5 s  V 2 = 2 X 1t    → v 2 = 2t 1 0 →   4 X1 . X 2 x (1. X 2 x (1. 01) 1− t A = 0   3 a 3 = 0    8  2 a1 = − 15 m / s  32  m / s2 a 2 = 15  a 3 = 0   We can obtain the initial position of the particle by using the inverse equations of motion which was obtained in paragraph (3).

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we have to obtain the temperature in Lagrangian description T ( X . t ) (Lagrangian temperature): University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .23 r r r Consider the equations of motion x ( X . Solution 1: In this first solution we first obtain the material time derivative of the Lagrangian r temperature. t ) and the temperature field T ( x . t ) given by:  x1 = X 1 (1 + t )   x 2 = X 2 (1 + t ) x = X 3  3 .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS  v2 r ∇x  2  165 r  r   ∂  r 1 ˆ ∂ r ˆ ˆ ˆ  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) =  e i v j v j  − (v i e i ) ∧  e r ∧ (v s e s )  2  ∂x i   ∂x r   ( ) Using the definition of the permutation symbol (see Chapter 1) we can express the vector product as:  v2 r ∇x  2  r  r  ∂v r 1 ˆ ∂ ˆ ˆ r  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = e i v j v j  − (vi e i ) ∧  rst s e t  2  ∂x i ∂x r   ∂v j  ∂v s 1 ˆ ˆ ek =  e i 2v j  −  rst  itk v i 2 ∂x r ∂x i  ( ) ˆ ˆ ˆ where we have used the equation e i ∧ e t =  itk e k . Chaves (2013) . Problem 2. r 2 T ( x ) = x12 + x 2 Find the rate of change of temperature for the particle P at time t = 1s given that particle P was at point ( X 1 = 3. then:  v2 r ∇x  2  r ∂v j  r r r  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = v j  ∂x i  ∂v j =vj ∂x i ∂v j =vj ∂x i  v2 r ∇x  2  ∂v s ˆ ek ∂x r  ∂v ∂v ˆ e i −  δ rk δ si v i s − δ ri δ sk v i s  ∂x r ∂x r   ∂v ∂v  ˆ ˆ e i −  v s s − v i k e k  ∂x ∂x i  k   ˆ e i − (δ rk δ si − δ ri δ sk )v i  ˆ e k   r ∂v j  r ∂v ∂v r r ˆ ˆ ˆ  − v ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = v j e i − v s s e k + vi k e k  ∂x i ∂x k ∂x i  ∂v j ∂v ∂v ˆ ˆ ˆ e i − v s s δ ik e i + v i k e k = δ sj v s ∂x i ∂x k ∂x i ∂v ∂v ∂v ˆ ˆ ˆ = v s s e i − v s s e i + vi k e k ∂x i ∂x i ∂x i r ˆ ∂v e ∂ (v ) vi = k k vi = ∂x i ∂x i r r r = ∇ xv ⋅ v NOTE: It is interesting to see Problem 1. X 3 = 0) at time t = 0 . X 2 = 1. V.115 (Chapter 1). so. In Chapter 1 we also proved that  rst  itk =  rst  kit = δ rk δ si − δ ri δ sk .

t ) = (1 + t )  r V3 = v 3 ( x . t ) = 2 x1 1 + 2 x 2 2 + 0 1+ t 1+ t ⇒  ∂T ∂T ∂T  + v1 + v2 + v3  ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂x1 2x 2 2x 2 2 2 & r T ( x. t ) = X 12 (1 + t ) 2 + X 2 (1 + t ) 2 The material time derivative of the Lagrangian temperature is given by: r r DT dT ( X . the material time derivative of the Eulerian temperature. Eulerian variable.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 166 r 2 T ( x ) = x12 + x 2 ↓ By substi tuting the equations of motion ↓ r 2 T ( X . t ) = 0 The equations of motion in Eulerian description are given by: x1   X 1 = (1 + t )   x1 = X 1 (1 + t )  x2  inverse of the motion  x 2 = X 2 (1 + t )     → X 2 = (1 + t ) x = X  3  3  X 3 = x3   So. t ) V 2 = ( X ( x . t ) = X 2 ( x . i. t ) & r ⇒ ≡ T ( x. is given by: r DT ( x . t ) 2 & T ( X . it is possible to obtain the Eulerian velocity as follows: r r r r x1  V1 ( X ( x . T k ∂t ∂x k Dt From the equations of motion we obtain: r v1 ( X . t ) = X 1  x1 = X 1 (1 + t ) r    velocity  x 2 = X 2 (1 + t )  → v 2 ( X . t ) = 0   r Afterwards. X 2 = 1.e. t )  r r  x2 r r = v 2 ( x. t ) = (1 + t ) = v1 ( x . t ). t ) . X 3 = 0) . t ) . t ). ( X 1 = 3. t ) = X 2 r x = X  3  3  v 3 ( X .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t) ≡ = = 2 X 12 (1 + t ) + 2 X 2 (1 + t ) Dt dt By substituting t = 1s . t ) = Dt r ∂T ( x ) ∂t3 12 = 0 (Stationar y field) x x & r ⇒ T ( x . t ) = DT = ∂T ( x ) + ∂T ( x ) v ( x . t ) = X 1 ( x . t ) = 1 + 2 = ( x12 + x 2 ) 1+ t 1+ t 1+ t The position of particle P at time t = 1s is evaluated as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . t ) = 2 X 12 (1 + t ) + 2 X 2 (1 + t ) = 2(3) 2 (1 + 1) + 2(1) 2 (1 + 1) = 40 Solution 2: In this alternative solution we directly use the definition of material time derivative of the r r r r & ( x . into the above equation we obtain: r 2 & ⇒ T ( X . V. T ( x .

t )] (1 + t ) = 2  1  (1 + t ) + 2  2  (1 + t )  (1 + t )   (1 + t )  2 2 & r = ( x12 + x 2 ) = T ( x . Solution: The velocity is obtained by means of the material time derivative of the equations of motion: & Vi = x i = d [X i (1 + t )] = X i dt (2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) = T ( x1 = 6.2}  xi = X i (1 + t ) Find the rate of change of temperature at time t = 1s for one particle that was at position (1. t ) = x i i  i 1+ t  Problem 2. t ) = 2[X 1 ( x . V. r NOTE: We can observe that the temperature field is a steady field.1) in the reference configuration. t ) (1 + t ) Problem 2. Chaves (2013) .25 r Consider the temperature field T ( x ) in the spatial description and the equations of motion: 2 T = 2( x12 + x 2 )  i ∈ {1. t ). t ) could also have been obtained as: r 2 & T ( X .83) To find the velocity in the spatial description we need to obtain the inverse equations of motion and replace it into the equation (2. t ) = 2 X 12 (1 + t ) + 2 X 2 (1 + t ) 2 2 r r  x   x  r 2 r 2 & T ( X ( x . T = T ( x ) .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 167  x1 = X 1 (1 + t ) = 3(1 + 1) = 6   x 2 = X 2 (1 + t ) = 1(1 + 1) = 2 x = X = 0 3  3 Then. by substituting the spatial coordinates in the expression of the material time derivative of temperature we obtain: 2 2 2 & r & ( x12 + x 2 ) = T ( x . x 3 = 0. t )] (1 + t ) + 2[X 2 ( x . the expression T ( x .83): xi   x i = X i (1 + t ) ⇒ X i = (1 + t )   r v = X ( x . ■ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i. t = 1) = (6 2 + 2 2 ) = 40 1+ t 1+1 & r Alternatively.24 Consider the motion:  x i = X i (1 + t )  t > 0 Obtain the velocity field in the spatial description.e. x 2 = 2.

at time t = 1s will be at position xi = (1 + t ) X i = 2 X i . t = 1) = 16 Solution 2: In this alternative solution we use directly the definition of the material time derivative of Eulerian property: r T ( x ) = 2( x12 + x12 ) x i = (1 + t ) X i r r r & ( x . i.2} .e.26 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 exp t + X 3 (exp t − 1)   t −t  x 2 = X 2 + X 3 (exp − exp ) x = X 3  3  Obtain the velocity and acceleration components in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions.168 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS Solution 1: In this first solution we obtain the equation for temperature in the material description: r 2 T ( x ) = 2( x12 + x 2 )  ↓  by replacing the equations of motion  ↓  r T ( X .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) = 1 + 2 1+ t 1+ t The particle that at reference configuration was at position (1. x 2 = 2 ): & T ( x1 = 2.1) . ( x1 = 2. so =0: ∂t i ∈{1. t) = = = 2 2 X 12 (1 + t ) + 2 X 2 (1 + t ) Dt dt [ ] By replacing t = 1s and material coordinate ( X 1 = 1. t ) = 0 + 4 x1 1 + 4 x 2 2 1+ t 1+ t 2 2 4x 4x & r ⇒ T ( x. t = 1) = 4( 2) 2 1+1 + 4( 2) 2 1+1 = 16 Problem 2. t ) = DT = ∂T ( x ) + ∂T ( x ) ∂x k ⇒T Dt ∂t ∂x k ∂t r r ∂T ( x ) Note that T ( x ) is not a function of time. x 2 = 2. Solution: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2} ∂T ∂x1 ∂T ∂x 2 & r ⇒ T ( x. t ) = 2 X 2 (1 + t ) 2 + X 2 (1 + t ) 2 1 2  [ ] The material time derivative is given by: r r DT dT ( X . t ) 2 & ⇒ T ( X . X 2 = 1. i ∈ {1. t ) = 0 + + ∂x1 { ∂x 2 { ∂t ∂t V1 = X 1 V2 = X 2 x x & r ⇒ T ( x . Chaves (2013) . V. X 2 = 1) we obtain: & ⇒ T ( X 1 = 1.

i. V. t )  V 2 = X 3 exp t + X 3 exp −t = X 3 (exp t + exp −t ) Dt V = 0  3  (2. t )  Ai ( X .85) b) The acceleration components in the material description are given by:  A1 = X 1exp t + X 3 exp t r r  DV i ( X .84) or  x1     x2  = x   3 exp t   0  0   X 1   X1   inverse   t −t   1 (exp − exp )   X 2    →  X 2  =  X   X  0 1  3  3  0 (exp t − 1) exp −t   0  0  − exp −t (exp t − 1)   x1    1 − (exp 2t − 1)exp −t   x 2   x  0 1  3  0 a) The velocity components in the material description are given by: V1 = X 1exp t + X 3 exp t r  D  → Vi = x j ( X .85) and (2.: v1 = x1 + x 3  t −t v 2 = x 3 (exp + exp ) v = 0  3 Velocity in the spatial descriptio n Problem 2. X 3 . X 2 . is given by the following equations:  x1 = 1 ( X 1 + X 2 )exp t + 1 ( X 1 − X 2 )exp − t 2 2   t −t 1 1  x 2 = 2 ( X 1 + X 2 )exp − 2 ( X 1 − X 2 )exp x = X 3  3  0 ≤ t ≤ constant University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .84). Chaves (2013) . given by the equation (2. t ) .86).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. x = x ( X .86) To obtain the velocity and acceleration in the spatial description it is sufficient to replace the values of X 1 . a1 = x1 + x 3  t −t a 2 = x 3 (exp − exp ) a = 0  3 Accelerati on in the spatial descriptio n r r The motion of the continuum.27 r . into the equations (2. t ) =   A2 = X 3 (exp t − exp −t ) → Dt A = 0  3  (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 169 First we obtain the inverse equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 exp t + X 3 (exp t − 1)   t −t  x 2 = X 2 + X 3 (exp − exp ) x = X ⇒ X = x 3 3 3  3   x1 − X 1 exp t = x 3 (exp t − 1)     x 2 − X 2 = x 3 (exp t − exp −t ) → x = X ⇒ X = x 3 3 3  3  thus:  X 1 = x1 exp − t − exp − t (exp t − 1)   2t −t  X 2 = x 2 − x 3 (exp − 1)exp X = x 3  3  (2.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.28 Given the motion: x i = ( X 1 + ktX 2 )δ i1 + X 2 δ i 2 + X 3 δ i 3 i ∈ {1. to obtain the Eulerian velocity we replace the above equations into (2.3} and the temperature field T = x1 + x 2 Obtain the rate of change of T of a particle that in the current configuration is located at point (1. Solution: The velocity components using material description are: r  Dx1 ( X . t ) 1 1  = ( X 1 + X 2 )exp t + ( X 1 − X 2 )exp −t V 2 = Dt 2 2  V3 = 0    (2.1) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 170 Express the velocity components in the material and spatial descriptions.2.e.1. Solution: Considering the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 + ktX 2  x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . which the result is: v1 = x 2  v 2 = x1 v = 0  3 Problem 2. V. we need to find X = X ( x . t ) :  (exp t   x1   t    (exp x2  =   x    3    + exp − t ) 2 − exp −t ) 2 0  0  X 1    0  X 2     1  X 3     (exp t − exp − t ) 2 (exp t + exp −t ) 2 0  (exp 2t + 1)exp −t  X1  1   inverse   →  X 2  =  − (exp 2t − 1)exp −t  X  2  0  3  − (exp 2t − 1)exp −t (exp 2t + 1)exp −t 0 0   x1    0  x 2  2  x 3    Then.87) To express the velocity components in the spatial description we need the inverse r r r equations of motion. i.87). t ) 1 1 = ( X 1 + X 2 )exp t − ( X 1 − X 2 )exp −t V1 = Dt 2 2  r  Dx 2 ( X .

t) = = kX 2 = k x 2 (. then the velocity of particle P at x * University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . with that we obtain the temperature field in the material description: r r T ( x ) = x1 + x 2 ⇒ T ( X . However. that does not mean that the velocities of the particles do not change over time.1) → T = k  & = Dt Dt Alternative solution: The material time derivative for a property expressed in the spatial description is given by: DT ∂T ∂T ∂x k & T ( x1 . In light of Figure 2. x 2 . we can now focus our attention on the fixed spatial point r r r x * . x 3 . let us consider a stationary (steady state) velocity field as shown in Figure 2.1 & T ( X . x 3 .3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.g. x 3 . V. Solution: r A field φ ( x . does not change. in which situation is met.1. Justify the answer. Let us also consider another particle P . x 3 . t1 and t 2 . x 2 . x 3 = 1.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 171 we replace xi into the temperature field. t ) = ∂t  ∂x 2 { ∂x 3 { ∂t ∂t {  ∂x1 ∂t { =0 =0 =0 =0     & ⇒ T ( x1 . x 2 . e.1) we have: & T ( x1 = 1. which is passing through another point with velocity r r r v P (t1 ) ≠ v * .88) For example. as we can verify. Then. t ) = k Problem 2. t ) =0 ∂t ⇒ r φ = φ( x ) Steady state (stationary) field (2. At time t 2 the particle P is now passing through the point x * . t ) = = + Dt ∂t ∂x k ∂t Considering T = x1 + x 2 . If not.3. x 2 . the field representation for any time. x 2 = 1. t ) = kX 2 = kx 2 For one particle in the current configuration at the position (1. t ) is said to be steady if the local rate of change does not vary over time. Chaves (2013) . so: r ∂φ ( x . t ) = kX 2 we obtain the inverse equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 + ktX 2  X 1 = x1 − ktx 2   inverse   →  X 2 = x 2  x2 = X 2 x = X X = x 3 3  3  3 & ⇒ T ( x1 . t ) = X 1 + ktX 2 + X 2 The material time derivative is given by: r DT D ( X 1 + ktX 2 + X 2 ) 1.29 Given a steady velocity field: it asks readers to give their opinion on whether particle velocities are constant or not. we obtain: ∂T  ∂T ∂x1 ∂T ∂x 2 ∂T ∂x 3 & + + + T ( x1 . It follows that r if we are dealing with a steady state velocity field. At time t1 the particle Q is passing through point x * with velocity v * .

V. t) r  r = 0  and homogeneous ( ∇ x v = 0 ). i.P r r v P ≠ v* r x* t2 r r v ( x) r r r r v ( x * .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 172 r r r must be v * . v P (t 2 ) = v * .3: Steady velocity field.89) = 0 (Stationay ) The rate of change of velocity (acceleration) will be zero if the velocity field is stationary r r r  ∂v ( x .e. t ) r r ∂v ( x . i. t ) t1 (2.Q Particle. t ) r r ≡ a ( x.e. t ) = + ∇ x v ⋅ v ( x) = ∇ x v ⋅ v ( x) = a ( x) Dt 123 4∂t4 r (2.P r x* Figure 2.90) r r v ( x) r r r r v ( x * . t2 ) = v * = v P Particle .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.   ∂t  We can also verify that. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . since: r r r r r r r v ( x ) = v ( x ( X . Chaves (2013) . We can easily contrast this with the material time derivative of velocity. which is always associated with the same particle. although spatial velocity is independent of time.: r r r r r r r r r r r r Dv ( x . t )) = v ( X . t1 ) = v * = v Q Particle . that does not mean material velocity is also.

t ) .92) dX (2.95) at t = 0 ⇒ x = X .93) x1 = exp at X 1 + C (2.94) x = exp 0 X 1 + C ⇒ X = X + C ⇒ C = 0 (2.1.97) By: Eduardo W.Spain Draft (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 2. b) Obtain the rate-of-deformation tensor components.96) The velocity field components become: dx1  at v1 = dt = a X 1 exp = a x1  v 2 = 0 v = 0  3  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .e. i. x1 λ = exp at Figure 2. Solution: Using the approach in 1D we have: λ= ds dx = = exp at ⇒ dx = exp at dX dS dX ∫ dx = ∫ exp at (2.91) r r r a) Obtain the equations of motion x = x ( X . Homogeneous Problem 2.30 A rod. thus with that we obtain the equations of motion:  x1 = exp at X 1   x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 (2.4. (2. which is considered as a one-dimensional solid. V.2 Deformation/strain Deformation 173 Tensors. undergoes a uniform stretching and is given by: λ = exp at where a = constant . D -components.

E -components. the symmetric part is the null tensor. Solution 1: The displacement field components are given by u1 = x1 − X 1 = 2 X 3  u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = −2 X 3 u = x − X = −2 X + 2 X 3 3 1 2  3 The Green-Lagrange strain tensor can be expressed in function of Lagrangian displacement as follows: E ij = = 1  ∂u i ∂u j ∂u k ∂u k  + + 2  ∂X j ∂X i ∂X i ∂X j  1  ∂u i ∂u j  + 2  ∂X j ∂X i   ∂u = i  ∂X j      sym +      1  ∂u k ∂u k +   2  ∂X i ∂X j   1  ∂u k ∂u k  2  ∂X i ∂X j          where the material (Lagrangian) displacement gradient is given by:  ∂u1   ∂X 1 ∂u i  ∂u 2 = ∂X j  ∂X 1   ∂u 3  ∂X 1  ∂u1 ∂X 2 ∂u 2 ∂X 2 ∂u 3 ∂X 2 ∂u1   ∂X 3   0 0 2  ∂u 2     =  0 0 − 2 ∂X 3    ∂u 3  − 2 2 0  ∂X 3   Note that.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and the remaining term is:   0 0 2  T  0 0 2    2 − 2 0  1  ∂u ∂u k  1    =  0 0 − 2   0 0 − 2  =  − 2 2 0  E ij =  k      2  ∂X i ∂X j  2       − 2 2 0  − 2 2 0    0 0 4       Solution 2: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . i. V. in this case. Chaves (2013) .98) Problem 2.e.31 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 + 2 X 3   x2 = X 2 − 2 X 3 x = X − 2 X + 2 X 3 1 2  3 Obtain the Green-Lagrange strain tensor components. the displacement gradient is an antisymmetric tensor. That is.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 174 And the rate-of-deformation can be obtained as follows: ∂v j 1  ∂v D ij =  i + 2  ∂x j ∂xi       a 0 0 Dij =  0 0 0    0 0 0   ⇒ (2.

For the demonstration consider two vectors defined by the vector position of two particles A and B in the reference configuration: r ˆ ˆ X A = e1 + e 2 rB ˆ ˆ ˆ X = 2e1 + 2e 2 + e 3 (2. for a homogeneous transformation.103) thus.32 Consider a homogeneous transformation defined by the following equations:  x1 = X 1 + 2 X 2 + X 3   x2 = 2 X 2 x = X + 2 X 1 3  3 (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 175 We can directly apply the definition: E ij = ( ) ( 1 1 C ij − δ ij = Fki Fkj − δ ij 2 2 ) where:  ∂x1   ∂X 1 ∂x  ∂x Fij = i =  2 ∂X j ∂X  1  ∂x3  ∂X 1  ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x3 ∂X 2 ∂x1   ∂X 3   1 0 2  ∂x 2     =  0 1 − 2 ∂X 3    ∂x3  − 2 2 1  ∂X 3   Thus   1 0 2  T  1 0 2  1 0 0   2 − 2 0  1 E ij =   0 1 − 2  0 1 − 2 − 0 1 0  = − 2 2 0        2    − 2 2 1   − 2 2 1  0 0 1    0 0 4          Problem 2. vectors that are parallel in the reference configuration remain parallel after deformation.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.100) Solution: The vector connecting the two particles in the reference configuration is given by: r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ V = B − A = e1 + e 2 + e 3 (2.101) and the deformation gradient is: 1 2 1  ∂xi  = 0 2 0  Fij =  ∂X j 1 0 2   (2. Chaves (2013) . V.102) We can obtain the vector position of the particle in the current configuration by means of: r r dx = F ⋅ dX ⇒ Homogeneous transformation ⇒ r r x=F⋅X (2.99) Show that. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

which is parallel to v . X2 B C O A X1 Figure 2. xiB 1 2 1   2 7  = 0 2 0   2  =  4       1 0 2 1   4      (2.104) and the vector that connect these two points is: r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ v = x B − x A = 4e1 + 2e 2 + 3e 3 (2.e.33 Consider a pure shear deformation represented by homogenous deformation: r r ˆ x = X + k t X 2e1 (2. The Jacobian determinant: J = F =1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .106) ˆ where e i is the Cartesian basis.107) Obtain the geometry in the current configuration of Figure 2. after transformation r ˆ ˆ ˆ becomes: 8e1 + 4e 2 + 6e 3 . i.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 176 xiA 1 2 1  1 3 = 0 2 0  1  =  2       1 0 2 0 1       .5 Solution: The deformation gradient: 1 k t 0 ∂xi  Fij = = 0 1 0  ∂X j  0 0 1    (2. Chaves (2013) .109) By: Eduardo W. Problem 2.Spain Draft (2. x = F ⋅ X + c with c = 0 . V.105) r ˆ ˆ ˆ then any vector parallel to V .108) r r r r r Note that this is a case of homogenous deformation. and the components of the above equation are:  x1 = X 1 + k t X 2   x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 (2. for example the vector 2e1 + 2e 2 + 2e 3 .5 which is represented by a rectangle in the reference configuration.

e) Obtain the principal values of C and E . c) Consider the particles that are located according to the equation: 2 X 12 + X 2 = 2 X3 = 0 Obtain the new configuration of these particles in the current configuration. Chaves (2013) .6 Problem 2.0.34 Consider the equations of motion: x1 = X 1 + 2 X2 2 . coordinates ( X 1 . x2 B B′ C O C′ x1 A Figure 2. d) Obtain the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor components ( C ) and the GreenLagrange strain tensor ( E ). (see Figure 2.112) a) Show that this deformation is characterized by a homogeneous transformation. X 2 .0) . with that we obtain:  x1 = X 1 + k t X 2   x2 = X 2 x = 0  3 (2. x2 = 2 X1 + X 2 2 . The particles which are on the line BC have coordinates ( X 1 .111) then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the line OA does not change its position during motion. in this case there is no dilatancy. x3 = X 3 (2. b) Obtain the displacement field components in material and spatial descriptions.6). in the current configuration assume the position:  x1 = X 1   x2 = 0 x = 0  3 (2.110) The particles which are on the line OA .0) in the reference configuration. Solution: a) The equation of a homogeneous deformation is described by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 177 Note that.

120) which is the same as: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .117) u1 = x1 − X 1 = x1 − 2 x1 − 2 x 2 = − x1 + 2 x 2 ( ) u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = x 2 − − 2 x1 + 2 x 2 = 2 x1 − x 2 (2. V. we are dealing with homogeneous deformation. in spatial coordinates.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 178 xi = Fij X j (2. The inverse of (2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.116) b) The displacement field is given by:  2 2 X 2 − X1 = X2 u1 = x1 − X 1 = X 1 + 2 2   r r r 2 2  X1 + X 2 − X 2 = X1 u = x − X ⇒ u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = 2 2  u 3 = x3 − X 3 = 0    which.114) Note that the equation (2. Chaves (2013) .115) Hence.118) u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = x3 − x3 = 0 c) The particles describing a circle in the reference configuration: 2 X 12 + X 2 = 2 .113) is in accordance with (2.115) is obtained as follows:  X1   2  X  = − 2  2  X3   0    − 2 2 0 0  x1   0  x 2    1  x3     X 1 = 2 x1 − 2 x 2    X 2 = − 2 x1 + 2 x 2 X = x 3  3  ⇒ (2. becomes: ( ) (2.112):    x1   x  =   2   x3        2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0  0   X1   0  X 2     X3  1      (2.113) where    ∂xi  Fij = = ∂X j      2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0  0   0 1    (2.119) in the current configuration becomes: (2 x 1 − 2 x2 ) + (− 2 2 x1 + 2 x 2 ) 2 =2 (2. X3 = 0 (2.

124) The E -components are: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . C 2 = − 2 ≈ 0.122) Then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5 -2 x1 Figure 2.123) are: C1 = 3 3 + 2 ≈ 2. V.914 .123) And the eigenvalues of (2.5 -1 -1.7 d) The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor and the Green-Lagrange strain tensor are given. Chaves (2013) .086 . by: C = FT ⋅F E= .121) (see Figure 2. C 3 = 1 2 2 (2.5 Reference configuration x2 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 -0. the C -components are:     C ij =      1 2 2 0 2 2 1 0  0    0  1     2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0  0      0 =   1       3 2 2 0 2 3 2 0  0  0  1   (2.5 1 0. respectively. 2 Current configuration 1.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 179 2 3x12 + 3 x 2 − 4 2 x1 x 2 = 1 (an ellipse equation) (2. 1 (C − 1) 2 (2.7).

V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 180 ( ) 1 C ij − δ ij 2  3  2  2 1 3 =  2  2 2  0 0   E ij =    0  1 1 0 0    1 0  − 0 1 0   =  2 2  4    0 0 0 1   1        2 2 1 0 0  0 0  (2. b) Determine the material curve in the current configuration for a material circle defined in the reference configuration as: 2 X 12 + X 2 = 2 X3 = 0 c) Obtain the components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor and the GreenLagrange strain tensor.125) The eigenvalues of E can be obtained as follows:  1+ 2 2 λ1 = λ 7  4 λ2 − − =0⇒ 2 16 1− 2 2  λ 2 = 4  (2.957 . And by comparing this with the equations of motion in (2.75 .128) we have: 2 1 0  X 1   x1   x  = 1 1 2 0   X   2   2 2   0 0 2  X 3   x3       .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x i = Fij X j So. the three eigenvalues of E are: E1 = Problem 2. Chaves (2013) . E 2 = ≈ −0. we can verify that the proposed example is a case of homogeneous deformation in r r which c = 0 . E 3 = 0 4 4 (2. x3 = X 3 (2.126) 1+ 2 2 1− 2 2 ≈ 0.457 . r 1 X1 + X 2 2 . d) Obtain the principal stretches.128) a) Obtain the displacement field ( u ) in the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The inverse form of the above equation is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .35 Let us consider the following equations of motion: x1 = X 1 + 1 X2 2 x2 = . Solution: The deformation gradient is given by:  2 1 0 ∂xi 1 = 1 2 0 Fij =  ∂X j 2  0 0 2   J = F = 0.127) 1 −λ 4 2 2 2 2 =0 1 −λ 4 ⇒ Then.

130).125 0      2  0 0 1  0 0 1    0 0 0       In the principal space of C its components are given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .25 1 0 1 0 0  0. t ) = u ( x . after which the components of the r 1 1  u1 ( X .125 0.129) into (2. t ) 2  (2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS  4 − 2 0  x1   X1   X  = 1  − 2 4 0  x   2   2 3  0 X3  0 3  x 3       The displacement field is defined by Lagrangian displacement become: 181 4 2   X 1 = 3 x1 − 3 x 2  2 4  ⇒ (2.130) The components of the Eulerian displacement can be obtained by substituting the Eulerian description of motion (2.25 0     4  0 0 2   0 0 2  0 0 1       1. t ) = x 2 − X 2 = X 1 + X 2 − X 2 = X 1 2 2  r u 3 ( X . t ) = x3 − X 3 = 0   (2.25 0 − 0 1 0  =  0.131) 2 The particles belonging to the circle X 12 + X 2 = 2 in the reference configuration will form a new curve in the current configuration which is defined by: 2 X 12 + 2 X2 2 2  4  4  2 2 = 2 ⇒  x1 − x 2  +  − x1 + x 2  = 2 ⇒ 20 x12 − 32 x1 x 2 + 20 x 2 = 18 3  3  3  3 which is an ellipse equation (Figure 2.7 shows the material curve in different configurations). t ) =  r r  r 1  u 2 ( X ( x . t ) = x1 − X 1 = X 1 + X 2 − X 1 = X 2  2 2  r 1 1  u i = xi − X i ⇒ u 2 ( X .5 0  1  E ij =   1 1. t ) = X 1 ( x . V. t ) = 0 3 3    r 1 2 4   − 3 x1 + 3 x 2  = u1 ( x . t ).129)  X 2 = − x1 + x 2 3 3   X 3 = x3   r r r u = x − X . t ) = 2  r r r u ( X ( x . t ).25 1 0 1 C ij = 1 2 0  1 2 0 =  1 1. t ). t ) = 2 X 2 ( x . t ) 2  r 1 2 4   − 3 x1 + 3 x 2  = u 2 ( x . Chaves (2013) . the result of which is: r r r  1 u1 ( X ( x. The components of C and E can be obtained by using the definitions C = F T ⋅ F and E= 1 (C − 1) : 2 C ij = Fki Fkj ( 1 E ij = C ij − δ ij 2 ) ⇒ ⇒  2 1 0  2 1 0 1.5 0.

Solution: − ˆ ˆ Considering the Nanson’s formula in indicial notation da n i = J Fki 1N k dA .0 material curve 1.5 -2.0 -1.5 x2 0.25 λ2 1  ′ C ij =  0 0  0 λ22 0  2.0 x1 Figure 2.5 Reference Conf. with J = det (F ) we apply the surface integral: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .25 0 = 0  λ2   0 0 1 3   0 0 ⇒ λ 1  0 0  0 λ2 0  1. to calculate these we need to obtain the C eigenvalues: 1.5 0 0 1 λ3   0    0 0 2. Chaves (2013) .5 0 0     =  0 0. Problem 2.0 -2 -1 0 1 2 -0.25 − C C 2 = 0.132) r r r ˆ ˆ Hint: The Nanson’s formula da = J F −T ⋅ dA .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 182 λ2 1  ′ C ij =  0 0  0  0 λ2  3 0 λ22 0 λ 1  ′ C ij =  0 0  ⇒ 0  0 λ3   0 λ2 0 where λ i show the principal stretches.25 = 0 ⇒ C 2 − 2. or da = da n = J F −T ⋅ N dA .5C + 0.36 Show that r ∇X ⋅ [(detF ) F −T ] = 0 r (2. Therefore.5 -1. V. Current Conf. 1.25 0 0   0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5625 = 0 ⇒  1 1.0 0.25 − C 1 C1 = 2.8: Material curve.

Solution: ( ) ) [ ( ] [ & D E = D  1 F T ⋅ F − 1  = 1 F T ⋅ F + F T ⋅ F = 1 (F T ⋅ F )T + (F T ⋅ F ) = F T ⋅ F & & & & & E≡  2 2 Dt Dt  2   ] sym Note that: ( ) & r r D  ∂xi ( X . i. t ) = u( x . t )] = ∂u i ( X . ∫ r ∇X ∫ V0 ( ) ∂ − J Fki 1 dV0 = 0 i ∂X k (2. Chaves (2013) . t ) b) [ ] [ ] [ ] r r sym r T r r 1 1 rr T sym r r r& l + ( l ) = ∇ x v + (∇ x v ) = (∇ x v ( x . if the above volume integral is valid for the entire volume we can guarantee that is also valid locally. V. D=l sym = University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .e.37 [ r r ] [ sym (2.135) r r ] sym & r & r& Show that E = F −T ⋅ ∇ X u( X . t ) = ∇ r u( X . if we consider a function f .134) ⋅ [(detF ) F −T ] dV0 = 0 r V0 Then.: ⋅ [(detF ) F −T ] = 0 r r ∇X Problem 2. t )) = ∇ x u( x .133). t ) . we obtain: ˆ ∫n i da = 0 i S Returning to equation (2.133) S0 Note that. it holds that: ˆ ∫n i f da = S ∫ f .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t) . t )  & &   = ∂ Dxi ( X . t ) & Fij = X ij Dt  ∂X j  ∂X j Dt ∂X j ∂X j   with that we demonstrate that: [ & D E = FT ⋅F & E≡ Dt ] sym [ ] r r sym r & = F T ⋅ ∇ X u( X . t ) 2 2 r r r r & where we have considered v ( x . where E is the GreenLagrange strain tensor and D is the rate-of-deformation tensor.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 183 −1 ˆ ki N k dA ˆ ∫ n da = ∫ J F i S (2. t) and b) D = ∇ x u( x . and applying the divergence theorem to the integral on the right of the equation we obtain: ˆ ∫ n da = 0 = ∫ J F i −1 ˆ ki N k dA = i −1 ki k dV0 = V0 S0 S ∫ (J F ). t ) = ∂ [u i ( X .i dV = V ∫ V ∂f dV ∂xi Denoting by f = 1 .

e.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 184 Problem 2.e. l = D + W . l = D + W = W . whose components are given by: ∂v1   ∂x3   0 − 5 2  ∂v 2   = 5 0 − 3  ∂x3    − 2 3 0  ∂v3   ∂x3   (2. i. t )  ∂v 2 l ij = = ∂x j ∂x  1 ∂v3   ∂x1  ∂v1 ∂x 2 ∂v 2 ∂x 2 ∂v 3 ∂x 2 (l ): ∂v1   ∂x3   0 − 3 1  ∂v 2   0 − 5 = l ijskew = 3  ∂x3  − 1 5 0   ∂v3  ∂x3   Taking into account that l can be decomposed into a symmetric ( l sym ≡ D ) and an antisymmetric ( l skew ≡ W ) part.40 The displacement field components are given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: First we obtain the components of the spatial velocity gradient  ∂v1   ∂x1 r ∂vi ( x .39 Let us consider the following velocity field: v1 = −3 x 2 + 1x 3  v 2 = 3 x1 − 5 x3 v = −1x + 5 x 1 2  3 Show that this motion corresponds to rigid body motion.e. t )  ∂v 2 l ij = = ∂x j ∂x  1  ∂v3  ∂x1  ∂v1 ∂x 2 ∂v 2 ∂x 2 ∂v3 ∂x 2 (l ). Since D = 0 . Problem 2. there is no strain during motion. which is a characteristic of rigid body motion. i.136) Remember that ( l ) can be decomposed into a symmetric ( D ) and antisymmetric ( W ) part. Chaves (2013) . we can thus conclude that D = 0 . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: At first we obtain the spatial velocity gradient  ∂v1   ∂x1 r ∂vi ( x. Problem 2. i. a rigid body motion.38 Consider the velocity field: v1 = −5 x 2 + 2 x3  v 2 = 5 x1 − 3 x3 v = −2 x + 3 x 1 2  3 Show that this motion corresponds to a rigid body motion.

41 Consider a continuum in which the displacement field is described by the following equations: u1 = 2 X 12 + X 1 X 2   2 u 2 = X 2 u = 0  3  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 185 u1 = 3 X 12 + X 2   2 u 2 = 2 X 2 + X 3  2 u 3 = 4 X 3 + X 1  r Obtain the vector dx (current configuration) correspondent to the vector in the reference r configuration represented by dX at the point P(1.1) are: Fij P 7 1 0  = 0 5 1    1 0 9    Then. Chaves (2013) . The deformation gradient components can be obtained by using the relationship: Fij = δ ij + ∂u i ∂X j 1 1 + 6 X 1  0 Fij =  1 + 4X 2  1 0     1 + 8X 3   0 1 The deformation gradient components evaluated at the point P(1.1. the vector components dx i are given by: dx i = Fij dX j  dx1  7 1 0   dX 1   7 dX 1 + dX 2   dx  = 0 5 1   dX  = 5dX + dX  2 3  2   2    dx 3  1 0 9   dX 3   dX 1 + 9 dX 3         Problem 2. x1 Solution: r To determine the vector dx we need to obtain the deformation gradient F . X 3 .1) .1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x2 X 1 . V. x3 P  dX 1  dX k =  dX 2     dX 3    Q r dX X 2 .

University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . X 2 = 0.9).5 4 4. a material curve is always formed by the same particles. X 2 = 0.5 P 2 material curve x2 1.e. X 3 = 0) . to obtain the material curve.u 3 x = X 3  3   x1 = u1 + X 1  x2 = u 2 + X 2 x = u + X 3 3  3 Then. The components of the deformation gradient can be obtained as follows: F jk  ∂x1   ∂X 1  ∂x = 2 ∂X  1  ∂x 3  ∂X 1  ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x 3 ∂X 2 ∂x1   ∂X 3  (1 + 4 X + X ) X1 1 2 ∂x 2   0 1 + 2X 2 = ∂X 3     0 0 ∂x 3   ∂X 3   0 0  1  2.u 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. where O( X 1 = 0. P ( X 1 = 1. but the line OT is still a straight line in the current configuration (see Figure 2.9: Deformation of the material curve OP . (see Figure 2.: u i = xi − X i  x1 = X 1 + 2 X 12 + X 1 X 2   2 substituti→  x 2 = X 2 + X 2   ng the values of u1 . Solution: a) The equations of motion can be obtained by means of the displacement field. Find the material curves in the current configuration.5 x1 Figure 2. X 2 = 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 186 By definition. i.10).5 1 1. Chaves (2013) . Let OP and OT be material lines in the reference configuration. one need only substitute the material coordinates with the particles belonging to the line OP in the equations of motion.5 3 3. X 3 = 0) .5 2 2.5 Current Conf. Notice that the material curve OP in the current configuration is no longer a straight line.5 P 1 0. Also find the deformation gradient. Q Q Reference Conf. X 3 = 0) and T ( X 1 = 1. V. 0 O0 0.

10: Deformation of the material curve OT . the material time derivative of F ≡ det (F ) is given ∂X j by:   D [det ( F )] = D  ∂x i ( X . is valid.02 0 Current Conf.5 x1 Figure 2.113 in Chapter 1.06 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x2 0.5 1 1.5 3 3.i An alternative solution is presented in Problem 1.06 0.5 3 3.5 2 2.42 Starting from the definition r & r J = J ∇ x ⋅ v . we can also state the following is valid: D [det (F )] = ∂vi ∂xk Fij Dt ∂xk ∂X j ( ) −T ( ) det Fij = ∂vi Fkj F ji ∂x k ( ) −1 ( ) det Fij = ∂vi ∂v δ ki det Fij = i det Fij ∂x k ∂xi ( ) ( ) = Jvi . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 0. 0. Solution: Considering that Fij = DF D [det (F )] = ij cof Fij . V. t ) . show that the equation Dt Dt ( ) ∂x i . 0. t ) cof Fij = D (v i )cof Fij    ∂X j  ∂X j  Dt Dt  Dt ∂X j   r and considering that v i ( x ( X . t ).2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 187 Reference Conf.04 0. T O0 0. t ) cof Fij = D  ∂x i ( X .08 Reference Conf.5 x2 Current Conf.5 2 2. Chaves (2013) .5 1 1. Problem 2.04 0.1 0. we can state that: ( ) ( ) ( ) D [det (F )] = ∂vi ∂x k cof Fij ∂x k ∂X j Dt ( ) By referring to the definition of the cofactor: [cof (Fij )]T = (Fij )−1 det (Fij ) .02 0 T O0 0.08 0.

Chaves (2013) . Find the material time r derivative of dx .44 Let us consider the equations of motion:  x1 = X 1 + 4 X 1 X 2  2 x2 = X 2 + X 2  2  x3 = X 3 + X 3 Find the Green-Lagrange strain tensor ( E ). k dx k = i dx k  ∂x k  Dt  i Problem 2. Solution: r r r r D D D r D ( F ⋅ dX ) = ( F ) ⋅ dX + F ⋅ ( dX ) = l ⋅ 123 F ⋅ dX dx = r Dt 3 Dt Dt Dt 1 24 4 dx r 0 r r r r = l ⋅ dx ≡ ∇ x v ⋅ dx And. Solution: Referring to the E equation: E= 1 ( F T ⋅ F − 1) 2 . E ij = 1 ( Fki Fkj − δ ij ) 2 (2. t )  D r dx  = v i . Fki Fkj 0 0  (1 + 4 X 2 ) 4X1 (1 + 4 X 2 )  4X  1 + 2X 2 0  0 1 + 2X 2 = 1   0 0 1 + 2X 3   0 0  2  (1 + 4 X 2 )  (1 + 4 X 2 ) 4 X 1 0   2 2 0 = (1 + 4 X 2 ) 4 X 1 ( 4 X 1 ) + (1 + 2 X 2 )   0 0 (1 + 2 X 3 ) 2    0  0   1 + 2X 3   Then substituting the above into the equation in (2.43 r Let dx be a differential line element in the current configuration.137) where the components of F are derived as:  ∂x1   ∂X 1 ∂x k  ∂x 2 Fkj = = ∂X j  ∂X 1   ∂x 3  ∂X 1  ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x 3 ∂X 2 ∂x1   ∂X 3  (1 + 4 X ) 4X1 2 ∂x 2   0 1 + 2X 2 = ∂X 3     0 0 ∂x 3   ∂X 3    0   1+ 2X 3   0 And.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. whose components are represented by: r ∂v ( x .137) we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 188 Problem 2.

45 Obtain the principal invariants of E in terms of the principal invariants of C and b . the second invariant can also be expressed as: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: The principal invariants of E are given by: I E = Tr ( E ) II E = . Chaves (2013) . 1 2 Considering E = (C − 1) .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 189 (1 + 4 X 2 ) 2 − 1  (1 + 4 X 2 ) 4 X 1 0  1 2 2 0 E ij =  (1 + 4 X 2 ) 4 X 1 ( 4 X 1 ) + (1 + 2 X 2 ) − 1  2 2 0 0 (1 + 2 X 3 ) − 1   Problem 2. the principal invariants can also be expressed as follows: The First Invariant: 1 1 1  1 I E = Tr ( E ) = Tr  (C − 1)  = Tr (C − 1) = [Tr (C ) − Tr (1) ] = (I C − 3) 2 2 2  2 The Second Invariant: II E = [ 1 2 I E − Tr ( E 2 ) 2 ] where 2 2 IE ( 1 2 1  =  (I C − 3) = I C − 6 I C + 9 4 2  2 [ ) ] ) [ ( ) ( ] 1 1 1 1  Tr ( E ) = Tr  (C − 1)  = Tr (C − 1) 2 = Tr C 2 − 2C + 1 = Tr C 2 − 2 Tr (C ) + Tr (1) 4 4 4 2  1 = Tr C 2 − 2 I C + 3 4 2 [ ( ) ] The term Tr (C ) can be obtained as follows: 2 C ⋅C = C 2 ⇒ C12  ′ C ij2 =  0  0  0 2 C2 0 It is also true that: 0   2 2 0  ⇒ Tr C 2 = C12 + C 2 + C 3 2 C3   ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 I C = (C1 + C 2 + C 3 ) = C12 + C 2 + C 3 + 2 C1 C 2 + C1 C 3 + C 2 C 3 1444 24444 4 3 2 II C 2 2 2 ⇒ C12 + C 2 + C 3 = I C − 2 II C Therefore we have: Tr ( E 2 ) = ( 1 2 I C − 2 II C − 2 I C + 3 4 ) Whereupon. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. [ 1 2 I E − Tr ( E 2 ) 2 ] III E = det ( E ) .

C = Ψ .46 Let Ψ = Ψ (I C . III C are the principal invariants of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor C . Solution: Using the chain rule of derivative we obtain: Ψ . II C . Check whether the following equation is valid F ⋅ Ψ . III C ) ∂Ψ ∂I C ∂Ψ ∂ II C ∂Ψ ∂ III C = + + ∂C ∂I C ∂C ∂ II C ∂C ∂ III C ∂C (2. II C . II C . = IC 1 − C T = IC 1 − C . = III C C −T = III C C −1 . Obtain the derivative of Ψ with respect to C and with respect to b . II C = 4 II E + 4 I E + 3 III C = 8 III E + 4 II E + 2 I E + 1 Problem 2. we can obtain: ∂C ∂C ∂C Ψ . Chaves (2013) .C ∂Ψ ∂Ψ (I C 1 − C ) + ∂Ψ III C C −1 1+ ∂I C ∂ II C ∂ III C  ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ −1 =  ∂I + ∂ II I C 1 − ∂ II C + ∂ III III C C  C C C  C  (2. where I C .138) Considering the partial derivative of the invariants: ∂I C ∂ II C ∂ III C =1 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 190 II E = ( ) ( ) 1 1 2 1 2  1  4 I C − 6 I C + 9 − 4 I C − 2 II C − 2 I C + 3  = 4 (− 2 I C + II C + 3) 2  The Third Invariant: 3 1  1 III E = det ( E ) = det  (C − 1) =   det [(C − 1)] 2  2 The term det[(C − 1)] can also be expressed as: C1 − 1 0 det (C − 1) = 0 C2 − 1 0 0 0 = (C1 − 1)(C 2 − 1)(C 3 − 1) C3 − 1 0 = C1C 2 C 3 − C1C 2 − C1C 3 − C 2 C 3 + C1 + C 2 + C 3 − 1 = III C − II C + I C − 1 Then: III E = 1 ( III C − II C + I C − 1) 8 In short we have: 1 (I C − 3 ) 2 1 II E = (− 2 I C + II C + 3) 4 1 III E = ( III C − II C + I C − 1) 8 I C = 2I E + 3 IE = .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.139) It is also true that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .b ⋅ b or not.C ⋅ F T = Ψ . III C ) be a scalar-valued tensor function.C = ∂Ψ (I C . V.

indicating that the tensors Ψ .:  ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ T T −1 T F ⋅ Ψ .47 Show that the Green-Lagrange strain tensor ( E ) and the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( C ) are coaxial tensors. the equation in (2. we can conclude that: C ⋅ E = (1 + 2 E ) ⋅ E = 1 ⋅ E + 2 E ⋅ E = E ⋅ (1 + 2 E ) = E ⋅ C Thus.C ⋅ F T =   ∂I + ∂ II I C b − ∂ II b + ∂ III III C b ⋅ b  C C C  C    ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ + F ⋅ Ψ . we can prove that E and C are coaxial tensors.e.140) We apply the dot product of the above equation with F on the left and with F T on the right.C ⋅ F T = Ψ .C ⋅ F T =   ∂I + ∂ II I C  F ⋅ 1 ⋅ F − ∂ II F ⋅ C ⋅ F + ∂ III III C F ⋅ C ⋅ F  C C C  C  (2. V. Chaves (2013) . C ⋅ F T =  I C 1 − b+ III C b −1  ⋅ b   ∂ II C ∂ III C   ∂I C ∂ II C    It is also valid that:   ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ F ⋅ Ψ . i. b ⋅ b Taking into account the equation (2. Problem 2. Solution: Two tensors are coaxial if they have the same principal directions.b ⋅ b = b ⋅ Ψ . C ⋅ F T =  I b 1 − B+ III b b −1  ⋅ b +   ∂ III b ∂ II b   ∂I b ∂ II b    F ⋅ Ψ . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .141) And considering the following relationships: ⇒ F ⋅1 ⋅ F T = F ⋅ F T = b C = F T ⋅ F ⇒ F ⋅C ⋅ F T = F ⋅ F T ⋅ F ⋅ F T = b ⋅ b = b2 And considering the relationship C −1 = F −1 ⋅ b −1 ⋅ F we conclude that: C −1 = F −1 ⋅ b −1 ⋅ F ⇒ F ⋅ C −1 ⋅ F T = F ⋅ F −1 ⋅ b −1 ⋅ F ⋅ F T = b −1 ⋅ b Then.b =   ∂I + ∂ II I b 1 − ∂ II b + ∂ III III b b  b b b  b  (2. Coaxiality can also be demonstrated if the relation C ⋅ E = E ⋅ C holds.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.140) we can conclude that the equation Ψ .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 191  ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ −1 Ψ .141) can be rewritten as follows:  ∂Ψ  ∂Ψ 2 ∂Ψ ∂Ψ −1 F ⋅ Ψ . Starting with the definition C = 1 + 2 E .b and b are coaxial.b is valid.

Chaves (2013) . since W is r r antisymmetric tensor and (dx ⊗ dx ) is a symmetric tensor. Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 192 Problem 2. Dt Solution: r r Taking the material time derivative of (ds ) 2 − (dS ) 2 = dX ⋅ 2 E ⋅ dX we obtain: [ D (ds ) 2 − (dS ) 2 Dt The term ] [ ] [ ] r D D r dX ⋅ 2 E ⋅ dX (ds ) 2 = Dt Dt r r r r r r D r r & & & [dx ⋅ dx ] = 2dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX + 2dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX + 2dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX = { { Dt =0 =0 r r r D r & = 2 dx ⋅ [dx ] = 2dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX Dt = D r [dx ] can be expressed as follows: Dt D r  Dt [dx ]      [ r D = F ⋅ dX Dt r & = F ⋅ dX r = l ⋅ F ⋅ dX ] D D  ∂x k  [dx k ] =  Dt  ∂X i  Dt  D  ∂x k  Indicial   →   = Dt  ∂X i   ∂v k  dX i =  ∂X i    dX i    D  ∂x k  dX i =  dX i  DX i  ∂t   with that we conclude that: r r & 2 dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX r D r [dx ] = 2dx ⋅ r r Dt = 2dx ⋅ l ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = 2 F ⋅ dX ⋅ l ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = 2dX ⋅ F T ⋅ l ⋅ F ⋅ dX We can apply the additive decomposition of the spatial velocity gradient ( l ) into a symmetric ( D ) and an antisymmetric ( W ) part: r r & 2 dX ⋅ E ⋅ dX r r = 2 dX ⋅ F T ⋅ l ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = 2dX ⋅ F T ⋅ (D + W) ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r r r = 2 dX ⋅ F T ⋅ D ⋅ F ⋅ dX + 2 dX ⋅ F T ⋅ W ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = 2 dX ⋅ F T ⋅ D ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r r r r r Note that dX ⋅ F T ⋅ W ⋅ F ⋅ dX = dx ⋅ W ⋅ dx = W : (dx ⊗ dx ) = 0 .Spain ] Draft By: Eduardo W. V. we conclude that: an & E = F T ⋅D ⋅ F [ ] D (ds ) 2 and D as follows: Dt r r r r D (ds ) 2 = 2dX ⋅ F T ⋅ D ⋅ F ⋅ dX = 2dx ⋅ D ⋅ dx Dt With that it is possible to relate [ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Get also the relationship between (ds ) 2 and D .48 Obtain the & E = F T ⋅D ⋅ F relationship starting from [ ] the definition r r D (ds ) 2 − (dS ) 2 = dX ⋅ 2 E ⋅ dX .

( C ). To this end let us consider the following 1 & & & & equation E kp = (Fsk Fsp + Fsk Fsp ) . said vectors are at the point P (1.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 193 Problem 2. V. at the point P (1. Then.01e 1 and c = 0.49 & & & Obtain the material time derivative of the Jacobian determinant ( J ) in terms of ( E ).1.0) in the reference configuration. r r e) Find the angle variation defined by the two vectors b and c . where D is the rate-of-deformation tensor & & which is related to E by means of the relationship D = F −T ⋅ E ⋅ F −1 . Chaves (2013) .50 The displacement field components are given by: 2 u1 = 0. Problem 2.0) . b) Obtain the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. r r ˆ ˆ c) Find the current vectors related to the material vectors b = 0.015e 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. J can also be expressed by: 2 ( ( ) J − − & − − & − − 1 & − − & & & J = J Fki 1 F pi1 E kp = J Fki 1 F pi1 Fsk Fsp + Fsk Fsp = Fki 1 F pi1 Fsk Fsp + Fki 1 F pi1 Fsk Fsp 2 2 J J − & − & − & − & & & = δ si Fki 1 Fsk + δ si F pi1 Fsp = Fks1 Fsk + F ps1 Fsp = JFts−1 Fst = JFst Fts−1 2 2 & & = JF −T : F = JF : F −T ( ) ( ) ) In short.1 X 2  u 2 = 0 u = 0  3 a) Is this motion possible? Justify the answer. there are various different ways to express the material time derivative of the Jacobian determinant: J −1 & & C :C = J F : F −T 2 J & & & = J Tr (C −1 ⋅ E ) = Tr (C −1 ⋅ C ) = J Tr ( F ⋅ F −1 ) 2 & & J = J Tr (D) = J C −1 : E = where we have used the trace property: A : B = Tr ( A ⋅ B T ) = Tr ( A T ⋅ B ) in which A and B are arbitrary second-order tensors.1. & ( F ). Solution: & We starting from the relationship J = J Tr (D ) . r r d) Obtain the stretches of the vectors b and c . then: ( ) ( ) & & & J = J Tr (D) = J Tr F −T ⋅ E ⋅ F −1 = J F −T ⋅ E ⋅ F −1 : 1 In indicial notation we have: − & − − − & & & & & J J = J Fki 1 E kp F pj1δ ij = J Fki 1 F pi1 E kp = J ( F −1 ⋅ F −T ) : E = J C −1 : E = C −1 : C 2 & & The J can still be expressed in terms of F . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

2 X 2 0  1  0 .2 X 2 + 1 0  C ij =  2 2   0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 1      r ˆ c) The vector b = 0.015 = 0.2 × 1 0  0.015  2       c ′  0 0 1  0   0   3      d) The stretch can be obtained as follows: r λb = r b′ r b = 0. X 2 = 1.2 X 2 ∂u i Fij = δ ij + = 0 1 0 + 0 0   ∂X j  0 0 1  0 0    0  1 0 .04 0 =  0 0 1   ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Then.2 × 1 0   0  0.003 c ′  = 0 1 0  0.2 X 2 2 1 0  1 0  0 . the motion is possible.0) deforms according to: r r b′ = F P ⋅ b ′  b1  1 0. Chaves (2013) .2 X 2 0  = 0 1   0  0 0   0 0  1  The determinant is Fij = J = 1 > 0 .2 X 2   0  0 0 .2 1.2 X  0  =  0 . The deformation gradient is given by:  1 0 0   0 0 .015 2 = 1.2 0  1 0.012 =1 0.003 2 + 0.2 X 2 2 2 X2 P 0 . V.02 0.01 0. then the components are given by: 0 0 1 0. b) The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor is defined as C = F T ⋅ F . X 3 = 0) = 0. Then.2 X 2 0  1 0 .0198 ≈ 1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2 + 1 0  0 1  0 .01e 1 at the point P(1.1.015e 2 in the current configuration becomes: ′  c 1  1 0.01 r and the stretch of c is given as: r λc = r c′ r c = 0. by applying λ b = b ⋅ C ⋅ b and λ c = c ⋅ C ⋅ c we can obtain: ˆ ˆ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .01 b ′  = 0 1 0  0  =  0   2      b ′   0 0 1  0   0   3      r ˆ and the vector c = 0.015 ˆ ˆ Alternative solution: Taking into account that λ M = M ⋅ C ⋅ M and by evaluating C at the ˆ point P we obtain:  1 C ij ( X 1 = 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 194 Solution: a) A motion is possible if the Jacobian determinant is positive.

00003 0.04 0  1  = 0. cos θ = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 0 .04 ˆ ˆ ˆ b Problem 2. then angle variation is: ∆θ = 90 º −78 .69 º = 11 .04 = [0 1 0 ]     0 0 1  0     195 λb = 1 ˆ ⇒ λ c = 1.01e 1 + 0e 2 + 0e 3 ) ⋅ (0.015 2 = 0. Solution: Starting by the definition: r r ρ 0 ( X ) = ρ ( x.0198 ˆ r r e) In the current configuration the angle between the vectors b ′ and c ′ can be obtained according to the relation: r r b′ ⋅ c ′ cos θ = r r b′ c ′ cos θ = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (0.2 b⋅C ⋅c b⋅C ⋅c = = = 0.69º In the reference configuration the angle between these two vectors is 90 º .51 Obtain an equation for mass density in terms of the third invariant of the right CauchyGreen deformation tensor.003 + 0.01 0. Chaves (2013) .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS λb ˆ 2 λc ˆ 2 0 . the angle formed by these unit vectors in the current configuration (after motion) is given by: cos θ = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ M ⋅C ⋅ N M ⋅C ⋅ N = λMλN ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ M ⋅C ⋅ M N ⋅C ⋅ N ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Denoting by M = b and N = c it fulfills that: 0 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2 0   0  1 ˆ ⋅ C ⋅ c = [1 0 0]  0.2 1. we obtain J = III C .196116135 λbλ c ˆ ⋅C ⋅b c ⋅C ⋅c ˆ ˆ 1 1.2 0   0   1 0.000234 = 0.04 0 1  = 1. then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2 1.04 0 0  = 1 = [1 0 0 ]     0 0 1  0     ⇒ 0. V.196116135 θ = arccos(0. i. t) J and considering that the third invariant III C = det (C ) = det ( F T ⋅ F ) = J 2 .01 2 2 0.e.003e 1 + 0.3º Alternative solution: Given two directions in the reference configuration represented by their ˆ ˆ unit vectors M and N .015 e 2 + 0e 3 ) 0.2 ˆ b     0 0 1  0     Then.2 1. ρ 0 = ρ 0 ( III C ) . 2 0  1   1 0.196116135) ≈ 78.

Chaves (2013) . the following relationship is true: a1 a 2 a 3 = 1 ˆ By the fact that a segment parallel to the X 3 -axis.52 At a certain moment.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. where α is a constant.e. thus ˆ ˆ ˆ λ M = 1 + 2M ⋅ E ⋅ M = 1 + 2 E 33 = 1 ˆ ⇒ The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor ( E = a1α a2 E 33 = 0 ( ) 1 T F ⋅ F − 1 ) are given by: 2 0  1 0 0   0  − 0 1 0      0 a 3  0 0 1      2 2 2  a1 + a1 α − 1 a1 a 2 α 0   1 2 0  =  a1 a 2 α a2 − 1 2 2 0 0 a 3 − 1    a1 1  E ij =  0 2   0 0   a1 0  a α a 0  1 2 0 a3   0  thus: 2 E 33 = a 3 − 1 = 0 ⇒ a 3 = ±1 Any element area on the plane X 1 − X 3 does not change University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . does not stretch that implies that the stretching according to this direction is unitary. V. the equations of motion are:  x1 = a1 X 1   x 2 = a 2 X 2 + a1αX 1 x = a X 3 3  3 0  x1   a1     x 2  = a1α a 2 x   0 0  3  ⇒ 0  X 1    0   X 2  (homogeneous deformation  a3   X 3    which is possible to establish that F = a1 a 2 a 3 > 0 .e. a 2 and a 3 knowing that the solid is incompressible. i. the displacement field of a continuous medium is: u1 = (a1 − 1) X 1 .142) Problem 2. e.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 196 ρ0 =ρ III C (2. that a segment parallel to the X 3 -axis does not stretch and that any element area defined in the plane X 1 − X 3 remains unchanged. i. λ M = 1 . we obtain: u1 = x1 − X 1 = (a1 − 1) X 1 ⇒ x1 = a1 X 1 u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = (a 2 − 1) X 2 + a1αX 1 u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = (a 3 − 1) X 3 ⇒ ⇒ x 2 = a 2 X 2 + a1αX 1 x3 = a3 X 3 Then.g. Solution: r r r Based on the definition of the displacement field. u = x − X . Mi = [0 0 1]. u 2 = (a 2 − 1) X 2 + a1αX 1 u 3 = (a 3 − 1) X 3 . By means of the incompressibility condition dV = F dV0 ⇒ F ≡ J = 1 . Determine a1 .

X 2 .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 0  x1   a1     x 2  =  a1α a 2 x   0 0  3  197 0  X 1    0  X 2   a3   X 3    ˆ ˆ with Ni(1) = [1 0 0] and Ni(3) = [0 0 1] we obtain: n i(1) 0  a1 a α a = 1 2  0 0  0  1  a1      0  0 = a1α   a 3  0  0      n i(3) . t ) knowing that also holds the following boundary conditions: r r u 2 ( X . X 2 . Chaves (2013) . t ) in function of the material displacement gradient tensor J . X 3 u1 ( X 1 = 0. V. with that we obtain: 2 2 a12 a 3 α 2 + a12 a 3 = 1 a12 α 2 + a12 = 1 ⇒ a12 = ⇒ 1 1 ⇒ a1 = ± 2 (1 + α ) (1 + α 2 ) with that we conclude that: a1 = 1 (1 + α ) 2 . 0  a1 a α a = 1 2  0 0  0  0  0      0  0 =  0   a 3  1 a 3      Then. r r b) Obtain U ( X . X 3 . t ) = 0 u1 ( X 1 = L. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . X 2 . a 2 = (1 + α 2 ) . t ) = 0 ∀X 1 . d) Calculate the material and spatial strain tensors and the infinitesimal strain tensor. t ) = u3 ( X . r r a) Obtain the general expression of the material displacement field U ( X .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.11 which is subjected to a homogenous deformation. X 3 . a3 = 1 Problem 2. t ) = δ c) Justify the possible values (positive and negative) that can take δ . the area in the current configuration is obtained as follows: ˆ e1 r (1) r (3) n ∧ n = a1 0 ˆ ˆ e2 e3 ˆ ˆ ˆ a1α 0 = a1αe1 − a1 a 3 e 2 + 0e 3 0 a3 r r and its module does not change N (1) ∧ N (3) = n (1) ∧ n (3) = 1 : r r 2 2 n (1) ∧ n (3) = 1 = (a1α ) 2 + (−a1 a 3 ) 2 ⇒ a12 a 3 α 2 + a12 a 3 = 1 2 We have previously obtained that a 3 = 1 .53 Consider the solid shown in Figure 2.

c3 = 0 32 2 33 3   3   31 1  3 condition 2) u1 ( X 1 = 0. t ) = 0 : u1 = 0  J 11 X 1 + J 12 X 2 + J 13 X 3  c1        0  +  0  ⇒ {J 12 = 0. Note that the homogenous deformation is not dependent on the vector position. with that we can obtain: r r r r r ∂u( X . J 23 = 0. J 33 = 0. X 3 . X 2 . J 22 = 0. t ) = 0 ∀X 1 . t ) = J (t ) ⋅ X + c (t ) In components:  u1   J 11 X 1 + J 12 X 2 + J 13 X 3   c1        u 2  = J 21 X 1 + J 22 X 2 + J 23 X 3  + c 2  u   J X + J X + J X  c  32 2 33 3   3  3   31 1 b) From the conditions in paragraph b) we can conclude that: r r condition 1) u 2 ( X . X 3 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. X 2 . J 13 = 0. J 32 = 0. X 3 :  u1   J 11 X 1 + J 12 X 2 + J 13 X 3   c1      J 21 = 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 198 x3 δ L x1 x2 Figure 2. c 2 = 0    u 2 = 0 =  J 21 X 1 + J 22 X 2 + J 23 X 3  + c 2  ⇒  u = 0   J X + J X + J X  c   J 31 = 0. t ) ⇒ ∂X r where c (t ) is the constant of integration. V. we know that: r r Homogeneous F ( X . t ) = δ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . X 2 . Then: r r r r u( X . t ) = J (t ) ⋅ X + c (t ) ∫ ∫ r r r r u( X . t ) = u 3 ( X . t )    deformation → F (t ) = 1 + J (t )   where J is the material displacement gradient tensor. c1 = 0  u2  =   0  u   0     3   condition 3) u1 ( X 1 = L. t ) = F (t ) . t ) J (t ) = r ⇒ J (t ) ⋅ dX = du( X . t ) = 1 + J ( X .11 Solution: r A homogeneous deformation is characterized by F ( X . In addition.

V.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 199  u1  J 11 L  0 δ         u 2  =  0  + 0 ⇒ J 11 = L u = δ   0  0   3      Hence.Spain Draft  0 0 0 0  0 0   By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . t ) = J (t ) ⋅ X + c (t )    → u i ( X . t ) =  0     0      c) The motion is possible and has physical meaning if F > 0 :  δ 1 + L components F (t ) = 1 + J (t )    → Fij =  0    0    0 0 δ 1 0 ⇒ F = 1 + > 0 ⇒ δ > − L  L 0 1   d) The material strain tensor (the Green-Lagrange strain tensor): E= ( 1 T F ⋅F −1 2 ) δ 1 δ2  + 2 L 2 L 0 E ij =   0   components    →   0 0  0 0 0 0   The spatial strain tensor (the Almansi strain tensor): e= ( 1 1− F ⋅FT 2 ) components    →  δ 1 δ2  1 0 0  + 2   L 2 L    eij = 2 0 0 0 δ  1 +  0 0 0   L  The infinitesimal strain tensor: δ L ε ij =  0  0   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the components of the displacement gradient are: δ L J ij =  0  0    0 0 0 0  0 0   And the displacement field components are: δ   L X1  r r r r r components  u( X .

4.54 The tetrahedron shown in Figure 2. The angle AOC becomes 45º . X 2 = 0. Solution: a) The angle AOC = 90º becomes 45º . a) b) x3 C a O a B a x2 A x1 Figure 2. Obtain the deformation gradient. and in this problem we have ∆φ << π ≈ 0. and the possible values of " p" and displacement field in material and spatial descriptions. V. The length of the segment AC becomes 2 times the initial length. 4 b) We have a case of homogeneous deformation. ) with the following consequences: 1. X 2 = 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. A and B do not move. Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 200 Problem 2. The solid volume becomes " p" times the initial volume. Justify why we can not use the infinitesimal deformation theory. so we are not dealing with a small deformation. 2. c) Draw the deformed solid. since in the case of small deformation ∆φ << 1 . The points O . p 3.7854 . X 3 = 0) does not move: 0  F11    0 =  F21 0  F    31 F12 F22 F32 F13  0  c1      F23  0 + c 2       F33  0 c3  ⇒  c1  0     c 2  = 0 c  0  3   The point A( X 1 = a. X 3 = 0) does not move: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .12.12 undergoes homogeneous deformation ( F = const. the equations of motion are given by: r r r x = F (t ) ⋅ X + c (t ) ⇒  x1   F11     x 2  =  F21 x  F  3   31 F12 F22 F32 F13   X 1   c1      F23   X 2  + c 2   F33   X 3  c3      The point O( X 1 = 0.

V. we obtain: p 2 p 2 L AC a 2 ( F13 − 1) 2 + ( F23 ) 2 + ( p ) 2 = p University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS a   F11    0  =  F21 0   F    31 F12 F22 F32 F13  a    F23  0   F33  0    201 a   aF11      0  = aF21  0  aF     31  ⇒ ⇒  F11 = 1   F21 = 0 F = 0  31 The point B( X 1 = 0. a line in the reference configuration will remain a line in the current configuration. X 2 = 0. X 3 = a ) moves to: C  x1  1 0 F13  0   C     x 2  = 0 1 F23  0   x C  0 0 p  a     3  ⇒ C  x1   aF13   C    x 2  = aF23   x C   ap    3  The length of segment AC in the reference configuration is L AC = a 2 . x 2 = aF23 . x3 = 0) and C ′( x1 = aF13 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. The volume of the solid becomes " p" times the initial volume. The relationship between the initial (reference) volume and the current (final) volume is given by: dV = F dV0 ⇒ ∫ dV = ∫ F dV 0 ⇒ V final = F Vinitial = F33Vinitial where we have considered the homogeneous deformation case. X 2 = a. x 2 = 0. Chaves (2013) . As we are dealing with a homogeneous deformation. With this. x3 = ap) in the current configuration is given by: ˆ ˆ ˆ AC = (aF13 − a )e1 + (aF23 )e 2 + (ap)e 3 and its magnitude is: AC = l AC = (a ( F13 − 1)) 2 + (aF23 ) 2 + (ap) 2 = a ( F13 − 1) 2 + ( F23 ) 2 + ( p) 2 Using the information provided by the problem l AC = l AC = a ( F13 − 1) 2 + ( F23 ) 2 + ( p ) 2 = p 2 L AC . The point C ( X 1 = 0. we have: 1 0 F13  Fij = 0 1 F23    0 0 F33    F = F33 > 0 . The vector that connect the points A′ ≡ A( x1 = a. we conclude that F33 = p (The length of segment AC becomes p 2 times the initial length). X 3 = 0) does not move: 0  1 F12    a  = 0 F22  0  0 F 32    F13  0    F23  a   F33  0    0   aF12      a  = aF22  0  aF     32  ⇒ ⇒ F12 = 0  F22 = 1 F = 0  32 Gathering the above information.

dx (1) ⋅ dx ( 2) = 1 . V. this implies that p = 1 : 1 0 1 Fij = 0 1 0   0 0 1    The equations of motion become:  x1  1 0 1  X 1   X 1 + X 3          x 2  = 0 1 0  X 2  =  X 2   x  0 0 1   X   X  3  3   3    The material displacement field becomes: r r r r u( X . Then: 1 1+ p 2 2 2 = ⇒ p = ±1 As the Jacobian determinant must be greater than zero F = p > 0 . Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 202 thus ( F13 − 1) 2 + ( F23 ) 2 + p 2 = p 2 ⇒ ( F13 − 1) 2 + ( F23 ) 2 = 0  F13 = 1 ⇒  F23 = 0 Then. dX i(1) = [1 0 0] dX i( 2 ) = [0 0 1] ⇒ dxi(1) = Fij dX (j1) dx1( 2)  1  ( 2)   ⇒ dxi( 2 ) = Fij dX (j 2 ) ⇒ dx 2  = 0 dx ( 2)  0  3   r r dx (1) ⋅ dx ( 2 ) cos( AOC ′) = cos(45º ) = r (1) r ( 2 ) = dx dx r r ⇒ dx1(1)  1 0 1  1 1  (1)       dx 2  = 0 1 0  0 = 0 dx (1)  0 0 p  0 0      3   r 0 1  0  1      1 0  0 =  0   0 p  1   p      2 2 r where dx (1) = 1 . t ) = x − X ⇒ u1   X 1 + X 3   X 1   X 3          u 2  =  X 2  −  X 2  =  0  u   X  X   0  3  3    3   The spatial displacement field becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . dx ( 2) = 1 + p 2 . the deformation gradient components are: 1 0 Fij = 0 1  0 0  1 0  p  The angle AOC changes to 45º .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

b) Obtain the right stretch tensor.Spain ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x3 ∂X 2 Draft ∂x1   ∂X 3  1 0 0  ∂x 2   = 0 1 − α  ∂X 3    0 α 1   ∂x3   ∂X 3   By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . Check whether this case represents a homogeneous deformation. c) Obtain the final length of an initial length element equal to 2 which is in the X 3 direction.55 Consider the following equations of motion: x1 = X 1 x 2 = X 2 − αX 3 x 3 = X 3 + αX 2 a) Obtain the deformation gradient. the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and the Almansi strain tensor. the spin tensor of polar decomposition and the principal space of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor of the polar decomposition. Solution: a) The deformation gradient ( F )  ∂x1   ∂X 1 ∂xi  ∂x 2 Fij = = ∂X j  ∂X 1   ∂x3  ∂X 1  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. d) Obtain the strain tensor by considering the small deformation regime. and the angular distortion of an initial angle 30º which is in the plane X 1 − X 2 .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 203 u1   x3      u 2  =  0  u   0   3   c) x3 C C  x1   aF13  a   C      x 2  = aF23  = 0   x C   ap  a      3  C′ a a O a B = B′ x2 A = A′ x1 Problem 2.

and if we are dealing with a homogeneous deformation (a r r r particular case of motion) the relationship x = F ⋅ X + c holds. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. the principal directions are ˆ ˆ ˆ N i(1) = [1 0 0] . a fact that can be checked r r by means of the equations of motion in matrix form with c = 0 : 0   X1   x1  1 0  x  = 0 1 − α   X   2    2  x 3  0 α 1   X 3       The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( C = F T ⋅ F ): 0  1 0 0  1 0 0  1 0 0 1 α  0 1 − α  = 0 1 + α 2 0  C ij = Fki Fkj =      0 − α 1  0 α 1  0 0 1+ α2       The left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( b = F ⋅ F T ) 0  1 0 0  1 0 0  1 0 0 1 − α  0 1 α  = 0 1 + α 2 0  bij = Fik F jk =      0 α 1  0 − α 1  0 0 1+ α2       1 2 The Green-Lagrange strain tensor ( E = (C − 1) ) and the Almansi strain tensor 1 2 ( e = (1 − b −1 ) ) are defined by their components as follows:  1 0 0   1 0 0  0 0    1  1  1 2 E ij = (C ij − δ ij ) =  0 1 + α 0  −  0 1 0   = 0 α 2 2 2  2  0 0 0 0 1 + α 2   0 0 1           0  1 0 0   1   1 1  1 −1 eij = (δ ij − bij ) =  0 1 0  − 0  2 2  1+ α2   0 0 1   0 0       0 0 0   α2   = 1 0 0  2  1 + α 2  1   0 0 2  1 + α   0  0   α2    0   0   2  α  1+ α2  We can check the results by the relationship E = F T ⋅ e ⋅ F :   0 0  0 1 0 1 α2  0 E ij = 0 1 α   1+ α2 2 0 − α 1     0 0   0  1 0 0  0 0  0 1 − α  = 1 0 α 2 0   2  0 0 1  2  0 α    α  1+ α2  0 0  α2   b) According to the format of the Cartesian components of C . N i(1) = [0 0 1] . N i(1) = [0 1 0] . By definition. Chaves (2013) . the right stretch tensor is given by U = C . we can verify that the original space is already the principal space of C . i.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 204 r r In general we have dx = F ⋅ dX . and its components are: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Spain  1+ α2  =  0 1+ α2  0   1  1+ α2  =  0 1+ α2  0   1 Draft 0  0  1 − α  1 =   2 α 1  0 1 + α    0 1 0  0   1 − α  0  =   2 α 1  1 1 + α     0 1 0 1   α     0  − α     1    By: Eduardo W. x3 Figure 2.13: Principal space of b . Chaves (2013) . By means of the relation n ( a ) = R ⋅ N ( a ) we can obtain the principal base of b for the polar decomposition: ( ) ˆ ˆi n ( 2) = R ⋅ N(2) ˆi n ( 3) ( ˆ = R ⋅ N ( 3) i ) i University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . but this is not the principal directions of b related to the polar decomposition. Note that there are two equal eigenvalues related to the directions [0 1 0] . X 1 . V.e. Remember that the polar decomposition is unique. [0 1 0] . [0 0 1] . x2 Any direction on the plane x 2 − x 3 is a principal direction of b ˆ The principal direction n (1) is unique.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS  1  U ij =  0 0    inverse − 0    → U ij1  1 + α2   0 0 1+ α 0 2 205   1  = 0   0  0 1 1+ α2 0    0  0   1  2  1+ α  By means of the right polar decomposition ( F = R ⋅ U ⇒ R = F ⋅ U −1 ). i. x1 X 3 . [0 0 1] . X 2 . there is one principal base b for the ˆ ˆ ˆ polar decomposition associated with N( a ) . then any direction in the plane x 2 − x 3 is a principal direction. associated with the eigenvalue b1 = 1 . we obtain: R ij = Fik U −1 kj   0  1 1 0  = 0 1 − α  0   0 α 1     0  0 1 1+ α2 0    0  1 0 = 1+ α2  1  2  1+ α   1+ α2   0  0   0   1 − α α 1    0 Note that by means of the format of the Cartesian components of b indicate that the principal directions are [1 0 0] .

X 3 .Spain  x1A  1 0 0   X 1A   A    A  x 2  = 0 1 − α   X 2   x3A  0 α 1   X 3A       1 0 0  0  0  = 0 1 − α  0 =  − 2α       0 α 1   2   2       X 2 . λ M ˆ r dx ds . x3 A′ L final − 2α A Linitial = 2 O X 1 . V. x2 Figure 2.e. a line in the reference configuration remains a line in the current configuration.14). we can check that the relation R = ∑ n ( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) holds: a =1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ R ij = n i(1)N (j1) + n i( 2) N (j2 ) + n i(3) N (j3) 1  1 = 0[1 0 0] +   1+ α2 0    0  1 [0   α    1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 + 0 1 =  2  1 + α 0 α 0 0 0     1+ α2  1 =  0 1+ α2  0   1 0] + 1 1+ α2 0 1 0 +  1+ α2 0  0 0  0   0   − α [0 0 1]    1    0 0  0 − α  0 1   0   1 − α α 1    0 ˆ c) By means of the stretch definition according to the direction M . = r = dS dX and considering that the stretch is not dependent on line integral (homogeneous deformation).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 206 3 ˆ ˆ In addition. it holds that: ∫ ∫ ∫ L final = ds = λ M dS = λ M dS = λ M Linitial ˆ ˆ ˆ The stretch according to X 3 -direction is given by: λ X = C 33 = 1 + 2 E 33 = 1 + α 2 3 Then: 2 ∫ L final = λ M dX 2 = 1 + α 2 ( Linitial ) = 2 1 + α 2 ˆ 0 As we are dealing with a homogeneous deformation. x1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Draft By: Eduardo W.14. i. (see Figure 2. Chaves (2013) .

g. and θ is the angle between the to new unit vectors in the current configuration. we adopt two unit ˆ vectors in the plane X 1 − X 2 forming an angle Θ = 30º .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 207 According to Figure 2. we can use the equation: cos θ = ˆ ˆ cos Θ + 2 M ⋅ E ⋅ N λMλN ˆ ˆ (2. N i = [1 0 0] and ˆ M i = [cos 30º sin 30º 0] . e. we obtain: ˆ cos θ = ˆ ˆ cos Θ + 2 M ⋅ E ⋅ N cos 30º = λMλN ˆ ˆ 1 + α 2 sin 2 30º As we are dealing with a homogeneous deformation.14 we can check that: Linitial = 2 2 + (−2α ) 2 = 4(1 + α 2 ) 2 ⇒ Linitial = 2 1 + α 2 To obtain the angle in the current configuration formed by two unit vectors. Then. V. Then. (see Figure 2. For example.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. r Considering that the Green-Lagrange strain tensor is independent of X . λ N = 1 + α 2 sin 2 30º . With these data we have: 0 0 ˆ ⋅ E ⋅ N = 1 [1 0 0]0 α 2 ˆ M  2 0 0  0  cos 30º  0   sin 30º  = 0   α 2  0    The stretches: λ2M ˆ 0 0  1  1 ˆ ⋅ C ⋅ M = [1 0 0] 0 1 + α 2 ˆ =M 0  0  = 1    0 0 1 + α 2  0     λ2N ˆ ⇒ λM =1 ˆ 0 0  cos 30º  1 0 1 + α 2 ˆ ˆ = N ⋅ C ⋅ N = [cos 30º sin 30º 0]  0   sin 30º    0 0 1+ α2  0     = cos 2 30º + (1 + α 2 ) sin 2 30º = 1 + α 2 sin 2 30º Then. we adopt two lines in the reference configuration and we obtain the angle formed by these lines in the current configuration.15):  x1B  1 0 0   X 1B  1 0 0  cos 30º  cos 30º   B    X B  = 0 1 − α   0  =  0   x 2  = 0 1 − α   2        x B  0 α 1   X B  0 α 1   0   0       3    3  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . And according to the equations of motion.143) ˆ ˆ where Θ is the angle between the unit vectors M and N in the reference configuration. adopting the lines OB = [cos 30º 0 0] and OC = [cos 30º sin 30º 0]. the point O does not move. we obtain the new position of the points B and C .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.15.56 A rigid body motion is characterized by the following equation: r r r x = c(t ) + Q(t ) ⋅ X (2.144) r r Find the velocity and the acceleration fields as a function of ω . x3 α sin 30º A′ C′ θ O sin 30º X 2 . x1 Figure 2. where ω is the axial vector & associated with the antisymmetric tensor ( Ω = Q ⋅ Q T ).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 208 C  x1  1 0 0   X 1C  1 0 0  cos 30º   cos 30º   C    X C  = 0 1 − α   sin 30º  =  sin 30º   x 2  = 0 1 − α   2        x C  0 α 1   X C  0 α 1   0  α sin 30º       3    3  X 3 . V. Solution: r r r The material time derivative of x = c(t ) + Q(t ) ⋅ X is given by r D r r r & r & & v= x ≡ x =c + Q⋅ X Dt University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x2 cos 30º 30º B = B′ C X 1 . Chaves (2013) . Then the angle formed by the new unit vectors O ′B ′ and O ′C ′ is: O ′B ′ ⋅ O ′C ′ = O ′B ′ O ′C ′ cos θ cos 2 30º = cos 2 30º cos 2 30º + sin 2 30º +α 2 sin 2 30º cos θ ⇒ cos θ = cos 30º 1 + α 2 sin 2 30º d) 0 0 0  ε ij = 0 0 0   0 0 0    Problem 2.

where ω (angular velocity vector) is the axial vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor Ω . hence the axial vector (angular velocity) r r associated with Ω is also time-dependent. a.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 209 & & Let us consider that Ω = Q ⋅ Q T ⇒ Q = Ω ⋅ Q .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. its acceleration is given by: r r && r && r & r c a = v = x = && + Q ⋅ X && & & By referring to Q = Ω ⋅ Q + Ω ⋅ Q .57 r ˆ a) A continuum is rotating as a rigid body with a constant angular velocity ω = ω 3 e 3 : a. r r r r r For a rigid body motion where c = 0 .5s of the particle that in the reference configuration was at (1.3) If ω 3 = 3rad / s obtain the vector position.145) Note that Q(t ) is only dependent on time. V. i.1) Obtain the velocity components in the spatial and material descriptions. Problem 2. the associated velocity can be expressed as: r r r r & v = c + Ω ⋅ ( x − c) r r r r & = c + ω ∧ ( x − c) (2. it holds that Ω ⋅ a = ω ∧ a .0) . a. the above equation can also be expressed as: r r r && & & a = c + (Ω ⋅ Q + Ω ⋅ Q) ⋅ X r r r & = && + Ω ⋅ Q ⋅ X + Ω ⋅ Q ⋅ X c & r r r = && + Ω ⋅ Q ⋅ X + Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ Q ⋅ X c & r r r r r = && + Ω ⋅ ( x − c ) + Ω ⋅ Ω ⋅ ( x − c ) c & we can state that: r & r && r r r r r r r a = c + ω ∧ ( x − c) + ω ∧ [ω ∧ ( x − c)] (2. The above equation can also be expressed as: r r r & v = c +Ω ⋅Q⋅ X r r r r & v = c + Ω ⋅ ( x − c) r r r r If Ω is an antisymmetric tensor. Then. velocity and acceleration at time t = 2.1. and the rate-of-deformation tensor D becomes: D ij = = 1  ∂vi ∂v j  + 2  ∂x j ∂xi  ( 1  ipq ω p δ qj 2  1  ∂( ipq ω p x q ) ∂( jpq ω p x q )  1  ∂x ∂x  =   =   ipq ω p q +  jpq ω p q  +  2  2 ∂x j ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi       1 1 +  jpq ω p δ qi =  ipj ω p +  jpi ω p =  ipj ω p −  ipj ω p = 0 ij 2 2 ) ( ) ( ) So. Chaves (2013) .146) r r & where α ≡ ω shows the angular acceleration.2) Obtain the acceleration in the spatial (Eulerian) description. the velocity becomes v = ω ∧ x whose components are vi =  ipq ω p x q . ω = ω (t ) .e. Then. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . once again we have proved that D = 0 for a rigid body motion.

x3 r ˆ ω = ω3e 3 r r ˆ ˆ r = r e r = re r ω3 r r ˆ e3 ˆ er r x ˆ eθ X 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the equations of motion are governed by: r r x = Q(t ) ⋅ X where the orthogonal matrix components are given by the transformation matrix from the r r system x ′ to x . if we consider the Earth as a sphere that rotates around its axis with angular r ˆ velocity ω = ω 3 e 3 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 210 b) Taking into account Problem 1.16. i. obtaining the acceleration of gravity ( g φ ) at sea level in terms of the latitude φ .147) For a rigid body motion. or in indicial notation: vi =  ijk ω j x k =  i1k ω1 x k +  i 2 k ω 2 x k +  i 3k ω 3 x k =  i 3k ω 3 x k { { =0 =0 =  i 31ω3 x1 +  i 32 ω 3 x 2 +  i 33 ω3 x3 =  i 31ω 3 x1 +  i 32 ω 3 x 2 { =0 Then: v1 = 132 ω3 x 2 = −ω3 x 2  v 2 =  231ω3 x1 = ω3 x1 v = 0  3 r r r r r Note that the field v ( x . Solution: X 3 . x2 X 1 . V. r r r r a. v = v ( x ) . Now.124 where we have obtained the body force vector (per r r GM x ˆ unit mass) b = − r x where g = b is the acceleration of gravity caused by gravitational field. Chaves (2013) . (2.e. t ) = ω ∧ x . x1 Figure 2.1) By means of the previous problem we conclude that v ( x . thus: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t ) is stationary.

16). i. we check that we are dealing with a rigid body motion. Note that: x1 = r cos θ . t ) ∂v ( x . t ) = + = ∇ x v ⋅ v ( x. Chaves (2013) . t ) r a ( x.147): r v1 ( X . V.: r r r r r r r r r r r ∂v ( x . t ) ∂x ( X . t ) = 0  (2. ˆ ˆ ˆ e 2 = e r sin θ + e θ cos θ . t ) r ⋅ ∂x ∂t 123 4∂t4 r 0 where the spatial velocity gradient components are given by: r r r  ∂v ( x .148) To obtain the expression of velocity in the material (Lagrangian) description. we replace the equations of motion (2. t ) = [∇ x i  3 0  − ω3 0 0 2 0 − ω 3 x 2   − ω 3 x1      2 0  ω 3 x1  = − ω 3 x 2    0  0   0     r r 2 2 ˆ ˆ We can express the acceleration a ( x .e. ˆ ˆ ˆ e 1 = e r cos θ − e θ sin θ . Then.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 211  x1  cos θ(t ) − sin θ(t ) 0  X 1  cos θ(t ) X 1 − sin θ(t ) X 2          x 2  =  sin θ(t ) cos θ(t ) 0  X 2  = sin θ(t ) X 1 + cos θ(t ) X 2  x   0  0 1  X 3   X3  3      Considering that ω = dθ(t ) and by integrating we obtain: dt ∫ dθ(t ) = ∫ ωdt ⇒ θ(t ) = ωt Then. we can rewrite the equations of motion as follows:  x1  cos θ(t ) − sin θ(t ) 0  X 1   X 1 cos(ωt ) − X 2 sin(ωt )          x 2  =  sin θ(t ) cos θ(t ) 0  X 2  =  X 1 sin(ωt ) + X 2 cos(ωt ) x   0  0 1  X 3   X3  3      (2. x1 = r cos θ .2) The Eulerian acceleration can be obtained by means of the definition of material time r r derivative of v ( x . t )  r  r  = (∇ x v )ij ∂x  ij   ∂v1   ∂x1  ∂v = 2 ∂x  1  ∂v 3  ∂x1  ∂v1 ∂x 2 ∂v 2 ∂x 2 ∂v 3 ∂x 2 ∂v1   ∂x 3   0 ∂v 2   = ω3 ∂x 3     ∂v 3   0 ∂x 3   − ω3 0 0 0 0 (antisymmetric)  0  With that. t ) . Then. (see Figure 2. t ) ] = ω a i ( x . t ) = ω 3 ( X 1 cos(ωt ) − X 2 sin(ωt )) r  v3 ( X .148) into the equations (2.149) a. the Eulerian acceleration components are given by: 0 r r r r r v ⋅ v ( x . t ) = −ω 3 ( X 1 sin(ωt ) + X 2 cos(ωt )) r   v 2 ( X . t ) = −ω 3 x1 e 1 − ω 3 x 2 e 2 in the cylindrical coordinate. the acceleration in the cylindrical coordinate system becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

5)  − 0.1.28464) = −1.85391  P r  v 2 ( x . t = 0) Particle P r X 1 X 1 .0) in the reference configuration describes a circular path of radius r = 2 on the x1 − x 2 -plane.5s r r v P ( x .17.17). (see Figure 2.28464  x P        X3 0 0       3  r v1P ( x .5) − sin(3 × 2. For the particle P we have: r v1P ( x . t = 0) = ω 3 x1 = ω 3 X 1 = (3)(1) = 3  P v3 = 0  2  − ω 3 X 1  − 9  r     2 a iP ( x .3) The particle at position (1.77409  P v 3 = 0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . velocity.5) = −ω 3 x 2 = −(3)(−0. X 2 .5) =  1. r r In the reference configuration ( t = 0 ) it fulfills that X = x . 5) 1 r x r r v ( X . and acceleration of the particle P are given by:  x1P   X 1 cos(ωt ) − X 2 sin(ωt )  cos(3 × 2. t = 2. t = 0) = −ω3 x 2 = −ω 3 X 2 = −(3)(1) = −3  P r  v 2 ( x . x2 Particle P at t = 2. t = 2. V.59136  P        x 2  =  X 1 sin(ωt ) + X 2 cos(ωt ) = sin(3 × 2.5) + cos(3 × 2. t = 2 .5s the position. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 212 r 2 2 ˆ ˆ a = −ω 3 x1e 1 − ω 3 x 2 e 2 2 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = −ω 3 ( r cos θ)(e r cos θ − e θ sin θ) − ω 3 ( r sin θ)(e r sin θ + e θ cos θ) 2 ˆ = −ω 3 r (cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ)e r 2 ˆ = − ω 3 re r 2r = −ω 3 r The latter is known as the centripetal acceleration.59136) = −3.5) = ω 3 x1 = (3)(1. t = 0) = − ω 3 X 2  = − 9   0  0      At time t = 2. a. x1 Trajectory of particle P Figure 2.

322  r     2 a iP ( x . With that. centrifugal force. Keep in mind that the real force is the Centripetal due to the centripetal acceleration. which would be the cause of this apparent v outward projection. x3 . y x1 .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 213 2  − ω 3 x1   5. given v + 2 a ctfu two r r b cos α + b 2 vectors it holds that . x Acceleration of gravity for defined latitude φ is given by: r v g φ = a ctfu + b Remember v a ctfu r +b = we have that v a ctfu 2 r b =g. v v 2r 2 a ctpe = a ctfu = − ω3 r = ω3 r . Also check that r = R cos φ and cos α = cos( π − φ ) = − cos φ . we adopt a fictitious force.5) = − ω 3 x 2  = − 11.562   0    0     b) For a particle located on the surface of the Earth. For this particular case. this particle will feel as if being projected outward according to r -direction. For convenience. Chaves (2013) . Associated with this force we have the centrifugal acceleration ( a ctfu ) v which is equal but opposite to the centripetal acceleration ( a ctpe ).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. z x3 . we obtain: r v g φ = a ctfu + b = v a ctpe 2 r r v − 2 a ctpe b cos φ + b 2 2 2 = (ω 3 r ) 2 − 2(ω 3 r ) g cos φ + g 2 2 2 = (ω 3 R cos φ ) 2 − 2(ω 3 R cos φ ) g cos φ + g 2 thus 2 4 g φ = g 2 − 2 gω 3 R cos 2 φ + ω 3 R 2 cos 2 φ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .02). due to rotation. t = 2. z ω3 ω3 r r x3 r α b R v a ctfu φ φ x2 . (see Problem 1. (see figure below).

Problem 2. i. and in the line of Ecuador it holds that Ecu 2 4 2 2 g φ = g 2 − 2 gω 3 R + ω 3 R 2 = ( g − ω 3 R ) 2 = g − ω 3 R . we obtain: ( ε C2) = L( 2) − L(1) L( 2) = (1) − 1 L(1) L thus  L(1)   L( 2)  L( 2 ) (1 (  ε C ) + ε C2 ) =  − 1 + (1) − 1 ≠   L   L − 1 = ε C L  0   0  An essential requirement for any strain is to that it can be possible to characterize the real displacement.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 214 Pol Note that at the poles ( φ = 90 º ) we have g φ = g .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. Solution: The Cauchy strain was obtained as: εC = ∆L L − L 0 = = λ −1 L0 L0 Then. ε (1) + ε ( 2) ≠ ε . i. from the B0 -configuration to the B configuration is: εC = L( 2 ) − L0 L( 2 ) = −1 L0 L0 In the B -configuration the engineering strain is: (1 εC) = L(1) − L0 L(1) = −1 L0 L0 In the B -configuration considering only the displacement increment u ( 2) .e. In this case the final length is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the total strain experienced by the body.58 Consider a rod subjected to successive displacements as shown in figure below B0 B B L0 L0 L(1) L( 2 ) L(f1) L ≡ L( 2 ) ∆L(1) ∆L ( 2) ∆L Show that the engineering strain (Cauchy strain) is not additive to successive increments of strain. Chaves (2013) . V.

0. we analyze the deformation gradient F . R . V . L(1) .4264014327] University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . E (1) → ε G ) . 0. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.6396021491.59 Let us consider the Cartesian components of the deformation gradient:  5 3 3 Fij =  2 6 3    2 2 4   obtain the tensors U (right stretch tensor). The motion is possible if the determinant of F is greater than zero. Chaves (2013) . Then: L0 E = E (1) + F (1) T ⋅ E ( 2) ⋅ F (1) (1 ( ε G = ε G ) + λ(1) ε G2) λ(1) 1  L(1) =  2  L0  2   L(1)   − 1 +     L0     1  L( 2)    2  L(1)     L( 2) 2 − L2   2 2 0   L − L0 = = 2 L2 2 L2 0 0 ( 2. Solution: Before obtaining the tensors U . F (1) → λ(1) = the relationship (1 E → ε G .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 215   L(1)  =  − 1dx = L(1) − L0 = ∆L(1)   L   0  0 0 (1) ( 2)  ⇒ ∆L + ∆L = ∆L L1 L1  L( 2 )   ε ( 2 ) dx =  (1) − 1 dx = L( 2 ) − L(1) = ∆L( 2 )  C L   0 0  L0 ∫ L0 (1 ε C ) dx ∫ ∫ ∫ L0 L 0   L ε C dx =  − 1 dx = L − L0 = ∆L  L  0 0 0 ∫ ∫ The Green-Lagrange strain tensor Note that the Green-Lagrange strain tensor in the B -configuration is given by: εG = We could E=E (1) +F have (1)T obtained the L2 − L2 0 2 L2 0 same = ( ) 1 2 λ −1 2 expression by using ⋅ E ⋅ F . det ( F ) = 60 > 0 . and R (rotation tensor). The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of F are given by: ′ ˆ F11 = 10 associated with eigenvector mi(1) = [0.1.3 2   L(1)   − 1      L0        ) Polar Decomposition of the Deformation Gradient Problem 2.6396021491. V (left stretch tensor). where for the uniaxial case we have ( 2) (1) ( E ( 2 ) → ε G2) .

7427813527. 0.1894472683] ′ C 22 = 3. are given by: 33 31 29 C ij = Fki Fkj =  31 49 35   29 35 34    Then the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of C are given by: ′ C11 = 9.6861511933.7023576528.4082482905. − 0. − 0.0454455 0 0     0 = 0 1. it holds that: ′ C11  0 A   0  T C 0 ′ C 22 0 ′ 0  33 31 29 33 31 29 C11  A =  31 49 35 = C . − 0.6396021491. it holds that AC 1 = AC .4082482905. as: λ 1 U ′ = U′ij =  0  0  0 λ2 0 ′ 0   C11 = 0 0  λ3   0   0 ′ C 22 0 0  3. Chaves (2013) . mi(1) mi(3) ≠ 0 .4082482905.2793856273 − 0.4082482905. − 0.65470405. However. V.8164965809] It is easy to check that the basis formed by these eigenvectors does not form an orthogonal ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ basis. 0. 0.6861511933 − 0.1466824    and its inverse: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3713906764   m (3)  − 0. − 0.5105143234 0.550264423  i     Furthermore.6396021491.550264423] − T These eigenvectors constitute an orthogonal basis. − 0. We can also verify that if D is the matrix containing the eigenvectors of F :  mi(1)   0.905 ≠ 1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 0. mi( 2) mi(3) ≠ 0 . C = F T ⋅ F .7023576528 0.8132215099] ′ C 33 = 102. − 0. and det (AC ) = −1 (improper orthogonal tensor): ˆ N (1)   0.5570860145.955163 eigenvector →  ˆ N i(3) = [− 0. − 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 216 ˆ ′ F22 = 3 associated with mi( 2 ) = [− 0.7427813527. i.518239 ˆ − 0.1894472683   ˆ (i 2)   AC = Ni  = 0. and D −1 ≠ D T .5105143234.518239.65470405 − 0. ˆ 0.5570860145. U . it holds that: 10 0 0 5 2 2  D = 3 6 2 = ( F T ) D  0 3 0 ij    0 0 2 3 3 4     −1  and 5 2 2 10 0 0 3 6 2 D −1 =  0 3 0 D    3 3 4  0 0 2     The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor components. 0. 0.2793856273. so.8132215099  N (3)   − 0.9416741 0  ′ C 33   0 0 10.8164965809  ˆi     we find that det (D ) = 0. mi(1) mi( 2) ≠ 0 . A  31 49 35 A T =  0 0  C  ij C   C  29 35 34  29 35 34   0 ′  C 33       0 ′ C 22 0 0  0   ′  C 33  In the C principal space we obtain the components of the right stretch tensor.4264014327   ( 2)   ˆ D = mi  = − 0.3713906764] ˆ ′ F33 = 2 associated with mi(3) = [− 0. 0.770098 eigenvector →  ˆ N i( 2 ) = [0.274739 eigenvector →  ˆ N i(1) = [0.e.

1466824    λ3   We can evaluate the components of the tensor U in the original space by means of the transformation law: 4.25196988 6.770098 eigenvector →  ˆ n i( 2 ) = [0. V.0454455    1  0 0 0 =   1.1327190337 − 0.274739 eigenvector →  ˆ n i(1) = [0.46569091   T C and  0.8616587383] ′ b33 = 102. are given by:  43 37 28 bij = Fik F jk = 37 49 28   28 28 24   Next.25196988 2.6212637156 − 0.48328843 A U ′AC = 2.611638389 − 0.14302659 − 0.238183919   ˆ ( 2)   Ab = n i  =  0. which is a proper orthogonal tensor. the rotation tensor of the polar decomposition is given by the equation R = F ⋅ U −1 .12519889 0. and det (Ab ) = −1 : ˆi  n (1)   0.6519860747 − 0.66496626 2.8616587383  n (3)   − 0.10094326 0. Chaves (2013) .95516 eigenvector →  ˆi n (3) = [− 0.9933191 − 0. it also holds that: ′ b11 0 A  0  T b 0 ′ b22 0 ′ 0 b11  43 37 28  43 37 28  A = 37 49 28 = b .25196988    − 0.9416741   1  1   0 0  10.12519889 = U ij1 A U ′ AC =  2.14302659 − 0. b = F ⋅ F T .9924224    The left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor components.31528844 − 0.4898263742 0.80907159 4.6519860747 − 0.98826538 0. R ij = Fik U −1 kj 0.10940847  =  − 0.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS U ′ −1 = U′ij−1 1   λ1 = 0   0   0 1 λ2 0 217  1  0  0 0   3.6212637156 − 0.05592536   0.7465251613 0.448121233  ˆi     and.10658955 0.4898263742 0.11463858 0.48328843 2. i.00314487 2.80907159 = U ij    2.1327190337 − 0.Spain Draft 0 ′ b22 0 0 0  ′  b33  By: Eduardo W.e.7465251613 0.611638389 − 0. the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of b are given by: ′ b11 = 9.448121233] Note that.04422505 − 0.238183919] ′ b22 = 3.05134777 − 0. A 37 49 28 A T =  0 0 b  b  b   ij 0  28 28 24  28 28 24 ′  b33       University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . If the eigenvectors of b constitute an orthogonal basis then it holds that Ab−1 = AbT .24442627 − 0.38221833    −1 T C Then. the tensors b and C have the same eigenvalues but different eigenvectors. det (R ) = 1 .

they have the same ′ components in their respectively principal space.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . Additionally.3) represents the Cartesian basis. i. and the eigenvectors of b ( n (i ) ).42079849    −1 T b T b −1 The polar decomposition rotation tensor obtained previously has to be the same as the one obtained by R = V −1 ⋅ F .08848799 0.6519622    T b T b and  0.28717424 − 0.08848799 = Vij−1    − 0.20098553 3. i. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .07950684 − 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 218 ′ Since C and b have the same eigenvalues.76007379 6.1e 3 ⊗ e 3 ˆ where e i (i = 1.3e 2 ⊗ e1 + 0. V .20098553 = Vij    2.. and the eigenvectors of C ˆ ˆ ( N (i ) ). We could also have obtained the tensors U .e. Problem 2.04463857 2. R . V.4e 2 ⊗ e 2 + 0.76007379 2. λ i are not eigenvalues of F .14176921 − 0.07950684 0. if we know the principal stretches. the representations of the tensors R and F are not the spectral representations in the strict sense of the word. and ˆ ˆ neither n (i ) nor N (i ) are eigenvectors of F .e.60 The deformation gradient at one point of the body is given by: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ F = 0.2e1 ⊗ e1 − 0. The components of the tensor V in the original space can be evaluated by:  5. λ i .14176921 A V ′ Ab = A U ′ Ab = − 0. it follows that U′ij = Vij .1e1 ⊗ e 2 + 0. it is easy to show that:  3 ˆ ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ U ij =  λ a N ( a ) ⊗ N ( a )  = λ 1 Ni(1)N (j1) + λ 2 N i( 2 ) N (j2 ) + λ 3 Ni(3) N (j3)    ij  a =1 ∑   3 ˆ ˆ ˆi ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Vij =  λ a n ( a ) ⊗ n ( a )  = λ 1 n (1) n (j1) + λ 2 n i( 2) n (j2) + λ 3 n i(3) n (j3)    ij  a =1 ∑  3 (a) ˆ (a )  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆi ˆ R ij =  n ⊗ N  = n (1) N (j1) + n i( 2 )N (j2 ) + n i(3) N (j3)    ij  a =1 ∑  3 ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Fij =  λ a n ( a ) ⊗ N( a )  = λ1 n i(1) N (j1) + λ 2 n i( 2 ) N (j2 ) + λ 3 n i(3) N (j3)    ij  a =1 ∑ F= 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ a R ⋅ N( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) = a =1 3 ∑λ a ˆ ˆ n(a) ⊗ n (a) ⋅ R a =1 3   ˆ ˆ   ˆ ˆ = R ⋅  λ a N ( a ) ⊗ N( a )  =  λ a n ( a ) ⊗ n ( a )  ⋅ R        a =1  a =1 = R ⋅U = V ⋅R 3 ∑ ∑ As we can verify.41222612 2. That is.23396031 − 0.2. it holds that U′ij−1 = Vij −1 .41222612 A V ′Ab = A U ′Ab = 2. by means of their spectral representation.3720129 2.

13 − C 0 .1 0  0.01      (2. d) Obtain the spectral representation and components of: ( R ) spin tensor of the polar decomposition.1 0.17 − C ) − 0. the characteristic determinant becomes: 0.02  0 .17 − C ⇒ (0.1 0 0.4 0   0 0 0.3 0.151) C − C1 = 0 where the index (a ) does not indicate summation.1 =0 0 .e.1 0  Fij =  0.1   a) The left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( b = F ⋅ F T ) components: T bij = Fik F jk 0  0.1 0.2 − 0 .2 − 0.150) The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( C = F T ⋅ F ) components are given by: 0.1e 3 ⊗ e 3  0 .2 − 0. Then. the stretch tensors U and V .02 0.4  = 0.4   0 .04802 Then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .25198 .3 0 .05 0.1  0 0 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.25 = 0  0 0    0  0 0 0.2 − 0. C ( 2 ) = 0. Note that we already know one eigenvalue of C . C (3) = 0.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 219 a) Obtain the deformation tensors b and C . Chaves (2013) . V.3 0.13 0.3 0 .17 0  0    0 0 0.1 0  0.2e1 ⊗ e1 − 0.1e1 ⊗ e 2 + 0.1   T 0  0.01     b) The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of b and C are obtained as follows.01 . (see C -components in (2. where λ a are the principal stretches. c) Write the “spectral representation” of F in function of the eigenvalues of C ( C a ) 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ and check if F = ∑ λ a n ( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) holds.1 0  0 C ij = Fki Fkj = 0.2 − 0.4   0 0 0. n a =1 ˆ are the eigenvectors of b .13 − C )(0.3e 2 ⊗ e1 + 0.151)).4e 2 ⊗ e 2 + 0. ˆ ˆ C ⋅ N = C ( a ) N( a ) ⇒ (2. and N are the eigenvectors of C .01 = 0 The solution of the quadratic equation is: C (1) = 0. Solution The deformation gradient components can be represented as follows: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ F = Fij e i ⊗ e j = 0.3 0.1  0 0 0.4  =  0. i.1  0. b) Obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of b and C .1 0  0.

77334  Ni     0   0  = 0    1   .098538 = 0.995133     0   0  = 0    1    ˆ n i(1) ˆ n i(3) b( 2 ) = 0. Chaves (2013) .77334 ˆ ( 2 ) =  0.25198 C (3) = 0.252  0 ′ 0.04802 ⇒  − 0. the tensors C and b have the same eigenvalues but different eigenvectors.:    ij  a =1 ∑ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .01 ⇒ ⇒ 0.098538      0   As expected. V. ⇒ ˆi n ( 2)  − 0.25198 ≈ 0.63399  Ni     0   Similarly for the eigenvectors of the tensor b : ˆ ˆ b ⋅ n = b( a ) n ( a ) where the index (a ) does not indicate summation.048 0  C ij =    0 0 0. C ( 2 ) = 0.995133 =  0. Considering that λ2a = C a are the eigenvalues of C and of b . i.25198 b(3) = 0.01   .252  0 ′ 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 220 Cc (1) = 0.01 ⇒ ˆ N i(3) ⇒ 0.04802 ≈ 0. the principal stretches are: λ (1) = 0. 0 0  0. 3 ˆ ∑λ n a (a) ˆ ⊗ N(a ) .219134 .01   In addition. b= 3 ˆ ∑λ n 2 a (a) ˆ ⊗ n(a) a =1 where λ a > 0 are the principal stretches. 0 0  0. the spectral representations of the tensors C and b are given respectively by: C= 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ2a N ( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) a =1 .048 0  bij =    0 0 0.1 holds we calculate the components of a =1  3 ˆ  ˆ  λ a n ( a ) ⊗ N ( a )  with the results obtained previously.e.501976 c) To check if F= λ ( 2 ) = 0.633399 ˆ (1) =  0.04802 .01 = 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Then b(1) = 0. λ (3) = 0.

832 0    0 0 1   which can be verified with:  0.1 0  0  = Fij =  0 . a =1 d) R= 3 ˆ ∑n (a) ˆ ⊗ N( a) components a =1 0.61 For a given motion (shear deformation):  x1 = X 1 + kX 2   x2 = X 2 x = X 3  3 k − constant Obtain the tensors: F (deformation gradient). V.10 0 0   0 0 1   0.6309 0.1   3 ˆ ˆ Checking that F = ∑ λ a n ( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) .554 0 (R )ij = 0.0762 0.76958 − 0. C (the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor).219134 0.222 0.1   a =1 V= 3 ˆ ∑λ n a (a ) ˆ ⊗n (a) a =1 Problem 2.6309 0 0.139 0  (U)ij ≈ 0.50197      0  0 0 0 0 0     0 0 0 + 0.832 0 R ij =  − 0. E (the Green-Lagrange strain tensor).832 − 0. V (the left stretch tensor) and R (the spin tensor of the polar decomposition). U (the right stretch tensor).139 0.5547          0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1   0 0 1         U= 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ a N ( a ) ⊗ N( a ) components 0. b (the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor).06247 0 + 0.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 221  3 ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ  λ a n ( a ) ⊗ N ( a )  = λ 1n i(1) ⊗ N (j1) + λ 2 n i( 2 ) ⊗ N (j2 ) + λ 3n i(3) ⊗ N (j3)    a =1  ij ∑ 0.0762 0 0 0 0  0.554 0.76958 0 + 0 0 0 = 0.4   0 0 0.76958 0 + = 0.388 0     0 0 0.06247 0 +  0.06247 0.333 0.06247 0.5547 0 0.028 0  (V )ij ≈ 0.6309 0.76958 − 0.6309 0  − 0. Chaves (2013) .028 0.3 0 .2 − 0.1   components 0.5 0     0 0 0.0762 0. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.0762 0  0.832 − 0.

whose components are: 2 0 1 0 0  0 k  − 0 1 0   = 1  k k 2 0   2   0 0 1   0 0 1    0 0  0  Note that there is only deformation on the x1 − x 2 -plane.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 222 Solution: The deformation gradient components:  ∂x1   ∂X 1 ∂xi  ∂x 2 Fij = = ∂X j  ∂X 1   ∂x3  ∂X 1  ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x3 ∂X 2 ∂x1   ∂X 3  1 k 0 ∂x 2   = 0 1 0  ∂X 3    0 0 1   ∂x3   ∂X 3   The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( C = F T ⋅ F ).2) where cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = c 2 + s 2 = 1 holds.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. E =  1 k 1  E ij =   k 1 + k 2 2 0   0 0  1 0 0 1  k 1 (C − 1) . whose components are: k  1 0 0 1 k 0   1  k 1 0 0 1 0  =  k 1 + k 2 C ij = Fki Fkj =      0 0 1  0 0 1   0 0     0 0  1  The left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( b = F ⋅ F T ). V. we will work on the x1 − x 2 -plane. we obtain: C = (V ⋅ R)T ⋅ (V ⋅ R) = RT ⋅ VT ⋅ V ⋅R = RT ⋅ V ⋅ V ⋅R = RT ⋅ V 2 ⋅R = RT ⋅ b ⋅R For simplicity. whose components are: 2 1 k 0  1 0 0 1 + k  bij = Fik F jk = 0 1 0  k 1 0 =  k    0 0 1   0 0 1   0     The Green-Lagrange strain tensor. with that we represent the rotation tensor components as follows: cos θ − sin θ c − s  R ij =  =   sin θ cos θ   s c  (i. The relationship C = R T ⋅ b ⋅ R becomes: k   c s  1 + k 2 k  c − s  1  k 1 + k 2  =  − s c    1 s c      k (c 2 + c 2 k 2 + 2 sck + s 2 ) (− sck 2 − s 2 k + c 2 k )  =  2 2 2 (c 2 + s 2 k 2 − 2 sck + s 2 )  (− sck − s k + c k ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Considering the polar decomposition F = R ⋅ U = V ⋅ R . j = 1. Chaves (2013) .

t ) = −exp X 2t e1 + tX 12 e 2 + X 3 e 3 (2. X 3 ) are the material coordinates. k2 + 4 −k 2 k2 +1 4 = −k k2 + 4 thus: 2   2  k +4 −k R ij =   2  k +4 0    k 2 k +4 2 k2 + 4 0  0  0   1   From the polar decomposition F = R ⋅ U = V ⋅ R . we obtain: 2 s= c= 1 k2 +1 4 = 2 s= . r a) Obtain the deformation gradient F . we obtain U = R T ⋅ F and V = F ⋅ R T .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 223 (c 2 + c 2 k 2 + 2 sck + s 2 ) = 1 ⇒ (c 2 k 2 + 2 sck + 1) = 1 From the relationship we obtain −k c .62 A deformable parallelepiped of dimensions 2 × 2 × 1 is in the reference configuration as indicates in Figure 2. and the principal stretches. whose components are: 2   2  k +4 k U ij = R ki Fkj =   2  k +4 0    Vij = Fik R jk −k k2 + 4 2 k2 + 4 0 2   0  2  1 k 0  k + 4 k  0  0 1 0  =    2  0 0 1   k + 4   1  0     2   2 1 k 0  k + 4 k = 0 1 0     2 0 0 1   k + 4   0    k k +4 2+ k2 2   2+k 0  2   k +4 k  0 =   2   k +4 1  0     −k k2 + 4 2 k2 + 4 0 2 k2 + 4 0 k k2 + 4 2 k2 + 4 0  0   0  1    0   0  1   Problem 2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.152) where ( X 1 . Then. Check that the latter is a proper orthogonal tensor. This body is subjected to motion: r r ˆ ˆ ˆ x ( X . X 2 . b) Obtain the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor C . V. Chaves (2013) . starting from the relation (− sck 2 − s 2 k + c 2 k ) = k and by considering that 2 −k s= c . and t represents time. for all X and time t . c) Obtain the right stretch tensor U and the rotation tensor R .18. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

X2 2 1 X3 1 X1 2 Figure 2. λ3 = + 1 3 ˆ ˆ which are positive numbers. V. whose components are C ij = Fki Fkj : 0  − t exp X 2t C ij =   0  0  0  0  2tX 1  1  0  2tX 1 0 0 0  4t 2 X 12   0 =  0 1  0   − t exp X 2t 0 0 0 2 t exp 0 2 X 2t 0  0 1  Note that this space is the principal space (principal directions) of C . Considering that λ i are the principal stretches.18. λ3 = 1 c) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we can obtain the principal stretches as follows: λ 1 = + 4t 2 X 12 λ 2 = + t 2 exp 2 X 2t . Solution: a) According to the equation (2. λ 2 = t exp X 2t .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 224 d) Find the volume of the deformed parallelepiped at time t = 1s . Chaves (2013) . the vector position components are x1 = −exp X 2t . thus: λ 1 = 2tX 1 . x 2 = tX 12 . then the deformation gradient ( F ) components are given by:  0 ∂xi  Fij = = 2tX 1 ∂X j   0 0  0 1  − t exp X 2t 0 0 b) The right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor are defined by C = F T ⋅ F .152). . the following relationship is fulfilled: C = U2 = 3 ∑λ 2 a ˆ ˆ N ( a ) ⊗ N( a ) ⇒ U= a =1 3 ∑λ a ˆ ˆ N( a) ⊗ N( a) a =1 As we are working in the principal space of C . x3 = X 3 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. since U = ∑ λ a N ( a ) ⊗ N( a ) is a positive definite tensor by a =1 definition.

2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS  2tX 1 U ij =  0   0  0 0  1  0 t exp 0 X 2t  1  2tX 1   0 =   0    − U ij1 ⇒ 225 0 1 t exp X 2t 0  0  0  1    According to the polar decomposition F = R ⋅ U ⇒ R = F ⋅ U −1 .556 = 1 X2 3 dX 2 dX 1 X 1 = 0 X 2 = 0 X 3 =0 2 NOTE: We can not use the equation V = JV0 because we are not dealing with homogeneous deformation case. Problem 2.63 A body is subjected to motion: x1 = X 1 . the Green-Lagrange strain tensor ( E ).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. d) To calculate the final volume we use the relationship dV = JdV0 . where J = F is the Jacobian determinant and is given by: − t exp X 2t 0 J = 2tX 1 0 0 0 = 2t 2 X 1exp X 2t 1 0 0 At time t = 1s we have J = 2 X 1exp X 2 . x3 = X 3 + kX 2 where k is a constant. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the volume at time t = 1s is given by: ∫ dV = ∫ JdV 0 V0 2 2 1 ∫ ∫ ∫ (2 X exp )dX = 4(exp − 1) ≈ 25. the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ( C ). we can obtain the rotation tensor ( R ) components as follows:  0  R ij =  2tX 1  0  − t exp  1  0  2tX 1  0  0  1   0    X 2t 0 0 0 1 t exp X 2t 0  0  0 − 1 0 0 = 1 0 0     0 0 1   1    Note that the orthogonality condition R ⋅ R −1 = R ⋅ R T = 1 holds: R ik R jk 0 − 1 0  0 1 0 1 0 0 = 1 0 0  − 1 0 0 = 0 1 0      0 0 1   0 0 1  0 0 1       and the proper condition det (R ) = 1 . a) Obtain the deformation gradient ( F ). x 2 = X 2 + kX 3 . V. Chaves (2013) . Then.

2) Obtain the angle θ 23 in the current configuration in function of k . the magnitude (dx) 2 of sides OA and OB . Chaves (2013) . V. and diagonal OC after deformation of figure below. c.3) Apply the polar decomposition of the tensor F in order to obtain U and R .Spain Draft 0 2k   k2  By: Eduardo W. c. E = 1 (C − 1) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 226 b) Calculate the displacement field. Solution: a) C = F T ⋅ F . whose components are: 2  1 0 0  1 0 0  0 0 1   − 0 1 0   = 1 0 k 2 2 2k   E ij =  0 1 + k  2  2 2 0 2 k 2k 1 + k  0 0 1         0 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1) Obtain the stretches according to directions OC and BA . X3 dX 2 B C dX 3 O A X2 X1 c) Consider now a square as figure below x3 C′ A A′ C θ 23 O B′ B x2 c. The deformation gradient components are: 1 0 0  ∂xi  Fij = = 0 1 k  ∂X j  0 k 1    0 0  1 0 0  1 0 0  1 0 1 k  0 1 k  = 0 1 + k 2 C ij = Fki Fkj =  2k      0 k 1  0 k 1  0 2k 1+ k2      The Green-Lagrange strain tensor.

V. ˆ  ˆ c. with that we obtain: (dx )2 = (dX 2 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) + (dX 3 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) + 4k (dX 2 )(dX 3 ) For the side OA we have [0 dX 2 0] .2) Calculation of (dx ) 2 = dx 2 u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = kX 3 u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = kX 2 . Chaves (2013) . r r r (dx )2 = dx ⋅ dx r r = F ⋅ dX ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = dX ⋅ F T ⋅ F ⋅ dX r r = dX ⋅ C ⋅ dX Explicitly: (dx ) 2 = [dX 1 0 0   dX 1  1 0 1 + k 2 dX 3 ]  2k   dX 2    0 2k 1 + k 2   dX 3     dX 2 = (dX 1 ) 2 + (dX 2 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) + (dX 3 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) + 4k (dX 2 )(dX 3 ) Then.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS r r 227 r b. whose components are: u1 = x1 − X 1 = 0 .Spain 1 2 0 1 −1  2  0 1 + k 2 0 2k  Draft 1 2   0  2k    1+ k2       1 2 1   . u = x − X .1) The stretch according to the OC -direction: Ni = 0  (λ ) 2 OC  = 0  1 2 0 1 1  2  0 1 + k 2 0 2k   ˆ The stretch according to the BA -direction: Ni = 0  (λ ) 2 BA  = 0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . for the diagonal OC we have [0 dX 2 dX 3 ] . with that we obtain: 2    0  0   1  2 2k     2  = (1 − k ) 1+ k 2   −1     2   By: Eduardo W. r b. with that we obtain: (dx )2 = (dX 2 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) For the side OB we have [0 0 dX 3 ] . with that we obtain: (dx )2 = (dX 3 ) 2 (1 + k 2 ) ˆ c) The stretch according to the N -direction (reference configuration) is given by the ˆ ˆ equation (λ N )2 = N ⋅ C ⋅ N . is: 2  0   1  = (1 + k ) 2  2 1    2 −1  .1) The displacement field.

3) The polar decomposition of F = R ⋅ U = V ⋅ R . Then. Chaves (2013) . in the principal space of C we have: 0 1 0 (1 + k ) 2 ′ C ij =  0 0   The principal directions are λ 2 ⇒ Ni( 2) = 0  1 2    (1 − k ) 2   0 0  1  ( 3)  . there is only deformation according to x 2 − x 3 -plane.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and according to the ˆ OA -direction is N i = [0 1 0] . λ 3 ⇒ N i = 0 2  −1 2 1   . By means of the characteristic determinant we obtain: (1 + k 2 ) − λ 2k =0 2k (1 + k 2 ) − λ ( ) ( − 2(1 + k )λ + (1 − k ) ) ⇒ λ 2 − 2 1 + k 2 λ + 1 − 2k 2 + k 4 = 0 ⇒ λ2 2 2 2 The roots are: λ 2 = 1 + k 2 + 2k = (1 + k ) 2 =0 λ 3 = 1 + k 2 − 2k = (1 − k ) 2 . Note that according to the format of C -components. In addition.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 228 c.2) The variation of the angle. Then. 2 the transformation matrix between the original space and the principal space is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we know one eigenvalue λ1 = 1 associated with the direction N i(1) = [1 0 0] . where: C = U2 = 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ a N(a ) ⊗ N(a ) ⇒ U= C = a =1 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ a N( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) a =1 Calculation of the eigenvalues of C . V. With that we obtain: (λ ) 0 0  0  1 0 1 + k 2 2k  0  = 1 + k 2 = [0 0 1]    0 2k 1 + k 2  1     (λ ) 0 0  0  1 0 1 + k 2 2k  1  = 1 + k 2 = [0 1 0]    0 2k 1 + k 2  0     2 OB 2 OA 0 0  0 1 ˆ C N = [0 0 1] 0 1 + k 2 ˆ Mi ij j 2k  1 = 2k    0 2k 1 + k 2  0    Then: cos θ 23 = ˆ ˆ 2k M⋅ C ⋅N = λ MλN 1+ k2 ˆ ˆ c. We can directly use the equation: cos θ = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ M⋅C ⋅N M⋅ C ⋅N = λ Mλ N ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ M⋅ C ⋅M N⋅ C ⋅N ˆ where the unit vector according to the OB -direction is Mi = [0 0 1].

V. it must meet: C′ = A C AT 0 1 0 (1 + k ) 2  0 0    0  1 0  = 0   (1 − k ) 2    0     0  1 0 1  0 1+ k2 2  2k 1  0  2  0 1 2 −1 2   0  1 2k  0  1+ k 2   0     0  1  2 1   2  0 1 2 −1 2 T Then. we have: 0 1 0 (1 + k ) 2 ′ C ij =  0 0     (1 − k ) 2   0 0 + 1 0  + (1 + k ) 2 U ij =  0  0 0  ⇒    2  + (1 − k )  0 0 0 0  1 0 (1 + k ) 0  ⇒ U ij =   0 0 (1 − k )   The inverse tensor in the principal space can be obtained as follows: U′ −1 ij   1 = 0   0     0  0   1   (1 − k )   0 1 (1 + k ) 0 The components of U in the original space are given by: U ′ −1 = A T U −1 A   1 U ij = 0   0   0 1 2 −1 2   0  1  2 1    2 T   1 0   0   0 1 (1 + k ) 0   0  1 0  0  1   0 (1 − k )    0 1 2 −1 2     0  1 1   = 0 2   1    0   2  0 1 (1 − k 2 ) −k (1 − k 2 )   0  −k  (1 − k 2 )   1  (1 − k 2 )   From the polar decomposition we have F = R ⋅ U ⇒ R = F ⋅ U −1 . in the principal space of C .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS   1 a ij = A = 0   0   0 1 2 −1 2 229   0  1  2 1    2 That is. thus University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .

V and R Solution: a)  x1  λ 1     x2  =  0 x   0  3  0 0 λ2 0  X 1    − λ 3  X 2   0  X 3    ⇒ λ 1 Fij =  0  0  0  − λ 3  (homogenous deformation)  0   0 0 λ2 The determinant of F is given by F ≡ J = λ 1λ 2 λ 3 . and the deformed volume: integrating dV = F dV0    → V final = F Vinitial = λ 1λ 2 λ 3  b) Applying the Nanson’s formula and by considering the particular case (homogeneous deformation): r integrating r r r da = JF −T ⋅ dA    → a final = JF −T ⋅ Ainitial  where ˆ e1 r Ainitial = 1 ˆ e2 0 0 1 ˆ e3 ˆ 0 = e 3 . V.64 Given the following motion:  x1 = λ1 X 1   x 2 = −λ 3 X 3 x = λ X 2 2  3 a) Obtain the final volume to a unit cube. Fij−1 = 0 λ 2 λ 3 1  0 λ 1λ 2 λ 3   0  0 0 − λ 1λ 2 1  0   λ1 λ 1λ 3  =  0   0    0   0 0 −1 λ3  0   1  λ2   0    With that the deformed area vector is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . and draw the deformed area. c) Apply the polar decomposition and obtain the tensors U . b) Obtain the deformed area to a unit square defined in the X 1 − X 2 -plane. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 230   1 0 0  1  R ij = 0 1 k  0   0 k 1     0   0 1 (1 − k 2 ) −k (1 − k 2 )   0  1 0 0  −k   = 0 1 0  2   (1 − k )  0 0 1    1  (1 − k 2 )   Problem 2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 1   a1   λ1    a 2  = λ 1 λ 2 λ 3  0 a    3 0   0 0 1 λ2 231  0   0  0  − 1     0 = −λ λ    1 2  λ3     1  0   0    and its magnitude is: r a final = (−λ 1λ 2 ) 2 = λ 1λ 2 X 3 . λ 2 ) O(0.0.0.0) . B(0.0) A(1.0) move according to the equations of motion:  x1A  λ 1  A   x2  =  0 x A   0  3  C  x1  λ 1  C   x2  =  0 xC   0  3  c) 0 0 λ2 According U= C = F T 0  1 λ 1      − λ 3  0 =  0   0  0  0      0 0 λ2 0 0 λ2 0  0  0      − λ 3  1 =  0   0  0 λ 2      0  1  λ 1      − λ 3  1 =  0   0  0 λ 2      to the ⋅ F and polar decomposition V = b = F ⋅F University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .0) X 1 .0.1.0. Chaves (2013) .1. λ 2 ) r a final = λ 1 λ 2 C ′(λ1 .0. V. x3 B ′(0.0.0) and C (1.Spain . x2 A′(λ 1 .1.0) X 2 .  x1B  λ1  B   x2  =  0 x B   0  3  T definition F = R ⋅U = V ⋅R where we obtain: Draft By: Eduardo W.1.0) B (0.0) r Ainitial = 1 C (1. x1 where the points A(1.

Chaves (2013) . To obtain the spin tensor of the polar decomposition we apply R = F ⋅ U −1 = V −1 ⋅ F . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Note also that C and b have the same eigenvalues but different principal directions. λ 3 are the principal stretches.65 Consider the equations of motion:  x1 = 3 X 1   x2 = 2 X 2   x3 = 3 X 3 − X 2 Obtain the material ellipsoid associated with the material sphere defined in the reference 2 configuration by X 12 + X 2 + X 32 = 1 (see Figure 2. V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 232 λ 1 C ij =  0  0  λ 1 bij =  0  0  0 0 − λ3 0 0 λ2 0  λ 1 λ 2  0  0  0  0  λ 1 − λ 3  0  0  0  0 0 λ2 0 0 − λ3 0  λ2 1 =0 − λ3   0  0   0  λ2 1 =0 λ2   0 0   0  0 λ2  3 0 λ22 0 0 λ2 3 0 0  0 λ22   ⇒ λ 1 U ij =  0  0  ⇒ λ 1 Vij =  0  0  0 λ2 0 0 λ3 0 0 0  λ3   0 0  λ2   Note that the original space coincides with the principal space of C . Check that the ellipsoid in the principal space of the left stretch tensor V has the shape: ′ x1 2 λ2 1 + ′ x 22 λ22 + ′ x32 λ2 3 =1 where λ 1 .19).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. thus: λ 1 R ij =  0  0  1   λ1 R ij =  0   0   0 0 λ2 0 1 λ3 0 1  0   λ1 − λ3   0  0   0    0   λ 1 0 0   1 0 λ2   0 1 λ2 0 0 0 λ2  0  1 0 0  0  = 0 0 − 1     0 1 0    1  λ3   0  1 0 0  − λ 3  = 0 0 − 1    0  0 1 0     Problem 2. λ 2 .

x3 Material surface (always constituted by the same particles) X 1 .19: Material sphere. x1 Figure 2. and is also true that: V = b = F ⋅FT University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Recall that the tensor V and b are coaxial. V.e. Solution: The law of motion and its inverse are given by:  x1     x2  = x   3  3  0 0  0 2 −1   0  X 1   X1      inverse   0   X 2    → X 2  =   X    X  3  3   3    3 3 0 1 2 3 6 0 0  0    x1    0 x2    3   x3   3  The equations of motion in the spatial description are given by:  X1 =   X 2 =   X 3 =  3 x1 3 x2 2 3 3 x2 + x3 6 3 Replacing the above into the equation of the sphere we obtain: 2 2 X 12 + X 2 + X 3 = 1 2 2 2  3   3 3   x2   x  +  + x + x3  = 1  3 1  6 2  3  2      By simplifying the above equation we obtain: 2 2 x12 + x 2 + x3 + x 2 x3 = 3 which is the equation of an ellipsoid.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. i. We now represent the ellipsoid equation in the principal space of the left stretch tensor V . the have the same principal directions). x2 X 3 .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 233 X 2 . Chaves (2013) .

the other principal directions are in the plane x 2 − x 3 . x 2 . V. Then. the equation of the ellipsoid in the principal space of V is represented by: 2 2 x12 + x 2 + x3 + x 2 x3 = 3 (x1′ ) 2 2 2   2  2 2  2  2 2  2 2  ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ + − x2 + x3  +  x2 + x3  +  − x2 + x3  x2 + x3  = 3  2   2   2  2  2 2 2 2        Simplifying the above equation we obtain: ′ ′ ′ x1 2 x 22 x32 x′ 2 x′2 x′ 2 x′2 x′2 x′2 + + = 1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 = 12 + 2 + 32 = 1 3 6 2 λ3 λ22 λ1 ( 3) ( 6) ( 2) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 234 The components of b are  3  bij =  0 0  T 0  3 0  0  0 2   0 −1 3  0 2 −1 0 0 0  3  0 0  = 5 − 3  0 − 3 3 3     Note that we know already one eigenvalue b1 = 3 associated with the eigenvector ˆ n i(1) = [1 0 0] . Chaves (2013) . applying the transformation law from x1 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. with that we obtain  eigenvecto b2 = 6   r → n i( 2) = 0  ˆ  2 2 − 2  2   eigenvecto b3 = 2   r → n i(3) = 0  ˆ  − 2 2 − 2  2  thus:  1 3 0 0   Transforma ′  matrix bij = 0 6 0   tion  → a ij = 0    0 0 2    0  λ 1 = 3 0  ′ Vij =  0 λ2 = 6  0 0  0 − 2 2 2 2  0  2  2  2  2    0  λ3 = 2  0 ′ ′ ′ Then. x 2 . x3 -system we obtain:    x1  1     x2  = 0 x    3  0  0 − 2 2 2 2  0  2  2  2  2  T ′  x1    ′ x2   x′   3 ⇒  ′  x1 = x1  − 2 2  ′ ′ x2 + x3 x2 = 2 2   2 2 ′ x′ + x3  x3 = 2 2 2  with that. x3 -system to the x1 .

x3 X 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x2 x1 x3 R V ′ x2 X2 x2 x1 F X1 x3 X3 ′ x1 ′ x3 Figure 2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 235 X 3 .20: The material ellipsoid (deformed configuration). x2 ′ x3 λ3 = 2 λ2 = 6 λ1 = 3 ′ x2 ′ x1 X 1 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .21: The left polar decomposition. Chaves (2013) . V. x1 Figure 2.

4 Infinitesimal Deformation Regime Problem 2.Spain 2 X1 2X 2 0 Draft 0  0   2X3  (2.66 Given the equations of motion  x1 = X 1 + 4 X 1 X 2 t  2  x2 = X 2 + X 2 t  2  x3 = X 3 + X 3 t (2.153) a) Obtain the velocity field. b) Obtain the infinitesimal strain field. obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor.1.156) b) Acceleration: c) Displacement field: Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 236 2.158) thus: 4 X 2 ε ij =  2 X 1   0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .157) 4X1 2X 2 0 0  0   2X 3   (2. c) At time t = 1 s .155) u1 = x1 − X 1 = X 1 + 4 X 1 X 2 − X 1 = 4 X 1 X 2  2 2 u 2 = x2 − X 2 = X 2 + X 2 − X 2 = X 2  2 2 u3 = x3 − X 3 = X 3 + X 3 − X 3 = X 3 (2. t ) = ⇒  A2 = 0 dt A = 0  3 (2. Chaves (2013) . the infinitesimal strain tensor components are given by: ε ij =  ∂u1   ∂X 1 ∂u i  ∂u 2 = ∂x j  ∂X 1   ∂u 3  ∂X 1  ∂u1 ∂X 2 ∂u 2 ∂X 2 ∂u 3 ∂X 2 1  ∂u i ∂u j  + 2  ∂x j ∂xi      ∂u1   ∂X 3  4 X 2 ∂u 2   = 0 ∂X 3    ∂u 3   0 ∂X 3   (2.159) By: Eduardo W.154) r  A1 = 0 r r dV  A( X . V. t) = dt  2 V3 = X 3 (2. Solution: a) Velocity: V1 = 4 X 1 X 2 r r r  dx 2 ⇒ V 2 = X 2 V ( X .

V.166) By: Eduardo W. Solution: The displacement gradient is related to the infinitesimal strain tensor and the infinitesimal spin tensor as follows: u i .163) ∂u1 = 0  u1 = 0 → ∂x1 ∂u 2 µ = 2 (2 X 2 X 3 ) ∂x 2 2l ∫ ⇒ ∂u 2 = µ ∫ 2l (2 X 2 2X3 )∂x 2 ⇒ u 2 = µ 2l 2 ∂u 3 µ = − 2 (2 X 2 X 3 ) ∂x3 2l ∫ ∫ ⇒ ∂u 3 = − µ 2l 2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . j − ui.160) and the infinitesimal spin tensor:  0 0  ωij = 0 0   µ 2 2 0 − 2 X 2 − X 3 2l  ( µ ( 2l 2 )    2 2 X2 − X3    0   0 ) (2.161) Obtain the displacement field components. j 2 ) .164) [ µ 2l 2 2 X2 X3 [ + C1 ( X 3 ) 2 X3 X2 (2. Chaves (2013) .Spain (2 X 2 X 3 )∂x3 ⇒ u 3 = − Draft (2. j 2 (2.165) ] + C2 ( X 2 ) ] (2.162) ) thus: 0 µ u i .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 237 Problem 2. ω ij = ( 1 ui. j = ε ij + ω ij ε ij = ( 1 ui.67 Consider the infinitesimal strain tensor:   0 2  X3 −µ 2  l  X2X3   −µ l2    0 0  X2X3 ε ij = 0 µ  l2  X2 0 − µ 3  l2  (2. j + ui. j = 2 0  2l 0  2 − 3X 3  − 2X 2 X 3   0 2X 2 X 3 0 −  ( 2 X2 + 2 X3 2 X2 ) (2.

Solution: By definition.165) we take the derivative of u 3 with respect to X 3 : ∂u 2 µ = 2 ∂X 3 2l [ ]  2 ∂C1 ( X 3 )  ∂C1 ( X 3 ) µ 2 2 2 = −3 X 3 X 2 +  = 2 X 2 − 3X 3 ⇒ ∂X 3  2l ∂X 3  ⇒ C1 ( X 3 ) = (2. the displacement field is given by: u1 = 0 . in addition it fulfills that E ≈ e ≈ ε then: & & E =ε =D (2.169) Problem 2. in the infinitesimal strain regime.e. u 2 = µ 2l 2 [X 2 2 X3 3 − X3 ] .167) 3 −X 3 Similarly we find the constant C2 ( X 2 ) : ∂u 3 µ =− 2 ∂X 2 2l [ ]  2 ∂C 2 ( X 2 )  ∂C 2 ( X 2 ) µ 2 2 2 = X2 X 3 +  = − 2 X2 + X3 ⇒ ∂X 2 ∂X 2  2l  X3 ⇒ C2 ( X 2 ) = 2 3 (2.69 Given the equations of motion  x1 = X 1   − 2t  x 2 = X 2 + X 1 exp − 1  − 3t  x3 = X 3 + X 1 exp − 1  ( ( ) ) (2. the rate of change of the infinitesimal strain & tensor ( ε ) is equal to the rate-of-deformation tensor ( D ).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 238 To determine the constant C1 ( X 3 ) from the result (2. i.68 Show that. u3 = − µ  3 X2  2 X 3 X 2 +  3  2l 2  (2.170) & & & In the case of small deformation F ≈ 1 holds. V. the rate-of-deformation tensor ( D ) is the symmetric part of the spatial velocity gradient.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: Consider the relationship between the rate of change of he Green-Lagrange deformation & tensor ( E ) and the rate-of-deformation tensor ( D ): & E = F T ⋅D ⋅ F (2.171) Problem 2.168) Then.172) Obtain the rate-of-deformation ( D ) and compare with the rate of change of the & infinitesimal strain tensor ( ε ).: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .

the infinitesimal strain tensor is equal to the symmetric part of the displacement gradient: r & Dε ε = (∇u) sym ⇒ ε ≡ (2. are: V1 = 0  − 2t V2 = X 1 (−2exp )  − 3t V3 = X 1 ( −3exp ) (2. V. t ) = ∇ sym u ≡ (∇u) sym 2 r l = ∇ xv D= (2.176) we can obtain the velocity field in spatial coordinates: v1 = 0  − 2t v 2 = −2 x1 exp  −3t v3 = −3x1exp (2.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 239 1 (l + l T ) r r r and ε ( x . Then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. in material Dt   ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) coordinates.178) and University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .175) Given the inverse equations of motion:  x1 = X 1  − 2t  x 2 = X 2 + X 1 (exp − 1)  − 3t  x3 = X 3 + X 1 (exp − 1) inverse →   X 1 = x1  − 2t  X 2 = x 2 − x1 (exp − 1)  −3t  X 3 = x3 − x1 (exp − 1) (2. the displacement field components become: u1 = x1 − X 1 = X 1 − X 1 = 0  − 2t − 2t u 2 = x 2 − X 2 = X 2 + X 1 exp − 1 − X 2 = X 1 exp − 1  −3t − 3t u 3 = x 3 − X 3 = X 3 + X 1 exp − 1 − X 3 = X 1 exp − 1 r  r Du  The velocity field is given by  v =  . Chaves (2013) .174) Dt r r r The displacement field is given by u = x − X . the velocity field components. Considering the equations of motion.177) The spatial velocity gradient ( l ) components are given by: 0  ∂vi  r = − 2exp − 2t ( l ) ij = (∇ x v ) ij = ∂x j  − 3exp −3t  0 0 0 0  0 0  (2.173) By definition.

180) The infinitesimal strain tensor (ε ) Starting from the displacement field: u1 = 0  − 2t u 2 = x1 (exp − 1)  − 3t u 3 = x1 (exp − 1) (2. Chaves (2013) . V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.179) 3  exp −3t  2  0   0   skew components  0   =  − exp − 2t − 3 exp −3t  2  exp − 2t 0 0 3  exp −3t  2  0   0   (2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 240  0 1  1  − 2exp − 2t (D) ij = ( l ij + l ji ) = 2  2   − 3exp −3t   0   =  − exp − 2t − 3 exp −3t  2  − exp − 2t − 0 0 We also obtain the spin tensor W = l Wij = ( 1 l ij − l ji 2 ) 0 0  0  +  − 2exp − 2t 0 0  0 0  − 3exp −3t   T 0 0   0 0    0 0    (2.184) We also provide the infinitesimal spin tensor: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .181) the displacement gradient components can be obtained as follows: 0  r ∂u i  − 2t (∇u)ij = =  exp − 1 ∂x j  exp −3t − 1  ( ( ) ) 0 0 0 0  0 0  (2.183) = (ε )ij + (ω)ij The symmetric part:  0 1  sym r − 2t ∇ u ij =   exp − 1 2   exp −3t − 1  ( ) ( ( ) ) 0 0  0  +  exp − 2t − 1 0 0  0 0  exp −3t − 1   ( ( ) ) 0 0 0 0  0 0   0 exp − 2t − 1 exp −3t − 1  1 = exp − 2t − 1 0 0  = ε ij 2 − 3t  0 0  exp − 1  T       (2.182) r We can decompose (∇u) into a symmetric and an antisymmetric part: (∇u)ij = (∇ symu)ij + (∇ skewu)ij r r r (2.

e.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.  ∂x  m As for the infinitesimal spin tensor we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . as well as the correspondent characteristic equation.185) Then. Chaves (2013) . u 2 = (−10 x 2 − x1 ) × 10 −3 . Solution a) For the displacement gradient we obtain: r (∇u)ij  ∂u1   ∂x1 ∂u i  ∂u 2 = = ∂x j  ∂x1   ∂u 3  ∂x1  ∂u 1 ∂x 2 ∂u 2 ∂x 2 ∂u 3 ∂x 2 ∂u1   ∂x 3   − 2 7 0 ∂u 2   = − 1 − 10 0 × 10 −3  ∂x 3     0 0 1  ∂u 3   ∂x 3   m m   In the International System of Units the displacement gradient is dimensionless. d) Find the dilatation and the deviatoric infinitesimal strain tensor. b) Find the principal invariants of the infinitesimal strain tensor. the rate of change of ε is: & (ε )ij   exp −2t − 1 exp −3t − 1  0  D D 1  (ε )ij =  exp − 2t − 1 0 0 =  Dt Dt  2  − 3t    exp − 1 0 0    3   0 − exp − 2t − exp −3t   2   0 0 =  − exp − 2t   − 3 exp −3t 0 0   2   (2. which is subjected to the following displacement field: u1 = (−2 x1 + 7 x 2 ) × 10 −3 . r r  ∂u  m [∇u] =  r  = . i.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS (ω )ij 241  0 − (exp −2t − 1) − (exp −3t − 1)0  1 0 0 = (exp − 2t − 1)  2  (exp −3t − 1) 0 0   (2. V. and obtain the maximum shear strain.187) Problem 2.186) with that we conclude that: & D=ε (2. u 3 = x3 × 10 −3 a) Find the infinitesimal spin and strain tensor.70 Consider a material body in a small deformation regime. c) Draw the Mohr’s circle for strain.

we need to evaluate the eigenvalues of ε .0 × 10 −3  Then by restructuring the eigenvalues such that ε I > ε II > ε III . Then. ε III = −11.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 242 ( ωij = ∇ skew r ) u ij ∂u j 1  ∂u =  i − 2  ∂x j ∂x i   0 4 0    = − 4 0 0 × 10 −3      0 0 0   Then for the infinitesimal strain tensor we have: ( ε ij = ∇ sym r ) u ij ∂u j 1  ∂u =  i +  ∂x j ∂xi 2 3 0 − 2    = 3 − 10 0 × 10 −3      0 0 1   b) The principal invariants are defined as I ε = Tr (ε ) .0 × 10 −3 . But. we obtain: ε I = 1. if we take a look at the components of ε we can verify that ˆ ε = 1 is already an eigenvalue associated with the direction n i = [0 0 ± 1] . II ε = III ε = det (ε ) . to obtain the remaining eigenvalues one only need solve the following system:  − 2 × 10 −3 − ε 3 × 10 −3    =0 −3 − 10 × 10 −3 − ε   3 × 10 ⇒ −3 2 ε + 12 × 10 ε + 11 × 10 −6 ε1 = −1. So. V.Spain ε I − ε III = 6 × 10 −3 2 Draft By: Eduardo W.0 × 10 −3 Then the maximum shear (tangential) strain is evaluated as follows: ε S max = University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . (see Appendix A . the characteristic determinant is:  − 2 × 10 −3 − ε  3 × 10 −3 0   −3 − 10 × 10 −3 − ε 0  3 × 10  =0 −3  0 0 1 × 10 − ε    whilst the characteristic equation is: ε 3 − I ε ε 2 + II ε ε − III ε = 0 ε 3 + 11 × 10 −3 ε 2 + ε × 11 × 10 −6 − 11 × 10 −9 = 0 ⇒ c) To draw the Mohr’s circle for strain.0 × 10 −3 .textbook).0 × 10 −3  =0⇒ ε 2 = −11. (see Chapter 1). it follows that: { } 1 [Tr(ε)]2 − Tr (ε 2 ) . Chaves (2013) . 2 I ε = Tr (ε ) = (−2 − 10 + 1) × 10 −3 = −11 × 10 −3 −2 3 0 −2 3 0 −2 3 0   1 2 2 II ε = [Tr (ε )] − Tr (ε ) =  3 − 10 0 + 3 − 10 0 + 3 − 10 0  × 10 −6 = −1 × 10 −6 2  0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1   { } III ε = det (ε ) = 11 × 10 −9 Then. ε II = −1.

II ε . the deviatoric part is given by: dev ε ij = ε ij − sph ε ij  − 2 3 0 − 4 0 0   2 3 0   −  0 − 4 0   × 10 −3 =  3 − 6 0 × 10 −3 =   3 − 10 0      0 0 0 4 0 0  0 0 − 4        Problem 2. Chaves (2013) . b) the components of the spherical and deviatoric parts of the infinitesimal strain tensor.71 At one point.188) Obtain: a) the infinitesimal strain and spin tensors.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the Mohr’s circle for strain can be depicted as: ε S (×10 −3 ) ε S max = 1 γ max = 6 2 ε II = −1 ε III = −11 ε N (×10 −3 ) εI = 1 d) The volumetric strain (dilatation) . V. d) the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the rate-of-deformation tensor.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 243 Finally. Solution: a) The infinitesimal strain tensor ( ε ) is the symmetric part of the displacement gradient: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the displacement gradient is represented by its components as follows: 4 − 1 − 4 r (∇u) ij = 1 − 4 2  × 10 −3   4 0 6    (2. where the spherical part is given by: sph ε ij 0  − 4 0 Tr (ε )  0 − 4 0  × 10 −3 = δ ij =   3  0 0 − 4   And.εV is: ε V = I ε = Tr (ε ) = −12 × 10 −3 The additive decomposition of ε into a spherical and a deviatoric part is denoted by ε = ε sph + ε dev . III ε . c) the principal invariants of ε : I ε .

we need to solve the characteristic determinant: −4−λ 1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .191) The deviatoric part is given by: dev ε ij  4 0 0  2 0 0   2 0 0  = 0 − 4 1 − 0 2 0  = 0 − 6 1         0 1 6  0 0 2   0 1 4        [× 10 ] −3 (2.Spain 1 6−λ Draft =0 (2.193) [× 10 ] −3 3 III ε = 4 × (−4) × 6 − 4 = −100 d) The infinitesimal strain tensor components:  4 0 0 ε ij = 0 − 4 1   0 1 6   [× 10 ] −3 (2.0.190) ε = ε sph + ε dev where the spherical part is given by: ε sph Tr (ε ) 6 = 1 = 1 = 21 3 3 sph ε ij ⇒  2 0 0 = 0 2 0   0 0 2   [× 10 ] −3 (2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 244 [ r 1 r r ε = ∇ sym u = (∇u) + (∇u) T 2 ] (2.195) By: Eduardo W.194) Note that ε 1 = 4 × 10 −3 is one eigenvalue associated with the eigenvector [± 1.192) c) The principal invariants of ε are: [× 10 ] −3 I ε = Tr (ε ) = 6 Iε = I −4 1 4 0 4 0 + + = −17 1 6 0 6 0 −4 [× 10 ] −3 2 (2.0] . V. Chaves (2013) . To obtain the remaining eigenvalues.189) Then:   4 − 1 − 4  4 1 4  8 0 0   4 0 0 1   +  − 1 − 4 0   = 1 0 − 8 2  =  0 − 4 1  ε ij =  1 − 4 2      2   2 4 0 0 2 12 0 1 6 6  − 4 2 6          r The infinitesimal spin tensor ω = ∇ skewu   4 − 1 − 4  4 1 4   0 − 2 − 8  0 − 1 − 4  1   −  − 1 − 4 0  = 1 2 0 ωij =  1 − 4 2   1  2  = 1 0    2   2 8 − 2 0   4 − 1 0  4 0 6  − 4 2 6          [× 10 ] −3 [× 10 ] −3 b) The tensor can be additively decomposed into a spherical and deviatoric part: (2.

ε 3 = −4. ε II = 4 × 10 −3 .196) λ = 6. ε 2 = 6. V.198) Restructuring we obtain: ε I = 6.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 245 (−4 − λ )(6 − λ ) − 1 = 0 λ2 − 2λ − 25 = 0 λ= 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4 × 1 × (−25) 2 ± 4 + 4 × 25 − b ± b 2 − 4ac = = = 1 ± 26 2a 2 ×1 2 (2. Chaves (2013) .72 Obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor and the infinitesimal spin tensor for the following displacement field:  x12    u i =  x1 x 2   0    Solution: The infinitesimal strain tensor In the small deformation regime. the strain tensor is given by: L L E ij ≈ eij ≈ ε ij = 1  ∂u i ∂u j  + 2  ∂x j ∂x i      We need to obtain the displacement gradient components:  ∂u 1   ∂x1 ∂u j  ∂u 2 = ∂x k  ∂x1   ∂u 3  ∂x1  ∂u1 ∂x 2 ∂u 2 ∂x 2 ∂u 3 ∂x 2 ∂u1   ∂x 3   2 x 1 ∂u 2   =  x2 ∂x 3    ∂u 3   0 ∂x 3   0 0  0  0 x1 0 with that we can obtain: L E ij ≈ L eij ≈ ε ij ∂u j 1  ∂u =  i + ∂x i 2  ∂x j   2 x   1  1  =   x2  2   0 0 x1 0 0  2 x1 0 +  0   0  0   x2 x1 0  0   2 x1  0  =  x 2   0   2   0 x2 2 x1 0 0    0   0  The infinitesimal spin tensor: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Problem 2.0990 ⇒ 1 λ 2 = −4.0990 × 10 −3 .099 thus: ε1 = 4 × 10 −3 .099 × 10 −3 (2.0990 × 10 −3 .099 × 10 −3 (2.197) ε III = −4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution: The transformation law between systems x ⇒ x ′ is given by:   ′ ′  x1    x1   cos θ sin θ 0  x1        θ= −45º  ′   ′  x 2  =  − sin θ cos θ 0  x 2   → x 2  =   x′   x′   0 0 1   x3   3    3     2 2 2 2 0 − 2 2 2 2 0  0   x1    0  x 2    1  x 3     (2. x1 1 B′ ′ x1 Figure 2. Chaves (2013) . X 2 . x1 ) cos( x1 . a) State the equations of motion.22 shows the transformation experienced by the square ABCD of unit side. x 2 ) cos( x1 . x2 ′ x2 D C D′ 1 45º C′ B A = A′ X 1 . b) Is the theory valid for small deformation? justify the answer. x ) = cos(405º ) cos(345º ) cos(90º ) a ij =  2 1 2 2 2 3     cos( x3 . x ) cos( x ′ .199) r r NOTE: Remember that by definition of the transformation matrix a ij from x to x ′ is given by: ′ ′ ′  cos( x1 .22: Body subjected to rotation. x 2 ) cos( x3 . V. x3 )   cos(90º ) cos(90º ) cos(0º )  ′ ′ ′     University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 246 ω ij = 1  ∂u i ∂u j  − ∂x i 2  ∂x j    2 x1 1  =   x2 2   0 0 x1 0     0   2 x1 0 −  0   0  0   x2 x1 0  0 0    x 0  =  2  2 0   0    − x2 2 0 0  0  0  0   Problem 2.73 Figure 2. x3 )   cos(315º ) cos(225º ) cos(90º ) cos( x ′ . x ) cos( x ′ . x1 ) cos( x3 . c) Is the finite deformation valid? Justify.

thus: 2  0  2  − 1 0 ≠ 0 ij 2 0 0    0 Note that. C x2 = − C X 2 =1. i.e. After the motion we C x1 = have 2 2 (1) = 2 . Chaves (2013) . for a rigid body motion the strain tensors must be equal to zero. e = 0 (the Almansi strain tensor). E = 0 (the Green-Lagrange strain tensor). V. the equations of motion are defined by the inverse of the equation in (2.Spain Draft 0 0 0    = 0 0 0     0 0 0   By: Eduardo W. (1) + 2 2 2 2 (1) = 0 (1) + 2 2 Displacement field:  u1 = x1 − X 1 =    u 2 = x 2 − X 2 =   2  2 2 2 X1 − X 2 − X1 = X1 − 1 −  2  2 X2 2 2     2 2 2 2 X1 + X2 − X2 = X1 + X 2  − 1   2 2 2 2   Displacement material gradient:  ∂u1   ∂X 1 ∂u i  ∂u 2 = ∂X j  ∂X 1   ∂u 3  ∂X 1  ∂u1 ∂X 2 ∂u 2 ∂X 2 ∂u 3 ∂X 2 ∂u1   2 −1   ∂X 3   2 ∂u 2   2 = ∂X 3   2   ∂u 3   ∂X 3   0   r The infinitesimal strain tensor is given by ε = ∇ symu =  2 −1   2  ε ij =  0  0     0  2  − 1 0 2   0 0  − 2 2 [ ] r r 1 (∇u) + (∇u)T .2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 247 Considering the spatial and material coordinates are superimposed. Calculating the Green-Lagrange strain tensor components we have: ∂u j ∂u k ∂u k 1  ∂u + E ij =  i + 2  ∂X j ∂X i ∂X i ∂X j  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .199):    x1       x 2  = − x    3    2 2 2 2 0  0  X 1    0  X 2    1  X 3     2 2 2 2 0  2 2 X1 + X2  x1 =  2 2  2 2   x2 = − 2 X 1 + 2 X 2  ⇒ For example. ε = 0 (the infinitesimal strain tensor). the point C in the reference configuration has the material coordinates X 1C = 1 .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 248 Problem 2. x1 cos θ − sin θ 0 R ij =  sin θ cos θ 0    0 0 1   Then. V. and the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. x2 C′ ′ x2 D′ D 2b C 30º ′ x1 B′ 30º B b A = A′ X 1 .23). We then apply a rotation.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Note that we can apply the decomposition of motion: first we apply a pure deformation and then a rotation is applied: The motion is governed by the right stretch tensor of the polar decomposition: X 2 . applying the left polar decomposition F = R ⋅ U we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .23: Body under rotation/deformation. Chaves (2013) . the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. After turning the square is deformed such that the base maintains its initial length and the height is doubled (see Figure 2. where the components of R are the same as the r transformation matrix from the x ′ r system to the x -system: B B′ A = A′ b X 1 .74 A square of side b turns counterclockwise of 30º . Calculate the deformation gradient. x1 Figure 2. Solution: X 2 . x2 D′′ 2b C ′′ 1 0 0 U ij = 0 2 0   0 0 1    D C where we have applied the definition of stretch. Note that they are principal values.

We could also have obtained the components of C and E by means of its spectral representations: C= 3 ∑ ˆ ˆ λ2a N( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) . for a particle at point D in the reference configuration moves to the point:  x1D  cos 30º − 2 sin 30º 0  X 1D  cos 30º − 2 sin 30º 0 0 − 2b sin 30º   D       D    x 2  =  sin 30º 2 cos 30º 0  X 2  =  sin 30º 2 cos 30º 0 b  =  2b cos 30º   x D   0 0 1  X 3D   0 0 1 0  0         3   a fact that can be easily checked by means of Figure 2. and its components are:  1 0 0   1 0 0    0 0 0       1  E ij =  0 4 0  −  0 1 0   =  0 1.Spain 1 ∑ 2 (λ Draft By: Eduardo W. we can obtain the Cartesian components: sin θ 0 cos θ − 2 sin θ 0 1 0 0  cos θ  − 2 sin θ 2 cos θ 0  sin θ 2 cos θ 0 = 0 4 0 C ij = Fki Fkj =       0 0 1  0 0 1  0 0 1       1 2 The Green-Lagrange strain tensor. C = F T ⋅ F . a =1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we have: cos 30º − 2 sin 30º 0 Fij =  sin 30º 2 cos 30º 0    0 0 1   r r r As we are dealing with a homogenous deformation the equation x = F ⋅ X + c holds.5 0  2   0 0 1   0 0 1    0 0 0        Note that the original space coincides with the principal space. in r r this case with c = 0 .23. By means of definition of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. E = (C + 1) . Chaves (2013) . V.2 CONTINUUM KINEMATICS 249 cos θ − sin θ 0 1 0 0 cos θ − 2 sin θ 0 Fij = R ik U kj =  sin θ cos θ 0 0 2 0 =  sin θ 2 cos θ 0       0 0 1  0 0 1   0 0 1      For the proposed problem. where λ a are the principal stretches. E = a =1 3 2 a ˆ ˆ − 1)N ( a ) ⊗ N ( a ) . For example.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .250 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V.

1 Solved Problems 3.1 this is given by:  0  r b i ( x.1 Force. Stress vector Problem 3. g B x3 x2 x1 Figure 3. and in the special case presented in Figure 3. where g is the acceleration caused by gravity (the gravity of the Earth). Solution: r All bodies immersed in a force field are subjected to the body force b . Find the resultant force acting on the body B . Stress Tensor. the total force acting on the body can be evaluated as follows: . t ) =  0      − g  m s2    Hence. the gravitational field can be assumed to be uniform as shown in Figure 3.1 Ignoring the curvature of the Earth’s surface.1: Gravitational field.1.1.3 Stress 3.

2. Chaves (2013) .252 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS Fi = ∫ V   0   r 0  ρ b i ( x . r O r B (0.5 Pa    1 0 .e.2 b) With reference to paragraph a). we obtain the unit vector which is normal to the plane ABC . t ) dV =     − ρ g dV    V ∫ [m3 ] kg m } kg m We can also verify the F unit: [F] =  3   2  dV = 2 = N ( Newton ) .2 The Cauchy stress tensor components at a point P are given by:  8 −4 1  σ ij =  − 4 3 0.0) Obtain the normal ( σ N ) and tangential ( σ S ) traction vectors at P (see Appendix A of the textbook.0.  m  s  s   V  ∫ Problem 3. i.0) Figure 3. (Chaves(2013)).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the normal vector associated with the plane ABC is obtained by means of the cross → → product between BA and BC . V. Solution: First.5) which is associated with the plane ABC ˆ n defined in Figure 3.5 2    r ˆ a) Calculate the traction vector ( t (n ) ) at P x3 C (0.0. x1 x2 A(3.: ˆ e1 → → r n = BC ∧ BA = 0 3 ˆ e2 ˆ e3 ˆ ˆ ˆ 5 = 10e 1 + 15e 2 + 6e 3 0 r Additionally. To do this we choose two vectors on the plane: → → → ˆ ˆ ˆ BA = OA− OB = 3e 1 − 2e 2 + 0e 3 → → → ˆ ˆ ˆ BC = OC − OB = 0e 1 − 2e 2 + 5e 3 Then.2: Plane ABC . the unit vector codirectional with n is given by: v n 10 ˆ 15 ˆ 6 ˆ ˆ = v = e1 + e 2 + e 3 n n 19 19 19 −2 −2 we can obtain the traction components as: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

54 Pa   19 6   σN Then the tangential component.5]  8  ≈ 4.3716 ≈ 2.46   19 29. Then. respectively. σ N .: r ˆ t ( n) 2 = σ2 + σ2 N S ⇒ ˆ ˆ σ 2 = t i( n ) t i( n ) − σ 2 S N where ˆ ˆ t i( n) t i( n)  26  1 = 2 [26 8 29. As we have seen in Appendix A (textbook). V.5 2   6       ⇒  t1   26   t  = 1  8  Pa ⇒  2  19  t 3   29.3: Normal and tangential stress vector. Chaves (2013) . ˆ ˆ σ S = t i( n ) t i( n ) − σ 2 = 4. r ˆ t (n) x3 r ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n r ˆ r r t (n ) = σ N + σ S r ˆ σN = σ N ⋅ n r σN r σS ˆ s ˆ n P r ˆ t ( n) ˆ e3 ˆ e2 ˆ e1 2 = σ2 + σ2 N S x2 x1 Figure 3.e.0884 Pa N University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the normal component.3 STRESS ˆ t (n) i ˆ = σ ij n j 253  t1   8 − 4 1  10   t  = 1 − 4 3 0.46 − 2. can be evaluated as follows: r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ σ N = t ( n ) ⋅ n = (σ ⋅ n) ⋅ n = n ⋅ σ ⋅ n = σ : (n ⊗ n) = t i( n) ni = (σ ij n j )ni = ni σ ij n j = σ ij (ni n j ) Thus: ˆ σ N = t i ni ⇒ 10  1 = 2 [26 8 29.5   Thus.5     r ˆ ˆ b) The traction vector t (n) associated with the normal n can be broken down into a r r normal ( σ N ) and a tangential ( σ S ) vector as shown in Figure 3.3. σ S . i. can be obtained by means of the Pythagorean Theorem.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5] 15 ≈ 1. r ˆ r r t (n ) = σ N + σ S r ˆ ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ N n + σ S s or r r where σ N and σ S are the magnitudes of σ N and σ S .5 15 Pa  2  19    t 3   1 0 .

find the principal invariants of σ dev . with the Mohr’s circle in stress.3 The stress state at a point in the continuum is represented by the components of the Cauchy stress tensor as: 2 1 0 σ ij = 1 2 0  Pa   0 0 2   ′ 2 ′ a) Obtain the components of σ in a new system x1 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . f) Obtain the octahedral normal ( σ oct ) and tangential ( σ oct ) components of σ .6 0  1  σ ′ = 2  0 5 0   2 2 0   0 5 0  =  0 . Also verify if the eigenvectors form a basis transformation between the original and the principal space.  3 0 − 4   1 1 0   3 0 4   2 0 . x3 . the transformation law for the components of a secondorder tensor is given by: σ ′ = a ik a jl σ kl ij Matrix form →   σ ′ = A σ AT Thus. V. Solution: a) As we have seen in Chapter 1. (see Appendix A). x ′ .4.6 2 0 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. c) Obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of σ .8  ij      5  4 0 3   0 0 2   − 4 0 3   0 0 . (see N S Appendix A).e. i. Also. e) Obtain the spherical ( σ sph ) and the deviatoric ( σ dev ) part of σ . d) Illustrate the Cauchy stress tensor graphically. where the transformation matrix is given by: x3 3 0 − 4 1 a ij = A = 0 5 0   5 4 0 3    ′ x2 γ1 ′ x3 ′ x1 where ˆ e3 a11 = cos α 1 ˆ e′2 ˆ3 e′ a12 = cos β 1 a13 = cos γ 1 ˆ e1 β1 ˆ1 e′ ˆ e2 x2 α1 M x1 b) Obtain the principal invariants of σ .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 254 Problem 3.8 2        These new components σ′ij can be appreciated in Figure 3. Chaves (2013) .

b) The principal invariants of the Cauchy stress tensor can be calculated as follows: I σ = Tr (σ ) = σ ii = σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 [ ] ( ) 1 1 ( Trσ ) 2 − Tr (σ 2 ) = σ ii σ jj − σ ij σ ij 2 2 2 2 = σ11σ 22 + σ11σ 33 + σ 33 σ 22 − σ12 − σ13 − σ 2 23 II σ = ( 1 σ ii σ jj σ kk − 3σ ii σ jk σ jk + 2σ ij σ jk σ ki 6 2 2 + 2σ12 σ 23 σ13 − σ11σ 2 − σ 22 σ13 − σ 33 σ12 23 III σ = det (σ ) =  ijk σ i1σ j 2 σ k 3 = = σ11σ 22 σ 33 ) By substituting the values of σ ij for those in the proposed problem we obtain: Iσ = 6 . III σ = 6 ˆ c) The principal stresses ( σ i ) and principal directions ( n(i ) ) are obtained by solving the following set of equations: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . V. II σ = 2 0 0 2 + 2 0 0 2 + 2 1 1 2 = 11 .4: Basis transformation.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3 STRESS x3 ′ x3 255 x′ 2 x2 P ′ x1 x1 σ ′ = A σ AT x3 σ 33 σ 23 σ 13 σ 13 ′ x3 σ′ 33 σ′23 σ 23 ′ σ13 σ 22 σ 12 x2 σ 12 σ 11 σ′23 ′ σ13 σ′22 x′ 2 ′ σ12 ′ σ12 ′ σ 11 x1 ′ x1 σ = AT σ ′ A Figure 3.

one only need solve: 2−σ 1 1 2−σ = (2 − σ ) − 1 = 0 2 ⇒ σ 1 = 1  σ 2 = 3 Then we can express the Cauchy stress tensor components in the principal space as: 1 0 0  σ ′′ = 0 3 0  Pa ij   0 0 2    Additionally.: ˆ e2 0 −1 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ n ( 2 ) = n ( 3) ∧ n (1) ˆ e1 = 0 1 2 ˆ e3 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1 = e1 + e2 2 2 0 which can also be checked by the following analysis: The Principal direction associated with σ 2 = 3 : University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ˆ ˆ ˆ n ( 2 ) ∧ n ( 3) = n (1) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. it is valid that: ˆ ˆ ˆ n (1) ∧ n ( 2 ) = n ( 3) . then: ( ( σ 3 = 2 Principal → n13) = n (3) = 0 . Chaves (2013) . we can notice that we already have one solution as in the x3 -direction the tangential components are equal to zero. which is a cubic equation for the unknown magnitude σ : σ ij − σδ ij = 0 σ 3 − I σ σ 2 + II σ σ − III σ = 0 ⇒ However. the second principal direction can be obtained by the cross product between n ( 3) ˆ and n (1) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 256 1 0   n1   0  2 − σ  1 2−σ 0  n 2  = 0       0 0 2 − σ  n 3   0       ˆ To obtain the nontrivial solutions of n(i ) we have to solve the characteristic determinant. the principal direction associated with σ1 = 1 is calculated as follows: ( 1 0  n11)  0 2 − 1 (1) (1)   1  n (1)  = 0 ⇒ n1 + n 2 = 0 ⇒ n (1) = −n (1) 2 −1 0   2     (1) 1 2  (1)  n (1)  0 n1 + n 2 = 0  0 0 2 − 1  3      2 2 ( ( with n 31) = 0 and by using the condition n11) + n (21) = 1 we obtain: ( n11) = −n (1) = 2  1 1 2 −1  2 2 ˆ then n i(1) =   0  Since σ is a symmetric tensor. the principal space is formed by an orthogonal basis. ˆ ˆ ˆ n ( 3) ∧ n (1) = n ( 2) ˆ Thus. if we look at the format of the Cauchy stress tensor components. i. so. n 33) = 1   direction 2 To obtain the other two eigenvalues.e. V.

Circle 3 ⇒ . thus: σI = 3 . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . σ III = 1 Then the three circumferences are defined by: Circle 1 ⇒ . σ II = 2 . V. the eigenvectors of a symmetric tensor form the transformation matrix D .3 STRESS 257 ( 1 0  n12 )  0  2 − 3 ( 2) ( 2)   n ( 2 )  = 0  ⇒ − n1 + n 2 = 0 ⇒ n ( 2 ) = n ( 2 )  1 2−3 0   2     ( 2) 1 2  ( 2) (   n 32 )  0  n1 − n 2 = 0  0 0 2 − 3      2 2 ( ( With n 33) = 0 and using the condition n13) + n (23) = 1 we obtain: ( n 12 ) = n ( 2 ) = 2  1 1 ˆ then n i( 2 ) =   2 2  0  1 2 As we have seen in Chapter 1.e.5 2 (radius ) R1 = Then. . thus:   0 0   σ 1 = 1  0 σ2 = 3 0 =     0 σ 3 = 2  0      1 −1 2 1 2 1 2 2 0 0   1 0   2 1 0  2 −1 0  1 2 0    2    0 0 2      1  0   1 2 1 2 0  0  0    1  d) The graphical representation of a second-order tensor can be obtained from the description in Appendix A.5. from the original system to the principal space. . 1 (σ II − σ III ) = 0.5 2 1 (radius ) R 2 = (σ I − σ III ) = 1. Chaves (2013) .5 2 1 (center )C 2 = (σ I + σ III ) = 2. To do this we have to restructure the eigenvalues of σ so that σ I > σ II > σ III .0 2 1 (center )C 3 = (σ I + σ II ) = 2. σ ′′ = D σ D T . i.0 2 1 (radius ) R3 = (σ I − σ II ) = 0.5 2 (center )C1 = . 1 (σ II + σ III ) = 1. we can illustrate the Cauchy stress tensor at P by means of Mohr’s circle in stress as shown in Figure 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Circle 2 ⇒ .

V. a second-order tensor can be broken down additively into a spherical and a deviatoric part.e.5: Mohr’s circle in stress at the point P . i.0 2 R2 R1 C3 σ III = 1 C1 R3 σN σ II = 2 σ I = 3 = σ N max Figure 3.: Tensorial notation Indicial notation sph dev σ ij = σ ij + σ ij σ = σ sph + σ dev = σm1 + σ 1 dev = σ kk δ ij + σ ij 3 dev = σ m δ ij + σ ij dev (3.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 258 σS σ S max = σ S max = 1 1 (σ I − σ III ) = 1. e) As defined in Chapter 1 of the textbook.Spain 1 0  0 1 0  2 − 2  1 = 2−2 0  = 1 0 0     0 0 2 − 2  0 0 0      Draft By: Eduardo W.1) A schematic representation of these components in the Cartesian basis can be appreciated in Figure 3. Chaves (2013) . the deviatoric part can be evaluated as follows: dev σ ij  σ11 σ12 σ13  σ m 0 = σ12 σ 22 σ 23  −  0 σ m    σ13 σ 23 σ 33   0 0     1 (2σ11 − σ 22 − σ 33 ) 3  1 (2σ 22 = σ12 3  σ13  0  0   σm   σ12 − σ11 − σ 33 ) σ 23   σ 23  − σ11 − σ 22 )  σ13 1 3 (2σ 33 Thus.6 and the value of the scalar σ m is evaluated as follows: σm = σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 1 I 1 6 = = σ kk = Tr (σ ) = σ = = 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 Then the spherical part becomes: sph σ ij  2 0 0 = σ m δ ij = 2δ ij = 0 2 0   0 0 2   And. dev σ ij University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

3 STRESS 259 Now let us remember from Chapter 1 that σ and σ dev are coaxial tensors. so we can use this information to operate in the principal space of σ to obtain the eigenvalues of σ dev = σ − σ sph .6: The spherical and deviatoric part of σ . the invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor are represented by: J1 = I σ dev = 0 J 2 = − II σ dev J 3 = III σ dev ( ) 1 2 I σ − 3 II σ 3 1 3 = 2 I σ − 9 I σ II σ + 27 III σ 27 = x3 ( σ 33 σ 23 σ 13 σ 13 ) σ 23 σ 12 σ 11 σ 22 σ 12 x2 x 1 14444444 244444444 4 3 x3 x3 σm dev σ 33 σ 23 σ 13 σm σ 13 + x2 σm σ 23 σ 12 σ dev 22 σ 12 dev σ 11 x1 x2 x1 σ sph σ dev Figure 3. Traditionally. III σ dev = 0 .. V. i. With that we obtain: σ′ dev ij σ1 =0  0   σ m − 0   σ3   0   0 σ2 0 0 0 0   − 1 0 0 0  =  0 1 0    σ m   0 0 0    0 σm 0 Then the invariants of σ dev are given by: I σ dev = Tr (σ dev ) = 0 II σ dev = −1 .e.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. in engineering. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . they have the same principal directions.

−1. the unit vector is (1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3) b) The unit vector associated with the direction (1. r b) the traction vector t associated with the plane whose normal is (1. Chaves (2013) . associated with the plane parallel to the plane d) the principal stress at the point P .2) r a) the traction vector t related to the plane which is normal to the x1 -axis. (see Appendix A in Chaves (2013)). e) the principal directions of σ at the point P . can be expressed as: σ oct = N σ oct S ≡ τ oct 1 (σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) = 1 σ ii = I σ = σ m 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 I σ − 6 II σ = = J2 = 3 3 (σ ) + (σ ) + (σ ) dev 2 1 dev 2 2 dev 2 3 3 Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 260 f) The octahedral normal and tangential components.0) .2) . Solution: a) In this case. the traction vector is given by: ˆ t i(n) 1 2 3 1 1  =  2 4 6 0 =  2       3 6 1  0  3      (3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. r c) the traction vector t 2 x1 − 2 x 2 − x3 = 0 .0.4 At point P the Cauchy stress tensor components are: 1 2 3  σ ij = 2 4 6 MPa   3 6 1   Find: (3. V.2) is: 1 1   ˆ −1 ni = 6  2   (3.4) thus.−1. by substituting the values of the proposed problem we obtain: σ oct = σ m = 6 N . τ oct = 2 2 J2 = 3 3 Problem 3. Then.

6) d) Solving the characteristic determinant 1− σ 2 2 4−σ 3 6 3 6 =0 (3.8) e) The principal directions are: Associated with σ1 = 10 3  − 9n1 + 2n 2 + 3n 3 = 0    (1)  2n1 − 6n 2 + 6n 3 = 0 ⇒ n i = 6  3n + 6n − 9n = 0 5  2 3  1   (3. where t (n) is the traction vector resulting from ˆ ˆ r ˆ projecting the second-order tensor σ onto the n -direction.5 r r r ˆ ˆ Show that σ S = t (n) ⋅ (1 − n ⊗ n) . σ 3 = −4 (3.10) Normalization of the principal directions: ˆ n i(1)  3 n i(1) 1   6 = r = 70   n (1) 5   . V. we obtain: n ( 2) i  − 2 1  1  . σ 2 = 0 .7) 1− σ we obtain: σ1 = 10 . ˆ n i(3) 1 n ( 3) 1   i 2 = r = 14   n ( 3)  − 3   Problem 3.3 STRESS ˆ t i(n) 261 5 1 2 3  1  1    − 1 = 1 10  = 2 4 6   6 6    − 1 3 6 1  2       (3. and σ S is the tangential stress vector associated with the plane. n ( 3) =  2  =  i    0  − 3     (3. Chaves (2013) .9) Similarly.5) c) −5 1 2 3   2   2  1  1 ˆ   − 2 = 1  − 10 (n) ˆ n i =  − 2 ⇒ t i =  2 4 6    3 3 3 −7  3 6 1  − 1   − 1        (3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Solution 1: [ ] r ˆ r ˆ r ˆ ˆ σ S = t (n) − t (n ) ⋅ n n r (n) r (n) r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ σ S = t − t ⋅n ⊗ n r (n) r ˆ ˆ ˆ σ S = t ⋅ (1 − n ⊗ n) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ˆ n i( 2 )  − 2 n ( 2) 1   i 1 = r = 5  n ( 2)  0    .

We can relate the Cauchy stress tensor to the traction vector by means of the equation: r ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n thus: (ˆ  t1n )  0 1  (n )   ˆ  t 2  = 1 σ 22 ˆ  t (n )   4 1  3   4  n1  0    1  n 2  = 0     0  n 3   0      Resulting in the following system of equations: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Solution: r r ˆ ˆ We seek to find a plane whose direction is n such that t (n ) = 0 . V. Obtain the direction of the plane.6 The stress state at one point P of the continuous medium is given schematically by: x3 1 4 1 σ 22 4 1 1 x2 x1 Obtain the value of the component σ 22 of the Cauchy stress tensor such that there is at least one plane passing through P in which is free of stress.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.262 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS Solution 2: We can also solve the problem just using the components of the equation r ˆ r ˆ ˆ ˆ σ S = t (n) − [σ : (n ⊗ n)]n : σSi [ ] ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = t i(n) − (n k n l σ kl ) n i ˆ ˆ (n) (n) ˆ ˆ = t i − nink t k ˆ (n) ˆ ˆ k = t k δ ik − n i n k t (n) ˆ ˆ = t (n) (δ ik − n i n k ) k ˆ which in tensorial notation becomes r ˆ r ˆ ˆ σ S = t (n) ⋅ (1 − n ⊗ n) Problem 3. Chaves (2013) .

b) Obtain the projection of the traction vector according to the normal and tangential direction to the plane x1 + x 2 + x3 = 6 .3 STRESS 263 1  n2 + 4n3 = 0 ⇒ n3 = − 4 n 2  n1 + σ 22n 2 + n3 = 0  1 4n1 + n2 = 0 ⇒ n1 = − n 2 4  By combining the above equations we obtain: n1 + σ 22n 2 + n3 = 0 1 1 − n2 + σ 22n 2 − n2 = 0 4 4 ⇒ 1  1  − + σ 22 − n 2 = 0 4  4 r r 1 1 1 Then.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of the Stress Tensor Problem 3. then: 2 2 nini = 1 ∴ n1 + n 2 + n3 = 1 2 2 2  1   1  ⇒  − n2  + n2 +  − n2  = 1 2  4   4  2 6 r r ˆ Thus. when it meets t (n ) = 0 : ⇒ n2 = 2 2 3 . n1 = n3 = −  − 1 2  ˆ 4 ni = 6    − 1   3. V. x3 = 3) associated with the plane x1 + x 2 + x3 = 6 . Chaves (2013) .    4 4 2 ˆ ˆ To determine the direction of the plane we start by the restriction n i n i = 1 . the direction of the normal to the plane.1. we have:  − + σ 22 −  = 0 ⇒ σ 22 = . x2 = 2.7 The stress field in the medium is represented by:  1 σ ij =  0  2 x2  0 1 4 x1 2 x2  4 x1   1   (3.11) where xi are the Cartesian coordinates. a) Obtain the traction vector acting at the point ( x1 = 1. Solution: a) The unit vector which is normal to the plane x1 + x 2 + x3 = 6 is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. for n ≠ 0 .

University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .13) 1 0 4  σ ij ( x1 = 1.16) and the tangential stress is r ˆ r ˆ σ 2 = −σ 2 + t ( n ) ⋅ t ( n ) S N (3. x3 = 3) = 0 1 4   4 4 1   r (3.18) thus 2 32  19  131 σ 2 = −  + = S 3 9  3 (3.19) Problem 3.8 Given a continuum where the stress state is known at one point and is represented by the Cauchy stress tensor components: 1 1 0  σ ij = 1 1 0  Pa   0 0 2   (3.12) (3. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 1 0 4  1 0 1 4 1 1 =  3 4 4 1 1    5  1   5 = 3  9   ˆ t i(n) (3.15) b) The normal stress associated with this plane is 1 r (n) 1 1  1 ˆ ˆ σN = t ⋅n = [5 5 9] 1 = (5 + 5 + 9) = 19 3 3 3 3 1  (3.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 264 1 ˆ i = 1 1 n 3 1  r ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n (3.20) a) Find the principal stresses and the principal directions (eigenvectors).14) ˆ The traction vector t (n) : thus. V.17) 5 r (n ) r ( n ) 1 ˆ ˆ t ⋅t = [5 5 9] 5 1 = 131   3 3 3 9   (3. x 2 = 2.

we substituting this solution into the equation (3.1) To obtain the principal direction associated with the solution λ 2 = 2 . ( we obtain: n13) = 1 1 ˆ ( 3)  1 . since the tangential components in the x3 -direction are zero. n ( 2) =  1  2 2  0  b. n (23) = − . n12) = n (22) and by using the restriction 2 1 2 ( ( n12 ) + n ( 2 ) = 1 we obtain: n12 ) = n ( 2 ) = 2 2 2  1 ˆ . Chaves (2013) . V. n31) = ±1 2 To obtain the remaining solutions it is sufficient to solve: 1− λ 1 = −λ (2 − λ ) = 0 1 1− λ We can easily verify that the roots of the above equations are: λ 2 = 2 and λ 3 = 0 We express the stress tensor components in the principal space as follows: 2 0 0 σ ′ = 0 2 0  Pa ij   0 0 0   b) The principal directions b.Spain Draft − 1 2  0 .3 STRESS 265 Solution: ˆ To obtain the principal stresses λ i = σ i and principal directions n(i ) we must solve the following system of equations: 1 1 − λ  1 1− λ   0 0  0   n1   0  0  n 2  = 0      2 − λ  n 3   0      (3.21): ( 1 0  n12 )  0  1 − 2    1 1− 2 0  n ( 2 )  = 0     2  (  0 0 2 − 2  n 32 )  0       (  − n 12 ) + n ( 2 ) = 0  2 ⇒  ( 2) ( 2) n1 − n 2 = 0  ( ( Solving the system we obtain n 32) = 0 . we obtain: ( n13) + n ( 3) = 0 2  ( 3)  ( 3) ⇒ n1 + n 2 = 0  (3) 2n 3 = 0  ( 1 0  n13)  0  1 − 0    1 1− 0 0  n ( 3)  = 0      2 (  0 0 2 − 0  n 33)  0       2 2 ( ( Solving the system we obtain n (33) = 0 . n13) = −n (23) and using the restriction n13) + n (23) = 1 . then: direction ( ( λ 1 = 2  → n11) = n (1) = 0 .20). we can note that we have one solution.  By: Eduardo W. n = 2 2  2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . which is equivalent to solve: σ ij − λδ ij = 0 But if we look at the format of the matrix (3.21) ˆ for nontrivial solutions of n(i ) .2) For the solution λ 3 = 0 .

V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 266 As we have seen.Spain ⇒  σ11 σ  21 σ 31  Draft σ12 σ 22 σ 32 σ13  − 1  − σ11  ρ a g (h − x 2 )  0 σ 23   0  = − σ 21  =         0 σ 33   0   − σ 31         By: Eduardo W.mass density of water g . ˆ The face OB has as normal vector n (i BC ) = [− 1 0 0] . thus:   0 0   σ 1 = 2  0 σ2 = 2 0 =     0 0 σ 3 = 0      0 1 2 1 2  0 1    1 1 0   1 0  1 1 0    2    0 0 2  1   0   2  0 1 2 1 − 2 0 1 2 1 − 2 1   0   0  T Problem 3.acceleration of gravity C B ρa ρ a g (h − x 2 ) h O A b x1 Figure 3. The dam has thickness equal to b and height equal to h . Chaves (2013) . the eigenvectors form a matrix transformation ( A ) between the two systems. Considering that in this face the traction vector components are t i(OB ) = [ρ a g (h − x 2 ) 0 0] . OB and AC .e.7). (see Figure 3.9 A prismatic dam is subjected to water pressure.7 Solution: ˆ The face BC has normal vector n (i BC ) = [0 1 0] . Considering that this face has no traction vector. we conclude that: t i( BC ) ˆ = 0 i = σ ij n j ⇒  σ11 σ  21 σ 31  σ12 σ 22 σ 32 σ13  0  σ12  0 σ 23  1 = σ 22  = 0       σ 33  0 σ 32  0       what is the same as σ i 2 = 0 and because of the symmetry of σ we have σ 2i = 0 . x2 ρ a . σ ′ = A σ A T . i. Obtain the restrictions of the Cauchy stress tensor Cartesian components on the faces BC . we conclude that: t i(OB ) ρ a g ( h − x 2 )  =σ n ˆ = 0 ij j     0   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Considering that in this face there is no traction vector. respectively. we obtain: − − S ij = JFik 1 σ kp F jp1 S = JF −1 ⋅ σ ⋅ F −T = JF −1 ⋅ (σ dev + σ m 1) ⋅ F −T − − = JFik 1 (σ dev + σ ( m ) δ kp ) F jp1 kp = JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T + JF −1 ⋅ σ m 1 ⋅ F −T − − − − = JFik 1 σ dev F jp1 + JFik 1 σ ( m ) δ kp F jp1 kp = JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m ( F T ⋅ F ) −1 − − − − = JFik 1 σ dev F jp1 + Jσ ( m ) Fik 1 F jk1 kp = JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m C −1 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . J is the Jacobian determinant. we obtain: P = J (σ dev + σ m 1) ⋅ F −T = J σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m 1 ⋅ F −T = J σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m F −T Thirdly.3 Other measure of stress Problem 3. and the different components of σ by σ = σ sph + σ dev . V.Spain − − − = JFik 1 σ dev F jp1 + Jσ ( m ) C ij 1 kp Draft By: Eduardo W. and the scalar σ m is the mean normal Cauchy tress. and by breaking down σ into σ = σ sph + σ dev .1. Chaves (2013) .10 Prove that the following relationship are valid: P = J σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m F −T . C is the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. by taking into account the definition S = JF −1 ⋅ σ ⋅ F −T . 3. by referring to the definition P = J σ ⋅ F −T . F is the deformation gradient. we conclude that: t i( AC ) ˆ = 0 i = σ ij n j  σ11 σ  21 σ 31  ⇒ σ12 σ 22 σ 32 σ13  1  σ11  0 σ 23  0 = σ 21  = 0       σ 33  0 σ 31  0       which is the same as σ i1 = 0 and because of the symmetry we have σ1i = 0 . S = JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m C −1 where P and S are the first and second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors. Also prove that the following relationships are true: P : F = S : C = 3Jσ m Solution: First of all we prove that P : F = S : C : P:F = Pij Fij = ( Fik S kj ) Fij = S kj ( Fik Fij ) = S kj ( F T ⋅ F ) kj = S kj (C ) kj = S :C Secondly. ˆ The face AC has normal vector n (i BC ) = [1 0 0] .3 STRESS 267 which is the same as σ i1 = ρ a g (h − x 2 )δ i1 .

Mohr circle in stress Problem 3.4 Maximum shear stress.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 268 Then by applying the double scalar product between S and C we can obtain: S :C = ( JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T + Jσ m C −1 ) : C = JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T : C + Jσ m C −1 : C where the term JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T : C becomes: JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T : C = ( JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T ) : { C ( JF −1 ⋅ σ dev ⋅ F −T ) ij ( F T ⋅ F ) ij − − = ( Fip 1σ dev F jk1 )( Fqi Fqj ) pk F T ⋅F = J δ qp δ qk σ dev pk = J σ dev δ pk = J σ dev pk kk = J σ dev4 123 4 :1 =0 Tr (σ dev ) =0 Thus: S : C = Jσ m C −1 : C = Jσ m Tr (C −1 ⋅ C ) = Jσ m Tr (1) = 3 Jσ m Now. V.11 Obtain the maximum shear stress at a point in which the stress state is given by: x2 30 MPa 20 MPa x1 x3 Figure 3. by taking the double scalar product between P and F we obtain: P : F = J σ dev ⋅ F −T : F + Jσ m F −T : F Then by analyzing the term J σ dev ⋅ F −T : F we can conclude that: dev − dev J σ dev ⋅ F −T : F = ( J σ dev ⋅ F −T ) ij ( F ) ij = J σ ik F jk1 Fij = Jσ ik δ ik = J σ dev4 = 0 123 4 :1 Tr (σ dev ) =0 Thus. Chaves (2013) .1.8 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. P : F = Jσ m F −T : F = Jσ m Tr ( F −T ⋅ F T ) = Jσ m Tr (1) = 3 Jσ m 3.

20 MPa c) Obtain the maximum shear stress. 5 MPa x1 10 MPa x3 Figure 3. We draw the Mohr’s circle with the principal stresses: τ max (MPa) σ I = 30 MPa .Spain 5 10 Draft 10 − (−20) = 15MPa 2 σ N (MPa) By: Eduardo W. V.3 STRESS Solution: 269 τ Note that the axes xi are principal directions.12 Consider the stress state at a point represented by the infinitesimal element shown in Figure 3. Chaves (2013) .22) = 15 MPa Problem 3. 20 30 σ N (MPa) Figure 3. a) Draw the Mohr’s circle. and indicate the plane in which occurs. x2 b) Obtain the maximum normal stress.10.10 Solution: σS ≡ τ τmax = 15 σ N max = 10MPa σ S max = − 20 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . σ II = 20MPa and σ III = 0 .9 30 − 0 τ max = 2 (3.

12). τ=0 6 σ* P 2 Figure 3.13 Determine for which values of σ * are possible the following stress state at the point P : Case a) σ N = 4 . τ=2 Case b) σ N = 4 . τ) is feasible if it belongs to the gray zone of the Mohr’s circle including the circumferences. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . τ =1 Case c) σ N = 7 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .11 Solution The pair (σ N . (see Figure 3.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 270 Problem 3. V.12: Mohr’s circle in stress. τ σ2 σ3 σ1 σN Figure 3.

(see Figure 3. τ = 2) belongs to the circumference formed by the principal stresses 2 and 6 . Case b) In this case the solution is: σ *2) ≤ σ * ≤ σ *1) ( ( (3. Chaves (2013) .15.23) where σ *2) and σ *1) are identified in Figure 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.14: Mohr’s circle. V. Case a): In this case the pair (σ N = 4.13: Mohr’s circle. τ Case a) 2 1 σ −∞ 2 * σ* 6 σ∞ * σN Figure 3. thus σ * can assume any value.14).3 STRESS 271 τ Case a) Case b) 2 Case c) 1 6 2 7 σN Figure 3. ( ( University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

x C = ( (σ *1) + 2) ( 2 . we have: x = 4.5 Case c) In this case the only possible solution is that σ N is a principal stress. xC = (6 + σ *2 ) ) ( 2 . y = 1.27) 3.1) 1 σ* ( x ) 6 2 2 σN σ * ( 2) σ * (1) 6 σN Figure 3.26) ⇒ σ *2 ) = 3.28) By: Eduardo W. Starting from the circumference equation: ( x − xC ) 2 + ( y − y C ) 2 = R 2 For the case σ *1) . y C = 0.24) y = 1. V. we have: x = 4.25) ⇒ σ *1) = 4. R = (6 − σ *2 ) ) ( 2 substituting these values into the circumference equation we obtain: ( x − xC ) 2 + ( y − y C ) 2 = R 2 2   (6 − σ *2 ) )  (6 + σ *2 ) )  ( ( 4 −  + (1 − 0)2 =       2 2     2 (3.5 ≤ σ * ≤ 4.15: Mohr’s circle.Spain Draft (3.1) 1 ( 4.5 ( For the case σ *2 ) ( .5 ( thus: (3. (3. R = (σ *1) − 2) ( 2 Substituting these values into the circumference equation we obtain: ( x − xC ) 2 + ( y − y C ) 2 = R 2 2   ( σ * − 2)  ( σ * + 2)   4 − (1)  + (1 − 0 )2 =  (1)      2 2     2 (3.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 272 τ τ 2 Limit cases 2 ( 4. Chaves (2013) . y C = 0. then σ* = 7 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Problem 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Then. V.32) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .31)  λ (1) = 0 (τ − λ ) 2 − τ 2 = 0 ⇒ τ 2 − 2λτ + λ2 − τ 2 = 0 ⇒ λ (−2τ + λ ) = 0 ⇒  λ ( 2) = 2τ (3.30) b) Solution: a) The principal values.16: Mohr’s circle.29)  − 2τ 0 0  σ ij =  0 τ 0    0 0 − τ   (3. it is sufficient to solve: τ−λ τ τ τ = (τ − λ) 2 − τ 2 = 0 ⇒ τ − λ = τ ⇒ λ = 0 τ τ → τ τ−λ   (3. Chaves (2013) . If we check the format of the Cauchy stress tensor components.14 Obtain the maximum normal and tangential stress and draw the corresponding Mohr’s circle in stress for the following stress states: a)  τ τ 0 σ ij =  τ τ 0   0 0 0   (3. to obtain the remaining eigenvalues.3 STRESS 273 τ 2 6 σ* = 7 σN Figure 3. we can observe that the value λ (3) = 0 is already an eigenvalue.

V. 3) Bidimensional case (traction) 4) Triaxial case University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .33) τ − (−2τ) 3 = τ 2 2 Problem 3.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 274 τ σ N max = 2τ τ max = τ τ max = τ 2τ σN Figure 3. σ N max = τ τ max = (3. 2)Unidimensional case (compression).18.17: b) τ − 2τ −τ σN τ Figure 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.15 Make the representation of the Mohr’s circle for the following cases: 1) Unidimensional case (traction).

Chaves (2013) .Spain 0 σ II 0 σI σN 0 0  0  Draft By: Eduardo W. V.3 STRESS 275 5) State of pure shear Solution: 1) Unidimensional case (traction) τ σx σI σ I 0  0  σx σN 0 0 0 0  0 0  2) Uniaxial compression τ σx 0 0 0 − σ II  0 0  σx 0 0   0 σ II σN 3) Biaxial case σ II τ σI σ II σ I 0  0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

1. Solution: The mean stress σm = σ kk 5 + 8 + 2 = =5 3 3 (3. V.5 Feature of the stress tensor Problem 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.34) Obtain: a) the mean stress.35) b) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 276 4) Triaxial case τ σ III σ I 0  0  σII 0 σ II 0 0  0   σ III   σ III σII σI σN σI 5) State of pure shear σS ≡ τ σ 0 0   0 − σ 0    0 0 0   σ −σ σ σN −σ 3.16 The Cauchy stress tensor components at point P are given by: 5 6 7  σ ij = 6 8 9 GPa   7 9 2    (3. Chaves (2013) . b) The deviatoric and volumetric part of the tensor σ .

thus: 3 0 − 4 1 A = 0 5 0   5 4 0 3    (3.36) 0 6 7  = 6 3 9    7 9 − 3   Problem 3.37) Given the transformation law between the systems x and x' : x'1 x' 2 x '3 x1 3 5 0 4 5 x2 0 1 0 0 3 5 x3 − 4 5 ˆ ˆ ˆ where the system x' is constituted by the basis (e'1 . r ˆ ˆ a) Obtain the traction vector t ( e'2 ) associated with the plane whose normal is e' 2 .39) and the transformation law for the second-order tensor components is: σ' = A σ A T University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x2 and x3 . e' 3 ) according to the format: r ˆ ˆ′ ˆ ˆ3 t (e'2 ) = ( )e1 + ( )e ′2 + ( )e ′ (3. e 2 .38) b) Obtain the spherical and deviatoric parts of the Cauchy stress tensor.17 ˆ ˆ ˆ Consider the Cauchy stress tensor components.3 STRESS sph σ ij σ m = 0   0  0 σm 0 0  5 0 0  0  = 0 5 0     σ m  0 0 5     sph dev σ ij = σ ij + σ ij dev σ ij 277 dev sph σ ij = σ ij − σ ij ⇒ (3. Express ˆ ˆ ˆ the result in the Cartesian system (e'1 .Spain Draft (3. V. e' 2 .40) By: Eduardo W. e3 ) : 5 3 2 σ ij =  3 1 0     2 0 3   (3. e' 2 . e' 3 ) . in the Cartesian base (e1 . Solution: a) As defined in the textbook (see Chaves (2013)). the first row of the transformation matrix is formed by the direction cosines between the x'1 -axis with x1 . Chaves (2013) .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 278 thus: 3 3  5 0 − 4   5 3 2  5 5    σ′ = 0 1 0   3 1 0  0 ij    4 0 3   2 0 3  − 4  5 5   5 ˆ t i( e' 2 ) 4  5 9 9 2   1 1 0  = 9 5 12  5 2 12 31 0 3   5 0 9 1  = 5 5 12   (3.42) r ˆ  9ˆ  12  ˆ ˆ ′ t (e'2 ) =  e1 + (1)e ′2 +  e ′ 3 5  5 since: ′  σ11 σ ′  21 σ ′  31 ˆ ( e' ) ′ σ13   t 1 1  ( e' ) ˆ σ ′  = t 2 1 23  ˆ ( e' ) σ′  t 3 1 33   ′ σ12 σ′ 22 σ′ 32 t1 ˆ ( e' 2 ) ˆ ( e' 2 ) t2 ˆ ( e' ) t3 2 t1 ˆ ( e'3 )  ˆ ( e' 3 )  t2  ˆ ( e' ) t3 3   (3. Chaves (2013) . Consider that the body is free of body force.45)  3 0 0 = 0 3 0   0 0 3   (3.44) Iσ dev δ ij + σ ij 3 = Iσ = 5 +1+ 3 = 9 (3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.18 The stress state in an continuous medium is given by the Cauchy stress tensor Cartesian components:  0 σ ij = Cx 3   0  Cx 3 0 − Cx1 0  − Cx1   0   where C is a constant. V.43) b) sph dev σ ij = σ ij + σ ij (3. a) Calculate the traction vector at the point P (4.47) Problem 3.41) (3.46) sph σ ij dev sph σ ij = σ ij − σ ij 3 2   2 3 2 5 − 3  3 1− 3 0  = 3 − 2 0 =     2 0 3 − 3 2 0 0     (3. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .−4.7) associated with the plane whose 2ˆ 1ˆ ˆ 2ˆ normal vector is given by n = e1 + e 2 − e 3 . 3 3 3 b) Represent the Mohr’s circle in stress at the point P .

50) thus.48) 0  0 − Cx1  = 7C   0  0   7C 0 − 4C 0  − 4C   0   2 1  ˆ nj =  2  3 − 1   (3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x3 = 7) = Cx3   0  Cx3 0 − Cx1 (3.51) b) 0  0 7 7 0 − 4  σ ij = C   0 − 4 0    (3.52) The eigenvalues (principal stresses) are obtained by solving: 0  σ 0 0  0 7 7 0 − 4  −  0 σ 0  = 0 C    0 − 4 0   0 0 σ      ⇒ σ C 0  0 7  C 7 0 − 4  − C  0    0 − 4 0     0  0 σ C 0  0  0 =0  σ C  (3.3 STRESS 279 Solution: a) The traction vector is given by: r ˆ ˆ (n) ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n . x 2 = −4. V. t i = σ ij n j  0 σ ij ( x1 = 4. we obtain: 0 r (n) ˆ ˆ t i = σ ij n j = 7C  0  7C 0 − 4C 0  2  14C   1  2  = 1  18C  − 4C     3 3 − 8C  0   − 1      (3. Chaves (2013) .55) With that we obtain σ = ±C 65 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .53) Considering that σ = Cσ we obtain: 0  − σ 7  7 − σ − 4 = C 3 C   0 − 4 − σ   − σ 3 + 16 σ + 49 σ = 0 ⇒ 0  − σ 7  7 − σ − 4 = 0    0 − 4 − σ   − σ 2 + 65 = 0 ⇒ σ = ± 65 (3.49) (3.54) (3.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. e) Find the traction vector associated with the plane whose normal vector is 6 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ n = 0. c) Draw the Mohr’s circle in stress. d) Obtain the maximum shear stress at the point.19 we can obtain the Cauchy stress tensor components as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 280 Then.25e 2 − e3 . b) Obtain the principal stresses ( σ I .19: a) Obtain the deviatoric part of the stress tensor.75e1 + 0. the Mohr’s circle is represented by: σS ≡ τ C 65 σ III = −C 65 σ I = C 65 σN Problem 3.19 The stress state at a point of the body is given by the Cauchy stress tensor components as follows: x3 r ˆ ˆ t ( e 3 ) = 8e1 r ˆ ˆ t ( e 2 ) = 6e1 ˆ e3 ˆ e1 ˆ e2 x2 r ˆ ˆ ˆ t ( e 1 ) = 6 e 2 + 8e 3 x1 Figure 3. σ III ) and the principal directions. 4 f) Obtain the normal and tangential stress vector associated with the plane described in paragraph (e). Solution: According to Figure 3. σ II . V.

75e1 + 0.Spain By: Eduardo W.707 0. Chaves (2013) . λ 2 = 10 .8 0.566]  ˆ eigenvector σ 3 = 10    → n (3) = [0. σ III = −10 c) The Mohr’s circle can be appreciated as follows: σS ≡ τ τ max = 10 σ II = 0 σ III = −10 σ I = 10 σN d) We can directly obtain the maximum shear stress by means of the Mohr’s circle: τ max = σ I − σ III = 10 2 ˆ ˆ e) Considering t i (n) = σ ij n j .6]  ˆ eigenvector σ 2 = −10    → n i( 2 ) = [− 0.566]  ˆi σ I = 10 .707 0. we can obtain the traction vector associated with the plane whose ˆ ˆ ˆ normal vector is n = 0. V. Then.25e 2 − 6 ˆ e3 : 4 University of Castilla-La Mancha Draft Ciudad Real .3 STRESS 281 0 6 8  σ ij = 6 0 0   8 0 0   a) sph dev σ ij = σ ij + σ ij sph The spherical part is σ ij = Iσ δ ij = 0 ij since I σ = 0 .424 0. (principal stresses). σ II = 0 . the deviatoric part is given by: 3 dev σ ij = sph σ ij 0 6 8  − σ ij = 6 0 0   8 0 0    b) The eigenvalues can be obtained by means of the characteristic determinant: −λ 6 6 −λ 8 0 8 0 =0 ⇒ − λ3 + 100λ = 0 ⇒ ( ) λ − λ2 + 100 = 0 −λ whose solutions are λ 1 = 0 . The principal directions are: eigenvector σ1 = 0    → n i(1) = [0 − 0. λ 3 = −10 .424 0.

Spain Draft 2 r ˆ r ˆ r = t (n) ⋅ t (n) − σ N 2 to obtain the By: Eduardo W.77462)2 + (2.25  ≈ −5. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .87784)2 ≈ 41.12216)e 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ≈ (0.82385)e1 + (4.808713 = 6.75   − 3.82385e1 − 1.42487 )2 + (5.42487 )e1 + (5.75  ˆ (n ) ˆ = t i n i ≈ [− 3.39898 4.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 282   ˆ  t 1 (n)  0 6 8  0.5  ˆ  t (n)  8 0 0  6   6  −    3    4    f) r ˆ t (n) r σS r σN ˆ s ˆ n P r r r ˆ ˆ The magnitude of σ N can be obtained by the projection σ N = t (n) ⋅ n = t i (n) n i .39898 + 3. the relationship t (n) = σ N + σ S holds. thus: r σN ˆ ˆ    0.25  ≈  4.5 + 1. Chaves (2013) . with that the tangent stress vector is obtained as follows: r ˆ r r σ S = t (n) − σ N ˆ ˆ ˆ ≈ (− 3. V.77462)e 2 + (2.12216e 3 r ˆ r r In addition.5 6]  0.27462e 2 + 3.39898  (n)   ˆ     t 2  = 6 0 0  0.09847   − 6   4    r The vector σ N is given by: r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ σ N = σ N n = −3.87784)e 3 and its module as: r σS ≈ (0.27462)e 2 + (6 − 3.465966 r NOTE: We could also have used the equation σ S r module of σ S .

3 STRESS

283

Problem 3.20
The Cauchy stress tensor field of a continuous medium is represented by:
 3 x1
r 
σ ij ( x ) = σ 21
σ
 31

2
5x2

3x 2
σ 32

0 

2 x3 
0 

a) Obtain the body force (per unit volume) to ensure the balance of the continuum.
b) For a particular point ( x1 = 1, x 2 = 1, x3 = 0 ):
b.1) Draw the Mohr’s circle. Obtain the maximum normal and tangential stress
component.
b.2) Obtain the traction vector associated with the plane whose normal is
 1
ni = 
 3

1 

3

1
3

b.2.1) Obtain the normal and tangential in this plane.
Solution:
a) Due to the symmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor ( σ = σ T ) we have:
 3 x1
r  2
σ ij ( x ) = 5 x 2
 0

2
5x2

3x 2
2 x3

0 

2 x3 
0 

σ + σ12, 2 + σ13,3 = −ρ b1
3 + 10 x 2 + 0 = −ρ b1
r r components  11,1

r
∇ x ⋅ σ + ρ b = 0    →σ 21,1 + σ 22, 2 + σ 23,3 = −ρ b1 ⇒ 0 + 3 + 2 = −ρ b 2

0 + 0 + 0 = −ρ b

3

σ 31,1 + σ 32, 2 + σ 33,3 = −ρ b1

with that we obtain:
− 10 x 2 − 3
ρbi =  − 5 




0

(Force per unit volume)

(3.56)

b) For the particular point ( x1 = 1, x 2 = 1, x3 = 0 ) we have:
3 5 0
σ ij = 5 3 0


0 0 0 

where we can verify that σ 3 = 0 is one principal value. For the other eigenvalues, it is
sufficient to solve:
3−σ
5
=0
5
3−σ

(3 − σ) = (5) 2

3 − σ = ±5

σ1 = 8

σ 2 = −2

Restructuring the eigenvalues:
σ I = 8 , σ II = 0 , σ III = −2

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

284

b.1) The Mohr’s circle is drawn in figure below:
σS ≡ τ
τ max = 5

σ II = 0

σ III = −2

σN

σI = 8

By means of the Mohr’s circle we can obtain the maximum shear stress τ max = 5 and the
maximum normal stress σ N max = σ I = 10 .
ˆ

ˆ
e) Considering that t i (n) = σ ij n j , we can obtain the traction vector associated with the plane
ˆ
whose normal vector is n =

1 ˆ
1 ˆ
1 ˆ
e1 +
e2 +
e3 :
3
3
3
ˆ
 t 1 (n) 
3 5 0 1
8 
 (n)  1 
ˆ
 1 = 1 8 
5 3 0  
t 2  =
ˆ
3
3 
 t (n) 
0 0 0 1
6 

 
 
 3 

b.2) The normal stress component is obtained as follows:
σN = ti

ˆ
(n)

ˆ
ni =

1
3

1
[8 8 0] 1 = 16
 3
3
1


1

r

To obtain the tangential component we apply directly σ S
r ˆ
t (n)

2

2

r ˆ r ˆ
r
= t (n) ⋅ t (n) − σ N

2

, where

8
r (n) r (n)
1 1
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
(n) (n)
[8 8 0] 8 = 128 . Then:
= t ⋅ t = ti ti =
 
3
3 3
0
 

r
σS

2

r ˆ r ˆ
r
= t (n) ⋅ t (n) − σ N

2

2

=

128  16 
128
−  =
3  3
9

σS =

128
3

Problem 3.21
The stress state at one point of the body is given by means of the spherical and deviatoric
part of the Cauchy stress tensor as follows:
sph
σ ij

1 0 0
= 0 1 0


0 0 1 

;

dev
σ ij

0 6 8 
= 6 0 0


8 0 0

a) Obtain the Cauchy stress tensor components;
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By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

3 STRESS

285

b) Find the principal stresses ( σ I , σ II , σ III ) and principal directions;
c) Obtain the maximum shear stress;
d) Draw the Mohr’s circle in stress for the cases: d.1) the Cauchy stress tensor ( σ ij ), d.2)
sph
dev
the spherical part ( σ ij ) and; d.3) the deviatoric part ( σ ij );

Solution:
σ ij =

a)

sph
σ ij

+

dev
σ ij

1 0 0 0 6 8  1 6 8
= 0 1 0  + 6 0 0  = 6 1 0 

 

 
0 0 1 8 0 0 8 0 1

 

 

dev
In Problem 3.19 we have obtained the principal values of σ ij whose values are the same
as for the proposed problem. As the tensor and its deviatoric part have the same principal
directions, i.e. they are coaxial, we can automatically obtain the principal stresses:

σ′ =
ij

σ′ sph
ij

+

σ ′ dev
ij

0  9 0 0 
1 0 0 10 0
0 1 0 +  0 0
0  = 0 1 0 
=

 
 
0 0 1  0 0 − 10 0 0 11


 
 

The principal directions are the same as those provided in Problem 3.19.
d) Mohr’s circle in stress
σS ≡ τ

σS ≡ τ
τ max = 10

+
σ dev = 0
II

σ dev = −10
III

σ dev = 10
I

σ dev
N

σ I = σ II = σ III = 1

Deviatoric part

σN

Spherical part

144444444444444 2444444444444444
4
3

σS ≡ τ
τ max = 10

σ III = −9

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σ II = 1

Draft

σ I = 11

σN

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

286

Note that the spherical part contribution deviates (translate) the Mohr’s circle of the
deviatoric part according the σ N -axis, and does not alter the value of the maximum shear
stress.
Problem 3.22
At one point P in the continuum medium, The Cauchy stress tensor σ is represented by
its Cartesian components as follows:
1 1 0 
σ ij = 1 1 0 MPa ,


0 0 2 

a) Obtain the principal stresses and principal directions at the point P ;
b) Obtain the maximum shear stress;
c) Draw the Mohr’s circle for the cases: c.1) the Cauchy stress tensor ( σ ij ), c.2) the
sph
dev
spherical part ( σ ij ) and; c.3) the deviatoric part ( σ ij );

d)

i.) Find the traction vector associated with the plane whose normal vector is
r
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
n = 1.0e1 + 1.0e 2 + 0e 3 ;
ii.) Obtain the normal and tangential stress on the plane.

f) Obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the deviatoric part ( σ dev ).
Solution:
a) (See Problem 3.8). The eigenvalues are σ I = 2 , σ II = 2 , σ III = 0
b) and c)
σ ′ dev
ij

= σ′ −
ij

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σ ′ sph
ij

1 0 0 
1 0 0
 2 0 0
 0 2 0  − 4 0 1 0  = 2 0 1 0 
=

 3
 3
0 0 − 2 
0 0 1 
 0 0 0





Draft

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

3 STRESS

287

σS ≡ τ

σS ≡ τ

+

τ max = 1

σN
σ III = −1.333

σ I , σ II = 0.667

σN

σ I = σ II = σ III = 1.333

Deviatoric part

Spherical part

144444444444444 2444444444444444
4
3
σS ≡ τ

τ max = 1

σ III = 0

r

σ I , σ II = 2

σN

ˆ
d) The traction vector is obtained by t (n) = σ ⋅ n , we need to normalize the normal vector
ˆ

r
n
1 ˆ
1 ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
e1 +
e 2 + 0e 3 . Thus:
to the plane, i.e. n = r =
n
2
2


t 1n)  1 1 0
 2
1 
 (n)  
ˆ
 1 1  = 1  2 
t 2  = 1 1 0
 
2 
ˆ
 t ( n )  0 0 2  2 0 
0
3 
 


 

Problem 3.23
The Cauchy stress tensor components at one point are:
0
0
 29
 0 − 26 6  Pa
σ ij = 

0
6
9

Decompose the stress tensor in a spherical and a deviatoric part, and obtain the principal
stresses and principal directions of the deviatoric part.
Solution:
Consider the additive decomposition of the stress tensor into a spherical and deviatoric
part:
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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

288

dev
sph
σ ij = σ ij + σ ij

The deviatoric part is given by
dev
σ ij

σ11 − σ m
=  σ12

 σ13

σ12
σ 22 − σ m
σ 23

σ13
σ 23
σ 33




− σm 

where the mean stress is:
σm =

( 29 − 26 + 9)
1
σ ii =
=4
3
3

thus:
dev
σ ij

0
0   25
0
0
 29 − 4
 0
 =  0 − 30 6  Pa
=
− 26 − 4
6  

 0
6
9 − 4  0
6
5

 

The spherical part components are:
hyd
σ ij

sph
σ ij

4 0 0
= 0 4 0  Pa


 0 0 4

To verify the above operations, the following relationship must be verified:
σ ij =

dev
σ ij

+

sph
σ ij

0
0  4 0 0  29
0
0
25
 0 − 30 6  + 0 4 0  =  0 − 26 6  Pa
=
 
 

0
6
5 0 0 4  0
6
9

 
 

To obtain the eigenvalues we solve the characteristic determinant of the deviatoric part:
dev
σ ij − λδ ij = 0  λ3 − λJ 2 − J 3 = 0
→

By solving the above cubic equation we obtain the following principal values:
dev
σ1 = 25 Pa
 dev
σ 2 = 6 Pa
σ dev = −31Pa
 3

Problem 3.24
Decompose the Cauchy stress tensor:
 12
σ ij = σ 21

σ 31

4
9
σ 32

0 
− 2 MPa

3 

into a spherical and a deviatoric part.
Obtain the principal invariants of the deviatoric part
Obtain the normal octahedral stress and the mean stress at this point.
Solution:
Due to the symmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor:
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3 STRESS

289

0 
12 4
 4 9 − 2 MPa
σ ij = 

0 −2 3 

The mean stress σ m = σ oct =

I σ 12 + 9 + 3 24
=
=
= 8.
3
3
3

The spherical and deviatoric parts are:
sph
σ ij

8 0 0
= 0 8 0


0 0 8 

dev
σ ij

;

= σ ij −

sph
σ ij

0  8 0 0  4 4
0 
12 4
4
 − 0 8 0 =  4 1 − 2 
9 − 2 
=
 

 0 − 2 3  0 0 8   0 − 2 − 5 

 
 

The principal invariants of the deviatoric part are:
I σ dev ≡ J1 = 4 + 1 − 5 = 0 , as expected, since the trace of any deviatoric tensor is zero.

II σ dev =

1

−2

−2 −5

+

4

0

0 −5

+

or using the definition: J 2 =

4 4
4 1

(

= −41 = − J 2

) (

)

1 2
1
I σ − 3 II σ = 24 2 − 3 × 151 = 41
3
3

III σ dev ≡ J 3 = det (σ dev ) = 44

Problem 3.25
The stress state at one point is represented by the Cauchy stress tensor components:
 σ aσ bσ
σ ij =  aσ σ cσ 


bσ cσ σ 

where a , b and c are constants and σ is the value of stress. Determine the constants a ,
b and c such that the traction vector is zero on the octahedral plane.
Solution:
ˆ
A octahedral plane has the following unit vector: n i =
r

1
3

[1

1 1] . The traction vector on

ˆ
this plane is defined by t (n) = σ ⋅ n , whose components are:
ˆ


t 1n)   σ aσ bσ
1
σ + aσ + bσ  0 a + b = 1
 (n)  
ˆ
 1 1 = 1  aσ + σ + cσ  = 0 ⇒ a + c = −1
 t 2  =  aσ σ c σ 

   
3
ˆ
t (n)  bσ cσ σ  3 1
 bσ + cσ + σ  0 b + c = −1



   
 3  

by solving the above system we obtain b =

−1
−1
−1
, c=
, a= .
2
2
2

Problem 3.26
At one point P in the continuous medium the Cauchy stress tensor σ is represented by its
Cartesian components as follows:

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

290

 57
σ ij = σ 21

σ 31

a)
b)
c)
d)

0
50
σ 32

24
0  MPa ,

43

Obtain the principal stresses and principal directions at the point P ;
Obtain the maximum tangential and normal stress at this point;
Draw the Mohr’s circle in stress;
r
Obtain the traction vector t (n) on the octahedral plane of the Haigh-Westergaard
space. Obtain the normal octahedral stress and the tangential octahedral stress.

Solution:
Considering the symmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor we obtain:
57 0 24
σ ij =  0 50 0  MPa


24 0 43

Note that the stress σ 22 = 50 is already a principal stress and is associated with the principal
ˆ
direction n ( 2) = [0 ± 1 0] . To find the other principal stresses we solve the following
system:
57 − σ
24
=0
24
43 − σ

σ1 = 25
σ 2 − 100σ + 1875 = 0 ⇒ 
σ 3 = 75

Using the definition of eigenvalue-eigenvector, we can obtain the following eigenvectors:
σ1 = 25

ˆ
n (1) = [m 0.6 0 ± 0.8]

σ 3 = 75

ˆ
n (3) = [± 0.8 0 ± 0.6]

Mohr’s circle in stress:
Restructuring the principal stresses such that σ I > σ II > σ III we have:
σ I = 75 , σ II = 50 , σ III = 25

b, c) The Mohr’s circle is drawn in figure below:
σS ≡ τ

τ max =

τ max = 25

σ III = 25

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σ II = 50

Draft

75 − 25
= 25
2

σ I = 75 = σ N max

σN

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

3 STRESS

291

d) The Haigh-Westergaard space is formed by principal stress directions, then the traction
r
ˆ
vector in this space is given by t (n) = σ ⋅ n , whose normal vector to the octahedral plane is
 1
ˆ
given by n i = 

1 
:
3

1

 3

3

r
ˆ
t (n ) = σ ⋅ n

(
t 1n) 
 (n) 
t 2  =
t ( n ) 
 3 

components

   →

75 0 0 
1
75
 0 50 0  1 1 = 1 50

 3
3 
 0 0 25
1
25



 

and its module is given by:
r
t (n)

(

)

1
8750

75 2 + 50 2 + 25 2 =
3
3
r
ˆ
The normal octahedral stress is given by σ oct = t (n) ⋅ n :
2

=

σ oct

r
t (n) = 54.00617

1
[75 50 25] 1 = 50
=

3 3
1

1

We could have applied directly the definition of octahedral normal stress:
σ oct =


75 + 50 + 25
= σm =
= 50
3
3

The tangential octahedral stress can be obtained by means of the Pythagorean theorem:
τ oct =

r
t (n )

2

− σ oct

2

=

8750
− 50 2 = 20.4124
3

We could also have applied the definition:
τ oct =

1
1
2
2 I σ − 6 II σ =
2 × 150 2 − 6 × 6875 = 20.41241
3
3

where I σ = 150 , II σ = 75 × 50 + 75 × 25 + 50 × 25 = 6875 .
e) The spherical part:
sph
σ ij

50 0 0 
Tr (σ )
=
δ ij = σ m δ ij =  0 50 0 


3
 0 0 50

sph
σ ij

57 0 24 50 0 0   7 0 24 
=  0 50 0  −  0 50 0  =  0 0 0 

 
 

 24 0 43  0 0 50  24 0 − 7 

 
 

and the deviatoric part:
dev
σ ij

= σ ij −

f) Considering that the tensor and its deviatoric part are coaxial tensors, we can use the
principal space to obtain the deviatoric part:
σ′ dev
ij

= σ′ −
ij

σ′ sph
ij

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0 
75 0 0  50 0 0   25 0
 0 50 0  −  0 50 0  =  0 0
=
0 

 
 
 0 0 25  0 0 50  0 0 − 25

 
 

Draft

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

292

3.1.6

Stress state in two dimension (2D)

Problem 3.27
Consider the following stress state:
5

4
2
y

6
x

Figure 3.20:
Obtain the state of plane stress at the point σ ij .
Solution:
In the state of plane stress σ ij (i, j = 1,2) we need two planes to define the stress state at the
point:
σ x
σ ij = 
 τ xy

τ xy 
σy 

(3.57)

According to Figure 3.20 we verify that:
5

σx = 4
τ xy = 2

τ xy = 2
y

σy = 6
x

Figure 3.21:
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3 STRESS 293 Then:  4 2 σ ij =   2 6 (3. Obtain the value of the shear stress τ on the plane a − a and the principal stresses at this point. σy σx 45º − 45º σx ˆ n y σy x Figure 3.28 Consider a composite material.99) in Problem 1.8 × 10 6 Pa (compression) (see equation (1.8 × 10 6 Pa .23. and the tangential components can directly be obtained by means of: τ ′xy ≡ τ ( θ ) = − τ ′xy ≡ τ ( θ = −45 º ) σx − σy sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 2. For the normal stress σ x = 2. which is made up of matrix and fiber along direction of 45 º such as shows in Figure 3.22: Composite material (fiber-matrix).58) Problem 3. obtain the maximum value of σ y for which the material does not break.8 × 10 6 Pa ( N / m 2 ) .8 × 10 6 Pa 2 ⇒ σ y ≈ −4.22.29 The stress acting on two planes passing through the point P are shown in Figure 3.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.8 × 10 6 − σ y =− sin( −90 º ) = 3. Problem 3. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . This composite material can break if the shear stress along the fiber exceeds the value 3. Solution: We need to obtain the traction vector on the plane defined by θ = −45º . V.98).

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.24.: σ x = 60 cos( 30 º ) = 51 . y a y b b a σy σy τ xy 80 Pa 45º τ xy τ xy σx τ 80 Pa σx x 60 º 45º τ xy σx τ x 60 º τ xy 60 Pa 60 Pa b b a a) a b) Figure 3.24. σ y .24: Stress state at a point. i. according to the planes a and b . V.962 Pa τ xy = 60 cos( 60 º ) = 30 Pa To obtain σ y we employ the equations: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . as indicated in Figure 3. (see Figure 3.24(b)). we can directly obtain σ x and τ xy by means of the projection of the traction vector 60 Pa .e. τ xy . Considering Figure 3.23: Stress state at one point. according to the planes a and b .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 294 y b a τ 80 Pa 45 º x 60 º 60 Pa a b Figure 3. Chaves (2013) . we need to determine σ x . Solution: To obtain the stress state at a point in the two dimensional case.

962 − σ 30 =0 30 48.962 − 48. σ y .038  = ±   2 2   2 σ = 80.9 Pa or by means of the characteristic determinant: σx − σ τ xy =0 τ xy σy − σ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . such as indicated in the equations: σ (1.962 + σ y 2 51 .962 + 48 .3 STRESS σ′x ≡ σ ( θ) ≡ σ N = τ′xy ≡ σ S ≡ τ ( θ) = σx + σ y 2 σx − σ y + 295 σx − σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ sin 2θ − τ xy cos 2θ 2 By substituting the numerical values in the above equations we obtain: σ ( θ = 45 º ) = τ ( θ = 45 º ) = 51.038 Pa Once σ y is determined.96 Pa The principal stresses can be obtained by means of the components σ x . τ xy .962 − σ y 2 + 51 .962 − σ y 2 cos( 90 º ) + 30 sin( 90 º ) = 80 Pa sin( 90 º ) − 30 cos( 90 º ) The first equation give us the value of σ y : σ y = 48.1Pa + 30 2 ⇒  1 σ 2 = 19. we can obtain the component τ (θ= 45º) : τ ( θ= 45 º ) = 1. 2 ) σx + σy 2  σx − σy ±   2      2 + τ2 xy 51. Chaves (2013) .Spain ⇒ Draft 51.038 − σ By: Eduardo W.038  51. V. 2 ) = σ (1.

Chaves (2013) . τ xy ).26).5311P  σ 2 = −2. (see Figure 3. τ′xy in function of the angle.25: Stress state at one point. stresses ( θ − σ x . y σ y = 2 Pa τ xy = −4 Pa τ xy = −4 Pa σx σ x = 1Pa P x τ xy σy Figure 3.5311Pa Considering the transformation law. σ′y . τ xy = −4 Pa and σ y = 2 Pa . V. then the tangent stress is zero ( τ xy = 0 ) and the principal stresses are σ I = 5. We can observe that when θ = 41 . σ ′y . Making θ vary from 0 to 360 º we can represent the stresses σ ′x . 2 = σx + σy 2  σx − σy ±   2      2 + τ2 xy ⇒ σ1 = 5. where θ is the rotation angle of the coordinate system (see Figure 3.5311Pa .437 º ) 1− 2 and the principal stresses: σ1. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .437 º we have a principal direction. τ′xy for different values of θ .5311Pa and σ II = −2.25). σ y . Solution: We calculate the values σ ′x .30 Given a stress state σ x = 1Pa .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 296 Problem 3. σ ′y .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Draw a graph of angle vs. τ′xy by using the equations: σ ′x = σx + σy τ′xy = − σ ′y = + 2 σx − σy 2 σx + σy 2 + σx − σy 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ σy − σx 2 cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ We can calculate the angle corresponding to the principal direction by means of the equation: tan 2θ = 2τ xy σx − σy = 2 × ( −4 ) = 8 ⇒ (θ = 41. we can obtain the values of σ ′x .

j = 1. V.5311 6 4 σy 2 τ ′xy σx 0 0 50 100 -2 45º τ xy -4 150 200 250 350 θ σ′x x′ σ 2 = −2. j = 1.2) in the Cartesian system x1 − x 2 − x 3 . ∫ m22 = σ 22 x 3 dx3 −t 2 ′ ′ ′ Obtain the component transformation law of mij (i.437 º σ2 x′ θ = 131.31 a) Consider the stress field σ ij (i .437º -6 τ max = 4. ∫ m12 = σ12 x 3 dx3 −t 2 t 2 .26: Stress components in function of the angle θ . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .0311 Figure 3. Chaves (2013) . and the following equations: t 2 ∫ m11 = σ11 x3 dx3 −t 2 t 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3 STRESS 297 x′ σ1 θ = 41.27). Problem 3.2) to a new system x1 − x 2 − x 3 ′ which is formed by a rotation around the x3 -axis (see Figure 3.437 º σ2 Stresses 8 σ′y σ1 = 5.5311 300 θ = 86.

V.98). The transformation ′ ′ ′ matrix from x1 − x 2 − x 3 to x1 − x 2 − x 3 is given as follows:  cos θ sin θ 0 a ij =  − sin θ cos θ 0    0 0 1    cos θ sin θ  A=   − sin θ cos θ 2D → By using the Voigt notation. Chaves (2013) . where University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we can conclude that m12 = m 21 . (see Problem 1.59) where [M] is the transformation matrix for a second-order tensor when it is in the Voigt notation.27. Solution: Due to the symmetry of σ ij = σ ji .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 298 ′ x3 = x3 ′ x2 x3 = t 2 x2 θ x3 = −t 2 ′ x1 x1 Figure 3. and is given by:  a11 2  [M] =  a 21 2 a a  21 11 a12 2 a 22 2 a 22 a12   cos 2 θ   2 2a 21 a 22  =  sin θ a11 a 22 + a12 a 21  − sin θ cos θ   2a11 a12 sin 2 θ cos θ 2 cos θ sin θ 2 cos θ sin θ   − 2 sin θ cos θ  cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ   Also considering that [M]−1 = [N ]T . we obtain {m} = [N ]T {m ′}. we get: t 2 ′  m11   ′  {m ′} = m22  =  m′   12  ∫ t 2 ′  σ11    ′ ′ σ′22  x3 dx3 =  σ′   12  −t 2 ∫ t 2 ′  σ11    σ′22  x3 dx3 =  σ′   12  −t 2 t 2 ∫  σ11  [M]σ 22  x3dx3 = [M]   σ   12  −t 2 ∫  σ11    σ 22  x3 dx3 σ   12  −t 2 with that. we can conclude that: ′  m11   m11    {m ′} = m ′22  = [M]m 22  = [M]{m}    m′  m   12   12  (3.

59) could have been obtained by consider mij as a second-order tensor in two dimensional case (2D). Draft m ′ = Am A T m12  cos θ − sin θ m 22   sin θ cos θ    (3. and by means of the transformation law of a second-order tensor we obtain: ′ mij = a ik a jl m kl  m′ ⇒  11 ′ m12 (i.2) or ′ m12   cos θ sin θ   m11 = m ′   − sin θ cos θ m12 22    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3 STRESS  a11 2 [N ] =  a 212   2a a  21 11 a12 2 a 22 2 2a 22 a12 299   cos 2 θ   2 a 21 a 22  =  sin θ a11 a 22 + a12 a 21  − 2 sin θ cos θ   a11 a12 sin 2 θ cos θ 2 2 cos θ sin θ   − sin θ cos θ  cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ   cos θ sin θ The same result (3.60) By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013) . j = 1.Spain .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V.300 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .

V0 is the volume in the reference configuration. t ) r D ρ PijL ( x . J is the Jacobian determinant and Φ is a scalar field that describes the physical quantity of a particle per unit volume at time t . Solution: D DJ   DΦ Φ JdV0 =  J +Φ dV 0 Dt V Dt Dt  V0  0 ∫ ∫ r  DΦ r = J + JΦ ∇ x ⋅ v dV 0 Dt  V0  ∫ (4.4 The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics 4. t ) dV = ρ dV Dt V Dt V ∫ ∫ (4.1 Solved Problems Problem 4.2 Show that r DPijL ( x .3) .2) r  DΦ r =  + Φ ∇ x ⋅ v  dV Dt  V  ∫ Problem 4.1) 0 where V is the volume in the current configuration.1 Prove that Reynolds’ transport theorem is valid in the following equation: D D Φ dV = Φ JdV 0 Dt V Dt V ∫ ∫ (4.

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 302 r where PijL ( x . t ) + Φ ( x . t )dV =  Φ ( x . a vector or higher order tensor. Solution: It was proven in the textbook.3 Prove that the following relationship is valid: r ρa= r r r ∂ r (ρ v ) + ∇ x ⋅ ( ρ v ⊗ v ) ∂t (4. we can conclude that:  DP  D ρ PijK dV = ρ ijK  dV Dt V Dt  V    ∫ ∫ Problem 4. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. by applying the divergence theorem to the surface integral we obtain: ∫ρ a i V dV = ∫ V ∂ (ρ v i )  ∂ (ρ v i )  + (ρ v i v k ) .k dV =  ∂t ∂t  V V  ∫ ∫ which in tensorial notation is: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .4) Solution: Based on the Reynolds’ transport theorem: r ˆ D ∂Φ Φ dV = dV + Φ (v ⋅ n) dS Dt V ∂t V S r and if we consider that Φ = ρ v we obtain: ∫ ∫ ∫ r r r ˆ r ∂ (ρ v ) D ρ v dV = dV + ρ v ⊗ (v ⋅ n) dS Dt V ∂t V S ∫ ∫ ∫ Then. (see Chaves (2013)). Chaves (2013) . which can be a scalar.k  dV dV + (ρ vi v k ) . the above equation in indicial notation becomes: ∂ (ρ v i ) ∂ (ρ v i ) D D ˆ ˆ ρ vi dV = dV + ρ v i (v k n k ) dS ⇒ ρ v i dV = dV + (ρ v i v k )n k dS Dt V ∂t Dt 3 ∂t 1 2 V S V V S ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ = ai Additionally. and by considering it in the above equation we obtain: D D ρ PijK dV =  (ρ PijK ) + ρ PijK Dt V  Dt V   D =  ρ PijK + PijK Dt V  ∫ ∂v p   D ∂v  Dρ + ρ PijK k dV PijK + PijK  dV = ρ ∂x p  ∂x k  Dt Dt  V  ∫ ∫  Dρ ∂v k   Dt + ρ ∂x k  14243 ∫       dV  =0 mass continuity equation Thus. t ) is a continuum property per unit mass. that: D r r r ∂v p  D Φ ( x . t ) dV Dt V ∂x p   Dt  V  ∫ ∫ Then by making Φ = ρ PijL .

i. in which ρ ( x . we find that: ∂v i δ 1 ∂x i 3 = = ii = ∂x i 1 + t ∂x i 1 + t 1 + t Thus.e. thus ln ρ 0 = −3 ln(1 + 0) + C ⇒ C = lnρ 0  1 ln ρ = −3 ln(1 + t ) + ln ρ 0 = ln  (1 + t ) 3   ρ0   + ln ρ 0 = ln  (1 + t ) 3        Thus. Solution: 1) By applying the mass continuity equation we obtain: Dρ +ρ Dt ∂v k =0 ∂x k Dρ ⇒ ≡ Dt ∂v dρ = −ρ k dt ∂x k and by using the given velocity field.Spain Draft ⇒ K i = lnX i By: Eduardo W. t = 0) = ρ 0 . by integrating the both sides of the above equation we obtain: ∫ dx i dt = xi 1+ t ∫ ⇒ lnx i = ln(1 + t ) + K i (4.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS r r r r   ∂ (ρ v ) r + ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ⊗ v )  dV ρ a dV =  ∂t  V V  ∫ ∫ 303 r r ∂ (ρ v ) r r r ρa= + ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ⊗ v ) ∂t ⇒ Problem 4. 2) Prove that this motion satisfies ρ x1 x 2 x3 = ρ 0 X 1 X 2 X 3 . V. we obtain: lnX i = ln(1 + 0) + K i University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . dρ 3ρ =− dt 1+ t dρ ⇒ ρ =− 3dt 1+ t Then by integrating the both sides of the above equation we obtain: ∫ dρ ∫ = − ρ 3dt 1+ t ln ρ = −3 ln(1 + t ) + C ⇒ The constant of integration C is obtained by means of the above equation if we refer to r the initial condition t = 0 .5) Then by applying the initial condition. we can conclude that: ρ= ρ0 (1 + t )3 2) Then by using the velocity definition we obtain: vi = dx i x = i dt 1 + t ⇒ dx i dt = xi 1 + t Additionally. at time t = 0 ⇒ xi = X i .4 Let us consider the following velocity field: vi = xi 1+ t for t ≥ 0 1) Find the mass density field. Chaves (2013) .

we obtain ρ = ρ0 J = ∂x1 ∂X 2 ∂x 2 ∂X 2 ∂x 3 ∂X 2 ∂x1 ∂X 3 1 ∂x 2 = 0 ∂X 3 − αt ∂x 3 ∂X 3 0 1 − αt αt αt = 1 + 2(αt ) 2 1 ρ0 1 + 2(αt ) 2 Problem 4.6 Given the velocity field: v1 = ax1 − bx 2 . Chaves (2013) . b and c are constants.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 304 Additionally.5) we obtain: lnx i = ln(1 + t ) + ln X i ⇒ ln( x i ) = ln[ X i (1 + t ) ] Hence we can conclude that x i = X i (1 + t ) . which gives us x1 = X 1 (1 + t ) . ρ0 . by:  x1 = X 1 + αtX 3   x 2 = X 2 + αtX 3  x = X − αt ( X + X ) 3 1 2  3 where α is a constant scalar. Solution: We can apply the equation ρ 0 = Jρ . in Lagrangian description. where a .e. ρ = ρ (ρ 0 ) . v 2 = bx1 − ax 2 . we obtain: x 3 = X 3 (1 + t ) . Find the mass density in the current configuration (ρ ) in terms of the mass density of the reference configuration (ρ 0 ) . V. and if we consider that ρ = 3 (1 + t ) ρ (12t )(12t )(12t ) = ρ 0 1+3 1+3 1+3 x1 X1 x2 X2 ⇒ ρ x1 x 2 x 3 = ρ 0 X 1 X 2 X 3 x3 X3 Problem 4. i. by substituting the value of K i into the equation (4. b) Is the motion isochoric? Solution: The mass continuity equation: r Dρ r + ρ (∇ x ⋅ v ) = 0 Dt where: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .5 The equations of motion of a body are given.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. x 2 = X 2 (1 + t ) . where J is the Jacobian determinant and is given by: ∂x1 ∂X 1 ∂x 2 = ∂X 1 ∂x 3 ∂X 1 ∂x i J= F = ∂X j Thus. 2 v3 = c x12 + x 2 a) Check if the mass continuity equation is fulfilled.

t ) : Dt r r r r D D r φ( x. t ) + φ ( x. t )dV =  φ( x. Obtain the rate of change of the property that is described by a control volume in conjunction with a control surface. t )∇ x ⋅ v  dV  Dt  Dt V  V  r r r r ∂φ( x . t ) (dV ) (φ dV ) = dV  Dt V Dt Dt Dt  V V  ∫ ∫ ∫ r r r D  r φ( x. t )∇ x ⋅ v  dV ∂x ∂t  V  r r r r   ∂φ( x . t ) + φ( x . V.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 305 r r ∇ x ⋅ v = vi .7) ∫ r  r ∂ r =  φ ( x . t ) + φ( x.6) r r r D r =  φ( x . t ) D ˆ φ( x. t ) r r ∂ r =  φ( x. t )∇ x ⋅ v dV  = dV  Dt  V  ∫ (4. t ) + φ( x. t )  dV + [∇ x ⋅ (φv ) ]dV ∂t  V  V ∫ ∫ We can apply the divergence theorem to the second integral on the right side of the equation to obtain: flux of φ through suface S 64 744 4 8 r r r ∂φ( x . t ) + r ⋅ v ( x .3 =a−a+0=0 r r The motion is isochoric (incompressible medium). 2 + v3.1 + v 2.i = v1.7 r Consider a continuous medium and one property φ ( x . t )dV = φ( x. t )∇ x ⋅ v  dV Dt  V  ∫ We apply the definition of the material time derivative to r D φ( x . i. By means of the material time derivative we can obtain the rate of change of a property when this property is in Eulerian description. unit of the property per unit volume.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) + φ( x . Chaves (2013) . Solution: Remember that the rate of change of a property is always associated with the same particles. t )  dV +  r ⋅ v + φ( x . t )dV = dV + (φv ) ⋅ n dS { Dt V 1 24 4∂t 3 V S flux of φ ∫ ∫ ∫ (4. the total rate of change of r φ ( x .e.8) local University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . t )∇ x ⋅ v  dV ∂t ∂x   V  V  ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ (4. Then. since ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 Problem 4. t ) r ∂ r =  φ ( x . t ) in the volume V that is bounded by the surface S is given by: r r r D D D D  φ ( x. t ) assigned by density.

The term (φv ) represents the flux of the property φ . t )∇ x ⋅ v  dV = 0  Dt  Dt V  V  ∫ ∫ (4. t ) the term is local.7) becomes the mass continuity equation. And. When there is no source or sink of the property is true that r D φ( x.9) r r  ∂ r =  ρ ( x . t )∇ x ⋅ v = 0 Mass continuity equation Dt (4. Chaves (2013) . t ) + ρ ( x.11) r (φv ) ˆ n r ∂φ( x . t ) + ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ) = 0 ∂t control volume S V (4. t ) + ρ ( x. note Dt V ∫ also that when the property is the mass density ( φ = ρ ) the equation (4. t )dV =  ρ ( x.1: Control volume and control surface. t ) + ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v )  dV = 0 ∂t  V  ∫ If the above equation is valid for the entire volume then it is valid locally.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 306 r ∂φ( x . t ) ∂t r x Mass continuity equation r r ˆ ˆ q n = [(φv ) ⋅ n] n control surface Figure 4. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .10) or r r ∂ r ρ ( x . since the variable (φv ) is in Eulerian r description. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. r r r r D D r ρ ( x. the volume integral of the right side of the equation is a control ∂t r volume and the integral surface is a control surface. t )dV = 0 . so r r r D r ρ ( x.

4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS material volume 307 control surface control volume t=0 v0 XP X* control surface control volume material volume t1 r v( x * . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . control volume. t 2 ) xP x* Figure 4.2: Material volume vs. V. t1 ) xP x* material volume control surface control volume t2 r v( x * .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

1. Solution: To obtain the equilibrium equations we apply the force equilibrium condition in the volume element.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3: The stress field in the differential volume element.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 308 4. we evaluate the equilibrium force according to the x -direction: ∑F x =0 ∂τ xy   ∂σ x  dx  dydz − σ x dydz +  τ xy + dy dxdz   ∂x ∂y     ∂τ   − τ xy dxdz +  τ xz + xz dz  dxdy − τ xz dxdy = 0 ∂z    ρ b x dxdydz +  σ x + University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Equilibrium Equations Problem 4. For this purpose consider that the Cauchy stress tensor field in the differential volume element varies as indicated in Figure 4. z Rear face σz + Rear face τ xy ∂σ z dz ∂z σ yz + τ xz + ∂τ xz dz ∂z τ xy σy bx τ xy + ∂σ σ x + x dx ∂x ∂z ∂τ yz ∂y ∂x dz dy σy + τ xy + ∂τ xy τ xz dz by ∂τ xz dx ∂x τ yz ∂σ yz τ yz + bz τ xz + σx ∂τ xy ∂y ∂σ y ∂y dy dy y dx dx τ xz τ yz x Rear face σz dy Figure 4. V.8 Find the equilibrium equations in engineering notation by means of the differential volume element equilibrium ( dxdydz ).3. First. Chaves (2013) .1 Equations of Motion.

the equilibrium equations in engineering notation become:  ∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz + + + ρb x = 0  ∂y ∂z  ∂x  ∂τ xy ∂σ y ∂τ yz  + + + ρb y = 0  ∂y ∂x z  ∂x  ∂τ ∂τ ∂σ z  xz + yz + + ρb z = 0  ∂x ∂y ∂z  Problem 4. find the body forces acting on the continuum. is given by: ∂τ ∂σ z    dz  dxdy − σ z dxdy +  τ xz + xz dx  dzdy ∂x ∂z     ∂τ yz   − τ xz dzdy +  τ yz + dy  dxdz − τ yz dxdz = 0   ∂y    ρ b z dxdydz +  σ z + Additionally. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.9 Let σ be the Cauchy stress tensor field. ∑ Fy = 0 . the equilibrium according to the z -direction. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . by simplifying the above equation we obtain: ρb z + ∂τ xz ∂τ yz ∂σ z + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z Then. =0 ∑ Fz = 0 . σ12 = σ 21 = 2 x1 x 2 . 2 σ 33 = x12 + x 2 σ 23 = σ 32 = σ 31 = σ13 = 0 Considering that the body is in equilibrium. can be expressed as follows ∂τ yz    dy dxdz − σ y dxdz +  τ yz + dz dxdy    ∂z ∂y     ∂τ xy   − τ yz dxdy +  τ xy + dx  dydz − τ xy dydz = 0   ∂x    ρ b y dxdydz +  σ 22 +  ∂σ y Then by simplifying the above equation we obtain: ρb y + ∂τ xy ∂x + ∂σ y ∂y + ∂τ yz ∂x z Finally. V. which is represented by its components in the Cartesian basis as: σ11 = x12 . 2 σ 22 = x 2 .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 309 Then by simplifying the above equation we obtain: ρ b x dxdydz + ∂τ xy ∂σ x ∂τ dxdydz + dxdydz + xz dxdydz = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ρb x + ∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z The equilibrium force according to the y -direction.

 x3 ∂v i  = 0 ∂x j  0  0 2x2 t x3t x1  0   x2t   Then University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . v3 = x 2 x 3t .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 310 Solution: r r r By applying the equilibrium equations. j + ρ b i = 0 i ⇒  ∂σ 11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + ρ b1 = 0 +  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23  + + ρb2 = 0 +  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 + + + ρ b3 = 0   ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ⇒ 2 x1 + 2 x1 + ρ b 1 = 0  2 x 2 + 2 x 2 + ρ b 2 = 0 ρ b = 0  3 Thus. and the Cauchy stress tensor field:  x 2 x1 σ ij = α − x 2 x3   0  − x 2 x3 2 x2 − x2 0  − x2   2 x3   where α is a constant. V. t ) ∂v ( x .10 Given the velocity field: v1 = x1 x3 2 v2 = x2 t . Obtain the body force (per unit volume) to guarantee the principle of conservation of the linear momentum. we obtain: σ ij . to satisfy the equilibrium equations the following condition must be met: 4 x1 = − ρ b 1 ⇒ ρ b 1 = −4 x1 4 x 2 = − ρ b 2 ⇒ ρ b 2 = −4 x 2 ⇒ ρ b3 = 0 r ˆ ˆ ρ b = −4( x1 e 1 + x 2 e 2 ) Problem 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) ∂t ∂x . ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρ b = 0 . Solution: From the principle of conservation of linear momentum we obtain the equations of motion: r r r & r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv = ρa r r r ⇒ ρb = ρa − ∇ x ⋅ σ The acceleration field: r r r r r ∂v ( x . t ) r r a= + r ⋅ v ( x. Chaves (2013) . ai = ∂v i ∂v i + vj ∂t ∂x j where  0  ∂v i  2  = x2  ∂t   x 2 x3    .

13) σ ij .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS ai = 311 ∂v i ∂v i + vj ∂t ∂x j  0   x3 2 =  x2  +  0     x 2 x3   0    0 2 x2t x3t 2 x1   x1 x 3   0   x1 x 3 + x1 x 2 x 3 t    2 2 3 0   x2 t  =  x2  +  2x2t      2 2 x 2 t   x 2 x3t   x2 x3   x3 x 2 t 2 + x 2 x3t 2        2   x1 x 3 + x1 x 2 x 3 t   2 3 x2 + 2x2t =  x x + x x 2t 2 + x 2 x t 2  3 2 2 3  2 3  The divergence of the Cauchy stress tensor is given by:  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ 13 + + = α ( x 2 − x3 )  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1   ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23 + = α(2 x2 ) +  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 = α ( 2 x 3 − 1) + +   ∂x1 ∂x 3 ∂x 2  with that the body force (per unit volume) becomes: r r r ρb = ρa − ∇ x ⋅ σ ρ b i = ρ a i − σ ij . j = 0 i (4. a) Neglecting body forces.12) where xi are the Cartesian coordinates. is the body in balance? Solution: The equilibrium equations: r r r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = 0 { (4. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. j 2   x1 x 3 + x1 x 2 x 3 t  x 2 − x3      2 3 x2 + 2 x2 t ρ bi = ρ   − α  2 x2  2 2  x2 x3 + x3 x 2 t 2 + x 2 x3t 2   2 x3 − 1      Problem 4. Chaves (2013) .14) r =0 expanding.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.11 The stress field in the medium is represented by:  1 σ ij =  0  2 x2  0 1 4 x1 2 x2  4 x1   1   (4.

σ 31 = x12 Obtain the body force vector (per unit volume) at the point ( x1 = 2. Chaves (2013) .3 = 0  σ 21. 2 + σ 23.1 + σ i 2.1 + σ 22.12 Given a body in equilibrium in which the Cauchy stress tensor field is represented by its components: 3 2 σ11 = 6 x1 + x 2 2 . σ 32.20) At the point x1 = 2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 312 σ i1. 2 σ 31.17) Problem 4. V.3 = =0 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂x3 σ11.19) ρ b1 = −18 x12 − 0 − 0  ρ b 2 = −0 − 0 − 0 ρ b = −2 x − 1 − 18 x 2 1 2  3 ⇒   − 18 x12   0 ρ bi =    − 2 x − 1 − 18 x 2  1 2  (4. x3 = 2 we obtain:  − 72 ρbi =  0    − 77   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x 2 = 4. σ 23. 2 = = 0. 2 + σ13. σ13.3 = 0  σ 31. x3 = 2 ).3 = 23 = 0 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 = = 0. σ 33.Spain (Force per unit volume) Draft (4.21) By: Eduardo W.1 + σ 32.18)  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ + + + ρ b1 = 0 ⇒ ρ b1 = − 11 − 12 − 13  ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23 + + + ρ b 2 = 0 ⇒ ρ b 2 = − 21 − 22 − 23  ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33  ∂x + ∂x + ∂x + ρ b 3 = 0 ⇒ ρ b 3 = − ∂x − ∂x − ∂x 2 3 1 2 3  1 (4.3 = 13 = 0 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂σ ∂σ ∂σ = 21 = 0.15) σ11. Solution: The equilibrium equations: r r r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = 0 (4. 2 + σ i 3.1 = σ 21.16) where we have used: ∂σ ∂σ11 ∂σ = 0. 2 = 22 = 0. x 2 = 4. 2 + σ 33.3 = 0 i (4. σ12 = x 3 3 σ 22 = 12 x1 + 60 3 3 σ 33 = 18 x 2 + 6 x3 . 2 = 12 = 0.3 (4.1 + σ12. σ 22.3 = 0 (4. σ12. σ 23 = x 2 .

Solution:  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + + ρ b1 = 0 ⇒ ρ b1 = −2 x1 x 2 k + 2 x1 x 2 k = 0  ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1 k  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23 2 2 + + + ρ b 2 = 0 ⇒ ρ b 2 = −k (a 2 − x 2 ) − (3 x 2 − 3a 2 ) = 0  3 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33  ∂x + ∂x + ∂x + ρ b 3 = 0 ⇒ ρ b 3 = −4kax3 2 3  1 (4.27) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .26)  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + + ρ b1 = 0  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23 + + + ρb2 = 0  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33  ∂x + ∂x + ∂x + ρ b 3 = 0 2 3  1 (4. Solution: The equilibrium equations: r r r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = 0 (4. Consider that α is a constant and that the mass density field is homogeneous.e. it is independent of the vector position.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.13 The Cauchy stress tensor field is represented by its components as follows:  x12 x 2  2 σ ij = k (a 2 − x 2 ) x1   0  0   1 3 ( x 2 − 3a 2 x 2 ) 0  3  2 0 2ax3   2 (a 2 − x 2 ) x1 (4. where g is a constant and consider the Cauchy stress tensor field components:  x2 σ ij = α  − x3   0  − x3 0 − x2 0  − x2   p   (4.25) Find p such that satisfies the equilibrium equations.14 (Force per unit mass) (4.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 313 Problem 4. V. i. Chaves (2013) . r Obtain the body force field b (per unit mass) required for the stress field is in balance.23) Then: 0 4kax3   0 bi = ρ    − 1   Problem 4.22) where k and a are constants.24) r ˆ Let us assume that the body force is b = − ge 3 .

3 = −2 x 2 ν + 2νx 2 = 0  σ 13.29) ρg  ρg    p = 1 + x ∂x 3 ⇒ p = 1 + α α 3   ∫ Verification: ρg   − α + α 1 +  − ρ g = −α + α + ρ g − ρ g = 0 α  (4. 2 + σ 23. j = 1.3 = 0 with that we prove that the body is in balance.3 = 0  i = 2 σ 21.1 + σ 12 .28) ρg ∂p =1 + α ∂x3 ρg   ⇒ dp = 1 +  dx α 3  (4. 2 + σ 33.3 = 2 x1ν − 2νx1 = 0  ⇒ σ 12 . 2 + σ 33. V. 2 + σ i 3.30) Problem 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1 + σ 23.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 314  0 + 0 + 0 + ρ b = 0 ⇒ b = 0 1 1   0 + 0 + 0 + ρ b 2 = 0 ⇒ b 2 = 0  ∂σ 0 − α + 33 + ρ b 3 = 0  ∂x3  ∂σ 33 ∂(αp ) ∂p = α − ρ b3 =α = ∂x 3 ∂x3 ∂x3 ⇒ (4. j + ρ b i = 0 i { =0i σ ij . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1 + σ i 2.2.3) σ i1.3 = 0 i i = 1 σ 11.1 + σ 22 .1 + σ 32 . 3 = 0 i = 3 σ 31.15 Show that for the following Cauchy stress field: 2 2 σ11 = x 2 + ν ( x12 − x 2 ) .3 = 0   ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + =0 +  ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂x1   ∂σ ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23  + =0 ⇒  21 + ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 =0 + +   ∂x1 ∂x 3 ∂x 2  thus: σ 11. Chaves (2013) . j = 0 i (i . 2 + σ 23. Solution: The equilibrium equations: σ ij .1 + σ 12 . 2 + σ 13. σ 33 = ν ( x1 + x 2 ) σ 23 = σ13 = 0 satisfies the equilibrium equations with zero body forces.1 + σ 22 . 2 + σ 31. σ12 = −2νx1 x 2 . 2 2 2 2 2 σ 22 = x1 + ν ( x 2 − x1 ) .

31) ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ij ( x1 = 1. j + ρ b i = 0 i { =0i σ ij . j = 0 i (i .1 + σ i 2. 2 + σ i 3. V. knowing that σ12 is a function of x1 and x 2 . Solution: As the body is in equilibrium.16 Consider a body in equilibrium in which the Cauchy stress field is:  x1 + x 2 r  σ ij ( x ) =  σ12  0  σ12 x1 − 2 x 2 0 0 0  x2   Find σ12 . Chaves (2013) .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 315 Problem 4. x 2 ) 0  1  1 + x2  1 + x 2    0 = σ ( x = 1.Spain Draft ⇒ C ( x2 ) = 3 − x2 By: Eduardo W. x ) ⇒  12 1 1 − 2 x2 0     12 1 2 2  2    0   x 2  0  0 0 0        By means of the equilibrium equations: ∂σ12 =2 ∂x1 ⇒ ∫ ∂σ 12 ∫ = 2∂x1 ⇒ σ12 ( x1 . It is also known that the medium is free of body forces and the traction vector associated with the r ˆ ˆ ˆ plane x1 = 1 is given by t (n) = (1 + x 2 )e1 + (5 − x 2 )e 2 . t (n) = (1 + x 2 )e1 + (5 − x 2 )e 2 holds. σ12 = σ12 ( x1 . x 2 ) . we have: σ12 1 + x 2  σ σ ij ( x1 = 1. x 2 ) = 5 − x 2 = 2 + C ( x 2 ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x ) = 5 − x  σ ( x = 1. i.3) σ i1. x 2 ) = 2 x1 + C ( x 2 ) Using the information given in (4. x 2 ) n j 1 + x2 σ12 ( x1 = 1.2.31) we can obtain the constant of integration: σ12 ( x1 = 1. j = 1. x 2 ) =  12 1 − 2 x 2  0 0  t ˆ (n) σ12 1 + x 2  σ ˆ = σ ij ( x1 = 1. x 2 )n j =  12 1 − 2 x 2  0 0  0 0  x2   0  1 1 + x 2  0  0 = 5 − x 2      x 2  0   0      (4. it must satisfy the equilibrium equations: σ ij .3 = 0 i thus  ∂σ11 ∂σ 12 ∂σ13 ∂σ + = 1 + 12 + 0 = 0 +  ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂x 2  ∂x1  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23 ∂σ 12  −2+0=0 + = + ⇒ ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 =0+0+0=0 + +   ∂x1 ∂x 3 ∂x 2  r ˆ ˆ ˆ Now considering that for the plane x1 = 1 .e.

Solution: a) The continuous medium is in equilibrium if the following equation holds: r r ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = 0 . a ( x .34) σ ij. t ) is the acceleration. t ) is the prescribed traction vector (surface force) on surface S σ . V. thus: σ ij. Solution: The principle of conservation of angular momentum states that: ∫ Sσ r r r r r r r r D ( x ∧ t * )dS + ( x ∧ ρ b)dV = ( x ∧ ρ v )dV = ( x ∧ ρ a )dV Dt V V V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .32) (4. Consider that the body is free of body force. x 2 ) = 2 x1 − x 2 + 3 Problem 4.is the vector position.17 The stress state in an continuous medium is given by the Cauchy stress tensor Cartesian components:  0 σ ij = Cx 3   0  Cx 3 0 − Cx1 0  − Cx1   0   where C is a constant.j + ρ b i = 0 i (the equilibrium equations)  0 σ ij = Cx 3   0  Cx 3 0 − Cx1 0  − Cx1   0   (4. t ) is r r the body force (per unit mass). σ ij. Chaves (2013) .33) For the proposed problem we have ρb i = 0 i .18 Considering the principle of conservation of angular momentum.j = 0 i then the body is in equilibrium. ρ ( x . show that: ∫ ρ [( x ⊗ (a − b) − (a − b) ⊗ x ] dV = ∫ [( x ⊗ t r r r r r r r V r* ] r r − t * ⊗ x dS Sσ where r r r r r r x . t ) is the mass density. b( x . t * ( x . Problem 4. a) Show whether the body is in balance.Spain ∫ ∫ Draft ∫ By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 316 thus: σ12 ( x1 .j i = 1 ⇒ 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 ∂σ i1 ∂σ i 2 ∂σ i 3  = = + + ⇒ i = 2 ⇒ 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 ∂x j ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 i = 3 ⇒ 0 + 0 + 0 = 0  ∂σ ij (4.

Spain (V (1) −1 ( p (1)V (1) − p ( 2)V ( 2 ) )1 ( 2) −V ) Draft By: Eduardo W. show that: σ= 1 2V ∫ ρ [x ⊗ b + b ⊗ x ] dV + 2V ∫ ( x ⊗ t r r r r V 1 r r* r r + t * ⊗ x ) dS Sσ 2) Considering that the volume can be decomposed by V = V (1) − V ( 2) .19 1) Considering the definition of the mean stress tensor ( σ ): ∫ V σ = σ dV V and based on the principle that the continuum is in static equilibrium. Considering the continuum is free of body forces. Then.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 317 r Then. and we obtain: r r r r z ∧ ( x ∧ ρ a )dV = z ∧ ∫ ∫ V r r r r r ( x ∧ t * )dS + z ∧ ( x ∧ ρ b)dV ∫ Sσ r r r ⇒ z ∧ ( x ∧ ρ a )dV = ∫ V ∫ V r r r r r r z ∧ ( x ∧ t * )dS + z ∧ ( x ∧ ρ b)dV ∫ Sσ V r r r We have shown in Chapter 1 that given three vectors a . b . we conclude that: [r r r r r r ] r r r r * * ∫ ρ x ⊗ (a − b) − (a − b) ⊗ x dV = ∫ ( x ⊗ t − t ⊗ x) dS V Sσ Problem 4. we apply the cross product of the above equation with an arbitrary vector z . Chaves (2013) . (see Figure 4. The continuum is subjected to pressure p (1) on surface S (1) . the relationship r r r r r r r r a ∧ (b ∧ c ) = (b ⊗ c − c ⊗ b) ⋅ a holds. the above equation can be rewritten as follows: ∫ r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ( x ⊗ ρ a − ρ a ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dV = ( x ⊗ t * − t * ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dS + ( x ⊗ ρ b − ρ b ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dV ∫ V ∫ Sσ V r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ ρ ( x ⊗ a − a ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dV − ρ ( x ⊗ b − b ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dV = ( x ⊗ t * − t * ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dS ∫ ∫ V V [ ∫ Sσ ] r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ ρ x ⊗ (a − b) − (a − b) ⊗ x ⋅ z dV = ( x ⊗ t * − t * ⊗ x ) ⋅ z dS ∫ ∫ V Sσ  r r   r  r r r r r r r r r     ⇒  ρ x ⊗ (a − b) − (a − b) ⊗ x dV  ⋅ z =  ( x ⊗ t * − t * ⊗ x ) dS  ⋅ z V  S σ      ∫ [ ] ∫ with that. and to pressure p ( 2) on surface S ( 2) . show that: σ= University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .4). c . which r is independent of x . V.

36) V ∫ S (4.Spain ∫ ∫ S V Draft By: Eduardo W. By replacing (4. Chaves (2013) .123) we have shown that the following holds: ∫ r r r r ˆ (∇ ⋅ σ ) ⊗ x dV = (σ ⋅ n) ⊗ x dS − σ dV = t * ⊗ x dS − σ dV ∫ V ∫ S ∫ ∫ V ∫ S r r r r ˆ x ⊗ (∇ ⋅ σ ) dV = x ⊗ (σ ⋅ n) dS − σ T dV = x ⊗ t * dS − σ T dV ∫ V ∫ S ∫ V (4. we obtain: ∫ r r r r r x ⊗ ∇ x ⋅ σ dV + x ⊗ ρ b dV = 0 ∫ V V r r r r r ⇒ x ⊗ t * dS − σ T dV + x ⊗ ρ b dV = 0 ∫ ∫ S ∫ V V (4.38) r r r r ⇒ σ T dV = x ⊗ t * dS + x ⊗ ρ b dV ∫ V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 318 ˆ n (1) S (1) p (1) V (1) S (2) V ( 2) ˆ n (2) p (2) Figure 4.37) V r ˆ where we have considered the prescribed traction vector t * = σ ⋅ n .35). it must fulfill that: ∫ [ ] r r r r x ⊗ ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρ b dV = 0 V (4.4 Solution: r r r r Taking into account the equilibrium equations ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρ b = ρ a = 0 (the principle of conservation of linear momentum) for the entire continuum. V.35) r r r r r ⇒ x ⊗ ∇ x ⋅ σ dV + x ⊗ ρ b dV = 0 ∫ ∫ V V In Chapter 1 (see Problem 1.37) into the equation (4.

e. n ( 2) is the University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the following is true: ∫ r r r r σ dV = t * ⊗ x dS + ρ b ⊗ x dV ∫ V ∫ S r r (4. we conclude: r r r   1 r r r r σ + σT 1 r dV =  t * ⊗ x dS + ρ b ⊗ x dV  +  x ⊗ t * dS + x ⊗ ρ b dV  2 2 S   2 S V V V     r r r r 1 1 r r* r* r ρ x ⊗ b + b ⊗ x dV + ⇒ σ sym dV = x ⊗ t + t ⊗ x dS 2V 2S V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ [ ∫ ∫ ] [ ∫ ∫[ ] ] ∫[ (4. This means that the equation in (4. ˆ where n is the S ˆ outward unit normal to surface S (see Problem 1.41) ] r r r r 1 1 r r* r* r ρ x ⊗ b + b ⊗ x dV + ⇒V σ = x ⊗ t + t ⊗ x dS 2V 2S ∫ ⇒σ = 1 2V [r r r r ] ∫ ρ x ⊗ b + b ⊗ x dV + V 1 2V r r [x ⊗ t ∫ * ] r r + t * ⊗ x dS S In addition. t * = − p ( 2) n ( 2) . In this case.42) S For the particular case shown in Figure 4. V. the symmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor. the above equation becomes: σ= 1 2V ∫ [x ⊗ t r* r ] r r + t * ⊗ x dS (4.42) becomes: σ=  r r  r* r r r* r* r 1  * (1) (2)   x ⊗ t + t ⊗ x dS + x ⊗ t + t ⊗ x dS  2(V (1) − V ( 2 ) ) S (1)  S ( 2)   ∫[ ] ∫[ ] =   r r r r 1   ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ − p (1) x ⊗ n (1) + n (1) ⊗ x dS (1) + − p ( 2 ) x ⊗ n ( 2) + n ( 2 ) ⊗ x dS ( 2 )  (1) ( 2)  2(V − V ) S (1)  S (2)   =   r ˆ r −1   (1) r ˆ (1) ˆ (1) r ˆ x ⊗ n + n ⊗ x dS (1) + p ( 2 ) x ⊗ n ( 2 ) + n ( 2 ) ⊗ x dS ( 2)  p ( 2)  2(V − V )   S ( 1) S ( 2)   [ ∫ (1) ] ∫[ ] We have shown in Chapter 1 that is true [ ∫ ∫[ r ] ] r ˆ ˆ ∫ ( x ⊗ n + n ⊗ x) dS = 2V 1 .35) does not take in account the principle of conservation of angular momentum.123).4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 319 Then. To guarantee the symmetry of σ we do: r r r  1 r r  r r σ + σT 1 r dV =  t * ⊗ x dS + ρ b ⊗ x dV  +  x ⊗ t * dS + x ⊗ ρ b dV  2 S 2  2 S  V V V     r r r r 1 1 r r* r* r ⇒ σ sym dV = ρ x ⊗ b + b ⊗ x dV + x ⊗ t + t ⊗ x dS 2V 2S V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ [ ∫ ∫ ] ∫ ∫[ (4. S = S (1) + S ( 2) . For this example. Chaves (2013) . the equation in (4.39) V r r Note that the tensors x ⊗ t * and x ⊗ ρ b are not symmetric.4 we have V = V (1) − V ( 2) .40) ] Considering the definition of the mean stress tensor. if we consider that the body is free of body force. r (1) r ( 2) ˆ ˆ t * = − p (1) n (1) . i.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

in what format is K ? Solution: For this problem we know that the stress power is equal to zero. we have ˆ ∫ [x ⊗ n r ( 2) ] r ˆ + n ( 2 ) ⊗ x dS ( 2 ) = −2V ( 2 ) 1 .1. a) Show that the thermal conductivity tensor is semi-definite positive. Also consider that there is a heterogeneous material where r K = K ( x ) is an arbitrary second-order tensor (not necessarily symmetrical). Chaves (2013) . and that there is a continuous medium with no internal heat source. Then also provide the unit of K (T ) in the International joule per kelvin. consider r r that the heat flux is given by q = −K (T ) ⋅ ∇ x T . then.e.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 2) Consider the stress power is equal to zero. V. σ : D = 0 . which is known as Fourier’s law of thermal conduction.20 1) Consider a continuum motion in which the stress power is equal to zero. c) Taking into account that the material is isotropic.2 } Flux Problems Problem 4. where K (T ) is a second-order tensor called the thermal conductivity tensor (the thermal property of the material). Also. It then follows that.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 320 inward unit normal to surface S ( 2) . b) Check in which scenario the r skew part of K ( x ) does not affect the outcome of the heat conduction problem. [c] = System of Units (SI). the energy equation becomes: & ρ u=ρ ⇒ ρc r r ∂u ∂T r r = σ : D − ∇ x ⋅ q + ρ r = −∇ x ⋅ q + ρ r { ∂T ∂t =0 r ∂T r = −∇ x ⋅ q + ρ r ∂t ⇒ ρc ∂T r = −∇ x ∂t r ⋅ [− K (T ) ⋅ ∇ x T ] + ρ r or r r ∇ x ⋅ [K (T ) ⋅ ∇ x T ] + ρ r = ρ c ∂T ∂t The above equation is called the heat flux equation which is applied to the thermal conduction problem. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . where c is the specific heat capacity at a ∂T constant deformation (the thermal property of the material) and is expressed in units of J . find the K energy equation for this process. and c = ∂u (T ) . i. S (2) with that we obtain: σ=   r r −1  (1) r ˆ (1) ˆ (1) r  ˆ ˆ x ⊗ n + n ⊗ x dS (1) + p ( 2 ) x ⊗ n ( 2) + n ( 2 ) ⊗ x dS ( 2 )  p ( 2)  2(V − V )   S (1 ) S (2)   ∫[ (1) ] { ∫[ ] } −1 p (1) 2V (1) 1 − p ( 2) 2V ( 2 ) 1 ( 2) 2(V − V ) −1 p (1)V (1) − p ( 2 )V ( 2 ) 1 = (1) ( 2) (V − V ) = (1) { 4. Taking into account all previous considerations.

Also remember that since K ( x ) is not symmetric. Moreover.i = −(−K ij T. then: r r r r r 0 ≤ ∇ x T ⋅ K ( x ) ⋅ ∇ x T = ∇ x T ⋅ K sym ⋅ ∇ x T ≥ 0 r That is. ■ 2) a) We start from the heat conductivity inequality: r r r r r − q ⋅ ∇ x T = −(−K ( x ) ⋅ ∇ x T ) ⋅ ∇ x T ≥ 0 r r r ∇ xT ⋅ K ( x) ⋅ ∇ xT ≥ 0 or − q i T.i = K ij . the above inequality is always true whether K ( x ) is symmetric or not. j + K ij T. since the double scalar product between an r r antisymmetric tensor ( K skew ) and a symmetric one (∇ x T ⊗ ∇ x T ) is equal to zero.i T. ji = (∇ x ⋅ K T ) ⋅ (∇ x T ) + K : ∇ x (∇ x T ) [ ] r r r r = (∇ x ⋅ K T ) ⋅ (∇ x T ) + K sym + K skew : ∇ x (∇ x T ) r r r r r r = (∇ x ⋅ K T ) ⋅ (∇ x T ) + K sym : ∇ x (∇ x T ) + K skew : ∇ x (∇ x T ) r r r r = (∇ x ⋅ K T ) ⋅ (∇ x T ) + K sym : ∇ x (∇ x T ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . and ρ r is the internal heat source per unit volume. Chaves (2013) . i. Then: r r r r & ρ u = −q i . Then. ∇ x T ≡ r  = . j ≥ 0 r r Remember that the arbitrary tensor A is semi-definite positive if it holds that x ⋅ A ⋅ x ≥ 0 r r r for all x ≠ 0 thereby demonstrating that K ( x ) is a semi-definite positive tensor.i K ij T. σ : D is the stress power. where u is the specific internal equation: ρ Dt energy.e. b) For the proposed problem the only remaining governing equation is the energy r r Du r r & ≡ ρ u = σ : D − ∇ x ⋅ q + ρ r = −∇ x ⋅ q . when the stress power is equal to zero. s m K m K  thus. K 3 ≥ 0 .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 321 & DT = ∂T . That is.i = −(− K ij T. NOTE: If there is no mass transport it fulfills T ≡ Dt Then if we take into account the following units: [q] = r ∂t J W  r ∂T  K = 2 . V. it is noteworthy that: the r antisymmetric part of K ( x ) does not affect the heat conduction inequality since: [ r r r r ∇ x T ⋅ K ( x ) ⋅ ∇ x T = ∇ x T ⋅ K sym + K skew r ∇ xT ⋅ K sym r r ⋅ ∇ xT + ∇ xT ⋅ K ] ⋅∇ skew r xT ≥0 r ⋅ ∇ xT ≥ 0 r r r r ∇ x T ⋅ K sym ⋅ ∇ x T + K skew : (∇ x T ⊗ ∇ x T ) ≥ 0 r r Notice that K skew : (∇ x T ⊗ ∇ x T ) = 0 . K 1 ≥ 0 . r K 2 ≥ 0 . we can draw the conclusion that [K ] =  NOTE: As we will see later. as a r result the eigenvalues of K ( x ) are all real values greater than or equal to zero. we 2 ∂x  m m s m  can ensure that the units are consistent if the following is met: r [q] [K ] ⋅ [∇ xr T ] = W  W  K   J  J  m 2 s = m 2  =  s m K = m K  m       W   J = . we can study these problems separately. the principal space of r K ( x ) does not define an orthonormal basis. we can decouple the thermal and mechanical problem.i ≥ 0 T.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j ) . j )T.

Chaves (2013) .5 Solution: As we saw in Problem 4.21 Consider a thermal conduction problem. If the material is r homogeneous the implication is that the K field does not depend on ( x ) . (see Problem 4. c) The feature of isotropic materials is that their properties (at one material point) do not change if the coordinate system is changed. x2 T ( A) = 38º C Data: h = 0. in addition.ij = T.04m T ( B ) = 21º C K = 0. With these simplifications the governing r r equation becomes ∇ x ⋅ [K ⋅ ∇ x T ] = 0 . In this scenario the heat equation reduces to: r r & ρ u = K sym : ∇ x (∇ x T ) Therefore. then the tensor K must be of the type: K = K1 . where K is a scalar: 1 0 0 K ij = K 0 1 0   0 0 1    Problem 4. Obtain the heat flow for case defined by: stationary problem. It follows then that K must be an isotropic tensor. the temperature field according to x 2 and x3 directions is homogeneous. If we consider the stationary problem we have = 0 . when the material is homogeneous. the tensor r r ∇ x ⋅ [K ⋅ ∇ x T ] + ρ r = ρ c University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5). ji . An isotropic second-order tensor has the format of a spherical tensor. in a wall with thickness equal to h in which the temperature at the outer face ( x1 = 0 ) is equal to 38º C and the temperature in the interior face ( x1 = h ) is equal to 21º C . and the material is isotropic and homogeneous. the antisymmetric part of K does not affect the outcome.19 W mK (Interior) (Exterior) x1 r q h Figure 4. (see Figure 4.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 322 r r where we have considered the symmetry of [∇ x (∇ x T )]ij = T. so K ij . V.i = 0 j . there is no heat source.20). (see Chapter 1).20 the governing equation for this problem is the equation ∂T ∂T . If ∂t ∂t there is no heat source this implies that r = 0 . if the material is homogenous.

for x1 = h we have K − q1 h + T ( A) K ⇒ q1 = −K (T ( B ) − T ( A) ) h In this case (unidimensional case).43) If the temperature field according to x 2 and x3 -directions is homogenous. the thermal conductivity tensor components. then the temperature variation ( ∆T ) either in degrees Celsius or in Kelvin University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .15 .75 2 = 80. are given by: K 0 0  K ij =  0 K 0    0 0 K    With these considerations the equation (4.43) becomes: K 11 ∂ 2T =0 ∂x12 By integrating the equation K K ∂ 2T =0 ∂x12 K11→ =K ⇒K ∂ 2T =0 ∂x12 (4. it is independent of x1 . ji = K ij T . V. the temperature gradient is the slope of the line defined by the temperature. Note that for this case q1 is a constant. this implies that the temperature gradient components according to these directions are equal to zero.i T .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 323 r r r r r with the thermal properties K do not vary with x . then ∇ x ⋅ [K ⋅ ∇ x T ] = K : ∇ x [∇ x T ] = 0 . we obtain the heat flux: q1 = −K W J (T ( B ) − T ( A) )  W  (21 − 38)( K ) = −0. j ]. For an isotropic material.5). i.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e.e. By expanding this 123 =0 equation we obtain: K 11 ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T + K 12 + K 13 + K 21 + K 22 2 + K 23 + ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂x12 ∂x 2 + K 31 ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T + K 32 + K 33 2 = 0 ∂x1∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x3 (4. we obtain the constant of integration C = T ( A) . (see Figure 4. By integrating once more we obtain: ∫ dT = ∫ − q1 dx1 K ⇒ T ( x1 ) = − q1 x1 + C K Applying the boundary condition. ji = 0 . i. which in indicial notation is [K ij T . In addition. Chaves (2013) . x1 = 0 ⇒ T = T ( A) . which varies linearly in the wall.i = K ij . With that we obtain T ( x1 ) = T ( x1 = h) = T ( B ) = − q1 x1 + T ( A) .5).04(m) Note that the temperature conversion form degrees Celsius to Kelvin is given by K = º C + 273. By replacing the problem data (see Figure 4. (see ∂x 2 ∂x3 Chapter 5 of the textbook). j + K ij T . ∂T ∂T = = 0 .44) ∂ 2T = 0 we obtain: ∂x12 integrating    →  K ∂T + q1 = 0 ∂x1 ⇒ q1 = −K dT dx1 which is the Fourier’s law of thermal conduction.19 = 80.75 2  h m m s  mK  0.

7).: 2 : q1 = −K ( 2) (T ( B _ 1) − T ( A) ) h (1) (T (C ) − T ( B _ 2 ) ) q1 = −K ( 2) h ( 2) q1 = −K (1) q1 h (1) ⇒ T ( B _ 1) = T ( A) − ⇒ T ( B _ 2) = T (C ) + K (1) q1 h ( 2) K ( 2) T ( B _ 1) = T ( B _ 2 ) T ( A) − q1 h (1) K (1) = T (C ) + q1 h ( 2 ) K ( 2) thus: q1 = − (T (C ) − T ( A) )  h (1) h ( 2 )     K (1) + K ( 2 )    Problem 4. This also applies to the material h (1) (T (C ) − T ( B ) ) . an incompressible medium. Chaves (2013) .22 Next. (see Figure 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. NOTE: Let us suppose now that we have two walls with different properties as shown in Figure 4. V. and that the property c s does not affect the velocity of the University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .6 Note that the equation q1 = −K (1) (T ( B ) − T ( A) ) is still valid. Considering an isothermal process. Note also that the heat flux flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature region. T ( A) T (B ) T (C ) 2 1 K (1) x1 r q K ( 2) h (2) h (1) Figure 4. To obtain the heat flux we apply the compatibility in h (2) temperature on the face B .6.324 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS is the same. we assume that at a material point there are two types of material that are represented by a physical quantity per unit volume in such a way that c = c f + c s . i. and the r r r following holds v = v f + v s .

and there is no source of the material f . we obtain: Q= ∂Φ r +∇x ∂t r ⋅ (Φv ) ⇒ Q= [ r r ∂ (c f + c s ) ∂ + r (c f + c s )(v f + v s ) ∂x ∂t ] (4.46) with Q = Q s + Q f .48) (4. V.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 325 material f and that the c f -field is homogeneous.47) becomes: Qs = (4.47) ] [ ] r ∂c f r + ∇ x ⋅ (c f v f ) = 0 and Q f = 0 ∂t hold. Solution: Starting from the continuity equation for this physical quantity. which is the continuity equation of the physical quantity c f with which the equation If we assume that there is no ( f )-material source. Thus: [ ] r r ∂ (c f + c s ) ∂ + r (c f + c s )(v f + v s ) ∂t ∂x f s r r r ∂ (c + c ) ∂ f r f ⇒ Qs + Q f = + r c v + c f v s + csv f + csv s ∂t ∂x f s r r r r ∂c ∂c r ⇒ Qs + Q f = + + ∇ x ⋅ c f v f + c f v s + csv f + csv s ∂t ∂t f  ∂c r  ∂c s r r r r r r ⇒ Qs + Q f =  + ∇ x ⋅ (c f v f )  + + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ c f v s + c s v s  ∂t  ∂t Qs + Q f = [ ] [ (4.7: Heterogeneous medium.49) r r r r ∂c s r r r r + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ ( c s v s ) + ∇ x c f ⋅ v s + c f ∇ x ⋅ v s ∂t (4.50) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain ] r r r ∂c s r r r + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ ( c s v s ) + ∇ x ⋅ (c f v s ) ∂t ⇒ Qs = ⇒ Qs = [ r r r ∂c s r r + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ c f v s + c s v s ∂t Draft By: Eduardo W.45) r r where the flux of the property s is given by q ( D ) = −D ⋅ ∇ x c s . Chaves (2013) . then in (4. Control volume c r vf f cs r v dV r vs Figure 4. Show that: r ∂c s r r r Q s − ∇ x ⋅ (v f c s ) + ∇ x ⋅ (D ⋅ ∇ x c s ) = ∂t Convection-diffusion equation (4.

e. These simplifications indicate that the material ( s ) does not affect the velocity field of the material ( f ).23 Consider a water reservoir with sediment concentration. Chaves (2013) . then the gradient of c f becomes r r ∇ x c f = 0 . the diffusive term. In addition if we consider the medium ( s ) to be incompressible we obtain r r ∇ x ⋅ v s = 0 . a) Obtain the total mass of sediment in the reservoir. t ) = C t exp where C and . t ) .45). The term (c s v f ) ≡ q (C ) is related to mass transport.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Problem 4. Then. this approach is no longer valid.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 326 r If the physical quantity c f does not change with x . The sediment concentration (concentration density) is given by ( − kx3t ) c( x3 . i. if the amount of the material ( s ) is significant. with these approximations we obtain: r r r r ∂c s ∂c s r r r r (4. Considering that q ( D ) = −D ⋅ ∇ x c s the equation (4. per unit volume. are positive constants. the r r convective term. (see Figure 4. q = q( x3 . So.8).51) + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ q ( D ) + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ ( c s v s ) = ∂t ∂t r r Notice that the term (c s v s ) ≡ q ( D ) represents the flux caused by the ( s )-material r r concentration. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. b) Obtain the sediment flux knowing that the flux is only a function of x3 and time r r t . h k x3 x2 b x1 a Figure 4.52) with that we have demonstrated the equation in (4.51) becomes: Qs = r r ∂c s r r + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ q ( D ) ∂t r ∂c s r r r ⇒ Qs = + ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ (−D ⋅ ∇ x c s ) ∂t r ∂c s r r r ⇒ Q s − ∇ x ⋅ (c s v f ) + ∇ x ⋅ (D ⋅ ∇ x c s ) = ∂t Qs = (4.8: Reservoir with sediments.

V. By: Eduardo W. Then: q i .Spain Draft ( − kx3t ) ˆ e3 .55) + K3 { =0 r The flux vector in the Cartesian basis is given by q = −C x3 exp University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . the flux is not dependent on x 2 and x1 . For this problem. 2 + q 3. we can apply the continuity equation of the concentration: Q= r ∂c s r + ∇ x ⋅q ∂t ⇒ r ∂c s r ∇ x ⋅ q = q i .1 = q 2. Chaves (2013) .3 = ∂q1 ∂q 2 ∂q 3 ∂c s =− + + ∂t ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 (4. With this condition we have q1.54) we obtain: dq 3 ∂c s ( − kx3t ) ( − kx3t ) =− = −C exp + C t k x3 exp ∂t dx3 ∫ ⇒ dq 3 = ⇒ q3 = ∫ [− C exp ( − kx3t ) + C t k x3 exp ( − kx3t ) ]dx 3 C k x3 t C C ( − kx3t ) ( − kx3t ) ( − kx3t ) exp − exp − exp + K3 kt kt kt ⇒ q 3 = −C x3 exp ( − kx3t ) (4.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 327 Solution: To obtain the total mass we have to solve the integral: h b a ∫ M = c s dV = ∫∫∫ C t exp ( − kx3t ) h ∫ dx1 dx 2 dx3 = ab C t exp 0 0 0 V ( − kx3t ) dx3 0 ( − kx3t )  − C = ab  exp  k   h 0 [ ] C  − abC − C = ab  exp ( − kht ) +  = exp ( − kht ) − 1 k k k  To obtain the flux.1 + q 2.i = − ∂t (4.54) ∂q ∂c s ⇒ 3 =− ∂t ∂x3 where [ ] ∂c s ∂ ( − kx3t ) ( − kx3t ) ( − kx3t ) C t exp = C exp − C t k x 3 exp and by replacing into the = ∂t ∂t equation (4. Q = 0 .53) where we have considered that there is no source of the sediment. 2 = 0 .i = q1. i.e.

Angular momentum: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.mass center r F(1) x2 x1 ′ x2 r v Figure 4. Chaves (2013) . and V r x k is the vector position of the center of mass G . V. so.24 Find the linear and angular momentum for a solid subjected to rigid body motion.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 328 4.56) r & where v = c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) is the velocity of the center of mass. ′ x3 r F(n ) r F( 2 ) Rigid body Bt G r x x3 ′ x1 O G .1. where m is the total mass. ∫ V [ r r r r r & L = m c + ω ∧ ( x − c) r = mv r r r r ] (Linear momentum for rigid body motion) (4. ρ x ′ dV = mx ′ = 0 . The first moment of inertia is equal to r r r zero if the Cartesian system originates at the center of mass.3 Rigid Body Motion Problem 4.56 in Chapter 2. we obtained the velocity for rigid body motion as: r r r r r & v = c + ω ∧ ( x − c) r where ω is the axial vector (angular velocity) associated with the antisymmetric tensor W (the spin tensor). Linear momentum: ( ) r r r r r r r r r r r & & L = ρ v dV = ρ c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) dV = ρ c dV + ρ ω ∧ x dV − ρ ω ∧ c dV ∫ ∫ V ∫ V V r r r r r & = c ρ dV + ω ∧ ρ x dV − ω ∧ c ρ dV ∫ ∫ V By definition ∫ V ∫ V V r r ∫ V ∫ ρ x dV = mx is the first moment of inertia.9 Solution: According to Problem 2.

57)   r   r r r r r r r & =  ρ x dV  ∧ c + ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ x ) dV −  ρ x dV  ∧ (ω ∧ c ) V  V  V     ∫ ∫ ∫ Next. As V we can observe. V with V which we obtain: ∫ ρ [x k ] ∫ [ = ∫ ρ [x ] ∫ [ ] x k ω i − x p ω p x i dV = ρ x k x k ω p δ pi − x p ω p x i dV = ρ x k x k δ pi − x p x i ω p dV V V k V ] x k δ pi − x p x i dV ω p = I O ip ω p V or in tensorial notation: r r  r r r r r  r r ∫ ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ x ) dV = ∫ ρ [( x ⋅ x ) 1 − ( x ⊗ x )] dV  ⋅ ω = I O ⋅ ω V  V r r r   r where I O = ∫ ρ [( x ⋅ x ) 1 − ( x ⊗ x )] dV is the inertia tensor with respect to the origin O . I O 13 . c . the relationship r r r r r r r r r r r holds. and I O 12 . r r r It was proven in Chapter 1 that given three vectors a . r r r r r r r r r ∫ ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ x) dV = ∫ ρ [( x ⋅ x)ω − ( x ⋅ ω) x ] dV . Thus. I O 33 . I O 22 . are moments of inertia of the body relative to the reference point O . b . I O is a second-order pseudo-tensor.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. since it depends on the reference system. are the products of inertia of the body relative to the reference point O . V. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . we discuss the second integral of the previous equation. so.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS r r r H O = ( x ∧ ρ v ) dV = ∫ V 329 r r r r r & [x ∧ ρ (c + ω ∧ ( x − c))] dV ∫ V Thus r r r r r r r r r & H O = ρ x ∧ c dV + ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ x ) dV − ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ c ) dV ∫ ∫ V ∫ V V (4. thus when a=c it holds that a ∧ (b ∧ c ) = (a ⋅ c )b − (a ⋅ b)c r r r r r r r r r a ∧ (b ∧ a) = (a ⋅ a)b − (a ⋅ b)a . ∫ [ V ] 2 I O 33 = ρ x12 + x 2 dV V V I O 12 = ρ [( x1 x1 + x 2 x 2 + x 3 x 3 )δ 12 − x1 x 2 ] dV = − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV = − I O 12 ∫ ∫ V V I O 13 = − ρ [x1 x 3 ] dV = − I O 13 ∫ V . I O 23 = − ρ [x 2 x 3 ] dV = − I O 23 ∫ V where I O 11 . and the components I O ij = ∫ ρ [x k x k δ ij − xi x j ] dV can be expressed explicitly as: V ∫ [ ] 2 2 I O 11 = ρ [( x1 x1 + x 2 x 2 + x 3 x 3 )δ 11 − x1 x1 ] dV = ρ x 2 + x 3 dV ∫ V ∫ [ ] 2 I O 22 = ρ x12 + x 3 dV . I O 23 . Chaves (2013) .

Chaves (2013) . I O 13 = I13 − m( x1 x3 ) (4. ρ ( x ) .57) we can state that:   r   r r r r r r r r & H O =  ρ x dV  ∧ c + ρ x ∧ (ω ∧ x ) dV −  ρ x dV  ∧ (ω ∧ c ) V  V  V     r r r r r r r r r r r & + I ⋅ ω − m x ∧ (ω ∧ c ) = m x ∧ c − (ω ∧ c ) + I ⋅ ω & =mx∧c O O r r r Then by adding and subtracting the term m x ∧ ω ∧ x in the above equation we obtain: r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r & & H O = m x ∧ c − ω ∧ c + I O ⋅ ω = m x ∧ c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) − m x ∧ (ω ∧ x ) + I O ⋅ ω r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r = m x ∧ v − m (x ⋅ x) 1 − ( x ⊗ x) ⋅ ω + IO ⋅ ω = m x ∧ v + m ( x ⊗ x) − (x ⋅ x) 1 + IO ⋅ ω r r r = m x ∧ v + I ⋅ω r r r = m x ∧ v + HG r r r r where I = I O + m ( x ⊗ x ) − ( x ⋅ x ) 1 is the inertia pseudo-tensor.Spain  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV    I O11 V  − ρ [x2 x3 ] dV  = − I O12  V   − I O13  2 ρ x12 + x2 dV   V  2 3 V Draft ] − I O12 IO 22 − I O 23 − I O13   − I O 23  IO 33   By: Eduardo W. in which the r mass density filed. Solution: We use the equation (4.58) Returning to the equation in (4.25 Consider a parallelepiped whose dimensions are a × b × c (see Figure 4.58): IOij  2 2  ρ x2 + x3 dV V =  − ρ [x1 x2 ] dV   V  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV  V  ∫ [ ∫ ∫ ] − ρ [x1 x2 ] dV ∫ V ∫ ∫ ∫ ρ [ + ]dV − ∫ ρ [x x ] dV ∫ [ x12 2 x3 V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . I O 12 = I12 − m( x1 x 2 ) I O 22 = I 22 + m( x12 + x32 ) . these components can be expressed as: 2 I O 11 = I11 + m( x 2 + x32 ) . is homogeneous.59) Note that. Explicitly. the above equations represent the parallel axis theorem (Steiner’s theorem) from Classical Mechanics.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 330  2 2  ρ x2 + x3 dV V =  − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV   V  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV  V  ∫ [ I Oij ] ∫ ∫ − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV ∫ V  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV    I O 11 V  − ρ [x 2 x3 ] dV  = − I O12  V   − I O13  2 ρ x12 + x2 dV   V  ∫ ∫ ∫ ρ [ + ] dV − ∫ ρ [x x ] dV ∫ [ x12 2 x3 V 2 3 V − I O 12 I O 22 − I O 23 ] − I O13   − I O 23  I O 33   (4. Obtain the inertia tensor with respect to system in the center of gravity. By means of this equation we can calculate the inertia tensor in any reference system if we know the inertia tensor at the center of mass: 2 I O ij = Iij − m[x i x j − ( x12 + x 2 + x 32 )δ ij ] .10). Problem 4. I O 23 = I 23 − m( x 2 x 3 ) Steiner’s theorem 2 I O 33 = I33 + m( x12 + x 2 ) . V. which is related to the ∫ ( ∫ ) [ ∫ ] [ [ ] [ ] {[ ] } ] reference system at the center of mass.

V Note also that the adopted axes are principal axes of inertia: I Oij  m 2 2 0 0  12 (b + c )   m 2  = 0 (a + c 2 ) 0 12   m 2  2  0 0 (a + b )  12   x3 a x2 O c x1 b Figure 4. the mass density is independent of x (homogeneous material).26 Obtain the principle of conservation of linear momentum and angular momentum for a solid subjected to rigid body motion. V. Recall that the inertia tensor give us information on how the mass is distributed according to the adopted system. the moment of inertia I O11 becomes: ∫ [ ] 2 2 I O11 = ρ x2 + x3 dV = ρ c 2 b 2 a 2 ∫ ∫ ∫ [x 2 2 ] 2 + x3 dx1dx 2 dx3 = ρ − c −b − a 2 2 2 V Similarly. thus ∫ ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV = 0 . and moreover it fulfills that: ∫ m = ρ dV = ρ V ∫ dV = ρV = ρabc V Then. for this problem. 12 We leave to the reader show that I O12 = I O 13 = I O 23 = 0 . abc 2 m (b + c 2 ) = (b 2 + c 2 ) 12 12 I O 33 = m 2 (a + b 2 ) . we can obtain I O 22 = m 2 (a + c 2 ) 12 .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 331 r Note that. NOTE: A list of inertia tensor for several solids can be found in Wikipedia http://en.10: Parallelepiped. Chaves (2013) . Solution: We can start from the definition of the principle of conservation of linear momentum which states that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .wikipedia. and note that the mass is equally distributed according to the plane x1 x2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.org/wiki/List_of_moments_of_inertia Problem 4.

24. the governing equations are: r r ∑F =ma and University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . The set of equations equivalent: ∑ r r F=ma and r ∑M G r & = H G inform us that the following systems are r & HG r F( 2 ) r F( n ) G = r F(1) G r ma G .60) By: Eduardo W.24.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 332 r D r & r ∑ F = Dt ∫ ρ v dV = L V r r Then we use the equation of linear momentum obtained in Problem 4. V. Chaves (2013) .Spain r ∑M O r & = HO Draft Governing equations for rigid body motion (4. to obtain: r D r & r r & r ∑ F = Dt ∫ ρ v dV = L = m v = m a V Then we have: r r ∑F = m a Now let us consider the principle of conservation of angular momentum which states: r ∑M O = r r r D D r & HO ≡ HO ( x ∧ ρ v )dV = Dt V Dt ∫ By which we obtain: r ∑M O r & = HO or r ∑M G r & = HG r where the equation of angular momentum H O was obtained in Problem 4.center of mass NOTE: If we are dealing with rigid body motion. L = m v .

V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 333 Problem 4. Then.11: Isostatic beam.26).27 Consider the beam with the following load and boundary conditions: P P α A B L 2 α = HA B A L 2 VA VB Figure 4. Note that we have 3 equations and 2 3 unknowns (isostatic system). for purposes of support reaction calculation of an isostatic beam we can consider as a rigid body case and the necessary equations (see equations (4. Problem 4. VB .28 Find the kinetic energy related to rigid body motion in terms of the inertia tensor. If we have a system in which there are more unknown than equations (hyperstatic system). H A .60)) are: ∑ ∑ r r r F=ma =0 r r r & MA = HA =0        ⇒ ⇒ ∑F ∑F ∑F x =0 y =0 z =0 ∑M ∑M ∑M        ∑F ∑F      ⇒ x =0 z =0 = H A + P cos α = 0 ⇒ H A = − P cos α y = V A + V B − P sin α = 0 ⇒ V A = −V B + P sin α =0 y x ⇒ with which we can obtain V A = −V B + P sin α =    ∑M z = V B L − P sin α L P sin α = 0 ⇒ VB = 2 2 P sin α . Chaves (2013) . Obtain the support reactions VA . Solution: Although in the beam there is deformation (small deformation regime) and stress. the kinetic energy becomes: [ ][ ] r r 1 1 r r r r r r r r & ρ (v ⋅ v )dV = ρ  c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) ⋅ c + ω ∧ ( x − c)  dV  &  2V  2V  r r r r Using the following vector sum x = x + x ′ . the energy equation becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . where x is the mass center vector position. r and x ′ is the particle vector position with respect to the system that has its origin in the K (t ) = ∫ ∫ center of mass.24 and Problem 4. r r r r r & Solution: The rigid body motion velocity can be expressed as v = c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) . this procedure is no longer valid since the reactions will depend on the beam deformation and this depends on the beam stiffness. (see Problem 4.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the system x ′ is located at the center of mass ( G ). (see Problem 4. r r r r r r r r 3) ∫ ρ (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV V ∫ ρ [(ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′)] dV = ∫ ρ  V ijk ω j x ′ k V ′ ′ ′  ipq ω p x q dV = ∫ ρ (δ jp δ kq − δ jq δ kp )ω j x k ω p x q dV V ∫ ′ ′ = ρ ω j (δ jp δ kq x k x q − δ jq δ kp x ′ x ′ )ω p dV k q V ∫ = ρ ω j (δ jp x ′ x k − x ′p x ′j )ω p dV k ′ V   = ω j  ρ (δ jp x ′ x ′ − x ′j x ′p ) dV ω p k k   V  ∫ = ω j I jp ω p or in tensorial notation as: r r r r r  r r r r  r ∫ ρ [(ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′)] dV = ω ⋅  ∫ ρ [( x ′ ⋅ x ′) 1 − ( x ′ ⊗ x ′)] dV  ⋅ ω V V  r r = ω⋅ I ⋅ω   where I is the inertia pseudo-tensor related to the system located at the center of mass. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) . V. thus: K (t ) = ∫ {[ r r r 1 ρ v + (ω ∧ x ′) 2V r r ]⋅ [vr + (ω ∧ x ′)]}dV or: r r r r r r r r r r r r 1 1 1 1 ρ v ⋅ v dV + ρ v ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV + ρ (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ v dV + + ρ (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV 2V 2V 2V 2V ∫ K (t ) = ∫ ∫ ∫ Then by simplifying the above equation we obtain: K (t ) = r r r r r r r r r 1 1 ρ v ⋅ v dV + ρ v ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV + ρ (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV 2V 2V V ∫ ∫ ∫ Next.24). we discuss separately the terms of the previous equation: 1) r r 1 r 1 ρ v ⋅ v dV = v 2 2V ∫ r r 2 1 ∫ ρ dV = 2 mv V r r r 2  r r r r 2) ∫ ρ v ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV = v ⋅ ω ∧ ∫ ρ x ′ dV  = v ⋅ (ω ∧ m {′) = 0 x   V r =0   V r Note that. hence the center of mass r vector position related to the system x ′ is zero.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 334 ∫ {[ ][ ∫ {[( ]} ) r r r r r r r r r r 1 & & ρ c + ω ∧ (( x + x ′) − c) ⋅ c + ω ∧ (( x + x ′) − c ) dV 2V r r r r r r r r r r r r 1 & & = ρ c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) + (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ c + ω ∧ ( x − c ) + (ω ∧ x ′) dV 2V K (t ) = r r r r ] [( ) ]} r & Note that v = c + ω ∧ ( x − c) is the center of mass velocity.

a) Make the physical interpretation of the inertia tensor. c) Show that the inertia tensor is positive definite tensor. For a solid in motion. find in which situation the term University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . with respect to the system x1 x 2 x3 .Spain DI O & ≡ I O is equal to zero. Dt Draft By: Eduardo W. the kinetic energy equation for rigid body motion becomes: K (t ) = r r r r r r r r r 1 1 1 ρ v ⋅ v dV + 2ρ v ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV + ρ (ω ∧ x ′) ⋅ (ω ∧ x ′) dV 2V 2V 2V 144424443 ∫ ∫ ∫ =0 1 2 1r 2 Kinetic energy for rigid body motion r K(t ) = mv 2 + ω ⋅ I ⋅ ω (4. V.61) Additionally. Obtain the inertia tensor components in this new system.62) Problem 4.29 Consider the inertia pseudo-tensor. represented by x1 x 2 x3 . if we take into account that:  ′2 ′2  ρ x 2 + x3 dV V ′ ′ Iij =  − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV  V  ′ ′  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV  V  ∫ [ ] ∫ ∫ ′ ′ − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV ∫ V  ′ ′ − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV    I11 V  ′ ′ − ρ [x 2 x 3 ] dV  =  − I12  V   − I13 ′ ′ ρ x1 2 + x 22 dV    V  ∫ ∫ ∫ ρ [x ′ + x ′ ] dV − ∫ ρ [x ′ x ′ ] dV ∫ [ 1 2 3 2 V 2 3 V ] − I12 I 22 − I 23 − I13   − I 23  I 33   we obtain an explicit equation for the kinetic energy as: 1 2 1 2 K(t ) = mv 2 + ω k Ikj ω j 1 1 = mv 2 + [ω1 2 2 = [ ω2  I11  ω 3 ] − I12 − I 13  − I12 I 22 − I 23 − I13   ω1   − I 23  ω 2    I 33  ω3    1 1 2 2 mv 2 + I11ω1 + I 22 ω 2 + I 33 ω3 − 2 I12 ω1 ω 2 − 2 I13 ω1 ω3 − 2 I 23 ω 2 ω3 2 2 2 1 2 K(t ) = mv 2 + [ 1 2 2 I11ω1 + I 22 ω2 + I 33 ω3 − 2 I12 ω1ω 2 − 2 I13 ω1ω3 − 2 I 23 ω 2 ω3 2 2 ] ] (4. b) Given another * * * orthonormal system. I O . (see Figure 4. Chaves (2013) .12).4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 335 Then if we bear in mind all the above considerations.

i. If we consider a system without energy dissipation. Let us consider a student attached to a disc with outstretched arms. i. what will happen when the student moves the arms inwardly as shown in Figure 4. the angular momentum is conserved too. i.e. V. if V r the material is homogeneous.: r( r( H Oi ) = H Of ) r r ( I ( i ) ⋅ ω ( i ) = I Of ) ⋅ ω ( f ) O Since for the final system the mass is more concentrated according to the rotation axis than r r ( i to the initial system the inequality I Of ) < I (O) holds and as consequence ω ( f ) > ω (i ) .e. V x1 − x 3 . we conclude that: if the planes x1 − x 2 . each hand holding a r weight (see Figure 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 336 x3 * x2 * x3 * x1 O x2 x1 Figure 4. the inertia matrix is a diagonal matrix. and by definition is given by: r r r r I O = ρ [( x ⋅ x ) 1 − ( x ⊗ x )] dV ∫ . ∫ [ ] I O ij = ρ x k x k δ ij − xi x j dV V V or in components  2 2  ρ x 2 + x3 dV V I ij =  − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV   V  − ρ [x1 x3 ] dV  V  ∫ [ ∫ ∫ ] − ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV ∫ V  − ρ [x1 x 3 ] dV   V − ρ [x 2 x3 ] dV   V  2 ρ x12 + x 2 dV   V  ∫ ∫ ∫ ρ [x + x ]dV − ∫ ρ [x x ] dV ∫ [ 2 1 2 3 V 2 3 V ] a) The inertia tensor give us the information as the mass into the body is distributed under the adopted system. the mass density field is independent of x . the mass is distributed equally with respect to plane x1 − x 2 . With this. The disk rotates with angular velocity ω (i ) and the r (i inertia tensor according to the system x is given by I O) . are planes of symmetry.13 – initial system).e. and x1 − x 2 is a plane of symmetry. Chaves (2013) . Then.12 Solution: The inertia pseudo-tensor depends on the adopted coordinate system. x 2 − x3 . The term ∫ ρ [x1 x 2 ] dV indicates as the mass is distributed along the plane x1 − x 2 . the term ∫ ρ [x x ] dV 1 2 is equal to zero.13 – final system? As we are dealing with a conservative system.

then it follows that xi = A ji x * . we also use tensorial notation. but bear in mind that we are working with tensor components. Thus j being able to express I O ij as follows: ∫ [ ∫ [ ] ] * * * I O ij = ρ x k x k δ ij − xi x j dV = ρ ( x k x k )Aip δ pq A jq − Aip x * A jq x q dV p V V     * * * * * * = Aip ρ ( x k x k )δ pq − x * x q A jq dV = Aip  ρ ( x k x k )δ pq − x * x q dV A jq p p V  V   ∫ {[ ]} ∫ [ ] = Aip I * ij A jq O Abusing a bit of notation.13: b) Let us assume that the given systems (see Figure 4.12) are related by the transformation law xi* = Aij x j . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. where Aij is the orthogonal matrix. and we are not doing an orthogonal transformation. V.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS x3 Initial system x3 337 Final system r ω (i ) r ω( f ) ( I Of ) (i I O) Figure 4. r r r r I O = ρ [( x ⋅ x ) 1 − ( x ⊗ x )] dV ∫ V ∫ [ ] r r r r = ρ ( x * ⋅ x * )A T ⋅ 1 ⋅ A − (A T ⋅ x * ⊗ A T ⋅ x * ) dV V ∫ [ ] r r r r = ρ ( x * ⋅ x * )A T ⋅ 1 ⋅ A − (A T ⋅ x * ⊗ x * ⋅ A ) dV V ∫ = AT V ⋅ {ρ [( x * ⋅ x * )1 − ( x * ⊗ x * )]}⋅ A dV r r r r   r r r r   = A T ⋅  ρ ( x * ⋅ x * )1 − ( x * ⊗ x * ) dV  ⋅ A V    ∫ [ ] = A T ⋅ I* ⋅ A O University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

we have K(t ) = I1ω1 . its eigenvalues are greater then zero. V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 338 I O = A T ⋅ I* ⋅ A O I O ij = A * ip I O ij Inertia tensor components after a base change (rotation) A jq (4.: 1 2 K(t ) = mv 2 + [ 1 2 2 I11ω1 + I 22 ω2 + I 33 ω3 − 2 I12 ω1ω 2 − 2 I13 ω1ω3 − 2 I 23 ω 2 ω3 2 2 ] The kinetic energy is a scalar and always a positive number. and only in two situations the kinetic energy is zero. then.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. i. 2) If the solid is rotating along a axe of symmetry. where A is the transformation matrix from the x1 x 2 x3 -system * * * to x1 x 2 x3 -system. c) For a positive definite tensor.14). Hence.63) is the same component transformation law for a second-order tensor. d) As the inertia pseudo-tensor is dependent on the adopted system.e. we can conclude that I 2 > 0 and I 3 > 0 . We adopt a system such that the origin is at the center of mass and the adopted axes are axes of symmetry (inertia principal system) and that the body is rotating around the origin (center of mass). Chaves (2013) . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .63) Then. for example if a cylinder is rotating along the prismatic axe. the inertia tensor is a positive definite tensor. Similarly. which are the new inertia tensor components in the O * * * system x1 x 2 x3 .28. by definition. if we have a motion such that ω 2 = ω 3 = 0 . Note that the equation (4. the only way that the kinetic energy is always positive is when I1 > 0 holds. namely: when there is no mass or when the body is at rest. then during motion the mass distribution is not changing with respect to the adopted system. We will start from the kinetic energy obtained in Problem 4. it is valid I * = A ⋅ I O ⋅ A T . In this situation the kinetic energy becomes: 1 K(t ) = [ω1 2 ω2 0   ω1   I1 0 0 I 0  ω 2  ω3 ]  2    0 0 I 3  ω 3    1442443   4 4 Eigenvalues of the Inertia tensor = [ ] 1 2 2 I1ω1 + I 2 ω 2 + I 3 ω 3 > 0 2 2 1 2 2 In addition. for the following situations the inertia tensor to a solid in motion does not change with time: 1) If the adopted system is attached to the solid. (see Figure 4.

Find the inertia tensor in the system Ox1 x ′ x3 . (see Figure 4.15 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. The systems ′ 2 ′ Gx1 x 2 x3 and Ox1′x ′′ x3′ have the same orientation. V. Chaves (2013) .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 339 r ω reference system fixed in space Figure 4.15).14 Problem 4.30 Consider a homogeneous cylinder of radius r and height h = 3r with total mass equal to ′ 2 ′ ′ 2 ′ m . x1 Figure 4. Hint: For the reference system Gx1 x 2 x3 we know the inertia tensor components and are given by: I G ij 1 2 2 0 12 m(3r + h )  1 0 = m(3r 2 + h 2 ) 12   0 0     2 0 0  mr 2  0 2 0  0 =  2   0 0 1  1 2   mr  2  0 x3 r ′ x3 ′ x3′ x1 x2 G r rG h = 3r ′ x2 45º ′ x2′ O ′ ′ x1′. The system Ox1 x ′ x3 is ′ 2 ′ ′ given by the rotation of the system Ox1′x ′′ x3′ of 45º along the axis x1′ .

I12 − m( x1 x 2 ) = I ′′ 12 O . With 2 that we obtain: 3  17  2 I ′′ 11 = I11 + m( x 2 + x 32 ) = mr 2 + m  r 2 + ( r ) 2  = mr 2 O 2  4  3  13  I ′′ 22 = I 22 + m( x12 + x 32 ) = mr 2 + m 0 2 + ( r ) 2  = mr 2 O 2  4  1 3 2 I ′′ 33 = I33 + m( x12 + x 2 ) = mr 2 + m 0 2 + r 2 = mr 2 O 2 2 [ ] I ′′ 12 = I12 − m( x1 x 2 ) = 0 O I ′′ 23 = I 23 − m( x 2 x3 ) = 0 O 3 3 I ′′ 13 = I13 − m( x1 x3 ) = m(r )( r ) = mr 2 O 2 2 ′ 2 ′ Thus resulting in the following inertia tensor components for the Ox1′x ′′ x3′ -system: 0  34 0 mr 2  ′′ 0 13 − 6 I O ij =  4  0 −6 6    ′ 2 ′ ′ 2 ′ Considering the transformation matrix between the systems Ox1′x ′′ x3′ and Ox1 x ′ x3 : 0 0  1 0 cos 45º sin 45º  A =  0 − sin 45º cos 45º    and applying the equation (4.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 340 Solution: ′ 2 ′ First of all we obtain the inertia tensor in the system Ox1′x ′′ x3′ by means of the Steiner theorem. we define the vector rG = x1e1′ + x 2 e ′2 + x 3 e ′′ = 0e1′ + re ′2 + re ′′ .24). Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft 0  34 0 mr 2  = 0 7 − 7  8   0 − 7 31    By: Eduardo W. By means of the equations in (4. I13 − m( x1 x 3 ) = I ′′ 13 O (4. Then.63) we obtain: ′ I O ij = A I ′′ A = Aip I ′′ ij A jq O O T University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . x 3 ) are the coordinates of the center of mass with respect to the system r ˆ′ ˆ′ ˆ3 ˆ′ ˆ ′ 3 ˆ3 ′ 2 ′ Ox1′x ′′ x3′ .64) where ( x1 . x 2 .59) in Problem 4.29.63) in Problem 4. (see equation (4. I 23 − m( x 2 x3 ) = I ′′ 23 O .59) we can obtain: 2 I11 + m( x 2 + x 32 ) = I ′′ 11 O 2 2 I 22 + m( x1 + x 3 ) = I ′′ 22 O 2 I33 + m( x12 + x 2 ) = I ′′ 33 O . V. we obtain the components due to a rotation by means of the equation (4. After that.

By expressing the components of I and ω in the ′ 2 ′ system x1 x ′ x3 . we obtain: r r r r D r & & HO ≡ HO = m x ∧ a + HG Dt (4. r ω . To solve this University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .65) r r & where a is the acceleration of the center of mass. we discuss the term H G .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS Problem 4. as the solid rotates with respect to the system x ′ the inertia tensor changes. (see Figure 4. r since the mass distribution is changing with respect to the system x ′ .angular velocity of the system x * ′ x3 * x2 * x3 r HO r ω * x1 x3 G r x ′ x1 x2 O ′ x2 G . Then. This procedure is very laborious.16). We ′ 2 ′ adopt the mobile system x1 x ′ x3 but with fixed orientation in space which is parallel to the r fixed system x1 x 2 x3 .center of mass x1 Figure 4. find the rate of change of the angular momentum in such a way that we do not need to calculate at each instant of time the inertia tensor. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . we obtain: r r ′ H G = I ′ ⋅ ω′ r r D r &′ & r & ′ H G ≡ H G = I ′ ⋅ ω′ + I ′ ⋅ ω′ Dt r Note that.31 r r r r r 341 r r Taking into account the angular momentum H O = m x ∧ v + I ⋅ ω = m x ∧ v + H G .angular velocity of the body r ϕ r HG r r ϕ . at each time rate of change     →  step we have to calculate the inertia tensor.16 Solution: Applying the material time derivative we obtain: [ ] r r r r D r D & m x ∧ v + HG HO ≡ HO = Dt Dt r r D D r m x ∧v + HG = Dt Dt r r r Dv r Dx r & =m ∧v +m x ∧ + HG Dt Dt r r r r r & = m v 2v + m x ∧ a + H G ∧ 13 r [ ] [ ] =0 Then. Next.

16). ϕ = ϕ (t ) r is the angular velocity of the mobile system x * .69) By: Eduardo W. we adopt a new system x * .67) can still be written as follows: r r* r* &′ & H G = A T ⋅ Ω T ⋅ H G + H G      (components) r* r* &  T r * = A ⋅ ϕ ∧ HG + HG     (4. Proving that (4. the mobile system velocity is equal to the angular velocity of the solid. Then.29). i. ω ′ = A ⋅ ω  * T * ′ ′ . we can express (4. & & we can conclude that Ω = A ⋅ A T ⇒ A T = A T ⋅ Ω T . where Ω T is the antisymmetric r tensor and represents the rate of change of rotation of the system x * with respect to the r system x ′ . (see Figure 4. (see Chapter of the textbook).e. the following is true: (components) r* r r r* H G = A ⋅ H G ′ ′ HG = A T ⋅ HG .68) can be rewritten as follows: r r* r* r &′ & H G = A T ⋅ ϕ * ∧ H G + H G      r r* r* r * (components) &′ &  r* r * & T r* ⇒ A ⋅ H G = A ⋅ A ⋅ ϕ ∧ H G + H G  = ϕ ∧ H G + H G       University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .66) as follows: r r* r* &′ & H G = A T ⋅Ω T ⋅ H G + A T ⋅ H G (components) r* r* & = A T ⋅ Ω T ⋅ H G + H G      (4. By means of the component transformation law. V. i. Chaves (2013) . which has origin at the center of mass.14 in Problem 4. (see Figure 4. 2) DI * = 0 if the solid rotates around a prismatic axis. Dt NOTE 1: The equation in (4.Spain Draft (4. IO = A T ⋅ I O ⋅ A  IO = A ⋅ IO ⋅ A  r r where A is the transformation matrix from the x ′ -system to x * -system.e.68) where r* r* D * r * DI * r * & * Dω HG = I ⋅ω = ⋅ω + I ⋅ Dt Dt Dt [ The term 1) ] DI * is equal to zero when one of the two possibilities holds: Dt r r r DI * = 0 if the system x * is attached to the solid. the equation ϕ = ω Dt holds.67) r* r r* Resorting to the antisymmetric tensor property such that Ω T ⋅ H G = ϕ ∧ H G (see NOTA r r r 3).  r r r* r* T ω = A ⋅ ω ′ . where ϕ is the axial vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor Ω T . r r * ′ The rate of change of H G = A T ⋅ H G becomes: [ ] r r* r* r* D r D & &′ & ′ A T ⋅ HG = A T ⋅ HG + A T ⋅ HG HG ≡ HG = Dt Dt (4. In this case.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 342 r problem.66) By analogy with the rate of change of the orthogonal tensor.

4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 343 r r r &′ &′ Note that the term A ⋅ H G are the components of H G in the system x * . V.e.72) is the convective rate.17 NOTE 3: Note that the equation (4. Chaves (2013) . which is defined by a = a + l l C r r & = D + W . and note also r r &* &′ that A ⋅ H G ≠ H G . (see Chapter on The C r r & Objectivity of Tensors in the textbook).71) is valid for any vector (see Figure 4. Recall from Chapter 2 (Chaves (2013)) Draft By: Eduardo W. NOTE 2: The equation in (4. then a = a + l University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ∧  =  + ϕ 2ϕ =  1 r3  Dt  r  Dt  f  Dt  r =0 r r b ϕ ′ x3 * x2 * x3 * x1 ′ x2 ′ x1 Figure 4.70) we can also express the above equation in tensorial notation: r  DH G   Dt  r  DH G   r r   =  Dt  + ϕ ∧ H G  r f  (tensorial notation) (4. the rate of r r change of the vector b respect to the fixed system x ′ is equal to the rate of change of the r r vector b respect to the rotating system x * plus the vector product between angular r velocity of the system ( ϕ which is associated to the antisimetric tensor Ω T ) and the vector r b: r r r r  Db   Db   Db  r r T     = +Ω ⋅b =  +ϕ ∧ b  Dt     Dt    rotating   fixed  Dt  rotating r r (4.Spain T r r T r ⋅ a .17). where    Dt  f r r  DH G    represents the rate of change of H G with respect to the rotating system with an  Dt   r r angular velocity ϕ . where r & ⋅ a = a + (D + W)T ⋅ a . i. then: r * r r r & & A ⋅ H ′  = H * + ϕ * ∧ H * (components) G G G    (4.71) r r  DH G    represents the rate of change of H G with respect to the fixed system.72) r r r  Dϕ   Dϕ   Dϕ  Note also that  .

73) & θ cosθ 0  − sin θ  & & − θ sin θ 0 = θ − cosθ  0  0   0 cosθ − sin θ 0 0 0  0  & 0  0 1 0  0 θ 0   & & 0  = θ  − 1 0 0 =  − θ 0 0     0 0 0  0 0 0 1      0 ϕ i = 0   & θ    ⇒ 0   r where ϕ is the axial vector associated with the antisymmetric tensor Ω T . with that we obtain a = a + Ω T ⋅ a . And if we are considering rigid solid C r r r & & & motion we have D = 0 . Let us assume that the ei -system ˆ is rotating according to the ei -system (see Figure 4. U = 0 . and W = Ω = R ⋅ R T . V.18). ˆ NOTE 4: Let us expose a simple example to obtain Ω T . & ϕ3 =θ ˆ e3 ˆ e1 ˆ e2 ˆ e3 θ ˆ e2 ˆ e1 Figure 4. and to obtain Ω T we procedure as ˆ ˆ follows. The transformation matrix from ei to ei is given by:  cos θ A =  − sin θ   0   d (cosθ )  dt  d (A ) & =  − d (sin θ ) ≡A dt dt  0    d (sin θ ) dt d (cosθ ) dt 0  − sin θ & ⋅ A T = θ − cosθ & Ω =A   0  cosθ & 0 − θ & Ω T = θ 0 0 0  − sin θ 0 0  0  0 =  ϕ 3  0 − ϕ 2   −ϕ 3 0 ϕ3 sin θ cos θ 0 0 0  1   0  &   − θ sin θ & 0 = − θ cosθ   0  0   0 cosθ 0  sin θ  0  0  ϕ2  −ϕ 1  − sin θ cosθ 0 (4. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 344 1 2 [ ] & & & that W = R ⋅ U ⋅ U −1 − U −1 ⋅ U ⋅ R T + R ⋅ R T holds.18 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

g. To this system the Newton’s law is applied. centripetal force. and if there is a falling body it is true that: r r F = mA Let us consider also that an observer (attached to the system ox1 x 2 x3 ) is moving (for simplicity’s sake we will just consider translation). inertial forces appear if the observer’s system is rotating. Since the system ox1 x 2 x3 is moving we denote it by non-inertial reference frame.19 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . e. we can obtain: r r r X =c+ x The material time derivative of the above equation becomes: r r r & & & X =c+ x D Dt → r r && && r X = c + && x ⇒ r && r r A = c + && x and if we multiply by mass ( m ) we get: r r r && mA = mc + m&& x ⇒ r r r r && r && m&& = mA − mc = F − mc x r r r && ma = F − mc ⇒ r Note that. Chaves (2013) . for the observer it appears the additional force (−m&&) to the “Newton’s law”. In addition. This system is denoted by inertial reference frame. c This additional force is a fictitious force or pseudo force which is denoted by inertial force. r mA X2 r x r X x2 r c x1 O X1 X3 Figure 4.19) which is fixed in space. (see Figure 4.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 345 NOTE 5: Inertial forces Let us consider the system OX 1 X 2 X 3 (see Figure 4.19). By means of vector summation. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

Note that the term ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) is very small = ≈ 0. (see Figure 4.20).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.72) to obtain the velocity: r r r r  Dx   Dx  =    +ω∧ x  Dt  f  Dt  r ⇒ r r r r v f = vr + ω ∧ x We apply the same definition to the above equation in order to obtain the acceleration. ω3 = 2π University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . ˆ ˆ ˆ (see Figure 4.74).: r r r r r r r  Dv f  r r r r  D[v r + ω ∧ x ]  D[v r + ω ∧ x ]   =  =  + ω ∧ [v r + ω ∧ x ] Dt Dt f  r  Dt  f  r r r r r r r r r  Dv   D[ω ∧ x ] af =  r  +   + ω ∧ v r + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x )  Dt  r  Dt  r r r r r r r  Dx  r r r r r  Dv   Dω  ∧ x+ω∧ af =  r  +    + ω ∧ v r + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x )  Dt  r  Dt  r  Dt  r r r r r r r r r r r r & a = a + ω ∧ x + ω ∧ v + ω ∧ v + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) f r r r r r r r r r r r r & a f = ar + ω ∧ x + 2(ω ∧ vr ) + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) r r & As we are assuming angular velocity constant ω = 0 . Chaves (2013) . the angular acceleration is zero. which is constant with time. respectively. and also if we adopt the system ( e r . e3 ) and taking into account that 2 r r r r r r r r r 2r r 2r ω ⋅ r = 0 we obtain the following equation ω ∧ (ω ∧ r ) = (ω ⋅ r ) ω − ω r = − ω r . The above equation is just relating the acceleration in a fixed system in function of parameters defined in the rotating system. if ω = ω3e 3 .727 × 10− 4 day 86400 s s r r compared with the term 2(ω ∧ vr ) .75) Note that to obtain the above equation we have not used any principle of conservation. i.57).17). (see Problem 2.32 r Show that the acceleration at a fixed system a f can be expressed as: r r r r r r r a f = ar + 2(ω ∧ v r ) + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) r (4.17).SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 346 Problem 4. i. Solution: We use directly the equation in (4. r r r r r r r r r NOTE 1: Using the identity a ∧ (b ∧ c ) = (a ⋅ c )b − (a ⋅ b )c . the acceleration and the velocity of a particle with r respect to an observer that is rotating with the system x * . we can conclude: r r r r r r r r r & a f = ar + ω ∧ x + 2(ω ∧ v r ) + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) (4. Note that. eθ . V. Earth rotates at a rate r r r 2π rad rad rad .74) r where a r and v r are. Then.e. with that we obtain the equation in (4. (see Problem 1.e. Consider also r r r that ϕ = ω is the angular velocity of the system x * . we can r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ˆ conclude that ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) = (ω ⋅ x )ω − (ω ⋅ ω ) x = (ω ⋅ x )ω − ω x . which is the centripetal acceleration.

20 r r NOTE 2: The term 2(ω ∧ v r ) . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Next. which was established by Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis in 1835. V.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS x3 . y x1 . e′′ S Figure 4. e1′ Equator ˆ ˆ3 e1 . we represent r r ˆi 2(ω ∧ v r ) in the system e′ : ω3 N ˆ e′2 Latitude r x φ ˆ3 e′ ˆ′ e1 ˆ ˆ′ e 3 . z r ˆ ω = ω3 e 3 ω3 r r x3 347 ˆ e3 ˆ eθ r x ˆ er φ x2 . x Figure 4. is associated with the fictitious force called Coriolis force. e′2 ˆ ˆ′ e 2 .21 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.77) The term f = 2ω3 sin(φ ) is known as Coriolis parameter.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 348 ˆ ˆ Then. the transformation law from e i to e′i is given by: ˆ′ ˆ  e1   0 1 0   e1  ˆ    e  e′2  = − sin φ 0 cosφ   ˆ 2  e′   cosφ 0 sin φ  e  ˆ  ˆ 3   3  ⇒ 1 0   0 − sin φ 0 cosφ  B=   cosφ 0 sin φ    ˆ ω3e3 ω3 (4. Chaves (2013) . To small value of vr 3 the above equation reduce to: r r r  Dv r  ˆ′ ˆ ˆ′ ˆ   = −2(ω ∧ v r ) = [2ω3 sin(φ )vr 2 ]e1 + [− 2ω3 sin(φ )vr1 ]e′2 = [ f vr 2 ]e1 + [− f vr1 ]e′2  Dt  r  Dv r 1  Dt = f vr 2  ⇒  Dv r 2 = − f v r1  Dt  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .76) r ˆ ˆ3 ω = ω3 cos(φ )e′2 + ω3 sin(φ )e′ N ˆ e′2 ˆ3 e′ φ S Figure 4. V.22 r r The term 2(ω ∧ v r ) can be obtained as follows: ˆ′ ˆ ˆ3 e1 e′2 e′ r r 2(ω ∧ vr ) = 0 ω3 cos(φ ) ω3 sin(φ ) vr1 vr 2 vr 3 ˆ′ ˆ ˆ3 = 2e1[ω3 cos(φ )vr 3 − ω3 sin(φ )vr 2 ] − 2e′2 [− ω3 sin(φ )vr1 ] + 2e′ [− ω3 cos(φ )vr1 ] ˆ′ ˆ ˆ3 = 2[ω3 cos(φ )vr 3 − ω3 sin(φ )vr 2 ]e1 + 2[ω3 sin(φ )vr1 ]e′2 − 2[ω3 cos(φ )vr1 ]e′ (4.

e.21.75). ( x1 = 0) . Let us consider also that a body of mass m is free′ ′ falling from rest with the following initial conditions: at t = 0 .78) Note that ′ d 2 x3 dx′ = − g integratin g → 3 = − gt + C1   ⇒ vr 3 = − gt 2 dt dt dx′ t2 t2 ′ ′ ⇒ 3 = − gt integrating → x3 = − g + C2   ⇒ x3 = − g + h dt 2 2 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .23: Coriolis effect (Ref. d ′ x3 = v3 = 0) . As the body is falling we will calculate the deflection of dt ′ the body. Then  d 2 x1  ′  2  ar1   dt  − 2ω3 cos(φ )vr 3  2 r     d x′   (ar )i = ar1  =  22  =  0   a   dt   −g   r1   d 2 x3   ′  dt 2    (4. V. and we are considering that the term r r r r r ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) is very small when compared with the term 2(ω ∧ vr ) whose components are given by (4. i.: Wikipedia “Coriolis effect”). r r The Newton’s Second Law ( F = ma f ) (apply to an inertial reference frame). (v2 = 0) .77).Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. NOTE 3: Deflection of vertically falling body A very simple application of the Coriolis effect is presented next. We will adopt the system used in Figure 4. we will obtain x1 related to the observer which is attached to a system which ( is rotating with the Earth. ( x3 = h) . Let us consider an observer on the surface of the Earth.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 349 Figure 4. Chaves (2013) . (v1 = 0) . then r r r r r r r F = m[ar + 2(ω ∧ v r ) + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x )] r r r ˆ ⇒ ar = − ge′ − 2(ω ∧ vr ) ⇒ r ⇒ r r r r r r ˆ3 ma r = F − 2m(ω ∧ v r ) = − mge′ − 2m(ω ∧ v r ) − 2[ω3 cos(φ )vr 3 − ω3 sin(φ )vr 2 ] − 2ω3 cos(φ )vr 3  r     − 2[ω3 sin(φ )vr1 ] (a r ) i =  0 =      −g 2[ω3 cos(φ )vr1 ] − g     where the acceleration a f is given by (4.

at t = 0 ⇒ (vr 3 = 0) ′ t = 0 ⇒ ( x3 = h) ⇒ ′ C2 = h .78) we can obtain: d 2 x'1 dx ' t2 integratin = −2ω3 cos(φ )vr 3 = 2ω3 gt cos(φ )   g → 1 = 2ω3 g cos(φ ) + C1 = vr1  2 dt dt 2 where the constant of integration is obtained with the initial condition at (t = 0) ⇒ {v′1 = 0 r ⇒ C1 = 0 dx '1 t3 = vr1 = ω3 g cos(φ )t 2 integratin g → x'1 = ω3 g cos(φ ) + C2   dt 3 Note also that C2 = 0 . with that we obtain: 1 x'1 = ω3 g cos(φ )t 3 3 As the body is falling from height h we can state that h = 1 2 gt ⇒ t = 2 2h . and 2 t gt . +h=0⇒h= 2 2 Considering the acceleration vr 3 = − gt into the first component of (4. V. Chaves (2013) . Note that x3 = − g 2 ⇒ C1 = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 350 where we have considered the initial conditions. i.e. with that the g above equation becomes: 3 1 ω g  2h  2 x'1 = ω3 g cos(φ )t 3 = 3   cos(φ ) 3 3  g    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

e′2 (north). Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 351 NOTE 4: Acceleration due to sphericity ˆ′ ˆ ˆ Local system e1 (east).24 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .e′3 (radially upward) N N ˆ e′2 r r Latitude W ˆ e3 ˆ e1 N – North S – South E – East W – West r x φ ˆ3 e′ S r r r = x cosφ ˆ e3 ˆ e2 θ Equator E ˆ′ e1 ˆ e1 S Pole r dθ r dθ ˆ ′ = x cosφ ( e1 ) v r1 = r dt dt ˆ e3 vr 2 N NP ˆ e′2 r r r x φ ˆ3 e′ S ˆ e2 NP θ SP v r1 r r E ˆ′ e1 W ˆ e1 r dφ ˆ ( e′2 ) vr 2 = x dt Figure 4. V.

24 the & dθ = r v r 1 & dφ = vr 2 hold.73)):  cos θ A =  − sin θ   0  sin θ cosθ 0 0 0  1  (4.76)) is given by: 1 0   0 − sin φ 0 cosφ  B=   cosφ 0 sin φ    (4. Notice that according to Figure 4. following relationships θ ≡ and φ ≡ r dt x cosφ dt x We apply the definition (see equation (4. so: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .80) ˆ ˆ Then the transformation matrix from ei to e′i is given by: 1 0   cosθ  0  − sin φ 0 cosφ  − sin θ C = BA =    cosφ 0 sin φ   0   sin θ cosθ 0 0  − sin θ 0 =  − sin φ cosθ   1  cosφ cosθ   cosθ − sin φ sin θ cosφ sin θ 0  cosφ   sin φ   The rate of change of C is given by: & &   − θ cos θ − θ sin θ 0  d (C ) &  & & & & & ≡ C = ( −φ cos φ cos θ + θ sin φ sin θ ) ( −φ cos φ sin θ − θ sin φ cos θ ) − φ sin φ  dt & & & & & ( −φ sin φ cos θ − θ cos φ sin θ ) ( −φ sin φ sin θ + θ cos φ cos θ ) φ cos φ    & After the algebraic operation Ω = CC T takes place we obtain:  0  & &  0 θ sin φ − θ cos φ    & v & &   − φ  = − r r1 sin φ 0 Ω = CC T = − θ sin φ & &  θ cos φ   x cos φ 0 φ    v r1 r  x cos φ cos φ  0 vr1 tan φ − vr1   1  0 = r − vr1 tan φ − vr 2   x  v r1 0  vr 2   v r1 sin φ r x cos φ 0 vr 2 r x  v − r r1 cos φ  x cos φ   vr 2 − r  x   0   which is an antisymmetric matrix. (see equation (4.79) ˆ ˆ and the transformation matrix from e i to e′i (see equation (4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. as expected.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 352 ˆ ˆ Previously we have obtained the transformation matrix from ei to ei . Chaves (2013) .71)) r  Dv   Dt  r  r r Dv   =   + ϕ ∧ vr   f  Dt  r r r r Note also that Ω T ⋅ v r = ϕ ∧ v r holds. V.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. a) Show the Euler’s equations of motion: & I1ω1 = ω2 ω3 (I 2 − I3 )  & I 2 ω2 = ω1ω3 (I3 − I1 ) I ω = ω ω (I − I ) 1 2 1 2  3&3 Euler’s equations of motion (4.77) and (4. (see Figure 4. Chaves (2013) .75)) and curvature is given by: r r r r r r r r a f = a r + 2(ω ∧ v r ) + Ω T ⋅ vr + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) (4. Solution: The governing equations for a rigid body motion (see Problem 4. so. (4. in this r r situation we have that ϕ = ω . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . We will consider a mobile system Gxyz attached to the body. ωi are the components of the body angular velocity ( ω ). Dt b) Show that the kinetic energy is constant.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS − vr1 tan φ  0 r 1  Ω ⋅ v r = r vr1 tan φ x  − v r1  T 0 − vr 2 − vr1vr 2 tan φ + vr1vr 3  r r  1  2 ⇒ a f = a r + r  vr1 tan φ + vr 2 vr 3  x   − vr21 − vr22   − vr1vr 2 tan φ + vr1vr 3  v r1   v r1    v  = 1  v 2 tan φ + v v vr 2   r 2  r  r1  r 2 r3 x   − vr21 − vr22 0  v r 3      ⇒ − vr1vr 2 tan φ + vr1vr 3  r r  1  2 a r = a f − r  vr1 tan φ + vr 2 vr 3  x   − vr21 − vr22   353 (4.26) are: ∑ r r F = ma and ∑ r r & MG = HG If the body is free of forces and torque we have that: r r ∑F =0 and r ∑M G r r & = 0 = HG r & Next we will evaluate the term H G .84) where Ii are the principal moment of inertia related to the system G xyz whose origin is at r the center of mass G . V.25).33 Consider the rigid body in motion in which there are no forces acting on the body and also consider a torque-free motion. and & ωi ≡ Dωi denotes the time derivative of the angular velocity.83) where Problem 4.81) NOTE 5: Coriolis + Curvature acceleration The acceleration related to the Coriolis terms (see Eq.82) − vr1vr 2 tan(φ ) + vr1vr 3  2[ω3 vr 3 cos(φ ) − ω3 vr 2 sin(φ )] r r    1  2 T r 2(ω ∧ v r ) + Ω ⋅ v r =  2[ω3 vr1 sin(φ )]  + r  vr1 tan(φ ) + vr 2 vr 3    x   − 2[ω3 vr1 cos(φ ) ] − vr21 − vr22     (4.

center of mass Figure 4. & I Gxyz = 0 . so.31 we have obtained an efficient equation in order to calculate H G . (see r r equation (4. I Gxyz does not change as well. V. x2 .principal axes of inertia r ϕ =ω x2 x3 x1 G ′ x1 ′ x2 G . i.Spain components →  Draft r & (H )  & &  &  r Gxyz 1   I1ω1 + I1ω1   I1ω1    &  &  & & ( H Gxyz ) 2  = I 2 ω2 + I 2 ω2  = I 2 ω2  r   I ω + I ω  I ω   & & & & ( H Gxyz ) 3   3 3 3 3   3 3    By: Eduardo W.e.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 354 r ω . Chaves (2013) .25 r & In Problem 4.  ω1  r   ( ω ) i = ω 2  ω   3 The angular momentum: r r r r components →  H Gxyz = I Gxyz ⋅ ω ( H Gxyz ) i = (I Gxyz )ij ( ω) j r  ( H Gxyz )1  I1 0 0   ω1   I1ω1   r       ( H Gxyz ) 2  =  0 I 2 0  ω2  = I 2 ω2  r ( H        Gxyz )3   0 0 I 3  ω3  I 3ω3  The rate of change of the angular momentum: Note that. With that we have: r  DH G   Dt     r r  DH Gxyz =  Dt   r &  ≡ H Gxyz   Gxyz University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .angular velocity of the system x r ′ x3 x1 .71)). and by considering ϕ = ω we get: r  DH G   Dt  r  DH G   =    f  Dt r   DH G r r  + ϕ ∧ HG =    Dt r  r  r  + ω ∧ H Gxyz  r For this problem we have: I1 (I Gxyz ) ij =  0  0  0 0  I3   0 I2 0 .angular velocity of the body r HG r r ϕ . x3 . since the system G xyz is attached to the body the mass distribution respect to this system does not change during motion.

28 equation (4. with that we obtain: 1 1 K(t ) = ωk I kj ω j = [ω1 ω2 2 2 = [ 1 2 2 I1ω1 + I 2 ω2 + I3ω3 2 2 ] I1 0 ω3 ]  0 I 2  0 0  0   ω1  0  ω 2    I 3   ω3    And the rate of change of the kinetic energy becomes: [ ] [ 1 D 1 D 2 2 & & & & K(t ) = K(t ) = I1ω1 + I 2 ω2 + I 3ω3 = 2ω1 I1ω1 + 2ω2 I 2 ω2 + 2ω3I 3ω3 2 2 Dt 2 Dt & & & = ω1 I1ω1 + ω2I 2 ω2 + ω3I 3ω3 ] If we consider the Euler’s equation (4. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V.61)) is given by: 1 2 1r 2 r K(t ) = mv 2 + ω ⋅ I ⋅ ω Since the origin of the adopted system is at G (mass center) we have v = 0 .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS ˆ e1 r r ω ∧ H Gxyz = ω1 ˆ e2 ω2 355 ˆ e3 ω3 I1ω1 I 2 ω2 I 3 ω3 ˆ ˆ ˆ = (ω2I3ω3 − ω3I 2 ω2 )e1 + (ω3I1ω1 − ω1I 3ω3 )e 2 + (ω1I 2 ω2 − ω2 I1ω1 )e 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ = ω2 ω3 (I 3 − I 2 )e1 + ω1ω3 (I1 − I3 )e 2 + ω1ω2 (I 2 − I1 )e 3 Components: ω2 ω3 (I3 − I 2 )  r r   ω ∧ H Gxyz i =  ω1ω3 (I1 − I 3 )   ω ω (I − I )   1 2 2 1  { } With that we can calculate r  DH G   Dt  r r r  r &  = H Gxyz + ω ∧ H Gxyz = 0  f whose components are: { } } {} { r r r r & H Gxyz i + ω ∧ H Gxyz i = 0 &  I1ω1  ω2 ω3 (I3 − I 2 ) 0       & I 2 ω2  +  ω1ω3 (I1 − I3 )  = 0 I ω   ω ω (I − I )  0  3&3  1 2 2 1    ⇒ i & I1ω1 = ω2 ω3 (I 2 − I 3 )  & ⇒ I 2 ω2 = ω1ω3 (I3 − I1 ) I ω = ω ω (I − I ) 1 2 1 2  3&3 b) The kinetic energy for rigid body motion (see Problem 4.84) the above equation becomes: & & & & K(t ) = ω1 I1ω1 + ω2I 2 ω2 + ω3I3ω3 = ω1 ω2ω3 (I 2 − I3 ) + ω2ω1ω3 (I3 − I1 ) + ω3ω1ω2 (I1 − I 2 ) = ω1 ω2 ω3 (I 2 − I3 + I3 − I1 + I1 − I 2 ) =0 with that we show that the kinetic energy is constant for any problem which is governed by Euler’s equations of motion.

V. x3 X1 x1 r r ˆ ˆ ϕ = ω = ω3e 3 = ω3E3 ω3 r ω . E 3 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ system Ox1 x2 x3 => orthonormal base (e1 .angular velocity of the body x2 r r ϕ .34 Obtain a simplified form of the rigid body governing equations for the particular case: a) Rigid body rotation around a fixed axis without forces. E 2 .26) and the mobile system Ox1 x2 x3 attached to the body. e 2 . X 3 . Solution: We will consider the fixed system OX 1 X 2 X 3 and we adopt the rotation axis the X 3 -axis.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 356 Problem 4.26 If the body is free of forces the governing equations becomes: r r ∑F =0 and r ∑M O r & = HO r & where H O can be calculated by means of r r  DH O & HO ≡   Dt  r r  D H Ox   =  r  Dt  OX  r r  r r r  D H Ox  + ϕ ∧ H Ox =   Dt  r   Ox r r  r  + ω ∧ H Ox  r  Ox The angular momentum: r r r r r r r r components →  H Ox = I Ox ⋅ ω ( H Ox )i = (I Ox ) ij ( ω) j r r  ( H Ox )1   IO11 − I O12 − I O13   0   − I O13ω3   r r       IO 22 − I O 23   0  = − I O 23ω3  ( H Ox ) 2  =  − I O12 r ( H r )   − I IO 33  ω3   I O 33ω3  − I O 23 O13      Ox 3   And its rate of change: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . e 3 ) Figure 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.angular velocity of the system x O X2 ˆ ˆ ˆ system OX 1 X 2 X 3 => orthonormal base (E1 . (see Figure 4. Chaves (2013) .

g. z x ω3 IO1  I Gxyz =  IO 2   IO1 = IO 2    IO 3   G University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . e. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . NOTE: If the body is prismatic and if we adopt the prismatic axis the same as the rotating axis the above equations reduce to:      ∑M ∑M ∑M O1 O2 O3 ∑M ≡ ∑M ≡ ∑M ≡ X =0 Y =0 Z & = IO 3ω3 since the system Ox1 x2 x3 is principal axes of inertia.4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 357 r & ( H r )  − I ω  & O13 3  r Ox 1    & r   & ( H Ox ) 2  = − I O 23ω3  r & ( H r )   I ω  &  Ox 3   O 33 3    r r r And we need to calculate the vector ω ∧ H Ox : ˆ e1 0 ˆ e2 0 − IO13ω3 − I O 23ω3 r r r ω ∧ H Ox = ˆ e3 2ˆ 2ˆ ω3 = I O 23ω3 e1 − I O13ω3 e 2 I O 33ω3 thus Applying ∑ 2 2 & &  − I O13ω3   I O 23ω3   I O 23ω3 − IO13ω3  r      & 2 2 & & ( H O ) i = − I O 23ω3  + − I O13ω3  = − I O13ω3 − I O 23ω3   I ω      & 0 IO 33ω3  O 33 & 3      r r & M O = H O we get the following set of equations:      ∑M ∑M ∑M O1 O2 O3 ∑M ≡ ∑M ≡ ∑M ≡ X Y Z 2 & = I O 23ω3 − IO13ω3 2 & = − IO13ω3 − I O 23ω3 & = I O 33ω3 & where ω = α stands for angular acceleration.

r b) Find the torque ( ∑ M ) in order to maintain the rotation.28. (see Figure 4. Chaves (2013) . ω m θ l l m Figure 4.26).28 The inertia tensor I (system Oxyz ) is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 358 Problem 4.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. We will adopt a fixed system OXYZ at the space and a mobile system Oxyz which is attached to the body. a) Find the angular momentum of the body. (see Problem 4. The rod is inclined about θ respect to the vertical line and rotates with angular velocity ω as indicated in Figure 4. Y r ˆ ω = ωJ ω m y θ r ω l X Z≡z l m x Figure 4.27 Solution: We apply the governing equations for a rigid solid motion.35 A rigid body consists of two masses m at each extremity of the weightless rod whose length is 2l .27.

Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V. r The angular momentum H O : r r HO = I ⋅ω 0 0   − ω cos(θ)  0  H Ox  0  H  = 0 2ml 2   ω sin(θ)  =  2ml 2 ω sin(θ)  ⇒  Oy   0      H Oz  0    0 2ml 2   0 0        r 2 ˆ ⇒ H O = 0ˆ + 2ml ω sin(θ) ˆ + 0k i j r The torque ∑ M can be evaluated as follows: r r r r r & & ∑ M = H O = ( H O ) Oxyz + ϕ ∧ H O [ ] r r r r & We can observe that (H O ) Oxyz = 0 and ϕ = ω hold. Chaves (2013) .4 THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS IOxyz 0 0 0 2ml 2 = 0 0  359 0  0   2ml 2   r The angular velocity ω (system Oxyz ): r ω = −ω cos(θ)ˆ + ω sin(θ)ˆ + 0k i j ˆ r where ω is the module of ω . then: ˆ ˆ ˆ  i j k r r   r r & ∑ M = H O = ω ∧ H O =  − ω cos(θ) ω sin(θ) 0  0 2ml 2 ω sin(θ) 0    r r & ˆ ˆ ⇒ ∑ M = H O = −ω cos(θ)2ml 2 ω sin(θ)k = −ω2 ml 2 sin(2θ)k Y r ˆ ω = −ω cos(θ)ˆ + ω sin(θ)ˆ + 0k i j r ˆ H O = 0ˆ + 2ml 2 ω sin(θ) ˆ + 0k i j ω [ m ] y θ r ω l r HO X Z≡z l m x Figure 4.29 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .

Russell JOHNSTON (1987). 2 Volumes.Dynamics. Russell JOHNSTON & William E CLAUSEN (2004). Seventh Edition. Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics. E. BEER. Ferdinand P. 4 edition. Seventh Edition. Seventh edition (2004) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . BEER. McGraw Hill Higher Education. Chaves (2013) . E.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. V. 2 Volumes.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 360 Solution using the system OXYZ The transformation matrix from OXYZ to Oxyz is given by: T   π  π   cos 2 − θ  sin  2 − θ  0      sin (θ) − cos(θ) 0   π  π  − sin − θ cos − θ  0 = cos(θ) sin (θ) 0 A=         2  2   0   0 1   0 0 1       The inertia tensor for the system OXYZ is: I OXYZ = A T I Oxyz A I OXYZ 0  sin (θ) cos(θ) 0 0  − cos(θ ) sin (θ ) 0 0 2ml 2 =   0 0 1  0 0   0   sin (θ) − cos(θ) 0 0  cos(θ) sin (θ) 0   2ml 2   0 0 1    2ml 2 cos 2 (θ ) 2ml 2 sin (θ ) cos(θ) 0    =  2ml 2 sin (θ ) cos(θ) 2ml 2 sin 2 (θ) 0   0 0 2ml 2    The angular momentum becomes: r r H OXYZ = A T H Oxyz 0  H Ox    H  =  2ml 2 ω sin(θ)  Oy     H Oz    0     2 0  H OX   sin (θ) cos(θ) 0    2ml ω cos(θ) sin(θ)   ⇒  H OY  = − cos(θ) sin (θ) 0 2ml 2 ω sin(θ) =  2ml 2 ω sin 2 (θ)         H OZ   0   0 1  0 0        The torque: r ˆ ∑ M = −ω 2 ml 2 sin(2θ)K Rigid Solid Motion Reference Ferdinand P. Instructor's and Solutions Manual to Accompany Vector Mechanics for Engineers .

T ) ∂ψ ( F . T ) = ρ 0 r The free variables are F -deformation gradient.5 Introduction to Constitutive Equations and IBVP 5.T ) ∂ψ ( E . ∇ X T ) Constitutive equation for stress P( F . ∇ X T ) ⋅ F T r r = J −1F ⋅ q0 ( F . T ) Constitutive equation for entropy η ( F .1 Describe the constitutive equation and the free variables for simple thermoelastic materials when we are considering the Helmholtz free energy ψ . T ) η (E . T ) S = ρ0 ∂E . T ) T ⋅F σ=ρ ∂F ∂ψ ( F . ∇ X T ) Problem 5. T ) ∂F ∂ψ ( F . T . Solution: The constitutive equations for a simple material are in function of the following free variables: Constitutive equation for energy ψ = ψ ( F .1 Solved Problems Problem 5. T ) η (F . T -temperature. ∂ψ ( E . T .T ) = − ∂T r r r ˆ q0 = q0 ( E . T . ∇ X T ) ψ = ψ (F . ∇ X T -temperature gradient. The constitutive equations can also be expressed as follows ˆ ψ = ψ (E . T ) ∂ψ ( F . T .2 Consider an elastic material in which the energy density (per unit volume) is known and is given by: . T ) = − ∂T r r r Constitutive equation for heat conduction q0 = q0 ( F . T ) = − ∂T r −1 r r q = J q0 ( F .

T ) η (E .T ) ∂ψ ( E . T . the remaining constitutive equation is the one related to stress. V. i. Obtain also the explicit expression for the constitutive equations in terms of λ . II E ) ∂Ψ ( I E . since the energy expression is not a function of temperature. T ) − 1 ρ0 S : E as constitutive equation for energy for thermoelastic materials. Obtain the remaining constitutive equations for thermoelastic materials. Chaves (2013) . Formulary I E = I E ( E ) = Tr ( E ) II E = II E ( E ) = [ 1 ( TrE ) 2 − Tr ( E 2 ) 2 ] ∂I E =1 ∂E ∂ II E = Tr ( E )1 − E T ∂E Solution: According to the problem.: S = ρ0 ∂ψ ( E ) ∂Ψ ( I E . Solution: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. the first and second principal invariants of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor.T ) = − ∂T r r r ˆ q0 = q0 ( E . we can conclude that the problem is independent of temperature. T ) S = ρ0 ∂E ∂ψ ( E . ∇ X T ) Considering the expression of the given energy. Obtain the constitutive equations for this problem. T ) = ψ ( E . We know that the general expressions for the constitutive equations for a simple thermoelastic material are: ˆ ψ = ψ (E . respectively. II E ) = (λ + 2 µ )I E − 2 µ II E where λ and µ are material constants. Then. I E = I E (E ) and II E = II E (E ) are. based on the principle that G(S. the energy is only a function of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. II E ) ∂ II E = = + ∂E ∂E ∂I E ∂E ∂ II E ∂E ( 2  =  (λ + 2 µ )I E (1) + (− 2 µ ) Tr ( E )1 − E T 2  ) Simplifying the above equation. µ . I E and II E . I E = Tr (E ) . and taking into account that E T = E . II E ) ∂I E ∂Ψ ( I E . T ) does not depend on the temperature gradient.3 Consider the specific Gibbs free energy G(S. we obtain: S = λI E 1 + 2 µE Problem 5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 354 1 2 2 Ψ ( I E .

5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 355 We start from the Clausius-Duhem inequality in terms of specific Helmholtz free energy in the reference configuration: [ ] 1r & & & r S : E − ρ 0 ψ + T η − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 T (5. Chaves (2013) . then the above entropy inequality becomes:  ∂G(S. T ) ∂S Then if we take into account the above equation into the inequality (5.4) is met. in which the entropy inequality is violated. T ) & ∂G(S. The above inequality suggests that for a variation of Gibbs free energy we must have the following relationships: Strain for “variation” of stress. Thus. T )  & −ρ0 + E:S ≥ 0 ∂S   (5. we obtain: University of Castilla. T ) − S : E − ρ 0Tη − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 T (5. T ) & ∂G(S .1) Taking into account the specific Gibbs free energy we obtain the rate of change: 1 & 1 & & & G(S. T ) & 1 r r ⇒ − ρ 0 + E  : S − ρ 0 + η T − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 T ∂S    ∂T  (5. T ) = :S + ∂T Dt ∂S and by replacing the above equation into the equation in (5. Let us r r & now consider the process such that T = 0 (isothermal process). T ) − E : S − ρ 0Tη − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 T 1r ∂G(S.3). T ) = G(S. T ) = ψ ( E . we can apply another process such that & & S = −S . T ) + S:E+ S : E + Tη  − q 0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 ρ0 ρ0 T   1r & & & r ⇒ − ρ 0G(S .2) we obtain: 1r & & & r − ρ 0G(S.1) we obtain: & 1 & 1 & & &  1r r S : E − ρ 0 G(S . the only way in which the inequality in (5. T ) & ∂G(S. & The term G(S. T ) − S:E− S:E ρ0 ρ0 1 & 1 & & & ⇒ ψ ( E . T )  &  ∂G(S . T ) + S:E + S:E ρ0 ρ0 and by replacing the above equation into the inequality (5.3) The above inequality must be satisfied for any admissible thermodynamic process. V.4) is satisfied is when: ρ0 ∂G(S. T ) & T ≡ G(S. T ) & & & r :S − ρ0 T − E : S − ρ 0Tη − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 ⇒ −ρ 0 ∂S ∂T T  ∂G(S. Then if in the current process the condition in (5.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. T ) can also be expressed as follows: DG(S.4) Note that the above inequality must also be met for any thermodynamic process.2) & & Note that S : E = E : S holds. and heat conduction in terms of temperature gradient. T ) +E =0 ∂S ⇒ E = −ρ 0 ∂G(S. Entropy for a variation of temperature. and q 0 = 0 (adiabatic process).

T ) ∂G(S . Note that the free variables are (S . T ) ≥ 0 (5. Solution: We start directly from the equation in (5. we could apply another process where T = −T . T ) ∂g(S. T ) r −ρ0 + E  :S − ρ 0 + η T − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 ∂S T    ∂T  (5.4 Show that for an isothermal adiabatic process and with no rate of stress the specific Gibbs free energy cannot increase. Thus. T )  &  ∂G(S. V. Problem 5. T ) & − ρ 0 + η T ≥ 0 ∂T   & & Starting from this point. T ) . T ) & 1 r rT ≥ 0 ⇒ −ρ 0 + η T − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T  ∂T  r r Now let us consider a process where ∇ X T = 0 (a uniform temperature field). q0 = 0 . T ) = −ρ 0 G(S.8) & since ρ 0 > 0 to satisfy the above inequality G(S.5)  ∂G(S. With that the inequality in (5. then the inequality becomes:  ∂G(S .7) r r & Taking into account the isothermal adiabatic process we have T = 0 . T ) +η=0 ∂T ⇒ η=− ∂G(S. T ) ≤ 0 must hold.3): 1r & & & r − ρ 0G(S.7) becomes: & − ρ 0G(S. T ) − E : S − ρ 0Tη − q0 ⋅ ∇ X T ≥ 0 T (5. the constitutive equations are: Constitutive equation for energy G(S.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 356 & 1 r  ∂G(S. Chaves (2013) . T ) Constitutive equation for entropy η = − ∂T r r r Constitutive equation for heat conduction q0 = q0 (∇ X T ) Constitutive equation for strain E = − ρ 0 (5. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. T ) = ∂S ∂S ∂G(S. in which the entropy inequality is violated.6) where g(S. and with no & rate of stress the equation S = 0 holds. the only way in which the above inequality is satisfied is when: ∂G(S. T ) . T ) ∂T Then.

r r ∇X ≈∇x ≈∇ .12) 1 T & & ρη ( x . stress-strain relationship has been established.10) σ = σT (5.11) r r & ρ u = σ : D − ∇ x ⋅ q + ρr r 1 T (5. find the equation in which σ (ε ) is a tensor-valued isotropic tensor function. In an infinitesimal strain regime. t ) + σ : D − ρ u − 1 r r q ⋅ ∇ xT ≥ 0 T2 (5. ρ ≈ ρ 0 . If we take this approach.9) r r & r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv (5. taking into account the fundamental equations: The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics (Current configuration) The Mass Continuity Equation (The principle of conservation of mass) The Equations of Motion (The principle of conservation of linear momentum) Cauchy Stress Tensor symmetry (The principle of conservation of angular momentum) The Energy Equation (The principle of conservation of energy) The Entropy Inequality (The principle of irreversibility) r Dρ r + ρ (∇ x ⋅ v ) = 0 Dt (5. Chaves (2013) .5 Find the governing equations for a continuum solid which has the following features: Isothermal and adiabatic processes. t ) = S : E − ∇ X ⋅ q0 + ρ 0 r ( X . Solution: When we have isothermal and adiabatic processes temperature and entropy play no role. University of Castilla. t ) or in terms of the Helmholtz free energy: ⇒ & & ρu = σ : ε Du D & [ψ + Tη ] = ψ : = Dt Dt & & & ρψ = Ψ e = σ : ε where Ψ e is the energy density (also known as strain energy density). i. an infinitesimal strain regime and a linear elastic relationship between stress and strain. Then if we bear in mind the entropy inequality.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Then. mass density is no longer unknown.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 357 Problem 5. all stored energy caused by ε will recover when ε = 0 .e. b) Once the linear elastic.13) the remaining equations for the proposed problem are: 1) The equations of motion 2) The energy equation r r & ∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv r r r & r & ρ 0 u ( X . we can observe that the proposed problem is characterized by a process without any energy dissipation (an elastic process). V. the following is satisfied: r Strain tensors: E ≈ e ≈ ε = ∇ sym u Stress tensors: P ≈ S ≈ σ F ≈1 .

ψ (ε ) = : ε . t ) = u i * ( x. u (3) and ε (6). Then. t = 0) = u0 r r r r r r ∂u0 ( x . making a total of 15 unknowns and 15 equations. to achieve the unique solution of the set of partial differential equations given in (5. t ) The initial conditions ( t = 0 ): r r r u( x .e.14) ∂Ψ e (ε ) (6 equations) ∂ε r ε = ∇ symu (6 equations) r The unknowns of the proposed problem are: σ (6). t ) =u* ( x . t ) & = u0 ( x .17) The stress boundary condition. and by substituting it with the equation ∂ε & & & ρψ = Ψ e = σ : ε . t ) = v 0 ( x ) ∂t t =0 In the particular case when we have a static or quasi-static problem. the equations of r r motion become the equilibrium equations ( ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = 0 ). so the problem is well-posed.15) r σ jk n k = t j * ( x. on S σ : r r r ˆ ˆ σ ( x . t ) r r ui ( x. the constitutive equations described in Problem 5. t ) (5. Then. hence defining the Initial Boundary Value Problem (IBVP) for the linear elasticity problem.1 become: ψ = ψ (ε ) S≈σ=ρ ∂ψ (ε ) ∂Ψ e (ε ) = = σ (ε ) ∂ε ∂ε Energy ( ψ ) and stress are only functions of strain. The initial and boundary conditions for this problem are: The displacement boundary condition. n. and the initial conditions become redundant. i. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t = 0) = u 0 i ( x ) r & u 0 i ( x) = v0 i (5.16) r r u i ( x . V.e. i. t ) ⋅ n = t * ( x . we can conclude that the energy equation is a redundant one. we obtain: ρ & ∂ψ (ε ) & ∂Ψ e (ε ) & & :ε = :ε = σ :ε ∂ε ∂ε ⇒ σ= ∂Ψ e (ε ) ∂ε Thus. we can summarize the governing equations for the problem proposed with: The equations of motion: r r r && & ∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv = ρu (3 equations) The constitutive equations for stress: σ (ε ) = Kinematic equations: (5. on S u : r r r r u( x .14) one must introduce the initial and boundary conditions. Chaves (2013) . t ) (5. if the stress is known the energy can be evaluated and vice-versa.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 358 3) For this problem. So. if we calculate the rate of change ∂ψ (ε ) & & of the Helmholtz free energy.

1 The Tensor Series (Chapter 1-textbook).ε is linear. 0 NOTE 1: Although the energy equation is a redundant one. σ 0 = 0 . according to the equation σ ij = C ijkl ε kl and due to the symmetry of σ ij = σ ji e e and ε kl = ε lk . we saw that we can approach a tensor-valued tensor function by means of the following series: 1 1 ∂σ (ε 0 ) 1 ∂ 2 σ (ε 0 ) σ (ε 0 ) + : (ε − ε 0 ) + (ε − ε 0 ) : : (ε − ε 0 ) + L 0! 1! ∂ε 2! ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε 1 ∂σ (ε 0 ) ∂ 2σ (ε 0 ) ≈ σ0 + : ( ε − ε 0 ) + (ε − ε 0 ) : : (ε − ε 0 ) + L 2 ∂ε ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε σ (ε ) ≈ Then. we will always start from energy principles. and also taking into account that the relationship σ . which contains the material mechanical properties.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. by considering the application point ε 0 = 0 and σ (ε 0 ) = σ 0 = 0 .6.ε is linear. Chaves (2013) . thus: σ (ε ) = ∂σ (ε 0 ) ∂ 2Ψ e (ε 0 ) :ε = : ε = Ce : ε ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε ∂ε where C e = σij = ∂σij ∂ε kl ε kl = ∂ 2Ψ e (ε 0 ) e ε kl = Cijkl ε kl ∂εij ∂ε kl ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) is a symmetric fourth-order tensor which is known as the elasticity ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε tensor. We can also use series expansion to ∂ε represent the strain energy density as follows: ∂ 2Ψ e (ε 0 ) 1 ∂Ψ e (ε 0 ) 1 : ( ε − ε 0 ) + (ε − ε 0 ) : : (ε − ε 0 ) + L ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε 1! ∂ε 2! ∂ 2Ψ e (ε 0 ) 1 : (ε − ε 0 ) + L = Ψ e + σ 0 : (ε − ε 0 ) + (ε − ε 0 ) : 0 ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε 2 1 ∂ 2Ψ e (ε 0 ) 1 : ε = ε : Ce : ε = ε: 2 ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε 2 1 0! Ψ e ( ε ) = Ψ e (ε 0 ) + where we have also considered that ε 0 = 0 ⇒ Ψ e = 0. hence the importance of studying the energy equation in a system. higher order terms can be discarded. In subsection 1.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP Sσ B Su dV 359 r r t * ( x) r r ρ b( x ) ˆ n Figure 5. since σ (ε ) = ∂Ψ e (ε ) . Note that. V. the tensor C e has minor symmetry. NOTE 2: Analyzing C e : e Note that. at the time of establishing an analytical or numerical method to solve the problem.e.1: Solid under external actions. C ijkl = C ejikl = C ijlk = C ejilk . Note also that: University of Castilla. i. the energy equation has to be quadratic with which we can guarantee that the relationship σ .

2). ∂ε∂ε ∂ε Current state σ(ε) 1 2 Ψ e = εEε Ψe σ Stored energy 1 Ψ e = σε 2 E σ0 = 0 ε Ψe =0 0 ε 1 ε0 = 0 ε ε Figure 5. e. Chaves (2013) . An isotropic symmetric fourth-order e tensor has the form C ijkl = λδ ij δ kl + µ (δ ik δ jl + δ il δ jk ) or C e = λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I .g.2: Stress-strain relationship (one-dimensional case). In this case. and here the parameters λ and µ are known as Lamé constants. the fourth-order tensor C e is isotropic. y Ψ e ( ε) ∂ 2Ψ e ∂σ = = E . NOTE 4: Here it should be pointed out that in the case of elastic processes the constitutive equation σ (ε ) is only dependent on the current value of ε . ( κ . and G = µ is the shear modulus. the stress-strain linear relationship becomes σ = Eε (Hooke’s law) and the 1 2 1 2 strain energy density is given by Ψ e = σε = εEε . In Chapter 7 of the textbook (Linear Elasticity) we will see that it is possible to express C e in terms of other parameters. ( E . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. let us consider a particular case (a one-dimensional case) where the stress and strain components are given by: σ 0 0 σ ij =  0 0 0    0 0 0    ε 0 0 e ε ij = 0 0 0 ⇒ σ11 = C1111ε11 ⇒ σ = Eε   0 0 0    . G ). where E is the Young’s modulus.e.ε is given by σij (ε ) = Ce ε kl (indicial ijkl notation). The physical meanings of these parameters are given in the same chapter. (see Figure 5. we can conclude that: σ′ (ε′kl ) = σij (ε′kl ) ij ⇒ e C′e ε′kl = Cijkl ε′kl ijkl ⇒ C′e = Ce ijkl ijkl That is.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 360 Ce = ijkl ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) = = C e (major symmetry) klij ∂ε ij ∂ε kl ∂ε kl ∂εij NOTE 3: To better illustration of the problem established here. As we have seen in Chapter 1. it is independent of the deformation history. V. taking into account that the relationship σ . a symmetric isotropic fourth-order tensor is a function of two variables ( λ . κ is the bulk modulus. (see Chapter 1). µ ). i. ■ b) The tensor-valued tensor function σ (ε ) is isotropic if the following is satisfied: Ψ e (ε′kl ) = Ψ e (ε kl ) ⇒ σ′ (ε′kl ) = σij (ε′kl ) ij Then. ν is the Poisson’s ratio. ν ).

University of Castilla.3). for an isotropic linear elastic material in an infinitesimal strain regime the constitutive equation for stress becomes σ (ε) = (λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I) : ε = λTr(ε)1 + 2µ ε : ∂Ψ e (ε ) σ (ε ) = 144 44 2 ∂ε 3 linear →  isotropic →   σ (ε ) = C e : ε σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε Elastic It should be emphasized here that due to the fact that the C e -components are independent of the coordinate system. Note that. the tensors σ and ε share the same principal space (eigenvectors). σ ′22 ′ σ12 σ′ = C ′ e ε ′kl ij ijkl ′ σ11 ′ x1 P σ′ = a ip a jq σ pq ij ε ′22 ′ ε12 ε ′ = a ip a jq ε pq ij ′ ε11 P ε 22 σ 22 ε12 σ12 ε11 P P P x1 ′ ε ′22 P = C′e ijkl = ′′ ε11 σ′′ = C ′′ e ε ′kl ij ijkl ′ ′ σ ′22 Principal space P Isotropic material Ce ijkl σ11 ′′ σ11 C′′e ijkl Ψ e (ε′kl ) = Ψ e (ε kl ) ′ x1′ Figure 5.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3: Stress-strain relationship (isotropic material).5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 361 NOTE 5: Figure 5. (see Figure 5. V.3 shows the stress-strain relationship for an isotropic material. Chaves (2013) .

Complementary strain energy density .Ψ e (σ) = σE −1σ 2 σ(ε) σ Ψ e ( ε ) = Ψ e (σ ) Stored energy 1 Strain energy density . ∂σ a) Linear elastic material.Ψ e (σ) σ(ε) Strain energy density .   where g(σ ) = −ρ 0 G(σ ) is the Gibbs free energy density (per unit volume) with reversed sign.4). NOTE 7: Note that Ψ e (σ) = σε − Ψ e (ε) tensorial →Ψ e (σ ) = g = σ : ε − Ψ e (ε ) = − ρ 0G(σ ) . and ε= ∂Ψ e (σ ) . Chaves (2013) .Ψ e (ε) = εEε 2 E σ0 = 0 1 ε ε0 = 0 ε b) Non-linear elastic material.2). (see equations in (5. V. (see Figure 5.6) in Problem 5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 362 NOTE 6: We denote the complementary strain energy density by Ψ e (σ ) which is a function of σ . and is given by: ∂ 2Ψ e (σ 0 ) 1 ∂Ψ e (σ 0 ) 1 : (σ − σ 0 ) + (σ − σ 0 ) : : (σ − σ 0 ) + L ∂σ ∂σ ⊗ ∂σ 1! 2! ∂ 2Ψ e (σ 0 ) 1 : (σ − σ 0 ) + L = Ψ e + σ 0 : (σ − σ 0 ) + ( σ − σ 0 ) : 0 ∂σ ⊗ ∂σ 2 −1 ∂ 2Ψ e (σ 0 ) 1 1 1 : σ = σ : De : σ = σ : Ce : σ = σ: ∂σ ⊗ ∂σ 2 2 2 1 0! Ψ e (σ ) = Ψ e ( σ 0 ) + Note that if we are dealing with linear elastic material Ψ e (σ ) = Ψ e (ε) holds. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.4: Complementary strain energy density (one dimensional case). 1 Complementary strain energy density .Ψ e (ε) Ψ (ε) ≠ Ψ (σ) e e σ0 = 0 ε ε0 = 0 ε Figure 5.

i. Recall that. V. if we are dealing with small deformation regime. ε = ε sph + ε dev = Tr (ε ) 1 + ε dev . we can 3 obtain:  Tr (ε )  σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µ (ε sph + ε dev ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µ  1 + ε dev   3  2µ   dev = λ +  Tr (ε )1 + 2 µε 3   = κ Tr (ε )1 + 2 µε dev = σ sph + σ dev σm σ33 σ 23 σ13 σ13 σ11 + = σ 23 σ12 σ12 σm ε13 ε11 = ε 23 ε12 dev ε 33 + ε 23 ε 13 ε13 εm ε 22 ε12 σ dev 22 σ12 dev dev σ ij = 2µ ε ij εm ε 23 σ 23 dev σ11 Tr (σ )δ ij = 3κ Tr (ε )δ ij ε 33 σ 23 σ13 σ13 σm σ 22 σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij ε13 dev σ 33 εm ε 23 ε 12 ε dev 22 ε 12 dev ε 11 Figure 5.e.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 363 NOTE 8: Taking into account the constitutive equation for stress for an isotropic linear elastic material σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε and considering the additive decomposition of the tensor into a spherical and deviatoric parts.La Mancha Draft   Ciudad Real – Spain By: Eduardo W. the volume ratio (dilatation) is given by: εv ≡ dV − dV0 ∆V = = ε11 + ε 22 + ε 33 = Tr (ε ) = I ε dV0 dV0 And if we take the trace of σ (ε ) =  λ + 2µ  dev  Tr (ε )1 + 2 µε we get: 3  University of Castilla.5: Additive decomposition of the constitutive equation. Chaves (2013) .

If we are dealing with a compression stress state ( p > 0 ) we have: 0  − p 0  0 −p 0  σ ij =    0 0 − p   ∴ 3σ m = Tr (σ ) = −3 p < 0 ⇒ 2µ   − p = λ +  εv = κ εv 3   For these reason. Chaves (2013) .6).6: Bulk modulus. V. Recall that the reverse form of the constitutive equation σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε was obtained in Problem 1. the deviatoric part ( σ dev = 2 µε dev ) is associated with the shape change. p p κ p 1 p εv Figure 5. Next we try to rewrite the constitutive equation in terms of other parameters. the parameter κ is called bulk modulus (see Figure 5. and the parameter µ = G defines the stiffness to the shape change. where G is known as shear modulus or transversal elastic modulus.97 which is: ε= 1 1 λ λ σ− Tr (σ )1 indicial → ε ij =  σ ij − (σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 )δ ij 2µ 2 µ ( 2 µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2 µ ( 2 µ + 3λ )  ε11 ε  21  ε13  ε12 ε 22 ε 23 ε13   σ11  = 1 σ ε 23  21 2µ   σ13 ε 33    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain σ12 σ 22 σ 23 Draft σ13  1 0 0  − λ(σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 ) 0 1 0 σ 23   2 µ (2 µ + 3λ )  0 0 1  σ 33     By: Eduardo W.18) Just as the spherical part of the tensor ( σ sph = κ Tr (ε )1 ) is associated with the volume change. µ ) are not the more appropriated to be obtained.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 364 2µ   dev σ : 1 = λ +  Tr (ε )1 : 1 + 2 µε : 1 3   2µ   ⇒ Tr (σ ) = 3 λ +  Tr (ε ) 3   2µ  Tr (σ )  ⇒ = σ m = λ +  εv 3 3   where we have considered that 1 : 1 = 3 and Tr (ε dev ) = 0 . NOTE 9: In the laboratory the parameters (λ. and is given by: κ=λ+ 2µ 3 (5.

ν ) : University of Castilla. or (λ + µ ) longitudinal elastic modulus. Chaves (2013) . with that the normal strain components are: ε11 =  1   (µ + λ )  1 λ λ σ11 − (σ11 )δ 11 =   2 µ − 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) σ11 =  µ (2 µ + 3λ ) σ11    2µ 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ )     ε 22 = − λ λ (σ11 )δ 22 = − σ11 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) ε 33 = − λ λ (σ11 )δ 33 = − σ11 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) As expected. due to the material isotropy. the influence of σ11 upon ε 22 and ε 33 is the same. which is known as Young’s modulus. We can also obtain: ε 22 =  µ (3λ + 2 µ )  −λ −λ −λ ε11 = −ν ε11 σ11 = ε11  =  2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ )  (λ + µ )  2(λ + µ ) ε 33 =  µ (3λ + 2 µ )  −λ −λ −λ ε11 = −ν ε11 σ11 = ε11  =  2 µ (2 µ + 3λ ) 2 µ (2 µ + 3λ )  (λ + µ )  2(λ + µ ) where we have denoted by ν = Note that ν = λ 2(λ + µ ) ⇒λ = λ 2(λ + µ ) .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. σ 33 = 0 .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 365 Notice also that the normal stress components σ11 . 2νµ and if we replace it into the equation of E we can (1 − 2ν ) obtain:   2νµ   3  (1 − 2ν )  + 2 µ   µ (3λ + 2 µ )    =µ E= =µ (λ + µ )  2νµ      (1 − 2ν )  + µ       2ν   3  (1 − 2ν )  + 2 µ      =µ  2ν      (1 − 2ν )  + 1 µ     6ν  + 2   (1 − 2ν )   2ν  + 1   (1 − 2ν )   6ν + 2(1 − 2ν )   (1 − 2ν )   = µ 2(1 + ν ) =µ  2ν + (1 − 2ν )   (1 − 2ν )    thus: µ= E 2(1 + ν ) and λ= νE 2νµ = (1 − 2ν ) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) We can also express the bulk modulus in function of ( E . σ 22 . and σ33 only produce normal strain components. From the equation of ε11 we can obtain:  (µ + λ )  ε11 =   µ (2 µ + 3λ ) σ11    where we have denoted by E = ⇒ σ11 = µ (3λ + 2 µ ) ε11 (λ + µ ) ⇒ σ11 = Eε11 µ (3λ + 2 µ ) . σ 22 = 0 . V. which is known as Poisson’s ratio. Les us consider that we only have the normal stress σ11 .

ν ) κ− 2 3 2G 3 3κ − E 6κ ν λ 3κ − λ ν We leave the reader to show: Tensorial notation Indicial notation σ ij = λε kkδ ij + 2 µε ij σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε σ= νE E ε Tr (ε )1 + (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 + ν) 2µ   σ = κ −  Tr (ε )1 + 2 µε 3   σ ij = νE E ε kk δ ij + ε ij (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 + ν) 2µ   σ ij =  κ − ε kkδ ij + 2 µε ij 3   (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 366 κ =λ+ νE νE + 2 E (1 − 2ν ) 2µ 2 E E (1 + ν ) E = + = = = 3 (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) 3 [2(1 + ν )] 3(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) 3(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) 3(1 − 2ν ) So. λ) f ( κ.24)  2 µ − 3κ  1 ε=  18κµ  Tr (σ )1 − 2 µ σ    University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. V.20) (5. ν) ν= G f (G. ν ) 3(κ − λ ) 2 3κ(1 − 2ν ) 2(1 + ν ) f ( κ.19) (5. we can obtain the relationships between these mechanical properties: G≡µ = f ( E.21) and Tensorial notation Indicial notation ε= λ 1 Tr (σ )1 − σ 2µ 2 µ (3λ + 2 µ ) ε ij = λ 1 σ kkδ ij − σ ij 2µ 2 µ (3λ + 2 µ ) (5. κ) κ= G f (G. κ) E GE 9G − 3E G (E − 2G ) 3G − E 9Gκ 3κ + G κ E − 2G 2G 3κ − 2G 2(3κ + G ) G (3λ + 2G ) λ+G λ+ G λ 2G (1 + ν ) 2G (1 + ν ) 3(1 − 2ν ) λ 2(λ + G ) G f (G.22) ε= −ν 1+ ν σ Tr (σ )1 + E E ε ij = −ν 1+ ν σ kk δ ij + σ ij E E (5.23)  2 µ − 3κ  1 ε ij =   18κµ σ kkδ ij − 1 2 µ σ ij    (5. λ) λ= G f (G. Chaves (2013) . E ) E= 2Gν 1 − 2ν ν E κ E E 3(1 − 2ν ) κ(9 κ − 3E ) 9κ − E νE (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) 9 κ(κ − λ ) 3κ − λ κ λ 3κ(1 − 2ν ) κ 3κν 1+ ν 3κE 9κ − E E 2(1 + ν ) f ( E.

5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 367 and that the elasticity tensor can be written as follows: C e = λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2 µI E νE 1 ⊗1 + I (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) (1 + ν) Elasticity tensor  1  C e = κ1 ⊗ 1 + 2 µ I − 1 ⊗ 1  3  Ce = (5.25) and: Ce −1 Ce −1 Ce −1 −ν (1 + ν) 1 ⊗1 + I E E 1 −λ 1 ⊗1 + I ≡ De = 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) 2µ ≡ De = ≡ De = 1 1  1  1 ⊗1 + I − 3 1 ⊗ 1 9κ 2µ   University of Castilla.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Elastic compliance tensor Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . V.

Problem 5.33.667. Chaves (2013) .the yield point.1) the strain energy density and.667 1.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 368 Problem 5.7.5 4 −3 ε(×10 ) Figure 5.2. a.2.5 2 2.3 10 0.2) the constitutive equations in stress for an isotropic linear elastic material: a.3 20 24 22 0.67 5 E 0 E 0. σ Y . a. 2% 0. and σ r . we verify that the first three points maintain the same proportionalities: E= σ (1) σ ( 2 ) σ ( 3) 20 = ( 2 ) = ( 3) = = 10 000 Pa = 10 kPa (1) 2 × 10 −3 ε ε ε The stress-strain curve can be appreciated in Figure 5. in which we define the following points: σ e . 24 3. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.the proportionality point.5 3 3. 0 0 0 .67 13. 6.the rupture strength point.1) in terms of ( λ .6 Calculate Young’s modulus ( E ) and define the stress-strain curve limit points. {u } is the displacement field. σ(Pa ) 30 σu σY 25 σe 20 15 σr 3. Solution: First.the ultimate strength point. b) Expressing the strain tensor ε in (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) 2(1 + ν) [ ] {u } where Voigt notation such as {ε } = L(1) [ ]. obtain the (1) matrix L c) Write the equations of motion in Voigt notation. µ ) and.7: Stress-strain curve. 20 1. V. σ u .2) in terms of ( E . 13. 22 2.33 2 3 3 .6 In tensile testing we evaluated the following points: Point 1 2 3 4 5 σ( Pa ) ε(×10 −3 ) 6. ν ) where λ = Eν E and µ = .5 1 1.6.7 Write in Voigt notation: a.

the tensors σ and ε in Voigt notation are stored as follows:  σ11  σ   22  σ  {σ } =  33  .1) The constitutive equation for stress in Voigt notation is: λ λ  σ11  λ + 2 µ σ   λ λ + 2µ λ  22    σ 33   λ λ λ + 2µ   σ = C e : ε Voigt →   =  0 0  σ12   0 σ 23   0 0 0    0 0  σ13   0    0 0 0 0 0 0 µ 0 0 µ 0 0 0   ε11  0   ε 22    0   ε 33  σ  ⇒ { } = [C ] {ε }  0   2ε12  0  2ε 23    µ   2ε13    (5. Note that σ ij ε ij = σ1 j ε1 j + σ 2 j ε 2 j + σ 3 j ε 3 j 1 3 2 123 1 3 2 σ11ε11 σ 21ε 21 σ31ε31 + + + σ12ε12 σ22ε 22 σ32ε32 + + + σ13ε13 σ23ε 23 σ33ε33 thus 1 2 1 2 Ψ e (ε) = σij εij = (σ11ε11 + σ 22 ε 22 + σ 33ε 33 + 2σ12 ε12 + 2σ 23ε 23 + 2σ13ε13 ) and 1 2 Ψ e (ε ) = σij ε ij = 1 [σ11 σ 22 2 σ33 σ12 σ 23  ε11  ε   22   ε 33  1 σ13 ]  σ T  = { } {ε } 2ε12  2   2ε 23     2ε13    Then. Chaves (2013) .27) More detail about this formulation is provided in Problem 1.  σ12  σ 23     σ13     ε 11  ε   22  ε  {ε } =  33   2ε12   2ε 23     2ε13    a.2.1) The strain energy density can be expressed as follows: 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Ψ e (ε ) = ε : C e : ε = ε : σ = σ : ε = σ ij ε ij where we have used σ = C e : ε . V.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 369 Solution: a.97 in Chapter 1 where we have also obtained University of Castilla.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

2) Note that λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ +λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ +λ λ − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) − 0 0 0 0  0  0  σ 11    σ 22    0  σ 33     σ  0   12   σ 23    0  σ 13      1 µ  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 µ 0 1 µ 0 {ε } = [C ] −1 {σ } (5.27) can be rewritten as follows: ν ν (1 − ν)  ν  σ11  ν (1 − ν)  σ   ν ν (1 − ν)  22   σ 33  E 0 0  0  =  σ12  (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)   0 σ 23  0 0      σ13    0 0  0  0 0 0 0 (1 − 2ν) 2 0 0  0   ε11    0   ε 22  ε  0   33    2ε 12  0  2ε 23    (1 − 2ν)   2ε 13     2  0 0 0 (1 − 2ν ) 2 0 0 (5. V. Chaves (2013) .2.28) Eν E E +2 = (1 − ν) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E (ν ) λ= (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) (1 − 2ν ) E E = µ= 2(1 + ν) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2 λ + 2µ = then.29) Note that University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the equation (5.370 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS ε= 1 λ σ− Tr (σ )1 2µ 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) and µ +λ   µ ( 2µ + 3λ )  λ  ε 11   −    2µ ( 2µ + 3λ ) λ ε 22   ε 33   − 2µ ( 2µ + 3λ )    = 2ε 12    0  2ε 23     2ε 13   0      0   a.

j + u j .28) becomes: ε 11   1   − ν ε 22     ε 33  1  − ν =   2ε 12  E  0  0 2ε 23     2ε 13   0    −ν −ν 1 −ν 0 0 −ν 1 0 0 0 0  σ 11    0 0 0  σ 22     0 0 0  σ 33    2(1 + ν ) 0 0  σ 12  0 2(1 + ν ) 0  σ 23    0 0 2(1 + ν )  σ 13    0 0 0 (5. i. u 3 = w . Chaves (2013) . 2ε 23 = γ yz . V. u1 = u .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP λ+µ = 371 Eν E E + = (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) 2(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) µ (2µ + 3λ ) =  E  E Eν E2 +3 2 =   2(1 + ν )  2(1 + ν) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν )  2(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) λ+µ E 2(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 1 = = E µ (2µ + 3λ ) 2(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E2 (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) ν Eν λ = = E 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E2 1 µ = 2(1 + ν) 1 = 2(1 + ν ) E E Then.i ) we get: 2  ε 11 ε ij = ε 21  ε 31  ε12 ε 22 ε 32  ∂u1  ∂x1 ε 13    1  ∂u ∂u ε 23  =   1 + 2  ∂x  2 ∂x1 ε 33    2    ∂u ∂u 1   1 + 3  ∂x  2  3 ∂x1  ∂u1   ∂     ∂x1   ∂x1  ∂u 2   0   ε11     ∂x 2 ε      22   ∂u 3   0  ε 33   ∂x 3   {ε } =   =  ∂u ∂u  =  ∂    2ε12   1 + 2   2ε 23   ∂x 2 ∂x1   ∂x 2    ∂u ∂u   2ε 13   2 + 3   0     ∂x3 ∂x 2    ∂u1 ∂u 3   ∂  ∂x + ∂x   ∂x  3 1   3         0 ∂ ∂x 2 0 ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x3 0 1  ∂u1 ∂u 2    + 2  ∂x 2 ∂x1    ∂u 2 ∂x 2 1  ∂u 2 ∂u 3    + 2  ∂x3 ∂x 2     0   0   ∂   u1  ∂x3     u 2  0  u   3  ∂  ∂x 2   ∂  ∂x1   ⇒ 1  ∂u1 ∂u 3     + 2  ∂x3 ∂x1     1  ∂u 2 ∂u 3     + 2  ∂x3 ∂x 2      ∂u 3  ∂x3   {ε } = [L(1) ]{u } NOTE: If we adopt the engineering notation. ε 22 = ε y .30) b) According to the definition ε ij = 1 (u i . x 2 = y .e. x1 = x . u 2 = v . the above equation becomes: University of Castilla. ε 33 = ε z . 2ε 13 = γ xz . x3 = z . 2ε 12 = γ xy .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the equation (5. ε11 = ε x .

Obtain the governing equation so as to result in a system of three equations and three unknowns. if we consider the stress tensor in Voigt notation. j + ρ b i = σ i1.1 + σ 32.8 Consider an isotropic homogeneous linear elastic material described in Problem 5. 2 + σ 33.1 + σ12. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.3 + ρ b 2 = ρ && 2 u  && σ 31. V. (Displacement Formulation).3 + ρ b i = ρ u i && σ11. 2 + σ 23.3 + ρ b1 = ρ u1  ⇒ σ 21. 2 + σ13. u 2 .5.1 + σ i 2.3 + ρ b 3 = ρ u 3 ⇒  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + + ρ b1 = ρ &&1 u  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23  && + + + ρb2 = ρu2  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 && + + + ρ b 3 = ρ u3   ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x 2  Then. u 3 . Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 372  ∂u   ∂  ∂x   ∂x  ∂v    0 ε11   ε x        ∂y   ε 22   ε y   ∂w   ε 33   ε z   ∂z   0 {ε } =   =   =  ∂u ∂v  =  ∂       2ε 12  γ xy   +   2ε 23  γ yz   ∂y ∂x   ∂y      ∂v ∂w   2ε 13   γ xz   +  0      ∂z ∂y    ∂u + ∂w   ∂  ∂z ∂x   ∂z     0  ∂ 0 ∂y  ∂ u  0  ∂z   v  ⇒ {ε } = L(1) {u } (5.32) T Problem 5. 2 + σ i 3. j + ρ b i = ρ u i and its explicit form: 0 [ ] && σ ij . namely: u1 .31)   ∂ 0  w   ∂x ∂ ∂  ∂z ∂y  ∂ 0 ∂x   r r r && & c) Let us consider the equations of motion ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = ρ v = ρ u (see equation (5. the above set of equations becomes:  ∂   ∂x1  0    0   0 0 ∂ ∂x 2 0 0 ∂ ∂x 3 ∂ ∂x 2 ∂ ∂x1 0 0 ∂ ∂x3 ∂ ∂x 2 & [ ] {σ } + {ρ b } = {ρ u&} ⇒ L(1) σ  ∂   11   ∂x 3  σ 22  ρ b  ρ u  && σ 33   1   1    && 0    + ρ b 2  = ρ u 2   σ  12  ρ b  ρ u  &&  ∂  σ   3   3  23 ∂x1  σ    13    (5.1 + σ 22.14)) in && indicial notation σ ij .

5. i. j { { { =0 j = 0i (5. j ≡ = 0 j . j ⇒ σ ij .ki = u j . V. j ⇒ σ ij .i = u k .34) can be rewritten as: University of Castilla. ji k  With that the equation in (5.33) The kinematic equations: r ε = ∇ sym u (6 equations) ε ij = 1  ∂u i ∂u j  + 2  ∂x j ∂x i    (6 equations)   which results in a system with 15 equations and 15 unknowns. j ε kk δ ij + λε kk .k   → ε kk . j = 1 u i .ij    2 2  ( ) ( ) Note that ∂ 2ui ∂ = ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j u j .i divergence → ε ij . for an isotropic homogeneous linear elastic material in small deformation regime.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 373 Solution: As seen in Problem 5. j δ ij + 2µ ε ij .: σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij ⇒ σ ij . i.ij ≡ ε kk = ∂ 2u j ∂x j ∂xi  ∂u i   ∂x j  =  r r r  ≡ u i . ji ≡ [∇ (∇ ⋅ u)]i    ∂u k gradient =   ∂x ≡ u k . j δ ij + λε kk δ ij . j = λ . the governing equations. we use the kinematic equations: ε ij = 1  ∂u i ∂u j  + 2  ∂x j ∂xi   1  ≡ u i . j + 2µ . j = (λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij ) . if they do r not vary with x (homogeneous material) we get λ . j + u j .e. Chaves (2013) .e. j + ρ b i = ρ u i (3 equations) The constitutive equations for stress: The constitutive equations for stress: σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij (6 equations) σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε (6 equations) The kinematic equations: (5. j ε ij + 2µ ε ij . j in terms of displacements. j If the mechanical properties λ and µ are constants throughout the material. jj ≡ [∇ ⋅ (∇u)]i ≡ ∇ 2 u (Laplacian of the vector u ) i   [ ] ∂ 2u j ∂x i ∂x j 1  ∂u k ∂u k  + 2  ∂x k ∂x k  = ∂ ∂x i  ∂u j   ∂x j   r  ≡ u j . j = λε kk .i + 2µ ε ij . For this. We ∂x j ∂x j can also express the terms ε kk .i and ε ij. are: Tensorial notation Indicial notation The equations of motion: The equations of motion: r r r && & ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = ρ v = ρ u (3 equations) && σ ij . jj + u j . The divergence of the Cauchy stress tensor ( ∇ ⋅ σ ) can be obtained by means of the constitutive equations for stress.34) =0 j ⇒ σ ij . j ≡ ∂µ ∂λ = 0 j and µ . j = λε kk .

ji = (λ + µ )u j . jj 2 && By replacing the above equation into σ ij .32 ) + µ (u 2. 21 + u 3.31 ) + µ (u1. ji + µui .33 ) + ρ b i = ρ u i && (λ + µ )(u1. u 2 .11 + u 3.12 + u 2. ji −  ilq  qjk u k . 22 + u 3.11 + u1. ji + µ u i . 22 + u 2. jl with which the equation (5. ji − µilq  qjk uk .35) can also be written as follows: && (λ + µ )u j . jl + ρbi = ρui and the equivalent in tensorial notation: r r r r && (λ + µ )[∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] + µ [∇ ⋅ (∇u)] + ρb = ρu r r r r r r r && ⇒ (λ + µ )[∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] + µ ∇ (∇ ⋅ u) − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρb = ρu r r r r r r && ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )[∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] − µ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρb = ρu [ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain [ Draft ] ] By: Eduardo W. j = λε kk . jj + ρbi = ρui r r r r && (λ + µ )[∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] + µ [∇ ⋅ (∇u)] + ρb = ρu Navier’s equations (5.35) is presented as follows: && (λ + µ )u j . ji + µ u i .33 ) + ρ b1 = ρ u1  && (λ + µ )(u1.i + 2µ ε ij . ji + µui . jj = u j . j + ρ b i = ρ u i (equations of motion). jj + ρ b i = (λ + µ )(u1. 2i + u 3. ji + 2µ ( ) 1 u i .11 + u 2. The explicit form of the equation (5. u 3 ): && (λ + µ )u j .105 (Chapter 1) that the following is true: r r r r r ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ a) = ∇ (∇ ⋅ a) − ∇ 2 a indicial →   ilq  qjk a k .11 + u i . we obtain: && σ ij .1i + u 2. we can obtain r r r r r r ∇ ⋅ (∇u) ≡ ∇ 2 u = ∇ (∇ ⋅ u) − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) indicial →  u i .33 ) + µ (u 3. V. j = λu j .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 374 σ ij . 22 + u 3. ji + µ u i .11 + u 2. 23 + u 3.33 ) + ρ b 3 = ρ u 3 or:   ∂ 2u ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1  ∂  ∂u1 ∂u 2 ∂u 3  &&  + ρ b1 = ρ u1   + µ  21 + + + + (λ + µ ) 2 2  ∂x ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x3  ∂x 2     1   2 2 2  ∂ u2 ∂ u2 ∂ u2  ∂  ∂u1 ∂u 2 ∂u 3   &&    (λ + µ )  ∂x + ∂x + ∂x  + µ  ∂x 2 + ∂x 2 + ∂x 2  + ρ b 2 = ρ u 2  ∂x 2  1 2 3  2 3    1  2 2 2 (λ + µ ) ∂  ∂u1 + ∂u 2 + ∂u 3  + µ  ∂ u 3 + ∂ u 3 + ∂ u 3  + ρ b = ρ u && 3     3 2 2  ∂x 2  ∂x 3  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x 2 ∂x3     1   NOTE 2: We have proven in Problem 1. jj Then. j + ρ b i = ρ u i && ⇒ (λ + µ )u j . jl = a j . jj + ρbi = ρui && ⇒ (λ + µ )u j .35) NOTE 1: The above equations are known as the Navier’s equations also known as NavierLamé equations.3i ) + µ (u i .13 + u 2. jl ) + ρbi = ρui && ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )u j . Chaves (2013) . 22 + u1. jj + u j . ji − a i . jj + ρ b i = ρ u i Thus resulting in 3 equations and 3 unknowns ( u1 . ji + µ (u j .33 ) + ρ b 2 = ρ u 2  && (λ + µ )(u1. 22 + u i . ji −  ilq  qjk u k .

37) Note that r r u k . the above equation becomes: σ ij . jl + ρbi = ρui 375 (5. j ⇒ σ ij . j whereby σ ij .i ) . j = (λε kk ) . j = (λε kk ) . and its components ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u Du i ∂u i ∂u i && = + ui = v j = i + i v1 + i v 2 + i v3 ∂t ∂x j ∂t ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 Dt & & & &  ∂u1 ∂u1  ∂u ∂u + v1 + 1 v 2 + 1 v3   ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂t   ∂u 2 ∂u 2 & & &2 &2  ∂u ∂u  &&  + v1 + v2 + v3  ui =  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂t  ∂u  & 3 ∂u 3 & &3 & ∂u ∂u + v1 + v 2 + 3 v3    ∂t  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   University of Castilla. j δ ij + (2µ ε ij ) .i and ε kk = u k .k ) . j [ ] ⇒ σ ij .34) become: σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij ⇒ σ ij . j = (λε kk ) . k ) . j Taking into account that 2ε ij = u i . j + u j . V.i + ( 2µ ε ij ) .i + (2µ ε ij ) . j + u j . j + ρ b i = ρ && i u (5.k . the equations in (5.i + µ (u i .i ) . k = Tr (∇u) = (∇ ⋅ u) & & & & & & & . j = (λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij ) . j + u j . ji − µ ilq  qjk uk .36) In the Cartesian System we have: r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u = u i e i = u1 e1 + u 2 e 2 + u 3 e 3 r r r r  ∂u  ∂u  ∂u ∂u  ∂u  ∂u  ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (∇ ∧ u) ≡ rot (u) = (rot (u) )i e i =  3 − 2 e1 +  1 − 3 e 2 +  2 − 1 e 3  ∂x  ∂x   ∂x  ∂x 2  ∂x1  ∂x3  2 3 1  4 244  4 244  4 244 14 r 3 14 r 3 14 r 3 r r r r r  ∂ (rot (u) )3 ∂ (rot (u) )2 − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) =   ∂x 2 ∂x 3  = (rot (u) )1 = (rot (u) )2 r r   ∂ (rot (u) )1 ∂ (rot (u) )3 ˆ1 + e −   ∂x ∂x1 3   = (rot (u) )3 r r   ∂ (rot (u) )2 ∂ (rot (u) )1  ˆ 2 + ˆ e  e 3 −   ∂x1 ∂x 2    r r  ∂ (rot (u) )3 ∂ (rot (u) )2   ∂  ∂u 2 − ∂u1  − ∂  ∂u1 − ∂u 3      −       ∂x  ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x3  2  1 ∂x 2  ∂x3  ∂x3 ∂x1    r r    ∂ (rot (u) ) r r r ∂ (rot (u) )3   ∂  ∂u 3 ∂u 2  ∂  ∂u 2 ∂u1    1  −   − − − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) i =  =     ∂x1  ∂x 3   ∂x 3  ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x 2  r r    ∂ (rot (u) )  ∂ (rot (u) )1 2    ∂  ∂u1 − ∂u 3  − ∂  ∂u 3 − ∂u 2  −        ∂x1  ∂x3 ∂x1  ∂x 2  ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂x 2        [ ] NOTE 3: If we are dealing with heterogeneous material. Chaves (2013) . j = (λu k .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j + ρ b i = ρ && i u ⇒ [ ] (λu k .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP [ ] r r r r r r && (λ + 2 µ )[∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] − µ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρb = ρu && (λ + 2 µ )u j .i + µ (u i .

i ) + µ (u i .3 + u 3. are explicitly given by: [ [ ] ] [ ] [ ] ] ] [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] [ ] r  ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ && 2 µ (u1.1 )   ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1    ∂ ∂  ∂  2µ (u 2.1 + u1.3 + u3.3 ) + µ (u3. j ] + u j .3 + u 3. Chaves (2013) .1 + u1.1 ) + µ (u1.1 ) + ρb1 = ρu1  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂ r ∂ ∂ && λ(∇ ⋅ u) + 2 µ (u2.3 ) + ∂ 2µ (u3.1 + u1. 2 + u 2. V.38) r r (λ + 2 µ ) 2 D (∇ ⋅ u) = ∇ (∇ ⋅ u) + ∇ ⋅ b 2 Dt ρ 2 r D θ (λ + 2 µ ) 2 ⇒ = ∇ θ + ∇ ⋅b Dt 2 ρ r D 2θ ⇒ = α 2∇ 2θ + ∇ ⋅ b Dt 2 r & ⇒ θ& = α 2∇ 2θ + ∇ ⋅ b r r r where we considered that θ = ∇ ⋅ u and ∇ ⋅ (∇ ∧ v ) = 0 (see Problem 1.1 ) + µ (u1.1 ) + µ (u1.i ) ∂x j ] ∂ ∂ ∂ µ (u i . ( i = 1.2. j + u j .1 ) + ρb1 = ρu1  [λ(∇ ⋅ u)] + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x1  ∂ r && [λ(∇ ⋅ u)]+ ∂ µ (u2.3 + u3. 2 ) + µ (u2.2 ) + ∂ µ (u2. In indicial ⇒ 2 notation becomes: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.1 ) + µ (u1.106).i ) . 2 + u2.3 + u 3.1 ) + µ (u1.3 ) + ρb3 = ρ&&3 u  ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2  [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] NOTE 4: Wave equations If we apply the divergence to the equation (5.3 ) + µ (u 3.2 ) + ∂ 2 µ (u2.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 376 [µ (u i.3 ) +   ∂x1  ∂x 2 ∂x3   The three equations in (5.1 + u1.i ) + µ (u i .3 ) + µ (u3.3 + u3.1 + u1.3 ) + ∂ µ (u3.1 + u1. 2 ) + µ (u2. 2 + u 2.3 + u3. 2 ) + µ (u i . 2 ) + ρb 2 = ρu2  ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3   ∂ r ∂ ∂ λ(∇ ⋅ u) + 2 µ (u3. j + u j .1 ) + µ (u1. 2 + u2.i ) ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 [ ] [ ] [ ]  ∂  ∂ ∂ 2µ (u1.3 ).1 + u1. j =  µ (u 2.2 ) + ρb 2 = ρu2  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x2  ∂ r && [λ(∇ ⋅ u)] + ∂ µ (u3. 2 + u2. 2 + u 2.3 ) + ρb3 = ρu3  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x3 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ [ ] [ [ ] ] [ ] ] [ ] or r  ∂ ∂ ∂ && λ(∇ ⋅ u) + 2 µ (u1.36) we obtain: [ ] r r r r r r && (λ + 2 µ )∇ ⋅ [∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] − µ ∇ ⋅ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρ∇ ⋅ b = ρ∇ ⋅ u 144 44 2 3 =0 r r r && ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )∇ ⋅ [∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] + ρ∇ ⋅ b = ρ∇ ⋅ u r r r && ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )∇ 2 (∇ ⋅ u) + ρ∇ ⋅ b = ρ∇ ⋅ u r r r && (λ + 2 µ ) ∇ 2 (∇ ⋅ u) + ∇ ⋅ b ⇒ ∇ ⋅u = ρ r (5. j = = [ ∂ µ (u i .3 )  µ (u 3. 2 )  ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1   ∂  ∂ ∂ 2µ (u 3. 2 ) + µ (u 2.2 + u2.i ) .37).

43) r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ 2ϕ = ∇ (∇ ⋅ ϕ ) − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) ⇒ ∇ 2ϕ = −∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) . jli + ρbi . since ∇ ⋅ (∇ ∧ u) = 0 r r r r ∇ (∇ ⋅ ϕ ) = ∇ (∇ ⋅ (∇ ∧ u)) = 0 (see Problem 1. r Now if we apply the curl ( ∇ ∧ ) to the equation (5.38) becomes: D 2θ = α 2∇ 2θ Dt 2 P.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.i = ρui .39)  ∂b i +  ∂xi  D 2θ ∂ 2θ ∂b =α2 + i 2 ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi Dt where α= (λ + 2 µ ) ρ P-wave velocity (5.40) r r If the body forces do not change in space we have that ∇ ⋅ b = 0 . jii − µ ilq  qjk u k .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 377 && (λ + 2 µ )u j . and that the b -field is conservative thus ∇ ∧ b = 0 .36) we obtain: [ ] r r r r r r r r && r r (λ + 2 µ )∇ ∧ [∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] − µ∇ ∧ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρ∇ ∧ b = ρ∇ ∧ u r r r r r r r && r ⇒ − µ∇ ∧ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρ∇ ∧ b = ρ∇ ∧ u r r r r r r D2 r r ⇒ − µ∇ ∧ ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ u) + ρ∇ ∧ b = ρ 2 (∇ ∧ u) Dt 2r r r r r r Dϕ ⇒ − µ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) + ρ∇ ∧ b = ρ Dt 2 r r r r D 2ϕ (5. jii + bi .42) ⇒ − µ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) = ρ Dt 2 r r r r D 2ϕ ⇒ρ = − µ∇ ∧ ( ∇ ∧ ϕ ) Dt 2 r µ r r r D 2ϕ ⇒ = − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) ρ Dt 2 2r r r r Dϕ ⇒ = − β 2∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ϕ ) 2 Dt r r r r r r r where we considered ϕ = ∇ ∧ u . With that the equation in (5. jii + ρb i . Chaves (2013) . V.i && ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )u j .i = ρui . thus the equation in (5.i && ⇒ ui . and [ [ ] ] β= µ ρ Shear wave velocity (5.42) Note that becomes: University of Castilla.106).i = D2 ⇒ 2 Dt ⇒ (λ + 2 µ )  ∂ui   ∂x  i ρ u j .i  (λ + 2 µ ) ∂ 2 =  ∂xi ∂xi ρ   ∂u j   ∂x j  (5.41) P-waves have no rotation.106). Note r r r r that ∇ ∧ [∇ (∇ ⋅ u)] = ∇ ∧ [∇φ ] = 0 (see Problem 1.wave equation (5.

Chaves (2013) .8: Displacement occurring from a harmonic plane P-wave (a) and S-wave (b). We can r r r r r prove this by means of the identity ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ a) = ∇ (∇ ⋅ a) − ∇ 2a . with that we obtain: r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ ⋅ u = ∇ ⋅ ∇θ + ∇ ⋅ (∇ ∧ Ψ ) = ∇ ⋅ ∇θ and ∇ ∧ u = ∇ ∧ ∇ θ + ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ Ψ ) = ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ Ψ ) a) b) Figure 5. and the scalar θ = ∇ ⋅ a . In the case of µ = 0 the equation (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 378 r r D 2ϕ = β 2∇ 2ϕ 2 Dt Shear wave equation (S-wave equation) (5.41) becomes the acoustic wave equations: D 2θ = c 2∇ 2θ 2 Dt Acoustic wave equation (5.44) Shear waves have no change in volume. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. If we consider λ = Eν E and µ = we can obtain: (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) (λ + 2 µ ) α = β ρ µ ρ Eν E +2 (λ + 2 µ ) (2 − 2ν ) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) = = = E (1 − 2ν) µ 2(1 + ν) With that we conclude that the ratio of P.45) Speed of propagation (5.46) with c= λ ρ r r r r Note that the displacement field was split up into: u = ∇θ + ∇ ∧Ψ where ∇ ⋅Ψ = 0 .to S-wave velocities depends only on Poisson’s ratio. we obtain u = ∇θ + ∇ ∧ Ψ . If we consider the vectors r r r r r r r r r u = ∇ 2a and Ψ = −∇ ∧ a . Pwave has no rotation and S-wave no volume change. V.

47).il = O ijkl (5. jk = u i . we obtain:  tab  qmn  til  qjk ε ij .nb − ε an. jk  qjk = 0 iq . jk ) 2 Note that u i .mb − ε mb.an = O ambn Q.i 2  r take the derivative with respect to ( x ) we get: ∂ε ij ∂x k ≡ ε ij . jk − ε jk .ik + u i .kli is symmetric in il and  til = − tli is antisymmetic in il .47) where  ijk is the permutation symbol.na + ε bn. and if we multiply by the antisymmetric tensor in jk . i. Solution:  ∂u  ∂u 1 1 j The infinitesimal strain tensor is given by ε ij =  + i  = (u + u i . kl = O abmn ⇒ (δ ai δ bl δ mj δ nk − δ ai δ bl δ mk δ nj − δ al δ bi δ mj δ nk + δ al δ bi δ mk δ nj )ε ij .k ) ∂xl 1 =  qjk ε ij . thus:  tab  qmn  til  qjk ε ij .D. we get: u i .: 1 2  til  qjk ε ij .e. V.kl = u j .kl = 0 qt  tab  qmn = O abmn Remember that the relationships  tab  til = δ ai δ bl − δ al δ bi and  qmn  qjk = δ mj δ nk − δ mk δ nj hold.ik + u i .ikl  til  qjk = 0 jkt  qjk = 0 qt b) Now.kl = 0 qt (5.47).5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 379 Problem 5.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.ikl  qjk 2 Note that u j .ik  qjk r once again we take the derivative with respect to ( x ) and we get: ∂ ( qjk ε ij .bn + ε bn.am − ε an.ikl = u j .kil = u j .kl = O abmn ⇒ ε am .mb − ε bm .  qjk = − qkj . University of Castilla.k = 1 (u j . kl + ε kl . thus 1 2 1 2  qjk ε ij . j ) .E.kl = O abmn ⇒ (δ ai δ bl − δ al δ bi )(δ mj δ nk − δ mk δ nj )ε ij .kl = u j . b) Show also that: ε ij . jk ) qjk = u j .kj is symmetric in jk . i.48) c) Express the explicit form of the equations (5. and if we  ∂xi ∂x j  2 j .9 a) Show that: r r ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ ε )T = 0  qjk  til ε ij . With that. Chaves (2013) . if we multiply both sides of the above equation by  tab  qmn .e.ij − ε il .k = (u j .ma = O abmn which is the same as: ε am. if we multiply both sides of the equation by  til we obtain the equation in (5.

mbδ bn − ε mb.11 = ε11.11 + ε11.12 = 0 = ∂ 2 ε11 2 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 ε 22 ∂x12 −2 ∂ 2 ε 12 =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 when q = 1. 21 + ε 22.31 + ε 33.12 − ε12.33 + 132 ε 23.32 .k 2 + 1 jk 1i 3 ε ij . 22 + 123 ε 22. bb + ε bb.k 2 + 1 jk ε 2 j . k 3 = −123 ε 32. k 2 + 1 jk 123 ε 2 j . t = 2  2 jk  2il ε ij . ba = 0 ambb r r r r r r r r ⇒ [∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ε )]am + [∇ x [∇ x [Tr (ε )]]]am − [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]am − [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]ma = 0 ambb r r r r r r r r ⇒ [∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ε )]am + [∇ x [∇ x [Tr (ε )]]]am = [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]am + [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]ma [ ] r r r r r r r ⇒ ∇ 2 ε am + [∇ x [∇ x [Tr (ε )]]]am = [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]am + [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )]ma x which in tensorial notation becomes: r r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ε ) + ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (ε )]] = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε ) + [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ ε )] T c) Note that in (5. 22 + ε 22. 22 + ε 22.11 + ε11. 21 = ε13. 23 = ε 32.k 3 = 1 jk 1i 2 ε ij . 23 + ε32.kl = 1 jk 1i1ε ij .13 = ε 33.32 + ε 33. t = 3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.k 3 = 1 jk 132 ε 3 j . t = 3  3 jk  3il ε ij .33 + ε13. k 2 + 1 jk ε 2 j . Chaves (2013) .kl and by expanding the index l we obtain: 1 jk 1il ε ij . kl = −ε12. t = 1 we get 1 jk 1il ε ij . We leave the reader with the following demonstrations: when q = 2.32 − 132 ε 33. am − ε ab.k 2 + 1 jk 1i 3 ε ij . 22 + ε 22. k1 + 1 jk 1i 2 ε ij . amδ bn − ε an. 23 + ε 23.13 = 0 = ∂ 2 ε 33 ∂x12 + ∂ 2 ε11 2 ∂x3 −2 ∂ 2 ε 13 =0 ∂x1∂x3 when q = 3. 23 = ε 33.33 − ε13.kl = −1 jk ε 3 j .kl = 1 jk 1i 2 ε ij . V.11 − 2ε12. For the case when q = 1.kl = −ε 31.33 − 2ε13. bnδ bn + ε bn.47) we have 6 independent equations since 0 qt is symmetric.33 − 2ε 23.k 3 = −1 jk ε 3 j .12 − ε 21.kl = ε11.33 = 0 = ∂  ∂ε 23 ∂ε13 ∂ε12  ∂ 2 ε 33 ∂ 2 ε12 ∂ 2 ε 33 ∂ 2 ε 23 ∂ 2 ε13  − =0 − + = − − + ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x1∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x1∂x3 ∂x1∂x2 ∂x3∂x3 ∂x3  ∂x1   when q = 2.k 2 + 1 jk 1i 3 ε ij .31 − ε33.13 − ε33.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 380 Note that. if we multiply the above equation by δ bn we get: ε am. anδ bn = O ambnδ bn ⇒ ε am. bm − ε mb.k 3 Expanding the index i the above equation becomes: 1 jk 1il ε ij .k 3 and by expanding the remaining indices we obtain: 1 jk 1il ε ij . 23 = 0 = ∂ 2 ε 33 2 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 ε 22 2 ∂x3 −2 ∂ 2 ε 23 =0 ∂x 2 ∂x3 note that ε 23. t = 2 1 jk  2il εij . 23 = −ε 32. 22 − ε12.33 − ε 23.

12 = 0 = ∂ 2 ε 23 ∂ 2 ε13 ∂ 2 ε 22 ∂ 2 ε 12 ∂ = + − − ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x1∂x 3 ∂x1∂x 2 ∂x 2  ∂ε12 ∂ε13 ∂ε 23   ∂x − ∂x + ∂x 2 1  3  ∂ 2 ε 22 −  ∂x ∂x = 0 1 3  By regrouping the 6 equations we get:  ∂ 2 ε 33 ∂ 2 ε 22 ∂ 2 ε 23 S11 = + −2 =0  2 2 ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂x3   2 2 2 S 22 = ∂ ε 33 + ∂ ε11 − 2 ∂ ε13 = 0 2  ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x12 ∂x3  ∂ 2 ε 11 ∂ 2 ε 22 ∂ 2 ε 12  S 33 = + −2 =0  2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x12   2 S = ∂  ∂ε 23 + ∂ε 13 − ∂ε12  − ∂ ε 33 = 0   12  ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1∂x 2     ∂  ∂ε 23 ∂ε 13 ∂ε 12  ∂ 2 ε 11 − − =0 + + S 23 = ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3  ∂x 2 ∂x3     2 S = ∂  ∂ε 23 − ∂ε13 + ∂ε12  − ∂ ε 22 = 0   13  ∂x 2  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂x3    Compatibility equations for 3D (5. 22 − ε 22.12 + ε12.kl = −ε11.11 = ε13. 21 = ε12. the 6 components of the strain tensor are not independent and cannot be arbitrary.49) are known as the compatibility equations.12 + ε 21.9). 22 − ε 22. t = 3 1 jk  3il ε ij . In other words.31 − ε 23.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 381  2 jk  3il ε ij .11 − ε11. The compatibility equations guarantee that the displacement field is unique and continuous (see Figure 5.32 − ε13. Chaves (2013) .31 + ε 23. 23 − ε13.13 − ε 23. University of Castilla.13 + ε 23. V.49) The above equations in Voigt notation become:   0   ∂2  S11   ∂x 2 3 S    ∂2  22  2     S 33   ∂x 2 =    S12   0  S 23      2  S13   − ∂     ∂x 2 ∂x 3   0  ∂2 2 ∂x3 0 ∂2 ∂x12 ∂2 2 ∂x 2 2 ∂ ∂x12 0 0 − ∂2 ∂x1∂x 2 0 0 − ∂2 ∂x1∂x3 0 0 − ∂2 ∂x 2 ∂x3 0 0 − ∂2 ∂x1∂x 2 ∂2 −1 2 2 ∂x3 ∂2 1 2 ∂x1∂x3 ∂2 1 2 ∂x 2 ∂x3 0 ∂2 ∂x1∂x3 ∂2 −1 2 2 ∂x1 ∂2 1 2 ∂x1∂x 2 1 2 {S } = [L( 2) ] {ε } = {0}    − ∂2   ∂x1∂x3   ε11  0       ε 22  0 0   ε  0   33  =       2   2ε12  0 ∂ 1  2 ∂x 2 ∂x 3  2ε 23  0     ∂ 2   2ε 13  0 1      2 ∂x1 ∂x 2  ∂2  −1 2  2 ∂x 2  0 (5. 23 = 0 = ∂ 2 ε 23 ∂ 2 ε13 ∂ 2 ε11 ∂ 2 ε12 ∂ = − − + ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x1∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂x1  ∂ε13 ∂ε12 ∂ε 23   ∂x + ∂x − ∂x 3 1  2  ∂ 2 ε11 −  ∂x ∂x = 0 2 3  and when q = 1.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.32 + ε13.50) NOTE 1: The equations in (5.kl = ε12.

when we assembly the elements (tie nodes) we are ensuring that the compatibility equations are satisfied. NOTE 4: To understand the compatibility condition let us consider an example in two dimensional case (2D).52) If we consider the Green’s theorem (see Chapter 1 in the textbook) which states: r r r r  ∂F ∂F  components ∫ F ⋅ dΓ = Ω (∇ ∫ Γ r x ˆ ∧ F) ⋅ e 3 dS   → F1dx1 + F2 dx2 =  2 − 1 dS3   Γ Ω  ∂x1 ∂x2  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain ∫ Draft ∫ By: Eduardo W. x2 )  ∂x2  (5. the way to ensure the compatibility equations is by means of the continuity of the displacement field. x2 ) will be compatible if and only if: ∂φ  = F1 ( x1 .g. u = u( x1 . we see clearly that this scalar field is ∂x1 ∂x2 incompatible since ∂φ = x1 + 3 x2 = F1 ∂x1 ∂φ = x12 = F2 ∂x2 ⇒ ⇒ ∂ ∂x2  ∂φ  ∂ 2φ ∂ ( x1 + 3 x2 )  = =3  ∂x  ∂x ∂x = ∂x2 2 1  1 ∂ 2φ ∂( x12 ) ∂  ∂φ   = = = 2 x1 ∂x2 ∂x1  ∂x2  ∂x1∂x2   The scalar field φ = φ ( x1 . x2 ) and we know the following derivatives: ∂φ ∂φ = x1 + 3x2 and = x12 . e.9 NOTE 2: When using numerical method for obtaining the solution. x 2 ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 382 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 9 1 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 The compatibility equations are not satisfied 1 4 7 The compatibility equations are satisfied 3 6 9 2 5 8 Figure 5. the compatibility equations reduce to: S 33 = ∂ 2 ε11 2 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 ε 22 ∂x12 −2 ∂ 2 ε12 =0 ∂x1∂x 2 Compatibility equations for 2D (5. With regards the finite element method. x2 )  ∂x1  compatible iff ∂F1 ∂F2  =     → ∂φ ∂x2 ∂x1  = F2 ( x1 . r r NOTE 3: When the displacement field is independent of one direction. finite element method.51) since ε i 3 = ε 3i = 0 .e. V. where we have the scalar field φ = φ ( x1 . i. Chaves (2013) .

s . we conclude that: if F = ∇ xφ . j (dS ) i = a p  ijk  psq ε qk .sj (dS )i [ ∫ ∫ [ Ω = ap r = a⋅ r [∇ ∫ Ω ∫ {∇ Ω r ] [ ] ] ∫ [ r x r r ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T ] r x r r ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T Ω ∫ ] [ ] ∫ Ω } ⋅ dS ip T r (dS )i r It would be worth reviewing the Problem 1. j (dS ) i {  Ω Ω  =0  r r r r T r = a p  ijk (∇ x ∧ ε ) kp. where we have shown that the following r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r relationship (∇ x ∧ ε) =  ksq ε qp .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP r 383 r r and also considering the equation in (5. r r r r r r r NOTE 5: Let us consider that F = (∇ x ∧ ε ) ⋅ a = a ⋅ (∇ x ∧ ε )T . j (∇ x ∧ ε )T kp + a p (∇ x ∧ ε )T kp. s e k ⊗ e p . Γ Ω r ˆ dS = dSe 3 x2 Γ x3 ˆ e3 Ω x1 Figure 5. Chaves (2013) . j (dS ) i = a p  ijk  psq ε qk . j (dS )i =  ijk a p (∇ x ∧ ε )T ∫ Ω ]] kp .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. s e k ⊗ e p holds. thus (∇ x ∧ ε)T =  psq ε qk .10: Green’s theorem. V. j r (dS ) i   r r r r r r r r =  ijk a p . Note also that the following relations are true: r r r r r r r r r r r r r r (a) ∫ F ⋅ dΓ = ∫ (∇ x ∧ ε ) ⋅ a ⋅ dΓ = ∫ a ⋅ (∇ x ∧ ε)T ⋅ dΓ = a ⋅ ∫ (∇ x ∧ ε )T ⋅ dΓ [ Γ ] Γ (b) ] Γ and ∫ Ω [ r r r r (∇ x ∧ F) ⋅ dS = ∫ {∇ ∧ [(∇ Ω r r r x r x Γ ]} r r ∧ ε ) ⋅ a ⋅ dS = ∫ { Ω r r r r r = a ⋅ ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T r ∫ {∇ ∧ [a ⋅ (∇ Ω r r r x r r } ⋅ dS = a ⋅ ∫ {∇ r T r x r x ∧ ε )T r ]}⋅ dS r r ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T } ⋅ dS T r Ω In indicial notation becomes r r r r r r r r r r (a) ∫ Fi (dΓ )i = ∫ (∇ x ∧ ε )ij a j (dΓ )i = ∫ a j (∇ x ∧ ε )ij (dΓ )i = a j ∫ (∇ x ∧ ε )ij (dΓ )i Γ Γ Γ (b) r ∫ (∇ Ω r x Γ ∫ [ [ Ω r r r r r ∧ F) i (dS ) i =  ijk Fk . φ is compatible r r r r r r r r r ˆ if and only if ∫ F ⋅ dΓ = ∫ (∇ x ∧ F) ⋅ e 3dS = 0 ⇒ ∇ x ∧ F = 0 . j  (dS ) i =  ijk a p (∇ x ∧ ε )T kp .108. Also in University of Castilla.52). where ε is a second-order r r tensor field and a is an arbitrary vector independent of x (constant).

10 a) Show that the fundamental equations for an isotropic linear elastic material (see equations in (5. x x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.: Indicial notation σij . for a compatible field it must fulfill: {∇ r r x ∧F } T =0 ⇒ r r ∇x ∧ F = 0 More detail about these algebraic manipulations is provided in Problem 1.33)). Problem 5.sj e i ⊗ e p .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 384 r r ˆ ˆ r r Problem 1. j (2 µ + 3λ ) (2 µ + 3λ ) [ Tensorial notation r ∇2 σ + x ] sym [ − 2 ( ρbi ).108. kkδ ij = 2 ( ρui ). And by consider the Stokes’ Theorem (see Chapter 1 in the textbook) we conclude: r r r r r ∫ F ⋅ dΓ = Ω ( ∇ ∫ Γ r x ∧ F ) ⋅ dS 14444 4444 2 3 ⇓ r r r r r r r r r a ⋅ (∇ x ∧ ε )T ⋅ dΓ = a ⋅ ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T ∫{ Ω ∫ Γ ∫ ⇓ r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε ) T r r r (∇ x ∧ ε )T ⋅ dΓ = Γ ∫{ } ⋅ dS r T } ⋅ dS r T Ω Then. which is equivalent to r r ˆ ˆ r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T =  psq  ijk εqk . j ] sym (5.108 we shown that ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T =  ipq tsj εqj .53) [ ] [ ] r sym r λ 2(λ + µ ) r r && sym r r r ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] − ∇ 2 [Tr (σ )]1 = 2 ∇ x ( ρu) − 2 ∇ x ( ρb) x (2 µ + 3λ) (2 µ + 3λ) r r r r r r where ∇ 2 σ = ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x σ ) and ∇ 2 [Tr (σ )] = ∇ x ⋅ [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] . and by apply the Stokes’ theorem we get: r r r r r ∫ Γ r A ⋅ dΓ = (∇ x ∧ A ) ⋅ dS ∫ ⇒ Ω ∫ Γ r r r r r r ( F ⋅ a) ⋅ dΓ = (∇ x ∧ ( F ⋅ a)) ⋅ dS ∫ Ω 144444444444444 44444444444444 2 3 r r r a ⋅ F T ⋅ dΓ = a ⋅ ∫ Γ ∫{ Ω r r ∇x ∧ F } T r ⋅ dS ⇓ ∫ ⇒ r F T ⋅ dΓ = Γ r {∇ ∫ Ω r x ∧F } ⋅ dS T r Then. ps e t ⊗ e i . i.ij − σll . kk + 2(λ + µ ) λ && σ kk . (Stress Formulation). V.e. for a compatible field it must fulfill: {∇ r r x r r ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T r } T =0 ⇒ r r r r ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ ε )T = 0 r ∂x ∂X r Now let us consider that A = F ⋅ a where F is the gradient deformation. Chaves (2013) . can be replaced by six equations and six unknowns ( σ ij ). F = r .

kk + 2(λ + µ ) −λ && σ kk .ij − ε il . kl + ε kl . express the equations (5. then: ∂x i ∂xi ∂ 2 ε ij  1  λ λ 1 ≡ ε ij . kk − ε kk . Solution: a) We obtain the inverse of the constitutive equation in stress ( σ = C e : ε ): Ce −1 : σ = Ce −1 : C e : ε = I sym : ε = ε sym = ε Remember that the tensor C e ε= −1 ε = Ce ⇒ −1 :σ for isotropic material is given by: 1 1 λ λ σ− Tr (σ )1 indicial→ ε ij =   σ ij − σ ss δ ij .ki − σ ss .ij = u ( ρb k ).il δ jk = O ijkl δ jk ⇒ ε ik . j (2 µ + 3λ ) (2 µ + λ) [ ] Tensorial notation r ∇2 σ + x [ [ ] − 2 ( ρ bi ) .55) by δ jk we get: ε ij .kl = λ λ 1 1 σ ik .56) the following is true: ε ik .kl − σ ss . kl δ jk + ε kl . jk δ jk − ε jk .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. kl δ ij  ∂x k ∂xl   . 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) r If we consider a homogeneous material.ik = λ λ 1 1 σ kl . kl =   2µ σ ij − 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss δ ij  = 2µ σ ij .9).i ≡ = 0 i .kl + ε kl . if we multiply the equation in (5. the mechanical properties do not vary with x . Chaves (2013) .56) Moreover. V.ik − σ ss . k − ( ρ&&k ).il 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) ε kl .54) E Eν and µ = .kl − σ ss . k δ ij + 2 ( ρui ).kl δ ik = σ ik .ik − ε il . jk − ε jk .ij δ jk − ε il .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 385 b) or by: Indicial notation σij .kk δ il 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) University of Castilla. ν) .kk = λ 1 σ il .54) in function of ( E .53) and (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) 2(1 + ν) (5.kk − σ ss . according to equation (5.il = 0 il (5. j ] ] sym [ ] [ [ sym ] r r sym r r 2(λ + µ ) r r −λ && && sym r r r ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] = ∇ x ⋅ ( ρb) − ( ρu) 1 + 2 ∇ x ( ρu) − 2 ∇ x ( ρb) ( 2 µ + 3λ) (2 µ + λ) (5.kl − 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss .55) (see Problem 5.ik δ kl = σ lk .57) Note that.il 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) ε il . i.il = O ijkl (5.kl (5.e.i ≡ ∂µ ∂λ = 0 i and µ . λ . r Hint: The kinematic equations ε = ∇ sym u can be replaced by: c) Considering that λ = ε ij .

il = 0 il 1 2µ   2µ 2λ λ  σ ik . kk δ il = 0 il    2( µ + λ ) λ ⇒ σ ik .l && σ lk .i .ki = (ρ b l ) .l sym Restructuring the above and considering that ( l = j ) we obtain: σ ij . k = (ρ u i ) . V. ki − σ il .59) Our goal now is to obtain an expression for σ ll.kl − σ ss .l − (ρ u i ) . j + ρ b i = ρ u i we can obtain: && σ ij .ij = σ ll . kk + σ ss .il δ kk = σ − σ { 2µ kk . j ] sym && − 2 ( ρ u i ) .kl −   (2µ + 3λ ) + (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss .ki (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) (5.il  2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ )   ∂ 2 ε ij ∂x k ∂x l ≡ ε ij .l ]sym − 2[(ρ u i ) . Chaves (2013) .il − σ il . kk . which is the same as (5.il =   2µ − 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss .l + (ρ b l ) .kk δ il − σ ss . b) Starting from the above equation we get: σ ij .il = = 1 1 3λ λ σ kk .il + σ lk . kl − σ lk .D.ij − σ ll .kk + (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss .kk + σ ss .kk + 2( µ + λ ) λ && σ kk .ki − σ il . ki + (ρ b l ) .kl − σ ss .l (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) [ ] [ ] − 2 (ρ b i ) .kl + ε kl .i = (ρ u l ) .il 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) ss . kk δ il = 0 il (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) − 2( µ + λ ) λ σ ss .kl − σ lk . j (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) [ ] sym [ sym Q.kl δ ij 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) With that the equation in (5. && && && And note that − σ ik . jk + (ρ b i ) .il − σ ss . ki = (ρ b i ) .55) by δ jk δ li we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.il  = 0 il   (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ )     2µ 2λ λ ⇒ σ ik . j ] sym (5.i = 2[(ρ b i ) .kk δ ij + 2 (ρ u i ) .l = (ρ u i ) . If we multiply equation (5.i − (ρ u l ) .k with that the following is true: && σ ik .il + σ lk .i − (ρ u l ) .i ⇒ && − σ lk .l ]sym By replacing the above equation into the equation (5.il − σ ss .E.il = 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ss .l ⇒ && − σ ik .kl − σ ss . ki − σ il .kl + (ρ b i ) . j (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) [ ] sym [ − 2 (ρ b i ) .58) we get: − 2( µ + λ ) λ σ ss .l − (ρ u i ) .kk δ ij = 2 (ρ u i ) .il − σ il .kk δ il = 2 (ρ b i ) .53).kk + 2( µ + λ ) λ && σ kk .kl = λ 1 σ ij .ik − ε il .kk − ε kk .57) becomes: ε ik .kk + σ ss .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 386 ε kk .kl = (ρ b i ) .il 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) =3  1  2µ 1 3λ 3λ σ ss .kk δ il = −σ ik .il + σ lk .58) && From the equations of motion σ ij .kk + σ ss .

i − (ρ b i ) .kkδ ij + 2 ( ρui ) .62)  2µ + λ  ⇒ σ ij . j sym ] ] sym (5.ij − σ ss .i − (ρ b i ) .ij δ jk δ li − ε il .ii 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ ) (5. ji + (ρ b i ) .kk + 2( µ + λ) λ && σ kk .60) becomes: ⇒ ε ij . ji = (ρ u i ) .ij = ( ρb k ) . jj − ε jj .ij −    (2µ + 3λ ) + (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii .k δ ij + 2 ( ρui ).k − ( ρu k ) . k = − ( ρ b k ) .kk    ⇒ σ ii . kk   && Now.ii = 2ε ij .ij − σ ss . kk 1 1 λ λ σ ij .54) c) After some algebraic manipulations we can obtain: (1 − 2ν) 1 .ij − 2ε ii .E.62) becomes:  2µ + λ  σ ij . j ( 2 µ + 3λ) (2 µ + 3λ) 2 µ + λ ⇒ σ ij . ji + ε ji .63) (2µ + 3λ ) (2µ + 3λ ) && && (ρ u k ) .kk + 2( µ + λ) −λ ( 2 µ + 3λ) && && σ kk .60) ⇒ ε ij . jk δ jk δ li − ε jk .i ⇒ With that the equation in (5.il δ jk δ li = O ijkl δ jk δ li ⇒ ε ij .61)   2µ 1 λ = σ ii . k − (ρ u k ) . by means of the equations of motion σ ij .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we can obtain: ε ij .k δ ij + 2 ( ρui ) .ij =    (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii .ij = σll .D. j + ρ b i = ρ u i we can obtain: && σ ij . j ] sym ⇒ σ ij .ij =   (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii .ij = ( ρb k ) . jj = 0 If we use the inverse of the constitutive equation (see equation (5.kk = (5.kk δ ii =   2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii .kk − σ ss .k − ( ρuk ) .56)). k 2µ + λ 2µ + λ [ ] [ ] Replacing equation (5.ij − ε ii .kk     2µ + λ  && ⇒ (ρ u i ) .kk = 0 2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ )     2µ λ ⇒ σ ij .ij δ ij = σ ij . kl δ jk δ li + ε kl .64) Thus obtaining the equation in (5. = (2µ + 3λ ) E University of Castilla. k − (ρ b k ) . kk  2µ 2µ (2µ + 3λ )   With that the equation in (5. j ( 2 µ + 3λ) (2 µ + λ) [ [ [ ] ] [ ] sym [ ] − 2 ( ρb i ) .ij = ε ii . j (2 µ + 3λ) (2 µ + 3λ) [ ] sym [ − 2 ( ρb i ) . jj = 0 (5.ii −    2µ (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii . [ − 2 ( ρb i ) .ij − ε ii .kk + 2( µ + λ) −λ && && σ kk . Chaves (2013) sym .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 387 ε ij . we obtain: σij .ij − ε ii .ij − σ ss .i = (ρ u i ) . j Q.59).i =   (2µ + 3λ ) σ ii . V.63) into (5. jj = 0   2µ λ 1 σ ij .i && σ ij .kk = 0   ⇒ (5.kk = σ ll .

kkδ ij = 2 ( ρui ). = = (2µ + λ ) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E (1 − ν ) (1 − ν ) whereby the equation (5. k δ ij − 2 (ρ b i ) . =2 +2 = (2µ + 3λ ) (1 + ν) 2(1 + ν ) (1 + ν ) (2µ + λ ) = 2 E (1 − ν ) E Eν . j (1 + ν) (1 + ν) Tensorial notation r ∇2 σ + x ] sym [ − 2 ( ρb i ) .65) and the equation (5. V.53) becomes: σij . j (1 + ν) (1 − ν) [ ] [ ] sym [ − 2 ( ρb i ). k − ( ρuk ). = E 2(1 + ν) 2(1 + ν) 2(µ + λ ) (1 − 2ν) ν 1 . = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 + ν) = (1 − 2ν) (1 − 2ν) E .ij = 0 ij (1 + ν) 1 r r + ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] = 0 (1 + ν) Beltrami’s equations (5.66) NOTE 1: For a static problem the above equation becomes: σ ij .68) which are known as Beltrami’s equations. k δ ij + 2 ( ρui ). j ] ] sym [ ] r r sym r r 1 −ν && && sym r r r r r ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] = ∇ x ⋅ ( ρb) − ( ρu) 1 + 2 ∇ x ( ρu) − 2 ∇ x ( ρb) (1 + ν) (1 − ν) (5. the Michell’s equations reduce to: σ ij . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j (1 + ν) (1 − ν ) ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ sym r r sym 1 −ν r r r r + ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] = ∇ x ⋅ ( ρb ) 1 − 2 ∇ x ( ρb ) (1 + ν) (1 − ν) Michell’s equations (5.ij = ( ρbk ).kk + r ∇2 σ x 1 σ kk . Chaves (2013) . r If the body forces do not vary with x . kk + [ 1 ν && σ kk .67) which are known as Michell’s equations. j [ ] ] sym [ ] r sym r 1 ν && sym r r r r r ∇ x [∇ x [Tr (σ )]] − ∇ 2 [Tr (σ )]1 = 2 ∇ x ( ρu) − 2 ∇ x ( ρb) x (1 + ν) (1 + ν) (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 388 λ (2µ + 3λ ) µ (2µ + 3λ ) = (1 − 2ν ) Eν ν .54) becomes: σij .kk + r ∇2 σ x 1 −ν σ kk .ij = (ρ b k ) . kk + [ ] Tensorial notation r ∇2 σ + x [ 1 −ν && && σ kk .ij − σll . + = 2(1 + ν ) (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν) Eν ν λ .

: σ ii .kk = − (1 + ν) (ρ b k ) .71) ⇒ ∇ 4Φ = 0 with σ11 = ∂ 2Φ 2 ∂x 2 .kk = − (1 − ν )  (ρ b k ) . k = − (ρ b k ) .70) ] ] Note that σ ii .ii and (ρ b k ) .e.i .72) Consider a linear elastic material.70)) we have shown that: σ ii . b) Show whether the equilibrium are satisfied.kk = − (1 + ν) (ρ b k ) .10 (see equation (5.k = 0 .e. k = 1.11 a) Prove that: Indicial notation Φ . Problem 5.2 .kk = − r (1 + ν ) ∇ ⋅ ( ρb ) (1 − ν) r (1 + ν) ∇ 2 [Tr (σ )] = − ∇ ⋅ ( ρb) (1 − ν) (2µ + 3λ ) (1 + ν) (ρ b k ) . k 2µ + λ (1 − ν) ∇ ⋅ {∇ [Tr (σ )]} = − (5. k  (1 + ν)      ( 2 + ν)   (2 + ν)  ⇒  (1 + ν) σ ii . x 2 ) . k δ ii − 2 (ρ b i ) . iijj = 0 Tensorial notation ∇ ⋅ {∇ [∇ ⋅ (∇Φ )]} = 0 (i.69) The above equation can also be obtained by means of equation (5.kk = σ kk . For the proposed problem we have i.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.2) ⇒ ∇ 2∇ 2 Φ = 0 ∂ 4Φ ∂ 4Φ ∂ 4Φ ⇒ 4 +2 2 2 + 4 =0 ∂x1 ∂x1 x2 ∂x2 (5.63) becomes: σ ll . σ 22 = ∂ 2Φ ∂x12 σ12 = σ 21 = − . with which: University of Castilla. i. V. σ = σ ( x1 .i { (1 + ν) (1 − ν ) =3 [ ] [   − 3ν  1  σ ii . ∂ 2Φ ∂x1 ∂x 2 (5. and no body forces. Consider also that the Cauchy stress tensor is only dependent of x1 and x 2 . k (1 − ν) [ ] ] (5. Solution: a) In Problem 5. j = 1. k = 0 (1 − ν) [ ] where we have considered that (ρ b k ) .k = (ρ b i ) .kk =  ⇒ 1 +    (1 − ν) − 2  (ρ b k ) . a static problem. i.67) with ( i = j ). Chaves (2013) . the equation in (5.ii = (ρ b k ) .kk + −ν 1 σ kk .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 389 && NOTE 2: For a static problem (u k = 0 k ) .k        [ [ ⇒ σ ii .

j . 22 + σ 22.11 + σ ii . V.72). Chaves (2013) .72).2) (=1→  σ i1.kk = 0 ⇒ σ ii . 2 = 0 i ⇒  ∂σ11 ∂σ12  ∂x + ∂x = 0  1 2   ∂σ 21 + ∂σ 22 = 0  ∂x1 ∂x 2  Using the definition (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 390 σ ii . j = 0 i i . we show that the expressions of stresses given by (5. Φ is known as the Airy stress function. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we can conclude that: ∂ 2 σ11 ∂x12 + ∂ 2 σ 22 ∂x12 + ∂ 2 σ11 2 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 σ 22 2 ∂x 2 =0 ⇒ ∂ 2 ∂ 2Φ ∂ 2 ∂ 2Φ ∂ 2 ∂ 2Φ ∂ 2 ∂ 2Φ + 2 + 2 + 2 =0 2 2 ∂x12 ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x12 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x12 ⇒ ∂ 4Φ ∂ 4Φ ∂ 4Φ +2 2 2 + 4 =0 ∂x14 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 Q.11 + σ11. 22 = 0 ⇒ σ11. b) For the bidimensional case (2D).11 + σ 22.E. the equilibrium equations (without body forces) reduce to: σ ij .1 + σ i 2.72) satisfy the equilibrium equations.D. 22 = 0 ⇒ ∂ 2 σ11 ∂x12 + ∂ 2 σ 22 ∂x12 + ∂ 2 σ11 2 ∂x 2 + ∂ 2 σ 22 2 ∂x 2 =0 Using the definition given by (5. we can obtain:  ∂σ11 ∂σ12  ∂x + ∂x = 0  1 2  ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22  + =0  ∂x1 ∂x 2  ⇒  ∂ ∂ 2Φ ∂ ∂ 2Φ ∂ 3Φ ∂ 3Φ − = − =0  2 2 2 ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2  ∂x1 ∂x 2  2 2 3 3 − ∂ ∂ Φ + ∂ ∂ Φ = − ∂ Φ + ∂ Φ = 0  ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂x12 ∂x12 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x12 1 1 2  With this. NOTE: In the literature.

and moreover this formulation does not deal with the derivative of the mechanical properties. University of Castilla.10). thus: {σ } = [C ]{ε } ⇒ {σ } = [C ] [L(1) ]{u } −1 −1 ⇒ [C ] { } = [C ] 4 ] [L(1) ]{ } σ 1 2[3 u 4 C =[1 ] [ ]{u } = {0 } ⇒ [C ] { } − L σ −1 (1) whereby the system (5. where [L ] (1) T  ∂   ∂x1 = 0    0   0 ∂ ∂x 2 ∂ ∂x 2 ∂ ∂x1 0 0 0 ∂ ∂x3 0 0 ∂ ∂x3 ∂ ∂x 2 ∂   ∂x 3  0    ∂  ∂x1   To eliminate the strain from the equations. (see Problem 5. Chaves (2013) .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.73) becomes: [ ]  L(1) T {σ } + {ρ b } = {ρ u&} &   −1 (1) σ u  [C ] { } − L { } = {0 }  [ ] It is also possible to write as follows:  [0 ]   (1) − L [ ] & [L ]  {u } = − {ρ b } + {ρ u&}     (1) T [C ]−1  {σ }   {0 }  NOTE: The above formulation is known as Mixed Formulation. linear problem: Tensorial notation The equations of motion: r r r && & ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = ρ v = ρ u (3 equations) The constitutive equations for stress: Voigt notation The equations of motion: & [L ] {σ } + {ρ b } = {ρ u&} (3 equations) σ (ε ) = C e : ε (6 equations) {σ } = [C ]{ε } (6 equations) (1) T The constitutive equations for stress: The kinematic equations: (5. V. meanwhile in the mixed formulation we deal only with the first derivative of the unknowns.12 Consider the governing equation for the elastic. we have second derivative of the unknowns.7. It is interesting to note that in the formulations either in displacement or in stress.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 391 Problem 5. we replace the kinematic equation into the constitutive equations for stress. linear problem.73) The kinematic equations: {ε } = [L(1) ] {u } (6 equations) r ε = ∇ sym u (6 equations) where the equations in Voigt notation were obtained in Problem 5. Solution: Taking into account the governing equations for the elastic.8 and Problem 5. Obtain an equivalent r formulation such as the unknowns are displacement u and stress σ (Mixed Formulation). Use Voigt notation.

ε r System II Su r u* r Displacement field .75) By: Eduardo W.13 Let us consider two systems made up by the same linear elastic material but with different load conditions as shown below: r System I Surface force .ε ˆ n r Displacement field .b Stress field .t * r Specific body force .u ˆ n Surface force . σ = C e : ε . With that the above equation becomes: σ ij ε ij = ε ij C e ε kl = ε kl C e ε ij = ε kl σ kl ijkl klij Tensorial notation →   σ :ε = σ :ε If now we integrate over the whole volume we get the Betti’s theorem: ∫ σ : ε dV = ∫ σ : ε dV V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain V Draft (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 392 Problem 5. Show the Betti’s theorem also known as Betti’s reciprocal theorem: ∫ σ : ε dV = ∫ σ : εdV V Betti’s theorem V (5.σ Strain field . in indicial notation: e σ ij = C ijkl ε kl And by multiplying both sides of the equation by the field ε we get: σ ij ε ij = ε ij C e ε kl ijkl Major Simmetry→     of C e σ ij ε ij = ε ij C ijkl ε kl = ε kl C e ε ij klij e where we have applied the major symmetry of the elasticity tensor ( C ijkl = C e ).u Figure 5.74) Solution: Taking into account the constitutive equation for stress.t * Sσ B dV r r t * ( x) r ρb r Specific body force . Chaves (2013) . Since the klij both systems are made up by the same material the relationship σ = C e : ε holds.b Sσ B Su r u* dV r r t * ( x) r r ρ b( x ) Stress field .σ Strain field . V.11: Two systems under external actions.

e.i )dV = σ ij ( ui .i ) . j ui With that the equation in (5. which is also valid for the system II. j ∫ (σ u ). i. the condition C ijkl = C e enforces the existence of the storedklij energy function. Chaves (2013) . j = σij . if C e has major klij e symmetry. j dV V V where σij u i .  2  ∂x j  1 ∂u Recall that ε ij =  i + ε ij = ∂u j  1  = (u i . j u i dV V ∫ ∫ ∫ ˆ = σ ij ui n j dS − σ ij . Also note that: ( σ ij u i ). j ui + σ ij ui .i )dV 2V 2V ∫ ∫ ∫σ u ij i . j −σ ij .e. j ⇒ σ ij u i . i. such as: Ce = ijkl ∂ 2Ψ e ∂ 2Ψ e = = Ce klij ∂ε ij ∂ε kl ∂ε kl ∂ε ij NOTE 2: The Betti’s theorem is the start point to obtain the formulation of the Boundary Element Method.79) By: Eduardo W. The above equation in tensorial notation becomes: ∫ r t S r V University of Castilla. j −σ ij . j ui dV V ij i (5.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 393 e NOTE 1: The above equation is only valid if C ijkl = C e holds. j dV − σ ij . j + u j . Then: 2 ∫σ ij ε ij dV ∫ = σ ij ε ij dV V V 1 1 σij (u i . j u i dV = (σ ij ui ). we get: ˆ ∫ σ u n dS − ∫ σ ij i j S ij . j + u j . ∂xi  2  1 ( ui . j u i + σij u i . j = σ ij .76) ∫ = σ ij ui . j + u j . respectively.76) becomes: ∫σ u ij ∫ = σ ij ui .i hold due to the symmetry of σ and σ . j ui dV S ∫ V ∫ (5. j u i dV = t i ui dS − σ ij .78) ∫ ⇒ t i u i dS − σ ij . j ⇒ σ ij ui . j ij i ∫ − σ ij . j u i dV = (σ ij ui ). j ui dV S V S V r r ˆ ˆ where we have applied the definition σ ⋅ n = t and σ ⋅ n = t . j dV (5. j dV V V ∫ (σ u ). j u i (σ ij ui ).i and σ ij ui . j dV i . j + u j .i ) . j = (σ ij ui ). j = ( σ ij u i ).77) V ∫ ∫ ∫ dV − σ ij . V. j ui dV V V V V Applying the divergence theorem to the first one integral on both sides of the equation. j − σij .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain r r r r ⋅ udS − ∫ (∇ ⋅ σ ) ⋅ udV = ∫ t ⋅ u dS − ∫ (∇ ⋅ σ ) ⋅ u dV S Draft V (5. In other words. j = σ ij u j . NOTE 3: The Betti’s theorem can also be expressed in another form which we show below. j = σ ij u j .

80) becomes: ∫ r r r r t ⋅ udS = t ⋅ u dS ∫ S (5. the equation (5. j ∫σ ij ε ij dV V ∫ ∫ ∫ ⇒ σ ij ui . j dV = (σ ij ui ). j ui dV V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain (5. j ui + σ ij ui . Chaves (2013) . we obtain: r r r r F loc ⋅ u loc = F loc ⋅ u loc Fi loc u loc = Filoc uiloc i (5. thus: ∫ = σ ij ui . j −σ ij .14 Let us consider two systems as described in Figure 5.86) V Draft By: Eduardo W. j dV 2V V ∫ Note that (σ ij ui ).11. V. j −σ ij . j ui .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 394 If we resort to the equations of motion is satisfied that: r r && ∇ ⋅σ + ρb = ρu r r && ∇ ⋅ σ + ρb = ρu r r && − ∇ ⋅ σ = ρ (b − u ) r r && − ∇ ⋅ σ = ρ (b − u) ⇒ ⇒ with that the equation in (5.i )dV = σ ij ui .81) ∫ Sσ Su For the particular case when the system is in equilibrium and in the absence of body force. Show the Principal of Virtual Work: ∫ r r r r r && t * ⋅ u dS σ + ρ (b − u) ⋅ u dV = σ : ε dV ∫ Sσ ∫ V 1444442444443 Total external virtual work r Principle of Virtual Work V 4 4 1 2 3 (5.85) V (5.80) V Note that.79) becomes: ∫ r r r r r r r r r r && && t ⋅ udS + ρ (b − u ) ⋅ udV = t ⋅ u dS + ρ (b − u) ⋅ u dV ∫ S ∫ V ∫ S Betti’s theorem (5.84) Total internal virtual work r with u = u* on S u .82) S In addition. j = σ ij . Solution: We can prove the Principle of Virtual Work by starting directly from the relationship: ∫σ ij ε ij dV V = 1 σ ij ( ui . if we consider S = S u + S σ we have: ∫ r r t ⋅ udS = ∫ r r t ⋅ u dS = S S ∫ r r r r t * ⋅ udS + t ⋅ u* dS ∫ r r r r t * ⋅ u dS + t ⋅ u * dS Sσ ∫ Su (5. j dV − σ ij . j + u j .83) Problem 5. if we have concentrated forces instead of surface force. j ui dV V V ∫ ∫ ⇒ σ ij ε ij dV = (σ ij ui ). j = (σ ij ui ).

. For the particular case when the system is in equilibrium and in the absence of body force. we get: ∫σ ij ε ij dV ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ˆ = (σ ij ui ).. j dV − σ ij . we have not used the major symmetry of C e . if we have concentrated forces instead of surface force.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 395 by applying the divergence theorem to the first volume integral on the right side of the equation.. F2 ... Fn }T . j ui dV i Sσ V r ˆ where we have applied the definition σ ⋅ n = t * . j ui dV = σ ij ui n j dS σ − σ ij .89) V In addition. Chaves (2013) . the above equation becomes: ∫ r r r t * ⋅ u ( x )dS σ = σ : ε dV ∫ Sσ (5.87) ∫ = t * ui dS σ − σ ij . {u loc }= {U1 . Note that. The above equation in tensorial notation becomes: ∫ r r r σ : ε dV = t * ⋅ u dS σ − (∇ ⋅ σ ) ⋅ u dV ∫ V ∫ Sσ r r && If we use the equations of motion we get ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = ρ u that the equation in (5.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain VIRTUAL Draft By: Eduardo W. j ui dV V V V ∫ Sσ V (5. ε REAL University of Castilla.88) V ⇒ r r && − ∇ ⋅ σ = ρ (b − u) . Un }T .88) becomes: ∫ (5. for the demonstration. ε σ.90) V where the direction of uiloc -component is the same as the Filoc -component direction.. where {F loc }= {F1 ... F2 F1 F3 u u σ. V. we obtain: Tensorial notation Voigt notation r r F loc ⋅ u loc = σ : ε dV {F } {u }= ∫ {σ } {ε } dV loc T ∫ V T loc (5. with r r r r r && t * ⋅ u dSσ + ρ (b − u) ⋅ u dV = σ : ε dV ∫ Sσ ∫ V 14444 244444 4 3 Total external virtual work V 4 4 1 2 3 Total internal virtual work which is known as the Principle of Virtual Work. U2 .

i. Hint: Use the Principle of Virtual Work. and if we are using the Betti’s reciprocal theorem the fundamental unknowns are displacements and forces simultaneously (see equation (5.e. Solution: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. if we are using the Principle of Virtual Work the fundamental unknowns are displacements (strains). V. under a system of external forces.e.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 396 NOTE 1: The Principle of Virtual Work states: “A structure is in equilibrium.84) is also valid for rate of change of r & & virtual fields u .79)). and obtain an expression for [B( x )] .92) Total internal virtual work NOTE 4: We can also define the Principle of complementary virtual work as follows: ∫ r r r && r r t ⋅ u* dSu + ρ (b − u ) ⋅ udV = ∫ r Su V 14444 244444 4 3 Total external complementary virtual work ∫ σ : ε dV Principle of Complementary Virtual Work V 4 4 1 2 3 Total internal complementary virtual work (5. ε . if we are using the Principles of Complementary Virtual Work the fundamental unknowns are forces (stresses). Consider also that at some points of the sub-domain boundary there are concentrated r r forces {F (e ) }. i.93) r ˆ with σ ⋅ n = t * on S σ . NOTE 5: Note that. NOTE 3: It is easy to show that the equation in (5. isotropic linear elastic material.91) Total internal virtual work Total external virtual work r Also it is valid for a variation of the virtual field δu ⇒ δε . if and only if the total external virtual work equals the total internal r virtual work for every virtual displacement field ( u )”. u Prove that the fundamental equations for a linear elastic problem can be replaced by: {F }= [K ]{u } (e) (e ) (e) with [K ] = ∫ [B] [C ][B] dV T (e) (5.: ∫ r r r r r && t * ⋅ δ u dS σ + ρ (b − u) ⋅ δ u dV = σ : δε dV ∫ Sσ ∫ V 144444 2444444 4 3 Total external virtual work Principle of Virtual Work V 4 4 1 2 3 (5. Problem 5. Chaves (2013) .15 Consider a sub-domain ( Ω ) made up by a homogeneous. NOTE 2: The Principle of Virtual Work is used to discretization techniques of the problem such as the Finite Element Technique. and that the displacement field is approximated by {u( x )} = [N ( x )]{ ( e ) } u where { (e ) } are the displacements at the points where concentrated forces are applied.: ∫ r r r r r & && & & t * ⋅ u dS σ + ρ (b − u) ⋅ u dV = σ : ε dV ∫ ∫ Sσ V 1444442444443 Principle of Virtual Work V 4 4 1 2 3 (5. in which the fundamental unknown is the displacement.94) V r where [C ] is the elasticity tensor in Voigt notation.

90)). j + u j .7 we have obtained the symmetric part of the displacement field gradient.88)-(5. where the strain tensor field is given by the kinematic equations r r ε ( x ) = ∇ sym u . in Voigt notation. V.90).96) Note that.e. i. ε ij = 1 (u i .96) becomes: r r {u } {F }= ∫ {ε } {σ} dV = ∫ {[B( x)]{u }} [C ][B( x)]{u }dV (e) T T (e) V (e) T (e) V or: University of Castilla.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. which is equivalent to: r r r F ⋅ u = σ : ε dV = σ : (∇ sym u ) dV ∫ ∫ V V (5.95) r r r ⇒ u ⋅ F = (∇ sym u ) : σ dV ∫ V The above equation in Voigt notation becomes: r r r u ⋅ F = (∇ sym u ) : σ dV Voigt → u (e )   { } {F }= ∫ {ε } {σ } dV ∫ V T T (e) V (5. with which we can obtain: r r {u ( x )} = [N ( x )]{u (e ) } ⇒ r r {ε ( x )} = [B( x )] {u (e) } Then. The constitutive equation in stress.97) Note that { (e ) } is independent of x . the above equation is already considering the equilibrium equation (see equations (5. the equation in (5. The stress field can be obtained as follows: u r r r r {σ ( x )} = [C ]{ε ( x )} = [C ] [B ( x )] {u (e ) } We can adopt the same displacement field approach to approximate the virtual displacement field.: 2   ∂  ∂u1    ∂x1   ∂x1  ∂u 2   0   ε11     ∂x 2 ε      22   ∂u 3   0  ε 33   r ∂x3   {ε ( x )} =   =  ∂u ∂u  =  ∂    2ε 12   1 + 2   2ε 23   ∂x 2 ∂x1   ∂x 2    ∂u ∂u   2ε 13   2 + 3   0     ∂x3 ∂x 2    ∂u1 ∂u 3   ∂  ∂x + ∂x   ∂x  3 1   3 0 ∂ ∂x 2 0 ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x 3 0  0   0   ∂   u1  ∂x3     u 2  0  u   3  ∂  ∂x 2   ∂  ∂x1   ⇒ r r {ε ( x )} = [L(1) ]{u( x )} then r r r r {ε ( x )} = [L(1) ]{u( x )} = [L(1) ][N ( x )]{u (e) }= [B( x )] {u (e) } where r r [B( x )] = [L(1) ] [N ( x )] (5.i ) .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 397 We can start directly from the equation in (5. in Voigt notation is given by r r {σ ( x )} = [C ]{ε ( x )} . In Problem 5. Chaves (2013) .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 398 r r {u } {F }= ∫ {u } [B( x)] [C ][B( x )]{u }dV (e) T (e ) T (e) T (e) (5.16 For a equilibrium system let us consider the total potential energy Π : r r r r r 1 Π (u) = σ : ε dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ udV 2 V S V ∫ ∫ ∫ The total potential energy (5. so Π (u) assume a minimum value. let us suppose that the sub-domain ( Ω ) u r is characterized by a quadrilateral then we can obtain {u( x )} by means of its nodal values {u (e) } as follows: U(e ) _ 2 U (e ) _ 3 Ω U r {u( x )} (e ) _ 1 r r {u( x )} = [N ( x )]{u(e) } U(e ) _ 4 U(e ) _ 1   (e ) _ 2  r U  = [N ( x )] (e ) _ 3   U  (e ) _ 4   U Problem 5.98) V Note that neither { (e ) } nor {u (e ) } are dependent of x . denoted by δΠ .100) σ where U int = 1 ∫ 2 σ : ε dV = ∫Ψ e (ε ) dV (5. then: u r   r r {u } {F }= {u }  ∫ [B( x)] [C ][B( x)] dV {u }     (e) T (e) T (e) T (e) V   r T r ⇒ F ( e ) =  [B ( x )] [C ][B ( x )] dV  u ( e )   V  { } ∫ u ⇒ {F } = [K ]{ } (e) (e) (5. Chaves (2013) . For example. if δΠ = 0 is equivalent to a stationary value Π .99) { } (e) [ ] NOTE: K (e ) is known as the stiffness matrix of the sub-domain (finite element). University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.102) V V and ∫ Sσ ∫ V Also let us consider that the first variation of Π .101) r r r r U ext = t * ⋅ udS σ + (ρ b) ⋅ udV (5. and the r r r matrix [N ( x )] from the relationship {u( x )} = [N ( x )]{ ( e ) } is known as the matrix shape u function. V. Show that. equals cero for a r stationary value of Π . The shape functions are functions defined into the domain that allows us to r obtain the value of an unknown function {u( x )} at any point of the domain through the nodal values of the function { (e ) }.

104) ∂Ψ e : δε ∂ε where we have considered σ = ∂Ψ e (see Problem 5.103) σ r r r r 1 = δ(σ : ε ) dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ δudV 2 V S V ∫ ∫ ∫ σ Note that: [ ] 1 1 1 δΨ e (ε ) = δ(σ : ε ) = (δσ : ε + σ : δε ) = δ(C e : ε ) : ε + σ : δε 2 2 2 1 1 1 = (C e : δε ) : ε + σ : δε = ε : C e : δε + σ : δε = [σ : δε + σ : δε ] 2 2 2 = σ : δε [ = ] [ ] (5. V. Chaves (2013) . and also consider a linear elastic material. Then. the equation in (5.5).5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 399 r r NOTE 1: Consider that during the deformation process. Solution: The first variation ( δΠ ) can be obtained as follows:  1 r r  r r δΠ = δ σ : ε dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ udV   2  Sσ V V  r r r* r 1 = δ σ : ε dV − δ t ⋅ udS σ − δ (ρ b) ⋅ udV 2 V S V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ (5. the external actions ( t * . 2 ∂ε ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε Draft (5.103) becomes: r r r r 1 δ(σ : ε ) dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ δudV 2 V Sσ V r r* r r = σ : δε dV − t ⋅ δudS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ δudV δΠ = ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V r r r r = δΨ e dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ δudV ∫ V r ∫ ∫ Sσ V r The expression Π (u + δu) can be obtained as follows (see equation (5.107) By: Eduardo W. b ) do not vary..La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain 1 ∂Ψ e (ε ) ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) : δε + δε : : δε + .105) where we have used the property A sym : B = A sym : (B sym + B skew ) = A sym : B sym .106) By using the Taylor series to approach Ψ e (ε + δε) we get: Ψ e (ε + δε ) = Ψ e (ε) + University of Castilla.100)): r r r r r r r r Π (u + δu) = Ψ e (ε + δε ) dV − t * ⋅ (u + δu)dS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ (u + δu)dV ∫ V ∫ ∫ Sσ V (5.. For small deformation regime we ∂ε can also write the above equation as follows: δΨ e (ε ) = r r r ∂Ψ e : δε = σ : δε = σ : δ(∇ symu) = σ : (∇ sym δu) = σ : (∇δu) ∂ε (5.

δΠ = 0 ⇒ Π (u) is a minimum ∫ NOTE 2: For a system made up by a linear elastic material. we guarantee that: r r r r r r 1 ∆Π = Π (u + δu) − Π (u) = δε : C e : δε dV > 0 ⇒ Π (u + δu) > Π (u) 2 V r So.. V. Chaves (2013) .106) we obtain: r r r r r r r r Π (u + δu) = Ψ e (ε + δε ) dV − t * ⋅ (u + δu)dS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ (u + δu)dV ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V r r r r r r 1 δε : C e : δε dV − t * ⋅ (u + δu)dS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ (u + δu)dV 2 V V V Sσ V r r r* r = Ψ e (ε ) dV − t ⋅ udS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ udV + ∫ ∫ = Ψ e (ε ) dV + δΨ e dV + ∫ ∫ V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ Sσ V r r r r 1 + δΨ e dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ δudV + δε : C e : δε dV 2 V S V V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ σ Note that: r r r r r Π (u) = Ψ e (ε ) dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ udV ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V and r r r r δΠ = δΨ e dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ δudV = 0 ∫ V ∫ ∫ Sσ V Thus: r r r 1 Π (u + δu) = Π (u) + δΠ + δε : C e : δε dV 2 V ∫ r r r 1 ⇒ Π (u + δu) − Π (u) = δΠ + δε : C e : δε dV 2 V ∫ r r r 1 ⇒ Π (u + δu) − Π (u) = δε : C e : δε dV 2 V ∫ where we have considered δΠ = 0 . 2 ∂ε ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε 1 ≈ Ψ e (ε ) + δΨ e + δε : C e : δε 2 Ψ e (ε + δε) = Ψ e (ε) + and by replace the above equation into the equation (5.104)) and C e = (see Problem 5..107) becomes: 1 ∂Ψ e (ε ) ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) : δε + δε : : δε + . the equilibrium point corresponds to minimum value of Π . Note that the term δε : C e : δε > 0 is always positive for any valor of δε since C e is a positive definite tensor (see Chapter 1).5). This is known as the principle of minimum potential energy. Then.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 400 Note that ∂ 2Ψ e (ε ) ∂Ψ e (ε ) : δε = δΨ e (see equation (5. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. ∂ε ⊗ ∂ε ∂ε with which the equation in (5.

..108) Π (u ) F Π Π (u ( 2 ) ) Π (u ) ∂Π =0 ∂u Π (u ( 3 ) ) Deformed corresponding to the equilibrium u (2) u u ( 3) NOTE 4: By means of equation (5.108). F } . it is easy to show the Castigliano’s Theorem – Part I: r ∂Π (u) = ∂U int + ∂U ext = ∂U int { }{ } { } T ∂  F loc uloc     =0 −  loc ∂u { } ∂{u } ∂{u } ∂{u } ∂U ⇒ {F } = ∂{ } u where {F }= {F .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. u ∂ uloc loc loc loc int loc loc T loc 1 2 loc n T 1 2 n int must be in loc NOTE 5: For better illustration of the proposed problem.. we have: University of Castilla. Consider also that the stress and strain fields are homogeneous and given by: σ 0 0 σ ij =  0 0 0    0 0 0   .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 401 NOTE 3: When the external action is characterized by concentrated forces and in the absence of body forces.  ε 0 0 e ε ij = 0 0 0 ⇒ σ11 = C1111ε11 ⇒ σ = Eε   0 0 0    Consider also that the displacement field is approached by a linear function ( u ( x) = a1 + a2 x ). and that on the extremities of the bar. U .. Note that the term U function of { } ... the equation (5. V..100) becomes: { } {u } r 1 Π (u) = U int + U ext = σ : ε dV − F loc 2 V ∫ T loc The total potential energy (5. F .. we will consider a rod of length L and cross-sectional area A . U } . Chaves (2013) . {u }= {U .

110) Our goal now is to express the displacement field in terms of their nodal values U(1) . we obtain the reverse form of the above relationship: U(1)  1 0  a1     (2)  =    U  1 L  a2    a1  1  L 0 U(1)       =  a2  L − 1 1 U( 2)     reverse →  ⇒ a1 = U(1)   1 (2) (1) a 2 = U − U L  ( ) with which we can obtain: u ( x) = a1 + a2 x = U(1) + ( ) 1 (2) x x  U − U(1) x = 1 − U(1) + U( 2 ) L L  L  (1)  r  x   x   U  ⇒ u ( x) = 1 −      ( 2 )  = [N ( x )] u(e )  L   L   U    { } University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft (5. thus ∂x1 ∂x U int = 2 1 1  ∂u ( x)  Eε 2 dV = E  dV 2V 2 V  ∂x  ∫ ∫ (5. Chaves (2013) . Then the total internal energy is given by: U int = 1 ∫ 2 σ : ε dV 1D → U int = V note that ε11 = 1 1 1 σε dV = Eεε dV = Eε 2 dV 2V 2V 2V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∂u1 ∂u ( x) = = ε .109) For this case.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 402 A σ (3D ) V = AL (volume) σ ∫ F = σdA = σA (1) F . due to the concentrated forces we have: { } {u }= {F U ext = F loc T loc U(1)    F ( 2 )  ( 2 )  = F (1)U (1) + F ( 2 )U ( 2 ) U    } (1) (5. (see NOTE 3 of Problem 5. where:    = a1 + a2 L   u ( x = 0) = U(1) = a1 u ( x = L ) = U( 2 ) ⇒ U(1)  1 0  a1     ( 2)  =    U  1 L  a2    Next we evaluate the coefficients a1 and a 2 . To do this we use the approach adopted u ( x) = a1 + a2 x .U( 2) .U 2 1 x L The goal now is to express the total potential energy in terms of U(1) . the linear stress-strain relationship is given 1 2 1 2 by σ = Eε .U( 2) .111) By: Eduardo W. Note that.U (1D ) (1) F ( 2) A ( 2) . To do this. and the energy density by Ψ e = σε = εEε .5). V.

U )  ∂U( 2 )        ( ) ( ) 2 ∂  EA  ( 2 ) 2   U − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  − F (1)U(1) + F ( 2 )U( 2)  = 0  (1)   ∂u  2 L   EA = − 2U( 2) + 2U(1) − F (1) = 0 2L EA (1) = U − U( 2 ) − F (1) = 0 L 2 ∂  EA  ( 2 ) 2  = ( 2)   U − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  − F (1)U(1) + F ( 2 )U( 2 )  = 0   ∂U  2 L   = ( ) ( ) ( ) EA 2U( 2 ) − 2U(1) − F ( 2 ) = 0 2L EA ( 2 ) U − U(1) − F ( 2 ) = 0 = L = ( ) Rearranging the above equations in matrix form we get: (1) (1) EA  1 − 1 U   F      =  ( 2)    L  − 1 1  U( 2 )   F       [ ]{ } { } ] has no inverse.109) and (5. then.99) (see Problem 5. the following must be true:  ∂Π (U(1) . the total potential energy (see equation (5.111) becomes: r r [B( x )] = [L(1) ][N ( x )] = ∂ ∂x  x   x   − 1   1  1 − L   L  =  L   L          thus University of Castilla.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. (e) [ ] Note that the matrix K (e ) of the above equation could have been obtained by means of the equation (5. since det[K ] = 0 .e.112) 2 2 EAL  ( 2) 2 EA  ( 2 ) 2 = − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  = − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  U  U  2    2L   2L Then. then: U int = 2 2 2 E  (2) 2 E − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  dV = 2  U( 2 ) − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1) V   U  2    2L 2L  V ∫ (5.: ( ) r 2 EA  ( 2 ) 2 Π (u) = U int − U ext = − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  − F (1)U(1) + F ( 2 )U( 2 ) = Π (U(1) .112). U( 2 ) ) U   2L  As we look for a stationary state. the equation (5.108)) is given by equations (5. Chaves (2013) . V.110) becomes: U int = 2 ∫ ( ) 2 2 2 1 E  1 (2) E  ∂u ( x)  (1)  E  ( 2) − 2U(1)U( 2 ) + U(1)  dV   U − U  dV = 2  U  dV =  2 V  ∂x  2VL 2L V   ∫ ∫ Note that U(1) and U( 2) are not dependent of x .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 403 and the equation in (5. i. To solve the problem we have to ⇒ K ( e ) u( e ) = F ( e ) [ Note that K (e ) introduce the boundary conditions. and for this particular case we have [C ] = E . U( 2 ) )  ∂U(1)         (1) ( 2)  ∂Π (U .15).

and so on. As consequence we ∂x just need two points on the boundary to define [N ( x )] . If we draw  L   L  these functions inside the domain we get: N1  N1 ( x = 0) = 1 x ⇒ L  N1 ( x = L ) = 0  N 2 ( x = 0) = 0 x N 2 ( x) = ⇒  L  N 2 ( x = L) = 1 N2 N1 ( x ) = 1 − 1 1 1 2 N1 ( x ) + N 2 ( x ) = 1 x L r The adopted approximation for [N ( x )] will depend on the problem. it is sufficient to adopt a linear approximation for displacement since by definition ε = r ∂u ( x) .5 (see NOTE 7) have established that University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.100)): r r r r r Π (u) = Ψ e (ε ) dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ udV ∫ V ∫ Sσ ∫ V (5. For the previous problem we have that the strain is constant into the domain.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 404  − 1      r T r 1  1 − 1  L    − 1   1  = [B ( x )] [C ][B ( x )] dV =  E     dV = E 2   dV  1    L   L  L − 1 1  V V  V     L   [K ] ∫ (e ) ∫ ∫  1 − 1 EA  1 − 1 E  1 − 1  − 1 1  dV = 2  − 1 1 V =   L − 1 1  L   V  r NOTE 6: Analyzing [N ( x )] = E L2 ∫ T r r r  x   x  Note that the shape functions are [N ( x )] = [N1 ( x ) N 2 ( x )]T = 1 −    . Chaves (2013) . NOTE 7: Principle of the Stationarity of Potential Energy In this problem we have establish the principle of the stationarity of Potential Energy. If a problem requires a cubic r displacement approximation. so. so.113) 1 2 where we have considered Ψ e (ε) = σ : ε . Hellinger-Reissner’s Variational Principle In Problem 5. V. (see equation in (5. The functional is stationary if and only if r r δ u Π (u) = 0 . we will need three points to define [N ( x )] .

j (δu) i dV − t * (δu) i dS σ − (ρ b) i (δu) i dV = 0 i ∫ Sσ ∫[ ∫ ] ∫ V r = − σ ij .Complementary strain energy σ Ψ e (ε) .115) V r Note that σ : ε = σ : (∇ sym u) = σ : (∇u) . By replacing Ψ e (ε ) = σ : ε − g(σ ) into the functional (5. and is stationary for variation of σ if and only if they satisfy the constitutive equation (strain-stress). j + (ρ b) i = 0 i .116) r r The functional (5. r r r r r r r δ u Π HR (u.114) where g (σ ) is the Gibbs free energy density with reversed sign. σ ) = σ : (∇u) − g(σ ) dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ udV ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V (5. we obtain: r r r r r r Π HR (u. Then. j dV − t * (δu) i dS σ − (ρ b) i (δu) i dV = 0 i ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V (5. Chaves (2013) .Strain energy ε Figure 5. V. g(σ) .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP   Ψ e (σ) = σε − Ψ e (ε) tensorial →Ψ e (σ ) = σ : ε − Ψ e (ε ) = − ρ 0G(σ ) = g(σ ) e ⇒ Ψ (ε ) = σ : ε − g(σ ) 405 (5.12: Strain energies.113) we can obtain: r r r r r Π (u) = Ψ e (ε ) dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ udV ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V r r r r r ⇒ Π HR (u.115) is stationary for variation of u vanishing on S u if and only if σ satisfies the equilibrium equations. σ ) = σ : (∇δu) dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ − (ρ b) ⋅ δudV = 0 ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ V r = σ ij (δu) i .117) r ˆ = σ ij (δu) i n j dS − σ ij .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j + (ρ b) i (δu) i dV + V ∫ [σ Sσ ∫ ] V ˆ − t * (δu) i dS = 0 i ij n j Sσ In the volume we obtain the equilibrium equations: σ ij . University of Castilla. σ ) = σ : ε − g(σ ) dV − t * ⋅ udS σ − ( ρb) ⋅ udV ∫ ∫ V ∫ Sσ r (5.

ε ) = ∫ [(∇ ⋅ σ ) − (ρ b)]⋅ (δu) dV − ∫ t ⋅ δudS r r δ u Π HW (u. ε ) = ∫ [(∇ ⋅ σ ) ⋅ (δu) − (ρ b) ⋅ δu] dV − ∫ t ⋅ δudS r r r r r (u. σ ) = δσ : (∇ sym u) − δg(σ ) dV = 0 ∫ V r ∂g(σ ) : δσ dV = 0 = (∇ sym u) : δσ − ∂σ V ∫ (5. σ ) . ε ) = 0 r r r r [σ : (∇ δu) − (ρ b) ⋅ δu] dV − ∫ tr ⋅ δudS ∫ r r r r r r (u. ε ) = sym * V r ⇒ δ u Π HW * V r ⇒ δ u Π HW * University of Castilla-La Mancha σ Sσ V Ciudad Real – Spain σ Sσ σ Sσ Draft By: Eduardo W. in r which the functional. in addition of the independent fields (u. σ . Chaves (2013) . σ . ε ) = Ψ e (ε ) − σ : (ε − ∇ symu) − ( ρb) ⋅ u dV − (σ ⋅ n) ⋅ (u* − u)dS σ − t * ⋅ udS σ ∫ V ∫ r Su Sσ (5. ∂σ Hu-Washizu’s Variational Principle The Hu-Washizu’s principle is a generalization of the Hellinger-Reissner’s principle. σ .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 406 ˆ On surface S σ we obtain the boundary condition in stress: σ ij n j − t * = 0 i i r r δ σ Π HR (u. σ . σ . V. σ . σ .119) and is stationary if and only if: r δuΠ HW (u. ε ) = 0   ⇒ Kinematic Equations  r Boundary condition on S u  r  δ ε Π HW (u. ε ) = 0   ⇒ Constitutive equations for stress That is: r r δ u Π HW (u. ε ) = 0 ⇒  r  r r r On Su δu = 0 ⇒  Equilibrium equations  r  δ σ Π HW (u. is also dependent of ε field: ∫[ ] r r r r r r r r ˆ Π HW (u.118) r ∂g(σ )   : δσ dV = 0 = (∇ sym u) − ∂σ   V  ∫ r In the volume we obtain the constitutive equation for strain: (∇ sym u) − ∂g(σ ) =0. σ .

5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 407 r δ σ Π HW (u. σ . respectively. [N c ] and [G] are matrices containing some enrichment terms for displacement and strain respectively. σ . [S] is a stress interpolation matrix. ε ) = 0 r r r r ˆ δ σ Π HW (u. (see Jirásek (1998)). σ . respectively. ε ) =  : δε ε − σ : (δε ε ) dV =  − σ  : δε ε dV = 0 ∂ε ∂ε   V  V  ∫ ∫ NOTE 8: Discretization of the Fields The variation of the Hu-Washizu’s principle can be written as follows ∫[ ] r r r r r δΠ HW = δ Ψ e (ε ) − σ : (ε − ∇ symu) − ( ρb) ⋅ u dV − δ t * ⋅ udS σ = 0 V ∫[ ] ∫[ ∫ Sσ ] r r r r r = Ψ e (ε ) : δε dV − δ σ : (ε − ∇ sym u) dV − ( ρb) ⋅ δu dV − t * ⋅ δudS σ = 0 ∫ V V ∫ ∫ V Sσ r r r r r = δε :Ψ e (ε ) dV + δ σ : (∇ sym u − ε ) dV − δu ⋅ ( ρb)dV − δu ⋅ t * dS σ = 0 ∫ V V ∫[ ∫ ∫ V ] Sσ r r r r r = δε : σ dV + δ σ : (∇ symu − ε ) dV − δu ⋅ ( ρb) dV − δu ⋅ t * dS σ = 0 ∫ V ∫ V ∫ V Sσ In the implementation of finite element methods we often use Voigt notation when we are dealing with symmetric matrix. ε ) = − (ε − ∇ sym u) : δσ dV − V ˆ ∫ [n ⊗ (u r* ] r − u) : δσdS σ = 0 r Su r δ ε Π HW (u. {e} and {s} collect the degrees of freedom corresponding University of Castilla. ε ) = − δσ : (ε − ∇ sym u) dV − (δσ ⋅ n) ⋅ (u* − u)dS σ = 0 ∫[ V ] ∫ [ ∫ r Su ] r r ⇒ δ σ Π HW (u. Chaves (2013) . σ .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. as follows: r {u} ≈ [N ]{d} + [N c ]{d c }   {ε} ≈ [B ]{d} + [G]{e}  {σ} ≈ [S]{s}  and r {δu} ≈ [N ]{δd} + [N c ]{δd c }   {δε} ≈ [B ]{δd} + [G]{δe}  {δσ} ≈ [S]{δs}  (5. Using Voigt notation the above equation becomes: δΠ HW = T T T T sym * ∫ {δε} {σ} dV + δ∫ {σ} {∇ u − ε}dV − ∫ {δu} {ρb}dV − ∫ {δu} {t }dS σ = 0 r V ⇒ r V ∫ {δε} {σ} dV + δ∫ {σ} { T T V r r V } r ∇ symu − ε dV = V ∫ Sσ { } r r {δu}T ρb dV + V r ∫ {} r r {δu}T t * dS σ (5. ε ) = 0 r δε Π HW (u. strain. and stress fields. σ .121) where the matrices [N ] and [B] contain the displacement interpolation functions and their derivatives (strain interpolation matrix). {d c } . σ . {d} .120) Sσ Consider as approximation for displacement. V. ε ) = δεΨ e (ε ) − σ : (δε ε ) dV = 0 ∫[ ] V r  ∂Ψ e (ε )   ∂Ψ e (ε )  ⇒ δε Π HW (u.

respectively. and stress parameters.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 408 to nodal displacement. If we consider the variation of the Hu-Washizu’s principle: T T T T sym * ∫ {δε} {σ} dV + δ∫ {σ} {∇ u − ε}dV = ∫ {δu} {ρb}dV + ∫ {δu} {t }dS σ r V 4 244 1 4 3 V 144424443 1 r r 2 r r (5. Chaves (2013) .1) ⇒ T ∫ {[S]{δs}} {∇ ([N ]{d} + [N ]{d })}dV − ∫ {[S]{δs}} {([B]{d} + [G]{e})}dV T T sym c c V V = {δs} T ∫ [S] {∇ ([N ]{d} + [N ]{d })}dV − {δs} ∫ [S] {([B]{d} + [G]{e})}dV T T sym c V = {δs} T T c V ∫ [S] {∇ ([N ]{d})}+ [S] {∇ ([N ]{d })}dV − {δs} ∫ [S] {([B]{d} + [G]{e})}dV T T sym sym T c V = {δs} T V ∫ [S] [B]{d} + [S] [B ]{d }dV − {δs} ∫ [S] [B]{d} + [S] [G]{e}dV T T T c T T T V ∫ [S] [B ]{d }dV − {δs} ∫ [S] [G]{e}dV T T c T c V = {δs} T c V = {δs} T c V ∫ [S] { [B ]{d } − [G]{e} }dV T c c V where we have considered {∇ sym ([N ]{d})} = [B]{d} and {∇ sym ([N c ]{d c })} = [B c ]{d c } . V. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. enhanced strain modes. enhanced displacement modes.2 ∫ {[S]{δs}} {∇ ([N ]{d} + [N ]{d }) − ([B]{d} + [G]{e})}dV T sym c c V V = ∫ {σ} {∇ V 444 24444 1 4 3 2.122) V 144444 2Sσ 44444 4 4 3 3 we can obtain: (1) ⇒ ∫ {δε} {σ} dV = ∫ {[B]{δd} + [G]{δe}} {σ} dV = ∫ {[B]{δd}} {σ} dV + ∫ {[G]{δe}} {σ} dV T T V T V = {δd} T V V ∫ [B] {σ} dV + {δe} ∫ [G] {σ} dV T T V T V { } r T (2) ⇒ δ {σ} ∇ symu − ε dV = ∫ V ∫ {δσ} {∇ T } sym r u − ε dV + V 44424443 1 ∫ {δσ} {∇ T } sym r u − ε dV = T sym } r δu − δε dV 2.1 (2.

2 ) ⇒ sym } r δu − δε dV = V = ∫ {∇ sym 409 } {σ}dV r δu − δε T V ∫ { ∇ ([N ]{δd} + [N ]{δd }) − ([B]{δd} + [G]{δe}) } {[S]{s}}dV T sym c c V = ∫ { ∇ ([N ]{δd}) + ∇ ([N ]{δd }) − ([B]{δd} + [G]{δe}) } {[S]{s}}dV sym T sym c c V = ∫ { [B]{d} + [B ]{d } − ([B]{δd} + [G]{δe}) } {[S]{s}}dV T c c V = ∫ { [B ]{d } − [G]{δe} } {[S]{s}}dV T c c V = ∫ { {d } [B ] − {δe} [G] }{[S]{s}}dV T T c T T c V = {d c } T ∫ [B ] {[S]{s}}dV − {δe} ∫ [G] {[S]{s}}dV T T V (3) ⇒ T c V T T * ∫ {δu} {ρb}dV + ∫ {δu} {t }dS σ r r V r r Sσ = {δd} T { f ext } + {δd c }T { f c } Taking into account the previous terms.124) ∫ If we consider { f c } = {0}. the above equation can be rewritten: University of Castilla. so. V. the equation in (5. we can say that:  T T T {δd} [B] {σ} dV = {δd} { f ext }  V   T T {δe} [G] {{σ} − {[S]{s}}} dV = {0}  V   T T {δs} [S] [B c ]{d c } − [G]{e} dV = {0} V   {d }T [B ]T {[S]{s}}dV = {δd }T { f } = {0} c c c  c V  ∫ ∫ ∫ { } (5. Chaves (2013) .123) r Since {u} .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.122) becomes: {δd}T ∫ [B]T {σ} dV + {δe}T ∫ [G]T {{σ} − {[S]{s}}} dV + {δs}T ∫ [S]T { [B c ]{d c } − [G]{e} }dV + V V V + {d c } T ∫ [B ] {[S]{s}}dV = {δd} { f } + {δd } { f } T T c T ext c c V (5.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP ∫ {σ} {∇ T ( 2 . {ε} and {σ} are variables of the independent fields.

127) (c) (d) Rewriting the above equation in matrix form we get: [B]T [C ][B ]  T [G] [C ][B]  0  0   [B]T [C ][G] [G]T [C ][G] T − [S] [G] 0 T − [G] [S] 0 [B c ] [S] T 0    dV [S]T [B c ]  0   0 0  {d}  { f ext }  {e}   {0}       =   {s}   {0}  {d c }  {0}      (5. with that the equation in (5. Chaves (2013) .127)(c) becomes: ∫ [S] [G] dV {e} = {0} T (5.125) } ∫ Taking into account that the stress-strain relationship is given by the following expression: {σ} = [C ]{ε} = [C ]{[B]{d} + [G]{e}} (5. V. piecewise constant stress functions {σ} will require [S] = [1] (unit matrix).126) and by substituting into the equation in (5.129) V Thus. The compatibility conditions (5.128) V Let us suppose that we do not introduce any displacement enhancement terms. thus {d c } = {0} → [B c ] = [0] .125) we can obtain:  T T  [B] [C ][B] dV {d} + [B] [C ][G] dV {e} = { f ext } V V   T T T  [G] [C ][B ] dV {d} + [G] [C ][G] dV {e} − [G] [S] dV {s} = {0} V V V   T T  [S] [B c ] dV {d}c − [S] [G] dV {e} = {0} V V   B T [S] dV {s} = {0} c  V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫[ ] (a) (b) (5.130) V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 410  T  [B] {σ} dV = { f ext } V   T  [G] {{σ} − {[S]{s}}} dV = 0 V   T  [S] [B c ]{d c } − [G]{e} dV = 0 V   [B ]T {[S]{s}}dV = 0 c  V ∫ ∫ { ∫ (5.129) now read: ∫ [G] dV = [0] (5.

132) Hence.13). ˆ s ˆ n (a) nodal forces (b) nodal displacements Figure 5. Chaves (2013) .13: Discontinuous CST finite element. The nodal forces and nodal displacements can be expressed as follows:    {F} {F}        =        Fx1   Fy1  Fx2   Fy2   Fx3  Fy3   0  0   .    {a e } {α e }  u1  x  1 uy   u 2   x 2  u y  = 3   ux  u 3   y 4 α x  α 4   x (5.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 411 Discontinuity on displacement and strain fields – Applying the Principle of Virtual Work As we have seen before. Let us consider a discretized system where we can say that all the forces are applied in the nodes of the finite element (CST-Constant Strain Triangle) (see Figure 5. A virtual displacement is any displacement consistent with the constraints of the structure.e. which satisfies the boundary conditions. V. the external virtual work becomes: { } {F} + {α } {F} = {{a } {α } }{F}   {F} Wext = a * e T University of Castilla. virtual work is the work done by real force acting through virtual displacements.133) By: Eduardo W. i.131) 144444 44444 2 3 Total external virtual work Wext Wint r for all the admissible virtual displacements u .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain * T e * T e Draft * T e   (5. The principle states that the virtual work of the internal forces must be equal to the virtual work of the external forces: ∫ r r r r r && σ : ε dV = t * ⋅ u dS σ + ρ (b − u) ⋅ u dV V 4 4 1 2 3 Total internal virtual work ∫ ∫ Sσ V (5.

138) e e e e {a   { } {α }  ∫  [B] [C ]{[B] [G ]} d V {α }      } =  a*  e  T * T e T e [Ge ]   V e T  e  By apply Wext = Wint (see Eq. Chaves (2013) . [Ge ] for virtual and real strains.e. ] { 4 ]{ e } 13 1 4 {α e } {ε } {~} ε * * e e ~* ε {ε } { } * * e e  * e * e  (5.138)) we can obtain  [B ]T [C ][B] {F} =    T {F} Ve [Ge ] [C ][B]  ∫ [B]T [C ][Ge ]  dV {a e }  [Ge ]T [C ][Ge ] {α e }    (5.139) and considering the traction vector continuity.133) and (5. i. (5. we obtain:  [B]T [C ][B ] [B]T [C ][Ge ]  {a e } {F} =   dV     T T {0} Ve [Ge ] [C ][B ] [Ge ] [C ][Ge ] {α e }   144444 2444444 4 3 ∫ (5. the internal virtual work becomes: Wint = ∫ {{ } { }} ~ ε + ε* * T V  {σ} d V = {[B]  V  ∫ { } [C ]{[B] [G ]}{a } d V     { } {α }  T  * [Ge ]} a e*  αe e e e {a } { } ∫ { } {[B] [G ]} [C ]{[B] [G ]}{α } d V    a*  =  e  α* V e  T T (5. {F} = {0} . * * (5.136) and (5. V.137) into the equation (5. the stress field can be written as follows: {a } {σ} = [C ]{ε} = [C ]{[B] [Ge ]} e  {α e } (5.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 412 We consider the strain field and the virtual strain field are compound by two parts: ~ {ε} = {ε} + {ε} {ε } = {ε }+ {~ } ε * . Then.135) V Symmetric formulation The discretization for the first approximation is: {a  {ε }= [123}+ [124 ] = {[B] [G ]}{α } a B]{ G ][α  4 3 } {a } {ε} = [B2a} + [Ge2α3 = {[B] [Ge ]} e  .137) By replace the approximations (5.134) thus the internal virtual work becomes: Wint = ∫ {σ} {ε} d V = ∫ {σ} {{ε }+ {ε }}d V = ∫ {{ε }+ {ε }} {σ} d V T T V ~* * * V ~* T (5.135).136) Notice that we have used the same approximation function [B] .140) [K e ] University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

and discretization (5. Reference JIRÁSEK. Finite elements with embedded cracks.141) we can obtain: {{ Wint = a * e {a    } {α } }∫  [B] [C ]{[B] [G ]} dV {α }    [G ]   }   T T * T e Ve * T e e e (5.5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 413 Anti-symmetric formulation Now consider the real and virtual strain approximation by: {a } {ε} = [B]{a3 + [Ge2α3 = [[B] [Ge ]] e  {e e } 1 ] 4} 12 4 {α e } {ε } {~} ε (5. we can obtain: { } { }  [B]T [C ][B] [B]T [C ][G e ]   ae  {F}  dV    =  * T * T {0} Be  G e [C ][B] G e [C ][Ge ]  3 44444 2444444  α e  1 4 ∫[ ] [ ] (5. M. These findings motivate the development of the nonsymmetric. [G ] ≠ [G ].e. * e e Using equation (5. (1998). which combines the strong points of each of the symmetric formulations. V. April.135).143) [K e ] According to Jirásek(1998) there are three major classes of these models: • SOS (Statically Optimal Symmetric) formulation cannot properly reflect the kinematics of a completely open crack but it gives a natural stress continuity condition. University of Castilla.142) e Considering Wext = Wint and considering the traction vector continuity.La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . • SKON (Statically and Kinematically Optimal Nonsymmetric) formulation. LSC Internal Report 98/01. • KOS (Kinematically Optimal Symmetric) formulation describes the kinematic aspects satisfactorily but leads to an awkward relationship between the stress in the continuous part of the element and the tractions across the discontinuity line.141) { {ε }= [B]{a }+ [G ]{α }= [[B] [ ]] { } } * * e * e  a*  G*  e  e *  αe  * e where we are considering different approximation functions for virtual and real strains i.

J = (PiJ ui ) . and P is the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor. V0 . t ) ⋅ F −1 r r r r & r & r& F −1 = − F −1 ⋅ l = − F −1 ⋅ ∇ X u( X . V. J ui + PiJ ui . t ) are not intrinsic variables of the reference r r r configuration like the variables ρ 0 . t ) y F −1 = − F −1 ⋅ ∇ X u ( X . S 0 . t ) r r r ρ 0 b( X . t ) − u( X . t ) & & Fij ≡ Fij = = = = ui. t ) = ∂u( X . Chaves (2013) . for simplicity. t ) ⋅ u dV0 = P : ∇ X u dV0 ∫t ∫ Sσ ∫ V0 (5. J 0 iJ r & & FiJ dV0 = PiJ ui . t ) ∂ ∂xi ( X . t ) dV r r ρ b( x . t ) or F r X ∂X r r & r & and l = F ⋅ F −1 = ∇ X u( X . we denote t * ( X . J ( X . t ) Dt ∂t ∂X j ∂X j 1 24 ∂X j 4∂t 3 & xi r r & r r & & = l ⋅ F = ∇ r u( X . t ) Taking into account the above relations. J = PiJ . t ) dV0 V0 ⇒ ∫ V0 & & & PiJ ui . t ) = ρ 0 b 0 Solution: r r r t * ( x. it is also valid that: r r r r r r & & & & & r r r F = ∇ X u ( X . J − PiJ . t ) ∂u i ( X . t ) B r r u( x . t ) = t * and 0 r r r b( X . t ) ⋅ u dS 0σ + ρ 0 b( X . Remember also (see Chapter 2 of the textbook) that: r r r r & D ∂ ∂xi ( X . t ) With that we can get: & ∫ P : F dV = ∫ P V0 & & & (PiJ ui ) . J ui thus: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.144) V0 r where u is the virtual displacement field. J ( X . t ) r r r Although the variables t * ( X . Reference configuration Current configuration F S 0σ Sσ V0 B0 V r r r t * ( X . t ) ⋅ F −1 = − F −1 ⋅ ∇ x u ( x . t) = t * 0 dV0 r r u( X . t ) = b 0 . t ) and b( X .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 414 Problem 5. t ) ⋅ F −1 = − F −1 ⋅ ∇ x u( x .17 Show that: [ ] r r r r r r* r r & & & && r r ( X .

t ) − u( X . t ) dS − ∫ (∇ & i 0 V0 0 S0 r X r & ⋅ P) ⋅ ui ( X . but the scalar P : F is in the reference configuration. t ) ⋅ ui ( X . t ) and t * = P ⋅ n we get: 0 r ˆ & ∫ P : F dV = ∫ (P ⋅ n) ⋅ u ( X .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP ∫ 415 r r r & & & & P : F dV0 = PiJ ui . t )n J dS 0 − PiJ . J ui ( X . J dV0 − PiJ . t ) dV0 ∫ V0 r r & & ˆ ui ( X . t ) dV0 V0 Remember that the equations of motion in the reference configuration are given by: r r && r r ∇ X ⋅ P + ρ 0 b 0 = ρ 0 u( X . t ) dV = P : F dV0 = P : ∇ X u ( X .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain ∫ V0 Draft (5. t ) dV0     V V V V V ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ [ ∫ 0 0 ] r r sym r& = ∇ x u( x . The above in tensorial notation becomes: r ˆ & ∫ P : F dV = ∫ (P ⋅ n) ⋅ u ( X . t ) = σ : ∇ x u ( x . V. the equation in (5. t ) holds. t ) ⋅ δ u dS 0σ + ρ 0 b( X . t ) [ r r && r r − ∇ X ⋅ P = ρ 0 b 0 − u( X .145) By: Eduardo W. J ( X . t )) .     where we have used that D = l sym NOTE 3: From a Variational Principle point of view. Chaves (2013) . J − PiJ . t ) dV = σ : ∇ x u ( x . due to sym r r r r & & r r the symmetry of σ the relationship σ : ∇ x u ( x .37). t ) dV0 = t * ⋅ u( X . t ) dS 0 + ρ 0 b 0 − u( X . The total external virtual work can also be expressed as follows: sym r r r r r r & & & & r r r σ : D dV = σ : ∇ x u ( x . t )) . t ) dV0 = (PiJ ui ( X . t ) dV0 0 ∫ V0 ∫ S0 V0 Reminder: Recall from Chapter 5 of the textbook that the stress power can be expressed in different ways. t ) ⋅ δ u dV0 = P : ∇ X δ u dV0 Sσ ∫ V0 University of Castilla. NOTE 2: Taking into account the above. t ) dV0 ∫ V0 ∫ V0 & V0 ∫ P : F dV = ∫ (P iJ 0 V0 V0 & ∫ P : F dV = ∫ P iJ 0 V0 r r & & ui ( X . J ui ( X . J ui ( X . t ) dS − ∫ (∇ & V0 ∫ 0 0 i S0 r X V0 r & ⋅ P) ⋅ ui ( X . namely: 1 1 & & & & & S : C dV0 = P : F dV w int (t ) = P : F dV0 = S : E dV0 = P : F dV0 = 2V J V V V V ∫ = ∫ ∫ ∫ 0 0 0 0 ρ ∫ρ V 0 ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ & P : F dV = σ : D dV = { : D dV0 = τ : D dV0 Jσ V V0 τ V0 & & NOTE 1: Remember that neither P nor F are in any configuration.144) is also valid for a variation of the virtual field: ∫ [ ] r r r r r r r r && r r t * ( X . (see Holzapfel (2000)). t ) dV0 ∫ S0 V0 where we have applied the divergence theorem. t ) ⇒ r r & ] r & r ˆ and taking into account that F = ∇ X u ( X . t) (see Problem 2. Note that. t ) dV0 [ ] r r r r && r r r r & && r & r P : ∇ X u ( X .

147) SS S S Cijkl = Pijpq Cepqst Pstkl Solution: a) We start using the Cartesian system where it fulfills: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A = A ij (e i ⊗ e j ) = A i1 (e i ⊗ e1 ) + A i 2 (e i ⊗ e 2 ) + A i 3 (e i ⊗ e 3 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = A 11 (e1 ⊗ e1 ) + A 21 (e 2 ⊗ e1 ) + A 31 (e 3 ⊗ e1 ) + A 12 (e1 ⊗ e 2 ) + A 22 (e 2 ⊗ e 2 ) + A 32 (e 3 ⊗ e 2 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ + A 13 (e1 ⊗ e 3 ) + A 23 (e 2 ⊗ e 3 ) + A 33 (e 3 ⊗ e 3 ) Components:  A 11 A ij =  A 21   A 31  A12 A 22 A 32 A13   0 A 23  =  A 21   A 33   A 31   A 12 A 22 A13   A11 A 23  +  0   A 33   0   A 32 0 0 0 0 = A ij + A ij  0 0  ˆ ˆ Note also that the normal component A 11 = A (Ne1 ) (according to e1 -direction) can also be ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ obtained by A11 = A : (e1 ⊗ e1 ) = (e1 ⊗ e1 ) : A . parallel to b . V. Chaves (2013) . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. A S = P S : A .e.146) where C PP = P P : C e : P P PP P P Cijkl = Pijpq Cepqst Pstkl C PS = P P : C e : P S PS P S Cijkl = Pijpq Cepqst Pstkl C SP = P S : C e : P P SP S P Cijkl = Pijpq Cepqst Pstkl C SS = P S : C e : P S (5.114. i. and I sym is the symmetric part of the fourth-order unit tensor. ˆ i.18 a) Show that: given a symmetric second-order tensor A = A sym we can split up into ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A = A P + A S where A P = P P : A .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 416 Problem 5. so the tensor A = A11 (e1 ⊗ e1 ) can be written as follows: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A = (e1 ⊗ e1 ) A 11 ≡ (e1 ⊗ e1 ) ⊗ A 11 = (e1 ⊗ e1 ) ⊗ (e1 ⊗ e1 ) : A thus ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A = A − A = A − (e1 ⊗ e1 ) ⊗ (e1 ⊗ e1 ) : A = I sym : A − (e1 ⊗ e1 ) ⊗ (e1 ⊗ e1 ) : A [ ] ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = I sym − (e1 ⊗ e1 ) ⊗ (e1 ⊗ e1 ) : A ˆ Although we showed for the unit vector e1 the above is valid for any unit vector. where b is a unit vector according to certain direction.e. It is interesting to review the Problem 1. b) Show that the constitutive equation for stress σ = C e : ε can be written as follows: σ P  C PP  S  =  SP σ   C P PP σij  Cijkl    S  =  SP σij  Cijkl    C PS  ε  :  C SS  ε  PS Cijkl  ε kl   SS   Cijkl  ε kl   (5.: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A P = (b ⊗ b) ⊗ (b ⊗ b) : A = P P : A ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A S = I sym − (b ⊗ b) ⊗ (b ⊗ b) : A = P S : A [ ] ˆ b ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Note that A (N ) = (b ⊗ b) : A = b ⋅ A ⋅ b is the normal component according to b -direction. with P P = (b ⊗ b) ⊗ (b ⊗ b) and ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ P S = I sym − (b ⊗ b) ⊗ (b ⊗ b) .

Chaves (2013) .La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft P P : C e : P S  ε  :  P S : C e : P S  ε  By: Eduardo W. V. we can get: σ P = P P : σ = P P : C e : ε = P P : C e : (ε P + ε S ) = P P : C e : ε P + P P : C e : ε S = P P : Ce : P P : ε + P P : Ce : P S : ε σ S = P S : σ = P S : C e : ε = P S : C e : (ε P + ε S ) = P S : C e : ε P + P S : C e : ε S = P S : Ce : P P : ε + P S : Ce : P S : ε thus σ P  P P : C e  S= S e σ   P : C P P : C e  ε P  :  P S : C e  ε S  or σ P   P P : C e : P P  S= S e P σ   P : C : P University of Castilla. and considering σ = C e : ε .5 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND IBVP 417 b) We apply the above definition to obtain: σ = σ P + σS = PP : σ + PS : σ ε = εP + εS = PP : ε + PS : ε with that.

418

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

University of Castilla-La Mancha
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Draft

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

7 Linear Elasticity
7.1 Solved Problems
Problem 7.1
The cylinder shown in Figure 7.1 is made up of a linear isotropic elastic material, and is
subjected to a strain state (in cylindrical coordinates) as follows:
err = eθθ = a sin θ
a cos θ
2
e zz = eθz = erz = 0
e rθ =

(7.1)

where eij are the Almansi strain tensor components.
r

Calculate the traction vector t on the boundary, in cylindrical coordinates.
Assumptions: 1) λ, µ are the Lamé constants; 2) Small deformation regime.
x3

Π
t

ˆ
ez

Π

ˆ

ˆ
er

t

r

x2

x1

Figure 7.1
Solution:

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

416

Small deformation regime: e ≈ E ≈ ε
 ε rr
ε( r , θ, z ) = ε rθ

 ε rz

ε rθ
ε θθ
ε θz


a sin θ
ε rz  
 a cos θ
ε θz  = 
  2
ε zz   0


a cos θ
2
a sin θ
0


0

0

0

(7.2)

σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε

(7.3)

Tr (ε ) = 2a sin θ

(7.4)

thus,

 a sin θ
1 0 0
 a cos θ
σ = λ 2a sin θ 0 1 0 + 2µ 


 2
0 0 1 


 0

a cos θ
2
a sin θ
0


0

0

0

0
µ a cos θ
λ 2a sin θ + 2µ a sin θ



0
µ a cos θ
λ 2a sin θ + 2µ a sin θ
σ (r,θr,θ = 


0
0
λ 2a sin θ

(7.5)

(7.6)

r

The traction vector t :
r ˆ
ˆ
t (n ) = σ ⋅ n

(7.7)


t 1n)   2λa sin θ + 2µ a sin θ
 (n)  
ˆ

µ a cos θ
t 2  = 

ˆ
t (n)  

0
3 


(7.8)

ˆ
n = (1,0,0)

Problem 7.2
The parallelepiped of Figure 7.2 is deformed as indicate by the dashed lines. The
displacement components are given as follows:
u = C1 xyz

;

v = C 2 xyz

;

ω = C 3 xyz

(7.9)

a) Obtain the strain state at the point E , which the current reference of the point is
represented by E ′ whose coordinates are E ′(1.503; 1.001; 1.997) ;
b) Obtain the normal strain at the point E in the direction of the line EA ;
c) Calculate the angular distortion at the point E that undergoes the angle formed by
the lines EA and EF .
d) Find the volume variation and the average volumetric deformation.

University of Castilla-La Mancha
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Draft

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

417

z
F = F′

G = G′

E

D = D′

2m

E′
C = C′

O = O′

y
1 .5 m

A = A′

B = B′
1m

x

Figure 7.2
Solution:
a) The strain state in function of the displacements is given by:
ε ij =

1  ∂u i ∂u j

+
2  ∂x j ∂x i




(7.10)

which in engineering notation is:

 εx
1
ε ij =  γ xy
2
1 γ
 2 xz

1
γ xy
2
εy
1
γ yz
2


∂u
1
 
γ xz 
∂x

2
  1  ∂v ∂u 
1

γ yz  =   +


2
  2  ∂x ∂y 
ε z   1  ∂ω ∂u 
  
+


 2  ∂x ∂z 

1  ∂v ∂u 
 +

2  ∂x ∂y 


∂v
∂y
1  ∂ω ∂v 

+ 
2  ∂y ∂z 

1  ∂ω ∂u  
+


2  ∂x ∂z  
1  ∂ω ∂v  

+ 
2  ∂y ∂z  



∂ω

∂z

(7.11)

To determine the strain state at any point we need a priori to determine the displacement
field.
Calculation of the constants:
By substituting the values given for the point E (1.5; 1.0; 2.0) , we obtain:
u ( E ) = 1.503 − 1.5 = C1 (1.5)(1.0)(2.0) ⇒ C1 = 0.001
0.001
3
= 1.997 − 2.0 = C 3 (1.5)(1.0)(2.0) ⇒ C 3 = −0.001

v ( E ) = 1.001 − 1.0 = C 2 (1.5)(1.0)(2.0) ⇒ C 2 =
w(E)

where
u

(E)

we

have

used

the

displacement
= (1.503 − 1.5; 1.001 − 1.0; 1.997 − 2.0) .

of

(7.12)

the

point

E

:

Then, the displacement field becomes:
University of Castilla-La Mancha
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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

418

Engineering notation

Scientific notation

u = 0.001 xyz
0.001
v=
xyz
3
w = −0.001 xyz

u1 = 0.001 X 1 X 2 X 3
0.001
X1X 2 X 3
3
u 3 = −0.001 X 1 X 2 X 3
u2 =

(7.13)

∂u
= 0.001 yz = 0.002 = ε 11
∂x
∂v 0.001
εy =
=
xz = 0.001 = ε 22
3
∂y
∂w
εz =
= −0.001xy = −0.0015 = ε 33
∂z
 ∂v ∂u  0.001
0.011
γ xy = 
 ∂x + ∂y  = 3 yz + 0.001xz = 3 = 2ε 12



εx =

 ∂w ∂u 
γ xz = 
+
 = −0.001 yz + 0.001xy = −0.0005 = 2ε 13
 ∂x ∂z 
 ∂w ∂v 
0.001
γ yz = 

 ∂y + ∂z  = −0.001xz + 3 xy = −0.0025 = 2ε 23

The strain field becomes:

yz


1  yz

ε ij = 0.001 
 2  3 + xz 


1
 ( xy − yz )
 2

1  yz

+ xz 

2 3

xz
3
1  xy

− xz 

2 3

1
(xy − yz ) 

2

1  xy

− xz  

2 3



− xy

The strain state at the point E ( x = 1.5; y = 1.0; z = 2.0) is:

ε ij

E


 εx
1
=  γ xy
2
1 γ
 2 xz

1
γ xy
2
εy
1
γ yz
2


 0.011 
1
 
 − 0.00025

γ xz   0.002
 6 
2

   0.011 
1

− 0.00125
γ yz  = 
0.001

 6 
2


− 0.00025 − 0.00125 − 0.0015 
εz  


 


(7.14)

b) The normal strain component is obtained as follows:
ˆ
ˆ
εM = M ⋅ε ⋅ M
ˆ

components
   →

ˆ ˆ
ε M = ε ij M i M j
ˆ

(7.15)

By expanding the above equation and by considering the symmetry of the strain tensor we
obtain:
ˆ
ˆ2
ˆ2
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ε M = ε 11 M 12 + ε 22 M 2 + ε 33 M 3 + 2ε 12 M 1 M 2 + 2ε 13 M 1 M 3 + 2ε 23 M 2 M 3
ˆ

(7.16)

in engineering notation:
ˆ
ˆ2
ˆ2
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ε M = ε x M 12 + ε y M 2 + ε z M 3 + γ xy M 1 M 2 + γ xz M 1 M 3 + γ yz M 2 M 3
ˆ

(7.17)

The normal vector is given by the direction cosines of the direction of the line EA :

University of Castilla-La Mancha
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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

−1
ˆ
M2 =
;
5

ˆ
M1 = 0;

419

−2
ˆ
M3 =
5

(7.18)

By substituting the corresponding values into the equation (7.17), we obtain:
ˆ2
ˆ2
ˆ ˆ
ε M = ε y M 2 + ε z M 3 + γ yz M 2 M 3
ˆ
1
4
2
+ (−0.0015) + (−0.0025)
5
5
5
−3
= −2 × 10

ε M = 0.001
ˆ
εM
ˆ

(7.19)

c) For small deformation, the distortion of the angle at the point E formed by the lines
EA and EF , with Θ = 90º ), becomes:
ε MN = −
ˆ ˆ

ˆ
ˆ
1
1  − 2M ⋅ ε ⋅ N
∆θ MN = − 
ˆ ˆ
2
2
sin Θ


ˆ
ˆ
 = M ⋅ε ⋅ N

ˆ ˆ
ε MN = ε ij M i N j (7.20)
ˆ ˆ

components
   →

More details of the above equation is provided in the textbook in Chapter 2 – Continuum
kinematics (small deformation regime). Expanding the above expression and considering
the symmetry of the strain tensor we obtain:

(

)

ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ε MN = ε 11 M 1 N 1 + ε 22 M 2 N 2 + ε 33 M 3 N 3 + ε 12 M 1 N 2 + M 2 N 1 +
ˆ ˆ

(

)

(

ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
+ ε 13 M 1 N 3 + M 3 N 1 + ε 23 M 2 N 3 + M 3 N 2

)

(7.21)

or in engineering notation:
γ MN
ˆ ˆ
2

ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
= ε x M 1 N1 + ε y M 2 N 2 + ε z M 3 N 3 +

(

)

γ xy
2

ˆ
(M

1

)

ˆ
ˆ ˆ
N 2 + M 2 N1 +

(

γ yz
γ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
+ xz M 1 N 3 + M 3 N 1 +
M 2 N3 + M 3 N2
2
2

(7.22)

)

where:

ˆ
M i = 0

− 2

5

−1
5

;

ˆ
N i = [− 1 0 0]

(7.23)

thus:
γ MN
ˆ ˆ
2
γ MN
ˆ ˆ

−2
 −1 
 0.011 
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ

 + ( −0.00025)( −1) 
= ε 12 M 2 N 1 + ε 13 M 3 N 1 = 
(−1)




 6 
 5
 5

(7.24)

= 5.96284793998 × 10 − 4

2
⇒ γ MN = 1.1925696 × 10 −3
ˆ ˆ

Alternative Solution
ˆ
ˆ
We can construct an orthogonal basis associated with the unit vectors M and N by means
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
of the cross product P = M ∧ N . Then, we obtain the components of the unit vector P :
ˆ
e1
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
P=M∧N = 0
−1

ˆ
e2
−1

ˆ
e3
−2

5
0

5
0

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=

2 ˆ
1 ˆ
e2 −
e3
5
5

Draft

ˆ 
Pi = 0

2
5

−1

5

(7.25)

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

420

Then, the transformation matrix from the X 1 X 2 X 3 -system to the base constituted by the
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
unit vectors M , N and P are given by:
ˆ
M 1
 ˆ
A = a ij =  N1
P
ˆ
 1

ˆ
M2
ˆ
N2
ˆ
P
2


ˆ
M3  0
ˆ  
N 3  = − 1
ˆ
P3   0
 

−1
5
0
2
5

− 2

5
0 
−1
5

(7.26)

Applying the component transformation law for a second-order tensor components, i.e.
ε ij = a ik a jl ε kl or in matrix form ′ = A A T :
ε

ε



 0.011 
 − 0.00025 

− 2   0.002
0
 6 


5    0.011 

0  
0.001
− 0.00125 − 1

 6 

−1
 − 0.00025 − 0.00125 − 0.0015   0

5 





−1


0

ε ′ = − 1
0

5
0
2
5

−1
5
0
2
5

− 2

5
0 
−1 
5

T

(7.27)

Thus:
ε MN =
ˆ ˆ

εM
ˆ


− 2 × 10 −3



ε ′ = 5.96284794 × 10 − 4
ij

−4
 − 2.5 × 10

γ MN
ˆ ˆ
2

5.96284794 × 10 − 4
2 × 10 −3
− 1.75158658 × 10 −3




−3 
− 1.75158658 × 10 

1.5 × 10 −3



− 2.5 × 10 − 4

(7.28)

NOTE: Note that this example is not a case of homogeneous deformation, i.e. a straight
edge in the reference configuration is no longer straight in the current configuration. To
ˆ
ˆ
obtain the deformed unit vector we must apply the linear transformation m = F ⋅ M and
ˆ
ˆ
n = F ⋅ N , where F is the deformation gradient.
d) The volume strain by definition is εV =

∆( dV )
where dV is the differential volume.
dV

For small deformation we have:
∆(dV )
= εx + εy + εz
dV
⇒ ∆(dV ) = ε x + ε y + ε z dV
εV =

(7.29)

by integrating we obtain the volume variation:
∆V =

∫ (ε

x

)

2.0

+ ε y + ε z dV = 0.001

V

1

1.5

∫ ∫ ∫  yz +

z = 0 y =0 x = 0

xz

− xy  dxdydz
3

(7.30)

thus:

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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

421

∆V = 1.125 × 10 −3 m 3

(7.31)

Then:
εV =

∆ (dV )
1.125 × 10 −3
= 0.375 × 10 −3
=
dV
1 .5 × 1 .0 × 2 .0

(7.32)

Problem 7.3
The stress state at one point of a structure, which is made up of an isotropic linear elastic
material, is given by:
 6 2 0
σ ij =  2 − 3 0 MPa


 0 0 0

a) Obtain the engineering strain tensor components. Consider the Young’s modulus
( E = 207GPa ) and the shear modulus ( G = 80GPa ).
b) If a cube of side 5cm is subjected to this stress state. Obtain the volume variation.
Solution:
The strain components can be obtained by means of the equations:

[

)]

(

1
σ x − ν σ y + σ z = 3.333 × 10 −5
E
1
εy =
σ y − ν(σ x + σ z ) = −2.318 × 10 −5
E
1
εz =
σ z − ν σ x + σ y = −4.348 × 10 −6
E
1
γ xy = τ xy = 2.5 × 10 −5
G
1
γ xy = τ xy = 0
G
1
γ xy = τ xy = 0
G
εx =

[

[

]

)]

(

(7.33)

where the Poisson’s ratio can be obtained by:
G=

E
2(1 + ν)

ν=

E
207
−1 =
− 1 ≈ 0.29375
160
2G

Thus:
0 
33.24 12.5
 12.5 − 23.01
0  × 10 −6
ε ij = 

 0
0
− 4.257 

Alternative solution:
−1

In the textbook (Chaves(2013)) we have demonstrated that C e =

ν
(1 + ν)
I − 1 ⊗ 1 , with
E
E

that we obtain

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

422

−1
ν
ν
ν
(1 + ν)
(1 + ν )
 (1 + ν)

ε = Ce : σ = 
I − 1 ⊗ 1 : σ =
I :σ − 1 ⊗1:σ =
σ − Tr (σ )1
E
E
E
E
E
 E

In components:
 σ11
(1 + ν) 
ε ij =
σ12
E 
σ13

σ13 
1 0 0
 − ν Tr (σ ) 0 1 0
σ 23 


E
0 0 1 
σ 23 σ 33 



0 
 6 2 0
1 0 0 33.24 12.5
 − 4.2609 × 10 − 6 0 1 0 =  12.5 − 23.01
−6 
= 6.251 × 10  2 − 3 0
0  × 10 − 6

 

 0 0 0
0 0 1   0
0
− 4.257



 

where we have used

σ12
σ 22

(1 + ν)
 1  ν
= 6.25 × 10 −6 
Tr (σ ) = 4.25725 × 10 −6 .
,
E
 MPa  E

In the small deformation regime the volumetric deformation (linear) is equal to the trace of
the strain tensor:
L
DV ≡ ε V = I ε = (33.24 − 23.01 − 4.257 ) × 10 −6 = 5.973 × 10 −6

Then, the volume variation is:
∆V = ε V V0 = 5.973 × 10 −6 (5 × 5 × 5) = 7.466 × 10 −4 cm 3

Problem 7.4
A parallelepiped of dimensions a = 3cm , b = 3cm , c = 4cm , is made up of an isotropic
homogeneous linear elastic material, which is accommodated in a cavity of the same shape
and dimensions, whose walls are made up of a very rigid material (undeformable).
Via a rigid plate (dimensions a × b ) of negligible weight and negligible friction we apply a
perpendicular compression force equal to F = 200 N which compresses the elastic block.
If ν = 0.3 is the Poisson’s ratio and E = 2 × 10 4 N / cm 2 is the Young’s modulus, calculate:
a) The lateral force exerted by the wall of the cavity on the parallelepiped;
b) The height variation experienced by it, i.e. find ∆c .
F
z
a

y
c
x

b

Figure 7.3

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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

423

Solution:
At any point of the elastic body the stress state is characterized only by normal components
σ x , σ y and σ z . The stress σ z is given by:
σz = −

200
200
200 N
=−
=−
ab
3× 3
9 cm 2

(7.34)

Note that, because of the problem symmetry the stresses σ x and σ y are equal, then:

[

)]

(

1
σx − ν σy + σz = 0
E
⇒ σ x − ν(σ x + σ z ) = 0
εx = ε y =

1
[σ x − ν(σ x + σ z )] = 0
E

(7.35)

νσ z
⇒ σx =
(1 − ν )

thus:
σx =

νσ z
0.3  200 
200 N
=
−
=−
(1 − ν ) (1 − 0.3) 
9 
21 cm 2

(7.36)

The force exerted by the wall on the elastic body is given by:
200
× 3 × 4 = −114.28 N
21
200
× 3 × 4 = −114.28 N
Fx = σ x b c = −
21
Fy = σ y a c = −

(7.37)

The strain ε z can be obtained as follows:

[

(

)]

1
σz − ν σx + σy
E
1
= [σ z − 2νσ x ]
E
1  200
200 
=

+ 2 × 0 .3 ×
= −8.25 × 10 − 4
4 
21 
2 × 10  9

εz =

(7.38)

Then, the height variation is given by:
∆ c = ε z c = −8.25 × 10 −4 × 4 = −0.0033cm

(7.39)

Problem 7.5
Figure 7.4 (a) shows a support device for a machine. Said support apparatus is made up of
a neoprene block of dimensions ( 50 × 20cm ), and is characterized by the element ABCD of
Figure 7.4(b).

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

424

y

a)

b)

1 .1

D
A

1 .2

C

D’

B

A’
1

C’

1

20

B’

1 .1

x

50

Dimensions in centimeters - cm
Figure 7.4
Under the action of vertical and horizontal loads the neoprene deforms as shown in Figure
7.4 (b) (A’B’C’D’) in which the displacement field ( u, v) is represented as follows:
u = a1 x + b1 y + c1
v = a2 x + b2 y + c2

where a1 , b1 , c1 , a 2 , b2 , c 2 are constants to be determined.
a) Calculate the strain tensor components and the volumetric deformation at any
point;
b) Calculate the stresses at any point;
c) The maximum normal stress;
d) Obtain the unit extension according to the direction of the diagonal AC .
Hypothesis:
1 – Isotropic linear elastic material with Young’s modulus equals to 1000 N / cm 2 and the
shear modulus equals to

1
N / cm 2 .
0.0028

2 – It is assumed a state of plane strain.
Solution:
 u = a1 x + b1 y + c1

v = a 2 x + b2 y + c 2

(7.40)

According to Figure 7.4 we obtain:
u (0;0) = 1 = c1
u (50;0) = 1.1 = 50a1 + 1 ⇒ a1 = 0.002

(7.41)

u (0;20) = 1.1 = 20b1 + 1 ⇒ b1 = 0.005

thus
u = 0.002 x + 0.005 y + 1

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(7.42)

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

425

For the vertical displacement:
v(0;0) = 0 = c 2
u (50;0) = 0 = 50a 2 ⇒ a 2 = 0

(7.43)

u (0;20) = −1 = 20b2 ⇒ b2 = −0.05
v = −0.05 y

(7.44)

u = 0.002 x + 0.005 y + 1

v = −0.05 y

(7.45)

Then:

a)

Strains
εx =

∂u
= 0.002
∂x

;

εy =

∂v
= −0.05
∂y

;

γ xy =

∂u ∂v
= 0.005
+
∂y ∂x

(7.46)

The linear volumetric deformation (small deformation regime):
L
DV = ε V = ε x + ε y + ε z = I ε = −0.048

b)
G=

(7.47)

Stresses
E
E
⇒ν=
− 1 = 0.4
2(1 + ν)
2G

[

]

[

]

E
(1 − ν)ε x + νε y
(1 + ν )(1 − 2v)
= 3571.4286 × [(0.6) × 0.002 − 0.4 × 0.05] = −67.1428

σx =

E
(1 − ν)ε y + νε x
(1 + ν )(1 − 2v)
= 3571.4286 × [(0.6) × (−0.05) + 0.4 × 0.002] = −104.2857

σy =

(7.48)

τ xy = Gγ xy
=

1
× 0.005 = 1.785714
0.0028

An alternative solution is to use σ ij =
 εx

ε ij =  1 γ xy
2
 1 γ xz
2

1
2

γ xy
εy

1
2

γ yz

1
2
1
2

νETr (ε )
E
δ ij +
ε ij , where:
(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν )
(1 + ν )

γ xz   0.002
 
γ yz  =  1 (0.005)
2
εz  
0
 

1
2

(0.005) 0

− 0.05 0
0
0

νETr (ε )
N
E
N
,
= 714.285714
= −68.571429
2
(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)
(1 + ν)
cm
cm 2

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

426

 0.002
1 0 0
0 1 0 + 714.285714 1 (0.005)
σ ij = −68.571429
2


0 0 1 
0


1
2

(0.005) 0

− 0.05 0
0
0

0 
− 67.1428 1.785714
N
 1.785714 − 104.2857
0 
≈
 cm 2

0
0
− 68.571

c)

The principal stresses
σ (1,2) =

σx + σ y
2

 σx − σy
± 

2

2


 + τ2
xy

(7.49)
2

− 67.1428 − 104.2857
 − 67.1428 + 104.2857 
2
± 
 + 5.35714 =
2
2


= −171.4285 ± 19.328675

σ (1,2) =

σ1 = −152.099824 N cm 2

2
σ 2 = −190.757175 N cm

d)

(7.50)

(7.51)

The unit extension

The diagonal ( AC ) in the reference configuration measures:
L0 = AC = 50 2 + 20 2 = 53.852cm

(7.52)

and the deformed diagonal
A′C ′ = 50.2 2 + 19 2 = 53.675cm

(7.53)

∆L = A′C ′ − AC = −0.177cm

(7.54)

∆L − 0.177
=
= −0.0033
L0
53.852

(7.55)

The unit extension is:
ε=

Problem 7.6
Consider a bar of length L , which has a squared cross section of side a . The elastic
constants of the material is assumed to be known ( E and ν = 0.25 ).
a) In the case of Figure 7.5(a), calculate the stored energy (strain energy density) in the
bar during the deformation, and also obtain the total strain energy;
b) Determine the stored energy corresponds to the change of volume and to the
change of shape;
c) The same question as the paragraph (a), but considering the case of Figure 7.5(b).

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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

427

A -Area
P

M

M

P
a

L

a
M

a)

a

cross section
b)

Figure 7.5
Solution:
Considering a one dimensional case:
σ x = Eε x ⇒ ε x =

σx
E

σx =

with

P
A

(7.56)

We know that the strain energy per unit volume is given by:
1
2

1
2

1
2

Ψ e = σ : ε unidimensional → Ψ e = σ x ε x = σ x
  

σx 1 P2
=
E 2 EA 2

(7.57)

Then, the total energy U is given by:

Ψ e (volume) = L × A ×
x

P2

2 EA 2

(7.58)

P2L
⇒U =
2 EA

The strain energy (per unit volume) can also be expressed as follows:

Ψe =

1
1
2
Iσ −
II dev
6(3λ + 2µ )
2µ σ
14 244 1 24
4
3
4 3

Ψ

e

vol

Ψ

e

(7.59)

shape

Considering:
σ x
σij =  0

0

0 0
P
0 0 → I σ = σ x =

A
0 0

(7.60)

Calculation of II σ dev :
1
I2
σ
2
II σ dev = (3 II σ − I σ ) = − σ = − x
3
3
3

2

(7.61)

Then, the strain energy associated with the change of volume is:

Ψ e vol =

(1 − 2ν) 2 (1 − 2ν) 2
1
2
Iσ =
Iσ =
σx
6(3λ + 2µ )
6E
6E

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(7.62)

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

428

(1 − 2ν ) P 2
(per unit volume)
6E A 2

Ψ e vol =

(7.63)

The strain energy associated with the change of shape is:

Ψ e shape = −

1
1 2(1 + ν)
II σ dev = −
II σ dev
E

2

(1 + ν)  σ x
−
=−
E 
3

Ψ

2

(7.64)




2

e

shape

(1 + ν) σ x
(1 + ν) P 2
(per unit volume)
=
=
E
3
3E A 2

(7.65)

Checking:

Ψ

e

vol

e

shape

=
=
=
=

(1 − 2ν) P 2 (1 + ν) P 2
+
6E A2
3E A 2
P2
[(1 − 2ν) + 2(1 + ν)]
6 EA 2
P2
[1 − 2ν + 2 + 2ν]
6 EA 2
P2
= Ψe
2
2 EA

For the case of bending, we consider the following relationships:
σy =

M y
I

I=

σy =

a4
12

12 M y
a4

σ y = Eε y ⇒ ε y =

σy
E

The strain energy becomes:
1  12 M y σ y
E

1

Ψe = σ yε y =  4
2
2 a

=

1  12 M y 12 M y 


2  a4
Ea 4 

=

72 M 2 y 2
Ea 8

Ψe =

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72 M 2 y 2
Ea 8

Draft

(7.66)

(7.67)

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

c) Given the shear modulus G .7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 429 Problem 7. Solution:  ∂u1   ∂x1 ∂u i  ∂u 2 = ∂x j  ∂x1   ∂u 3  ∂x1  ∂u1 ∂x 2 ∂u 2 ∂x 2 ∂u 3 ∂x 2 ∂u1   ∂x3  2( x − x ) 0 − 2( x1 − x3 ) 1 3 ∂u 2   0 2( x 2 + x 3 ) 2( x 2 + x3 )  × 10 −3 =  ∂x3     − x2  0 − x1  ∂u 3   ∂x3   and at the point P(0. the infinitesimal spin tensor at the point P (0. obtain the Young’s modulus E to guarantee the balance at any point. u 3 = 0 . V. the displacement gradient components are given by:  2 x1a r ∂ui  r (∇ x u)ij = = 2ax2 ∂x j   0  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft − 10ax2 2ax1 0 0 0  0  By: Eduardo W.7 Under the approximation of small deformation theory. u 2 = 2 a x1 x 2 .2 − 1) we have ∂u i ∂x j P − 2( x1 − x 3 )  2 0 − 2 0  2( x1 − x 3 )  = 0 2( x 2 + x3 ) 2( x 2 + x 3 )  =  0 2 2  × 10 −3     − x2  − 2 0 0  − x1 0     ∂u i = ε ij + ω ij ∂x j whose components are: Infinitesimal strain tensor ∂u j 1  ∂u ε ij =  i + 2  ∂x j ∂xi  Infinitesimal spin tensor  2 0 − 2    ∂u j  = 0 2 1  × 10 −3 ωij = 1  ∂u i −    2  ∂x j ∂xi   − 2 1 0    0 0 0    (7. NOTE: The body forces are negligible. b) Obtain the principal strains and principal stresses.8 Under the restriction of small deformation theory. Chaves (2013) .−1) . Solution: 2 a) Considering that u1 = a ( x12 − 5 x 2 ) . the displacement field is given by: r 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ u = a ( x12 − 5 x 2 ) e1 + (2 a x1 x 2 )e 2 − (0) e 3 a) Obtain the linear strain tensor and the linear spin tensor.2.68)  = 0 0 1  × 10 −3     0 − 1 0    Problem 7. the displacement field is given by: r ˆ ˆ ˆ u = ( x1 − x3 ) 2 × 10 −3 e1 + ( x 2 + x3 ) 2 × 10 −3 e 2 − x1 x 2 × 10 −3 e 3 a) Obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor.

Chaves (2013) .ε ij ) and an antisymmetric part (the infinitesimal spin tensor. j = 0 i   { r =0 and by expanding the above. we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.ωij ) we obtain: ∂u i = ε ij + ωij ∂x j where ∂u j 1  ∂u ε ij =  i +  ∂x j ∂xi 2  2 x1 a =  − 4ax 2   0    2x a  1  1  =  2ax 2  2     0 − 4ax 2 2ax1 0 − 10ax 2 2ax1 0 0  2 x1 a 0 +  − 10ax 2   0  0   2ax 2 2ax1 0 0   0   0   0 0  0  and ∂u j 1  ∂u ωij =  i −  ∂x j ∂xi 2   2x a  1  1  =  2ax 2  2     0 − 10ax 2 2ax1 0 0  2 x1 a 0 −  − 10ax 2   0  0   2ax 2 2ax1 0 0   0  0  = 6ax 2   0   0   − 6ax 2 0 0 0 0  0  b) The principal strains. 2 x1 a − λ − 4ax 2 − 4ax 2 =0 2ax1 − λ ( ) − (4ax ) ⇒ (2 x a − λ ) = (4ax ) ⇒ 2 x1 a − λ 2 2 2 2 1 =0 2 2 λ1 = 2 x1 a − 4ax 2  ⇒ 2 x1 a − λ = ±4ax 2 ⇒  λ 2 = 2 x1 a + 4ax 2  2 x1a + 4ax2 0 0   ε′ =  0 2 x1a − 4ax2 0 (principal strains) ij   0 0 0   Since the strain and stress share the same principal space we can use the equation σij = λ 4 x1aδ ij + 2 µε ij to obtain the principal stresses: 0 1 0 0  2 x1a + 4ax2 0 1 0  + 2 µ  σ′ = λ 4 x1aδ ij + 2 µε′ = λ 4 x1a  0 2 x1a − 4ax2 ij ij   0 0 1   0 0    0 0  λ 4 x1a + 2 µ (2 x1a + 4ax2 )  0 0  = λ 4 x1a + 2 µ ( 2 x1a − 4ax2 )   0 0 λ 4 x1a    0 0  0  c) Starting from the equilibrium equations: r r ∇ ⋅ σ + ρ b = 0 Indicial → σ ij . V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 430 Decomposing additively the displacement gradient in a symmetric part (the linear strain tensor .

University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .3 = 0 ⇒ 431  ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + =0  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3   ∂σ 21 ∂σ 22 ∂σ 23  + + =0  ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3   ∂σ 31 ∂σ 32 ∂σ 33 + + =0   ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3  and considering that ε kk = 4 x1 a . At a point in the soil the volumetric deformation is εV = −2 × 10 −3 . Then. a) Obtain the Cartesian components of the infinitesimal strain tensor.1 + σ 22. V.3 = 0  σ 31.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we conclude that: λ= (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) In addition. the first equilibrium equation becomes: ∂σ11 ∂σ12 ∂σ13 + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 ⇒ 4a(λ + µ ) − 8µ a = 0 ⇒ λ + µ = 2µ ⇒λ = µ = G G (3λ + 2G ) . 2 + σ 33. Chaves (2013) .1 + σ12.1 + σ 32. and the directions where they occur. Obtain the principal strains.5G = λ+G G+G Problem 7. The soil is subjected to a state of plane strain according to the plane x1 − x 2 . which was obtained by means of the relationships λ+G E νE and µ = G = . the stress tensor components σ ij = λε kk δ ij + 2µ ε ij becomes σ ij = λ 4 x1 aδ ij + 2µ ε ij . the shear deformation is ε12 = − 3 × 10 −3 and the normal strain is ε11 = 0 . note that E = E= G (3λ + 2G ) G (3G + 2G ) = 2. thus σ11 = λ 4 x1 aδ 11 + 2µ ε11 = λ 4 x1 a + 2µ (2 x1 a ) = 4 x1 a (λ + µ ) σ12 = λ 4 x1 aδ 12 + 2µ ε12 = 2µ ( −4ax 2 ) = −8µ ax 2 σ13 = 0 or we can use: σij = λ 4 x1aδ ij 1 = λ 4 x1a 0  0  1 0 0  ε11 ε12 ε13  0 1 0  + 2 µ ε  + 2 µε ij = λ 4 x1a    12 ε 22 ε 23  0 0 1  ε13 ε 23 ε 33      0 0 0  − 8 µax2  2 x1a − 4ax2 0 4 x1a (λ + µ )  + 2 µ  − 4ax  =  − 8 µax 1 0 2ax1 0  4 x1a (λ + µ ) 0  2 2    0 0 1 0 0  0 0 λ 4 x1a       Then.3 = 0  σ 21.9 Consider a soil made up of a linear elastic material.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY σ11. 2 + σ 23. 2 + σ13.

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 432 1 4 b) Assuming that the elastic constants are E = 50MPa and ν = . Obtain the maximum normal and shear stresses. NOTE: Remember the expression for the stress tensor: σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε with λ = E Eν . c) Obtain the strain energy density (per unit volume). Obtain stress tensor components and the principal stresses. Chaves (2013) . with that we obtain:  0  ε ij =  − 3  0  − 3 0  0  plane strain  − 2 0 × 10 −3    → ε ij =  − 3 0 0  − 3 −3  × 10 −2  The principal strains 0−λ − 3 =0 − 3 −2−λ λ2 + 2 λ − 3 = 0 ⇒ ⇒   λ1 = 1  λ 2 = −3  thus ε1 = 1 × 10 −3   ε 2 = −3 × 10 −3  b) 1 × 10 −3 ε′ =  ij  0 ⇒  0 −3  − 3 × 10  y ε1 y′ ε xy x′ ε yy ε2 θ x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. µ= (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) Solution: a) The infinitesimal strain tensor components are given by:  0  ε ij =  − 3 × 10 −3  0  0  0 0  − 3 × 10 −3 ε 22 0 L The volumetric deformation DV ≈ ε V = I ε = ε11 + ε 22 + ε 33 = −2 × 10 −3 ⇒ ε 22 = −2 × 10 −3 . V.

V. Tr (ε ) = −2 × 10 −3 . ε S = −2) (ε N = −2. ε S = − 3 ) Note that the radius is R = (1 − (−3)) / 2 = 2 . ε S = 3 ) 2θ εI =1 ε III = −3 ε N × 10 −3 (ε N = 0. (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E = 20 MPa . the eigenvalues of σ and ε can be related to each other as follows. Then: tg(2θ) = 3 1 ⇒ 2θ = arctg( 3 ) b) Applying σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij . we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . where λ = µ= ⇒ θ = 30º Eν = 20MPa .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the stress and strain share the principal space. In addition. Chaves (2013) .7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 433 Mohr’s circle in strain εS = γ (×10 −3 ) 2 (ε N = 0. By replacing the value of σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε into the definition of the eigenvalueeigenvector. Then: 2(1 + ν) − 3 0  − 2 0 × 10 3 0 0   − 40  0 0 0  − 3 0     0  + 40 − 3 − 2 0  × 10 −3 MPa 0  =  − 40  1 24  4 3    0 =103 Pa  0 0 0 0  − 40      0 1 0 0  0 1 0  + 2µ  − 3 σ ij = λTr (ε )     0 0 0 1     Thus:  − 40 0  − 40 3   0  kPa σ ij =  − 40 3 − 120  0 0 − 40   As the material is isotropic.

ε 1 0  0  0 ε2 0 0  1 0 0 0  = 0 − 3 0 × 10 −3    ε 3  0 0 0    m m   By: Eduardo W. i. Chaves (2013) . We can use the principal space in order to obtain the strain energy.e.: σ1 0  0  0 σ2 0 0 0   0  = 0 − 160 0  × 10 3 Pa    σ 3  0 − 40 0    0 0 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft . V.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 434 ˆ ˆ σ ⋅n = γ σn ˆ ˆ (λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε ) ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ λTr (ε )1 ⋅ n + 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ λTr (ε )n + 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ 2µ ε ⋅ n = γ σ n − λTr (ε )n ˆ ˆ ⇒ 2µ ε ⋅ n = (γ σ − λTr (ε ) )n  γ − λTr (ε )  ˆ ˆ n ⇒ ε ⋅n =  σ   2µ   ˆ ˆ ⇒ ε ⋅ n = γ εn Then: γε = γ σ − λTr (ε ) 2µ γ σ = 2µ γ ε + λTr (ε ) ⇒ And the eigenvalues of σ can be obtained as follows: (1 ( γ σ ) ≡ σ I = 2µ γ ε1) + λTr (ε ) = (40 × 10 6 ) × (1 × 10 −3 ) + (20 × 10 6 ) × (−2 × 10 −3 ) = 0 ( ( γ σ2 ) ≡ σ II = 2µ γ ε2 ) + λTr (ε ) = (40 × 10 6 ) × (0) + (20 × 10 6 ) × (−2 × 10 −3 ) = −40 × 10 3 Pa ( ( γ σ3) ≡ σ III = 2µ γ ε3) + λTr (ε ) = (40 × 10 6 ) × (−3 × 10 −3 ) + (20 × 10 6 ) × (−2 × 10 −3 ) = −160 × 10 3 Pa We can also use the equation σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε in the principal space:  − 40 0 0  0 0  0 1 0 0    + 40 0 − 3 0  × 10 −3 MPa = 0 − 160 σ′ =   0 − 40 0  0  kPa ij 4 3     1 24   0 =103 Pa 0 0 0 0   − 40 − 40 0 0       Mohr’s circle in stress: τ − 160 − 40 σ N (kPa) 0 1 2 c) The strain energy density is Ψ e = σ : ε .

the principal strains are: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . 2 ) = − (12) ± (12) 2 − 4(1)(11) 2(1) = − 12 ± 10 2 ⇒ λ (1) = −1. d) Obtain the maximum and minimum normal stress. Chaves (2013) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.10 A solid is subjected to state of plane strain.0   λ ( 2 ) = −11  Then. and at one point the infinitesimal strain tensor components are given by: 3 0 − 2  3 − 10 0 × 10 −3 ε ij =    0 0 0   Consider that the material has an isotropic linear elastic behavior defined by the Young’s modulus E = 10MPa and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. b) Obtain the principal strains and the principal directions. c) Obtain the Cauchy stress tensor components. where the spherical part is given by: sph ε ij 0  − 4 0 Tr (ε )  0 − 4 0  × 10 −3 = δ ij =   3  0 0 − 4   and the deviatoric part is: dev ε ij = ε ij − sph ε ij  − 2 0  3 0 − 4 0 2 3 0    −  0 − 4 0   × 10 −3 = 3 − 6 0  × 10 −3 =   3 − 10 0      0 0 0 4   0 0 − 4  0 0       b) The principal strains are obtained by means of the characteristic determinant: −2−λ 3 =0 3 − 10 − λ ⇒ λ2 + 12λ + 11 = 0 Solving the quadratic equation: λ (1. e) It is known that the material fails when the tangential stress exceeds the value 40 kPa . Check if the material fails. V.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 435 1 1 2 2 m N m J 1 = (0)(1) + (−160 × 10 3 )(−3 × 10 −3 ) + ( −40 × 10 3 )(0) = 240 Pa = 240 2 = 240 3 m 2 m m m Ψ e = σ ij ε ij = (σ1ε1 + σ 2 ε 2 + σ 3 ε 3 ) [ ] Problem 7. Solution: a) Volumetric deformation ( εV ): ε V = I ε = Tr (ε ) = ( −2 − 10) × 10 −3 = −12 × 10 −3 Additive decomposition of the strain tensor ε = ε sph + ε dev . a) Obtain the volumetric deformation and the deviatoric part of the strain tensor.25 .

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 436 ε1 = −1. j = 1. and 3 10 The principal direction associated with the eigenvalue λ (1) = −11. V. µ = G = = 4 MPa . the principal directions of the stress and strain coincide. we obtain n12) = 10 . with that we obtain (3n (21) ) 2 + n (21) = 1 ⇒ n (21) = ( n11) = 1 10 . ε 2 = −11.0 × 10 −3 The principal directions can be obtained by solving (ε ij − λ δ ij )n (jλ ) = 0 i (i.0 × 10 −3 . Tr (ε ) = −12 × 10 −3 : (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν ) 2(1 + ν)  3 0  1 0 0 − 2  0 1 0 + 2 × (4)  3 − 10 0  × 10 −3 MPa σ ij =  4 × (−12)      0 0 1   0 0 0       24 0   − 64  24 − 128 = 0  kPa   0 − 48 0   As the material is isotropic.2) The principal direction associated with the eigenvalue λ (1) = −1. The principal stresses can be obtained by working on the principal space σ′ = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ′ : ij ij University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.0 : (1) (1) (1) (1) ( 3 − 2 − (−1)  n11)  0 − n1 + 3n 2 = 0 ⇒ n1 = 3n 2  ⇒ (  =  − 10 − (−1) n (1)  0 3n11) − 9n (1) = 0 3   2    2 2 2 2 ( restriction n11) + n (21) = 1 . and n (22) = −3 10 We summarize as follows: ε1 = −1 × 10 −3 ε 2 = −11 × 10 −3 ε1 = 0  3 ˆ n i(1) =   10 principal →   direction principal →   direction principal direction    → ˆ n i(3)  1 ˆi n ( 2) =   10 = [0 0 1] 1 10 −3 10  0   0  c) The Cauchy stress tensor components are given by: σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij where λ = νE E = 4MPa .0 : ( 2) (  ( 2) 3 − 2 − (−11)  n12)  0 9n1 + 3n 2 = 0  ( 2)  =   ⇒  ( 2 )  ( − 10 − (−11) n 2  0 3n1 + n ( 2 ) = 0 ⇒ n ( 2) = −3n12 ) 3   2 2  2 1 2 ( ( with the restriction n12) + n (22) = 1 . Chaves (2013) .

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 437  1 0 0  − 1 0 0   0 1 0 + 2 × (4)  0 − 11 0  × 10 −3 MPa σ′ =  4 × (−12)  ij     0 0 1  0 0 0       0 0   − 56  0 = − 136 0  kPa   0 − 48 0   d) By considering that σ I = −48kPa . a) Obtain the principal invariants of σ . σ III = −136kPa . Problem 7. Chaves (2013) . the material fails.11 The stress state at a point of the continuum is represented by the Cauchy stress tensor components:  − 26 6 0  σ ij =  6 9 0  kPa    0 0 29   Consider an isotropic linear elastic material. f) Obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of ε . σ II = −56kPa . Obtain the maximum normal and tangential stress. c) Obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of σ . b) Obtain the spherical and deviatoric parts of σ . d) Draw the Mohr’s circle in stress. V. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . µ are the Lamé constants). e) Considering a small deformation regime and taking into account that the elastic mechanical properties are λ = 20000kPa and µ = 20000kPa ( λ.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the Mohr’s circle in stress can be obtained as follows: σ S (kPa ) σ S max = 44 σ II = −56 σ III = −136 σ I = −48 σ N (kPa) The maximum shear stress can be obtained as follows: σ S max = σ I − σ III (−48) − (−136) = = 44kPa 2 2 Then. Obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor.

σ II = 10kPa .98639 − 0.98639 0] principal direction      →  ˆi n (3) = [0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 438 Solution: a) The principal invariants I σ = 12 × 10 3 II σ = 9 0 0 29 × 10 6 + − 26 0 0 29 − 26 6 × 10 6 + 6 9 × 10 6 = −763 × 10 6 III σ = det (σ ) = −7830 × 10 9 dev sph The spherical and deviatoric parts σ ij = σ ij + σ ij : 1 3 The mean stress: σ m = σ ii = ( 29 − 26 + 9) = 4 × 10 3 Pa 3 hyd σ ij dev σ ij ≡ sph σ ij 4 0 0  = 0 4 0  kPa   0 0 4   6 0   − 30 6 0   − 26 − 4  6 5 0  kPa = 9−4 0 = 6     0 0 25 0 29 − 4   0     By solving the characteristic equation we obtain the eigenvalues: σ I = 29kPa . Chaves (2013) .1644 0. V. σ III = −27 kPa : The eigenvectors: σ I = 29kPa σ II = 10kPa ˆ n i(1) = [0 0 1] principal direction      →  principal direction      →  σ III = −27kPa ˆ n i( 2 ) = [0.1644 0] σ S (kPa) σ S max = 29 − (−27) = 28 2 σ N (kPa) σ III = −27 σ I = σ N max = 29 σ II = 10 σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain inverse →  Draft ε ij = −λ 1 Tr (σ )δ ij + σ ij 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) 2µ By: Eduardo W.

65 0  × 10 − 4 =   0 0 6.5 1.5 × 10 −8  6 9 0  × 10 3 ε ij = (−5 × 10 )(1. We work on the principal space to obtain: ε′ = ij 1 −λ σ′ Tr (σ )δ ij + ij 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) 2µ 0  66.65   −9 4 As the material is isotropic.5 0 0  1 0 0  29 0  + 2. V.2 × 10 )      0 0 0 1  0 29     − 26 6 0  1 0 0   + 2.5  1.12 Show that the constitutive equations in stress. Tr (σ ) = 1. Solution: σ = Ce : ε = [λ1 ⊗ 1 + 2µ I] : ε = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε σ = σ dev + σ sph = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ (ε dev + ε sph ) Tr (σ ) 1 = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ (ε dev + ε sph ) 3 Tr (ε ) Tr (σ ) 1 = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε dev + 2µ − 3 3 2µ  Tr (σ )  1 = λ +  Tr (ε )1 + 2µ ε dev − 3  3  ⇒ σ dev + ⇒ σ dev ⇒ σ dev The trace of the stress tensor: Tr (σ ) = σ : 1 = [λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε ] : 1 = λTr (ε )3 + 2µ Tr (ε ) = (3λ + 2µ )Tr (ε ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . for an isotropic linear elastic material.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and κ is the bulk modulus.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY where 439 −λ = −5 × 10 −9 ( Pa ) −1 . can be represented by the set of equations: σ dev = 2µ ε dev   Tr (σ ) = 3κTr (ε ) where µ = G is the shear modulus. Chaves (2013) .2 × 10 4 ( Pa) 2µ (3λ + 2µ )  − 26 6 0  1 0 0 0 1 0 + 2.1 1. the stress and strain have the same principal directions.5 × 10 −5  0 10  =  0 19 = −6 × 10 0 1 0 0   0  × 10 −5   0 0 1   0 0 − 27   0 0 73.5 × 10 −5  6 −5  9 0 = −6 × 10 0 1 0    0 0 0 1  0 29     0  − 7.5       −5  Problem 7.

Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 440 with that we obtain: 2µ  Tr (σ )  dev 1 ⇒ σ dev =  λ +  Tr (ε )1 + 2µ ε − 3 3   (3λ + 2µ )Tr(ε) 1 2µ   dev ⇒ σ dev =  λ +  Tr (ε )1 + 2µ ε − 3 3   (3λ + 2µ )Tr(ε) 1 + 2µ ε dev 2µ   ⇒ σ dev =  λ +  Tr (ε )1 − 3   44444424443 443 1 4 4 4 =0 To the equations σ dev = 2µ ε dev we must add the constraint: (3λ + 2µ )Tr(ε) 2µ   1=0 λ +  Tr (ε )1 − 3  3  2µ  Tr (σ )  ⇒ λ + 1=0  Tr (ε )1 − 3  3  2µ   ⇒ Tr (σ )1 = 3 λ +  Tr (ε )1 3   ⇒ Tr (σ )1 = 3κ Tr (ε )1 or Tr (σ ) = 3κ Tr (ε ) σm σ33 σ 23 σ13 σ13 + = σ 23 σ12 σ12 σm = σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij ε13 ε11 + εm ε 22 ε12 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain σ12 σ dev 22 σ12 dev dev σ ij = 2µ ε ij dev ε 33 = ε 23 ε12 + εm ε 23 σ 23 dev σ11 Tr (σ )δ ij = 3κ Tr (ε )δ ij ε 33 σ 23 σ13 σ13 σm σ 22 σ11 ε13 dev σ 33 εm Draft ε 23 ε13 ε13 ε 23 ε12 ε dev 22 ε12 dev ε11 By: Eduardo W. V.

3 and Young’s modulus E = 2 × 10 6 N / m 2 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.e. NOTE: Note that for an isotropic material if we have a purely spherical state of compression: p p>0 p p 0  − p 0  0 −p 0  σij =    0 0 − p   ∴ Tr (σ ) = −3 p < 0 E .30m . 1) Calculate the values of the principal stresses at the point of the parallelepiped. we can conclude 3(1 − 2ν) that: if ν > 0. Once the parallelepiped is this position the temperature is raised in ∆T = 30º C . we have that Tr (σ ) = 3κ Tr (ε ) < 0 . i. and by considering the linear regime the relationship σ = σ (ε ) = σ (ε sph + ε dev ) = σ (ε sph ) + σ (ε dev ) holds.13 A parallelepiped of dimensions a = 0. V.20m . Chaves (2013) .10m . (see Figure 7.5 this implies that κ < 0 and as consequence Tr (ε ) > 0 . and considering that κ = which has no physical meaning for a compression state in isotropic materials. 2) Find the strain components. Problem 7. an expansion.6). Consider that the thermal expansion coefficient of the material is 1.5 . With that we conclude that ν < 0. which is made up of an elastic material with Poisson’s ration ν = 0. where: σ (ε sph ) = λTr (ε sph )1 + 2µ ε sph 2µ Tr (ε ) Tr (ε )  Tr (ε )  σ sph = λTr  11 + 2µ 1 = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ 1 = (λ + ) Tr (ε )1 = κ Tr (ε )1 3 3 3  3  Tr (σ ) 1 = κ Tr (ε )1 3 Tr (σ )1 = 3κ Tr (ε )1 σ (ε dev ) = λ Tr (ε dev )1 + 2µ ε dev = 2µ ε dev 1 24 4 3 =0 [ ] [ ] Note that Tr σ (ε sph ) = Tr σ sph = Tr[σ ] holds. Said parallelepiped is introduced into a cavity of width b whose walls are very rigid. b = 0. c = 0.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 441 Alternative solution: Starting from the constitutive equation in stress for an isotropic linear elastic material σ = σ (ε ) = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε . University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . so that two opposite faces of the parallelepiped are in contact with the cavity walls.25 × 10 −5 º C −1 .

875   z Data: a a = 0. Chaves (2013) . and a squared cross section with dimensions 0.6 Problem 7. In the interior of said container is placed a synthetic rubber block whose University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. hence ε y = 0 : εy = [ ] [ ] 1 1 σ y − ν(σ x + σ z ) + α∆T = σ y + α∆T = 0 E E ⇒ σ y = − Eα∆T thus: σ y = − Eα∆T = −2 × 10 6 × 1. The solid is restricted to move according to the y -direction.14 Consider a container with very rigid walls.25 × 10 −5 º C −1 c y b x Figure 7.10m .20m c = 0. V.875 × 10 − 4 The strain tensor components: 0  4.10m b = 0. hence the normal stresses are σ x = σ z = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 442 Solution: As the solid can deform freely according to the directions x and z .10 × 0.875 0  0 ε ij =  0 0  × 10 − 4   0 0 4.30m E = 2 × 10 6 N / m 2 ν = 0 .3 ∆T = 30º C α = 1.25 × 10 −5 (30) = −750 N m2 The Cauchy stress tensor components: 0 0 0 0 − 750 0 Pa σ ij =   0 0 0   εx = εz = b) νσ y E + α∆T = 4.

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

443

dimensions are 0.10 × 0.10 × 0.5m , as shown in Figure 7.7(a). The rubber block fits
perfectly into the rigid container.
The elastic characteristics of the rubber are E = 2.94 × 10 6 N / m 2 and ν = 0.1 .
Above the rubber is poured 0.004m 3 of mercury, whose mass density is 13580kg / m 3 .
a) Obtain the height H that reach the mercury, (see Figure 7.7(b));
b) The stress state at a generic point of the rubber block.
Hypothesis: 1) the weight of the rubber is negligible. 2) Consider the acceleration of gravity
equal to g = 10m / s 2 . 3) Between the rubber block faces and the container walls there is no
friction.
z

Rigid walls

Rigid walls

Mercury

H

Rubber
L 0 = 0 .5 m
y

x

a)

b)
Figure 7.7

Solution:
First we calculate the total force due to the weight of mercury on the rubber:
 kg 
 kgm

m
F = Vρ g = 0.004(m 3 ) × 13580 3  × 10 2  = 543.20 2 ≡ N 
s 
m 
 s

The normal stress according to the z -direction is given by:
σz = −

543.20
F
N
=−
= −54.320 × 10 3 2
A
(0.1 × 0.1)
m

According to the directions x and y the rubber does not deform, hence ε x = ε y = 0

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

444

[

]

σ x = ν (σ y + σ z )

[

]

σ y = ν (σ x + σ z )

1
σ x − ν (σ y + σ z ) = 0
E
1
ε y = σ y − ν (σ x + σ z ) = 0
E

εx =

σ y = ν (σ x + σ z )

{[

]

σ y = ν ν (σ y + σ z ) + σ z
σy =

}

(ν 2 + ν )
ν
σz =
σ z = −6035.55 Pa = σ x
2
(1 − ν )
(1 − ν )

The normal strain according to the z -direction is given by:

[

]

1
σ z − ν (σ x + σ y )
E
1
=
{− 54320 − 0.1[2(−6035.55)]} = −0.0180656
2.94 × 10 6

εz =

b) The length variation of the rubber block is:
∆L = L0 ε z = 0.5 × (− 0.018656 ) = −0.00903m

The height H reached by the mercury is given by:
H = hmer + ( L0 − ∆L)

where hmer is given by:
Vmer = b 2 × hmer = 0.004

hmer =

0.004
= 0.4m
0.1 × 0.1

thus:
H = hmer + ( L0 − ∆L)
= 0.4 + (0.5 − 0.00903)
= 0.891m

Problem 7.15
By means of a material test in the laboratory, it was obtained the following relationships:
 1 
 − ν 21 
 − ν 31 
ε x =  σ x + 
E 
 E σ y +  E σ z



 1
 2 
 3 
 − ν 32 
 − ν 12 
 1 
εy =
 E σ x +  E σ y +  E σ z





 2
 1 
 3 
 1 
 − ν 13 
 − ν 23 
εz = 
 E σ x +  E σ y +  E σ z





 1 
 2 
 3

(7.69)

where ν 12 = 0.2 , ν 13 = 0.3 , ν 23 = 0.25 , E1 = 1000 MPa , E 2 = 2000MPa , E3 = 1500MPa .
Knowing that the analyzed material is orthotropic, obtain ν 21 , ν 31 , ν 32 .
Solution:
The constitutive matrix for orthotropic material has the following format:
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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

 C11
C
 12
C
[C ] =  13
0
0

0

C12

0

C22
C23
0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

C44
0
0

C23
C33

0 
0 

0 

0 
0 

C66 

0

0
0

C13

0
C55
0

445

Orthotropic symmetry
9 independent constants

(7.70)

By restructuring (7.69) we obtain
  1 
  
E 
 ε xx    1 
 ε   − ν 12 
 yy   E 


 ε zz   1 

 =  − ν 13 

2ε xy  


 E1 
2ε yz 

  0
 2ε xz  


 0
 0

 − ν 21 

 E 

 2 
 1 

E 

 2
 − ν 23 

 E 

 2 
0
0
0

 − ν 31 

 E  0

 3 
 − ν 32 

 E  0

 3 
 1 

0

E 
 3
0
C44
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
C55
0


0 
  σ xx 


0  σ yy 
 σ 
  zz 
0  σ xy 
 σ 
0   yz 
 σ 
0   xz 
C66 

(7.71)

Then, for orthotropic material it fulfills that:
 − ν 21   − ν 12

 E = E
 
 2   1




;

 − ν 31   − ν 13 


 E = E 
 
 3   1 

;

 − ν 32

 E
 3

  − ν 23 
=

  E 
  2 

with that we obtain
ν 21 ν 12
=
E2
E1

ν 21 =

E 2 ν 12
2000 × 0.2
=
= 0.4
1000
E1

ν 31 ν 13
=
E3
E1

ν 31 =

E 3 ν 13 1500 × 0.3
= 0.45
=
1000
E1

ν 32
ν
= 23
E3
E2

ν 32 =

E 3 ν 23 1500 × 0.25
=
= 0.1875
2000
E2

Problem 7.16
Given an isotropic linear elastic material whose elastic properties are E = 71 GPa ,
G = 26.6 GPa , find the strain tensor components and the strain energy density at the point
in which the stress state, in Cartesian basis, is represented by:
 20 − 4 5 
σ ij =  − 4 0 10  MPa


 5 10 15

Solution: Poisson’s ratio can be obtained by means of the equation: G =

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E
2(1 + ν )

By: Eduardo W. V. Chaves (2013)

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

446

⇒ν=
ε 11 =

E
− 1 = 0.335
2G

1
[σ11 − ν (σ 22 + σ 33 )] = 1 9 [20 − 0.335 (0 + 15)]10 6 = 211 × 10 −6
E
71 × 10

1
[σ 22 − ν (σ11 + σ 33 )] = 1 9 [0 − 0.335 (20 + 15)]10 6 = −165 × 10 −6
E
71 × 10
1
1
= [σ 33 − ν (σ11 + σ 22 )] =
[15 − 0.335 (20 + 0 )]10 6 = 117 × 10 −6
E
71 × 10 9

ε 22 =
ε 33

ε 12 =

1+ ν
1 + 0.335
σ12 =
( −4 × 10 6 ) = 75 × 10 − 6
9
E
71 × 10

1+ ν
1 + 0.335
σ13 =
(5 × 10 6 ) = 94 × 10 − 6
E
71 × 10 9
1+ ν
1 + 0.335
=
σ 23 =
(10 × 10 6 ) = 188 × 10 − 6
9
E
71 × 10

ε 13 =
ε 23

thus:
 211 − 75 94 
ε ij = − 75 − 165 188  × 10 − 6


 94
188 117 

Then, the strain energy density for an elastic material is obtained by the equation:
1
2

1
2

Ψ e = ε : Ce : ε = ε : σ

indicial →


1
2

Ψ e = ε ij σij

Next, by considering the symmetry of the tensors σ and ε , the strain energy density can
be calculated as follows:
1
[ε11σ11 + ε 22 σ 22 + ε33σ 33 + 2ε12 σ12 + 2ε 23σ 23 + 2ε13σ13 ]
2
1
= [( 211)( 20) + ( −165)(0) + (117 )(15) + 2( −75)( −4) + 2(188)(10) + 2(94)(5) ] = 5637 .5 J / m 3
2

Ψe=

We can also obtain the strain energy density by using the equation:

Ψe =

1
1
1
1
2
2
I σ − − II σ dev =
I σ + − J2
6(3λ + 2 µ )

6(3λ + 2 µ )

and if we consider that I σ = 3.5 × 10 7 ; II σ = −2.4933 × 1014 ; λ ≈ 5.3804 × 10 10 Pa ; µ = G , we
can obtain Ψ e ≈ 5638 .03 J / m 3 . Note that any discrepancies in the numerical results of Ψ e
are due to numerical approximations.
Problem 7.17
Find the strain energy density in terms of the principal invariants of ε .
Solution:

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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

1
2

1
2

Ψ e = ε : σ = ε : [λTr (ε )1 + 2 µε ] =
=
=

λ[Tr (ε )]

2

2

λ[Tr (ε )]2
2

+ µ ε :ε =

λ[Tr (ε )]

+ µ Tr (ε ⋅ ε ) =

2

2

447

λTr (ε )
2

ε2
1
1:3 + µ ε : ε
Tr ( ε )

+ µ Tr (ε ⋅ ε T )

λ[Tr (ε )]2
2

+ µ Tr (ε 2 )

We can add and subtract the term µ [Tr (ε )]2 without altering the above outcome:

Ψe=

λ[Tr (ε )]2
2

{

2

}

1
(λ + 2 µ )[Tr (ε )]2 − µ [Tr (ε )]2 − Tr (ε 2 )
2

+ µ [Tr (ε )] + µ Tr (ε 2 ) − µ [Tr (ε )] =
2

Finally, if we consider that the principal invariants of the strain tensor ε are I ε = Tr (ε ) ,
II ε =

{

}

1
[Tr (ε)]2 − Tr (ε 2 ) , we can obtain:
2
1
2

2
Ψ e = (λ + 2µ )I ε − 2µ II ε = Ψ e ( I ε , II ε )

Problem 7.18
The responses of a liner thermoelastic solid due to two actions are known, namely:
r
r
r (I )
r ( II )
r (I )
r ( II )
r
r
I (b ( I ) , t * on S σ ; u* ; on S u ; ∆T ( I ) ) and II (b ( II ) , t * on S σ ; u* ; on S u ; ∆T ( II ) ) .
Obtain the response of the system formed by I + II and justify.

Solution:
As we have a linear regime the following is satisfied:
r r
r
b = b ( I ) + b ( II )

∆T = ∆T ( I ) + ∆T ( II )
r
r ( I ) r ( II )
t* = t* + t*
r
r ( I ) r ( II )
u* = u* + u*

The same is true for the fields:
r r
r
u = u ( I ) + u ( II )
ε = ε ( I ) + ε ( II )
σ = σ ( I ) + σ ( II )

Starting from the governing equations of linear thermoelastic equilibrium we have:
The equilibrium equations:

[

] [

]

r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
∇ x ⋅ σ + ρ b = ∇ x ⋅ (σ ( I ) + σ ( II ) ) + ρ (b ( I ) + b ( II ) ) = ∇ x ⋅ σ ( I ) + ρ b ( I ) + ∇ x ⋅ σ ( II ) + ρ b ( II ) = 0

The kinematic equations:

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

448

[

] [

r
r
1 r r (I )
1 rr
r
r
∇ x u + (∇ x u ( I ) ) T + ∇ x u ( II ) + (∇ x u ( II ) ) T
2
2
r ( II )
r (I )
r ( II ) T
r
r
r
+ ∇ xu
+ ∇ xu + ∇ xu

ε = ε ( I ) + ε ( II ) =

{[
{ [

]

]}

] [

r
1
r
∇ x u( I )
2
r
r
r
rT
T
1 r r
1 rr
r
r
= ∇ x u ( I ) + u ( II ) + ∇ x (u ( I ) + u ( II ) ) = ∇ x u + [∇ x u] = ε
2
2
=

]} {

] [

}

The constitutive equations in stress:
σ = C e : ε + M∆T

where M is the thermal stress tensor
σ = C e : ε + M∆T = C e : (ε ( I ) + ε ( II ) ) + M (∆T ( I ) + ∆T ( II ) )
= (C e : ε ( I ) + M∆T ( I ) ) + (C e : ε ( II ) + M∆T ( II ) )
= σ ( I ) + σ ( II )

Then, we conclude that all the conditions are met. Then, we can apply the principle of
superposition to linear thermoelastic problem, as expected, since we are in the linear
regime.
Problem 7.19
Let us consider a length rod equal to L = 7.5m , whose diameter is equal to 0.1m , which is
made up of a material whose properties are: E = 2.0 × 10 11 Pa and α = 20 × 10 −6
Initially the rod has a temperature equal to 15º C which later rises to 50 º C .

1
.
ºC

1) Considering that the rod can expand freely, calculate the total elongation of the rod, ∆L ;
2) Now assume that the rod can not expand freely because concrete blocks have been
placed at its ends, (see Figure 7.8(b)). Find the stress in the rod.
Hint: Consider the problem in one dimension.
x

∆L = ∆L(1) + ∆L( 2 )
∆L(1)
∆T

∆T

L
L

∆L( 2)

b)

a)
Figure 7.8: Rod under thermal effect.

Solution: 1) To obtain the elongation, we pre-calculate the thermal strain according to the
rod axis direction ε ij = α (∆T )δ ij . Since this is a one-dimensional case, we need only
consider the normal strain component according to the x -direction, ε 11 = ε x , then:
ε 11 = ε x = 20 × 10 −6 (50 − 15) = 7 × 10 −4
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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

449

Then, the total elongation, ∆L = ∆L(1) + ∆L( 2) , is obtained by solving the integral:
L

∆L = ε x dx = ε x L = 7 × 10 − 4 × 7.5 = 5.25 × 10 −3 m
0

Note that as the rod can expand freely, it is stress-free.
2) If the ends can not move, there will be a homogeneous stress field equal to:
σ x = − Eα (∆T )δ ij = − E " ε x " = −2.0 × 1011 × 7 × 10 −4 = −1.4 × 10 8 Pa

Note that in the case 2) there is no strain, since ∆L = 0 . Moreover, it is the same as when
the initial length is equal to L + ∆L in which we apply compression stress in order to
obtain a final length equal to L .
Problem 7.20
Consider an isotropic linear elastic material with the following thermo mechanical
properties E = 10 6 Pa (Young’s modulus), ν = 0.25 (Poisson’s ratio), α = 20 × 10 −6 º C −1
(Thermal expansion coefficient).
Consider that that at one point of the solid the stress tensor components are given by:
12 0 4
σ ij =  0 0 0 Pa


 4 0 6

a) Obtain the principal stresses and directions of the stress tensor; Obtain the maximum
shear stress.
b) Obtain the strain related to paragraph (a). And find the principal strains and directions.
c) Obtain the strain energy density.
d) If the solid undergoes a change in temperature ∆T = 50º C , what is the final strain state
at this point?
e) We can say that we are dealing with a state of plane stress?
Solution:
We obtain the eigenvalues by solving the characteristic determinant. Note that we already
ˆ
know an eigenvalue σ 2 = 0 which is associated with the direction n i( 2) = [0 ± 1 0] . Then,
to obtain the remaining eigenvalues, it is sufficient to solve:
12 − σ

4

4

6−σ

=0

σ 2 − 18σ + 56 = 0

Solving the quadratic equation we obtain:
σ (1,3) =

18 ± 324 − 224
2

σ1 = 14

σ 3 = 4

14 0 0
σ' ij =  0 0 0 Pa


 0 0 4

And the eigenvectors (unit vectors) are given by:

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

450

eigenvector
   →

σ1 = 14
σ2 = 0

eigenvector
   →

σ3 = 4

eigenvector
   →

 2
ˆ
n i(1) = 
0
 5
ˆ
n i( 2 ) = [0 1 0 ]
 1
ˆ
n i(3) = 
 5

1 
 = [0.8944 0 0.4472]
5
2 
 = [0.4472 0 − 0.8944]
5

0 −

Making the change of nomenclature such that σ I > σ II > σ III , we have σ I = 14 , σ II = 4 ,
σ III = 0 .

σ S ( Pa )

σ S max = 7

σ N ( Pa)
σ II = 4

σ III = 0

σ I = 14

We can obtain the maximum normal stress as follows:
σ S max =

σ I − σ III
(14) − (0)
=
= 7 Pa
2
2

The Cauchy stress tensor components are given by:
σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij

inverse →


ε ij =

1
−λ
Tr (σ )δ ij +
σ ij

2µ (3λ + 2µ )
−1

Remember that σ = C e : ε , and the reciprocal form ε = C e : σ .
where

λ=

νE
= 4 × 10 5 Pa ,
(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )

µ =G =

E
= 4 × 10 5 Pa ,
2(1 + ν )

Tr (σ ) = 18 ,

−λ
= −2.5 × 10 −7 Pa
2µ (3λ + 2µ )

0
4 
1 0 0
12

 + 1.25 × 10 −6  0 − 10 0 
−6 
ε ij =  − 4.5 × 10 0 1 0



0 0 1 
4
0
6 





0
5
10.5
 0
=
− 4.5 0 × 10 −6

 5
0
3

University of Castilla-La Mancha
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7 LINEAR ELASTICITY

451

For an isotropic linear material the principal directions of the stress and strain match. The
principal strains can be obtain by means of the equation ε ′ij =

1
−λ
Tr (σ ) +
σ′
ij
2µ (3λ + 2µ )

in the principal space, i.e.:

1 0 0 
14 0 0 

 + 1.25 × 10 −6  0 0 0  =
−6 
ε ′ =  − 4.5 × 10 0 1 0
ij



0 0 1 
 0 0 4 





1
2

0
0
13
 0 − 4.5 0  × 10 −6


0
0
0 .5 

1
2

The strain energy density is given by Ψ e = σ : ε = σ ij ε ij . We can use the principal space
to obtain the energy, i.e.:

0
0
13
 0 − 4.5 0  × 10 −6
ε′ = 
ij

0
0
0 .5 

;

14 0 0
σ ′ =  0 0 0
ij


 0 0 4

With that we can obtain:

Ψe =

J
1
1
′ ′
σ ′ ε ′ = [σ 11 ε 11 + σ ′ ε ′ ] = 92 × 10 − 6 3
ij ij
33 33
2
2
m

Using the principle of superposition:
ε ij = ε ij (σ ) + ε ij (∆T )
= ε ij (σ ) + α∆Tδ ij

we can obtain:
0
5
0
5 
10.5
1 0 0 1010.5
 0
 × 10 −6 + 20 × 10 − 6 (50) 0 1 0 =  0
ε′ = 
− 4 .5 0 
995.5
0  × 10 −6
ij

 

 5
0 0 1   5
0
3
0
1003



 

The principal directions of the infinitesimal strain tensor are the same as the stress tensor
principal directions.
e) We can not say that we are dealing with a state of plane stress, since we do not know
information about how stresses vary in the continuum, i.e. the stress field. Remember that
the state of plane stress is considered when the stress tensor field is independent of one
direction.

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SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS

452

Problem 7.21
Let us consider a bar to which at one end we apply a force equal to 6000 N as shown in
Figure 7.9. Find ε x , ε y , ε z , and the length change of the bar. Let us consider that the bar is
made up of a material whose properties are: Young’s modulus: E = 10 7 Pa ; Poisson’s ratio:
ν = 0 .3 .

1m
100 m

=

1m

y, v

σy =

x, u

6000
1×1

F = 6000 N

z, w

Figure 7.9
Solution: Using the normal strain expressions we can obtain:

[

)]

(0.3)(6000 )
ν
1
σx − ν σy + σz = − σy = −
= −0.00018
E
E
10 7
σ y 6000
1
ε y = σ y − ν (σ x + σ z ) =
=
= 0.0006
E
E
10 7
εx =

(

[

εz =

]

[

)]

1
ν
σ z − ν σ x + σ y = − σ y = −0.00018
E
E

(

The total change in cross-sectional dimensions is u = w = −0.00018 × 1 = −1.8 × 10 −4 m , and
the total change in length is v = 0.0006 × 100 = 6.0 × 10 −2 m .
Problem 7.22
A strain gauge (or strain gage) is a device used to obtain the strain in only one direction.
Consider a strain rosette that contains three strain gauges where there are 45 º internal angles,
(see Figure 7.10). At one point we have calculated the following strain values:
ε x = 0.33 × 10 −3

;

ε ′x = 0.22 × 10 −3

;

ε y = −0.05 × 10 −3

Find the maximum shear stress at the point in question.
Then consider an isotropic linear elastic material with the following mechanical properties:
E = 29000 Pa (Young’s modulus); ν = 0.3 (Poisson’s ratio).

University of Castilla-La Mancha
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y x′ strain gauge 45º 45º x Figure 7. Solution: Firstly. Remember that in two-dimensional cases. Chaves (2013) . (see Chapter 1 of the textbook). V. which in engineering notation becomes: ε ′x = εx + εy 2 + εx − εy 2 cos( 2θ) + γ xy 2 sin( 2θ) Then.08 0  ε ij = 0. z and to do so we will use the coordinate transformation law in order to obtain the component γ xy = 2ε12 . b) Obtain the eigenvalues (principal stresses) and eigenvectors (principal directions) of the stress tensor.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 453 a) Obtain the eigenvalues (principal strains) and eigenvectors (principal directions) of the strain tensor. y. γ xy can be obtained as follows: γ xy = (ε + ε y ) (ε x − ε y )  2   ε ′x − x cos( 2θ)  = 0.16 × 10 − 3 −   sin( 2θ)  2 2  thus 0.33 0. the stress components can be evaluated as follows: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.10: Strain rosette. the normal component in a new system is given by (see Problem 1. we have to obtain the strain tensor components in the system x. Hint: Consider the state of plane strain.98 in Chapter 1): ′ ε 11 = ε 11 + ε 22 ε 11 − ε 22 + cos( 2θ) + ε 12 sin( 2θ) 2 2 The above equation was obtained by means of the transformation law.05 0  × 10 −3    0 0 0   Then.08 − 0.

05 0  × 10 −3    0 0 0   We apply the constitutive equation: σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij .5988 Pa xy   a) The characteristic equation for the strain tensor (2D) is: ε 2 − 0. where the Lamé constants are given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.7846 Pa .9802 0    ε3 ⇒  0 0 1   b) Given the stress tensor components.1979  σ3 ⇒  0  0.5692   0 0  0  0  Pa  4. by solving the above equation we can find the eigenvalues (principal strains) given by: ε 1 = 0. the eigenvectors of the strain tensor are: ε1 ⇒  0. σ z = ε x + ε y = 4. Additionally. ε 2 = −0.7846 3. we have: 12.06615528 × 10 −3 Then.40654 .08 − 0.208843 .5692 Pa σy = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) E Eν τ xy = γ xy = 1.1979 0  ε 2 ⇒  − 0.0462 1.1979 0. the eigenvectors of stress and strain are the same.9802 0. since we are working with isotropic linear elastic material.0462 Pa (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) E (1 − 2ν )ε y + νε x = 3.08 0  ε ij = 0.33 0.684   We now obtain the characteristic determinant and in turn the eigenvalues (principal stresses) σ 1 = 12.28 ε − 2. the eigenvectors of the stress tensor are: σ1 ⇒  0. Chaves (2013) .9802 σ 2 ⇒  − 0.346155 × 10 −3 . V.7846 σ ij =  1.29 × 10 −2 = 0 (× 10 −3 ) Then.9802 0 0 0  1  As expected. b) Alternative solution for the stress tensor components: Knowing the strain tensor components: 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 454 [ ] [ ] E (1 − 2ν )ε x + νε y = 12 . the maximum shear stress is given by: τ max  σx + σy =   2  2   + τ 2 = 4. σ 2 = 3.1979 0.684 Pa 2(1 + ν ) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) σx = [ ] Additionally.

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 455 νE = 16.08 − 0. then we can use the same equation σ′ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ′ij on the principal space.08 0  0 1 0  + 2µ  ε  = λTr (ε ) 0 1 0 + 2µ 0.346155 0 0    0 1 0  + 2µ  0 − 0.40752  0 3.33 0.20783 0  Pa =   0 0 4.784615 1.: ε 1 0 0  1 0 0  0 1 0  + 2µ  0 ε 0 σ′ = λTr (ε )  2 ij     0 0 ε3  0 0 1      1 0 0 0.6846   University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Chaves (2013) .27999972 × 10 −3 ≈ 0.28 × 10 −3 .7307692 × 10 3 Pa (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) E µ= = 11.784615 3.15384615 × 10 3 Pa 2(1 + ν) λ= and Tr (ε ) = 0.e.05 0 × 10 −3 σ ij = λTr (ε )    12 ε 22 ε 23      0 0 1  ε 13 ε 23 ε 33  0 0 1   0 0 0         0   12. V.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.0461 1. with that σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij becomes: 1 0 0  ε11 ε 12 ε13  1 0 0  0. i.6846   As the material is isotropic.0662 0 × 10 −3 = λTr (ε )      0 0 1  0 0 0     0 0  12.5692 0  Pa =   0 0 4. the tensors σ and ε share the same principal directions.

73) where θ1 = 60º and θ 2 = 120º .66667 × 10 −4 is obtained. it is possible to eliminate ε 12 .73205 × 10 − 4 By: Eduardo W. Consider a strain rosette that contains three strain gauges arranged according to a equilateral ′ triangle. x1 ′ and x1′ . Show that ε11 + ε 22 = ε11 + ε ′22 . 2ε12 = γ xy . we can replace it into the equation (7. we obtain that: ′ ε 11 = ε 11 + ε 22 ε 11 − ε 22 + cos( 2θ1 ) + ε 12 sin( 2θ1 ) 2 2 (7.72) and we obtain: γ xy = 2ε 12 = 1 3 ′ (4ε11 − ε11 − 3ε 22 ) = −3. ε ′22 ≡ ε ′y .: ε 22 = ε  2 ′ ′′  ε 11 + ε 11 − 11  = 4. x2 ′ x1′ ′ x1 30 º 60º 30 º 60º 60º x1 Figure 7.11). i.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 456 Problem 7.66667 × 10 − 4 3 2  Once the value ε 22 = 4. Then. Solution: Using the component transformation law for the second-order tensor and considering the 2D-plane state. and records the strain values according to the directions x1 . by combining the above equations. Hypothesis: Consider a state of plane strain. Chaves (2013) .11 ′ ′ The strain calculated according to the directions x1 . x1 and x1′ are respectively: ε11 = −4 × 10 −4 ′ ε11 = 1 × 10 − 4 ′′ ε11 = 4 × 10 − 4 ′ Obtain ε 22 = ε y .46410 × 10 − 4 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft ⇒ ε 12 = −1. V.23 A strain gauge (or strain gage) is a device used to obtain the strain in only one direction. (see Figure 7.72) ′′ ε 11 = ε 11 + ε 22 ε11 − ε 22 + cos( 2θ 2 ) + ε 12 sin( 2θ 2 ) 2 2 (7.e.

show whether the equilibrium equations are satisfied or not.3  0 0 0        2   σ x  − 4 x − 2 y    ⇒  σ y  = 357. y ) = −4 y 2 − x 2 + 2 xy + 5  x.4 .66667 × 10 −4 As expected. v u ( x. y ) = −4 x 2 − y 2 + 2 xy + 2   v ( x. Solution: a) We can calculate the strain tensor components as: εx = ∂u = −8 x + 2 y ∂x . Assuming that the structure is under a small deformation regimen: a) Find the stress field. ν = 0. since the trace is an invariant. u This structure consists of a material with following elastic properties: E = 100 MPa .1428 × [( −8 x + 2 y ) + ( −8 y + 2 x )] (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .1428 0.33333 × 10 − 4 2 2 Checking that: ′ ε 11 + ε 22 = ε 11 + ε ′22 = 0. first we obtain the angle of rotation with respect to x1 . we can adopt the approximation of plane strain condition:   σ x  ν 0   εx   0 .4 0   − 8 x + 2 y  1 − ν E     1− ν 0   ε y  = 357 . G = 35 . which is θ 3 = 60º +90º = 150º .1428  − 2 x − 4 y  MPa    τ xy    0     σz = Eν ε x + ε y = 357 .6 0 . Problem 7.4 0. Chaves (2013) . εy = ∂v = −8 y + 2 x ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂y ∂x which in matrix form is: − 8 x + 2 y ε ij =  0   0  0 0 − 8 y + 2 x 0  0 0  b) For a dam.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 457 To obtain ε ′22 . as we have seen. b) For the given displacement field.7 MPa .Spain ( ) Draft By: Eduardo W.6 0   − 8 y + 2 x  MPa  σ y  = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )  ν     1− ν    τ xy    0 γ xy  0 0.24 Consider a dam section in which the displacement is known and given by: y. thus: ε ′22 = ε11 + ε 22 ε 11 − ε 22 + cos( 2θ 3 ) + ε 12 sin( 2θ 3 ) = −0. V.

6 × 10 6 N / cm 2 . Obtain the volume variation experienced by the prism.12 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.44 × 10 5 N / cm 2 (Young’s modulus) and ν = 0. 1. Obtain the stress on the cable σ C . The side length of the square section is a = 20cm . 3. On two opposite sides of the prism we apply a compressive pressure p = 7350 N / cm 2 . they are joined together by four cables of area section A1 = 1cm 2 and Young’s modulus equals to E1 = 19.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 458 Then. Initially the length of the prism is equal to l = 1m .25 Let us consider a regular quadrangular prism whose material is characterized by E = 27. V. 2. Chaves (2013) .12). the equilibrium equations become:  ∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz + + + ρb x = 0  ∂y ∂z  ∂x  ∂τ xy ∂σ y ∂τ yz  + + + ρb y = 0  ∂y ∂z  ∂x  ∂τ ∂τ yz ∂σ z  xz + + ρb z = 0 + ∂z ∂y  ∂x  ⇒  − 4 + 0 + 0 + 0 ≠ 0 (fails)  (fails) 0 − 4 + 0 + 0 ≠ 0  ∂σ z 0 + 0 + +0=0 ∂z  ✘ So. (see Figure 7. Problem 7. the given displacement field does not satisfy the equilibrium equations. Obtain the principal stresses in the prism. a) Reference configuration b) current configuration z z ∆l p p p l = 1m a y a a x Figure 7. In both bases of the prism are placed two plates perfectly smooth and rigid.1 (Poisson’s ratio).

12857 × 10 −3 3 and V0 = 4 × 10 cm is the initial prism volume.6 × 10 × 1) cm The normal stress in the prism according to the z -direction becomes: σP = − z 4σ C A1 P σ ij a 2 =− 4 × 4900 × 1 N = −49 2 2 20 cm 0 0  0 N 0 − 7350 = 0   cm 2 0 − 49 0   The volume variation experienced by the prism is obtained as follows: ∆V = εV V0 where εV = I ε is the linear volumetric deformation (small deformation regime): εV = I ε = ε x + ε y + ε z = 4 σx + σy + σz E (1 − 2ν ) = −2.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.12857 × 10 −3 )(4 × 10 4 ) = −85.1428cm 3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . thus: ∆V = ε V V0 = (−2. V.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 459 Solution: Verify that the cable and the prism deform in the same way according to the z -direction. Chaves (2013) .6 × 10 6 × 7350 × 20 2 N = 4900 2 5 2 6 (27.44 × 10 × 20 + 4 × 19.1 × 19. thus: ε P = εC z z On the cable it fulfills that: σ C = E1ε C z εC = z ⇒ σC E1 The stress field in the prism is given by:   0  0 0  0 − p P 0 σ ij =   0 0 − 4σ C A1   a2    The strain in the prism according to the direction z : εP = z [ )] ( 1 1 σz − ν σx + σy = E E  4σ c A1 +ν − a2   p  Applying that ε P = ε C : z z ε P = εC z z 1 E  4σ c A1 +ν − a2   σ p = C  E1 After some algebraic manipulations we obtain the stress on the cable: σc = νE1 pa 2 ( Ea 2 + 4 E1 A1 ) = 0.

rigid and perfectly smooth. Both parallelepipeds. σ (z1) = − p1 σ (x2) = 0 . b) Obtain the block edge length variations.13 Solution: Prism 1 σ (x1) = 0 . Chaves (2013) . together with the plate.26 Two parallelepiped of the same material and the same shape a × b × c are placed on either side of a rigid flat plate attached thereto by their sides a × c . Consider the Young’s modulus E and the Poisson’s ratio ν . The walls of the cavity are flat. z plate a p1 p2 cavity 1 2 c y b b x Figure 7. σ (y2) .13.13.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 460 Problem 7. V. σ (y1) . a) Obtain the principal stresses in both prisms. are introduced into a cavity such as indicated in Figure 7. σ (z2) = − p 2 Prism 2 For compatibility of stress: σ (y1) = σ (y2) = σ y University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. We apply the pressures (force per unit surface area) p1 and p 2 on the upper faces of the prisms as indicated in Figure 7.

Chaves (2013) . V. σ (y1) = − ν( p1 + p 2 ) 2 . σ (z1) = − p1 σ (x2 ) = 0 .Spain ] ∆c ( 2 ) Draft [ (7. σ (z2 ) = − p 2 Prism 2: The strains in each prism are given by: Prism 1: ε (x1) = [ ( )] ε (y1) [ ( )] [ ( )] ε (x2 ) = [ ( )] ε (y2 ) [ ( )] [ ( )] ε (z1) 1 (1) ν [ν( p1 + p 2 ) + 2 p1 ] σ x − ν σ (y1) + σ (z1) = E 2E 1 ν = σ (y1) − ν σ (x1) + σ (z1) = ( p1 − p 2 ) E 2E 1 1 2 = σ (z1) − ν σ (x1) + σ (y1) = ν ( p1 + p 2 ) − 2 p1 E 2E [ ] Prism 2: ε (z2 ) 1 ( 2) ν [ν( p1 + p 2 ) + 2 p 2 ] σ x − ν σ (y2 ) + σ (z2 ) = E 2E 1 ν = σ (y2) − ν σ (x2 ) + σ (z2 ) = ( p 2 − p1 ) E 2E 1 1 2 = σ (z2) − ν σ (x2 ) + σ (y2 ) = ν ( p1 + p 2 ) − 2 p 2 E 2E [ ] The edge variations: Prism 1 aν [ν( p1 + p 2 ) + 2 p1 ] 2E νb = ε (y1) b = ( p1 − p 2 ) 2E c 2 = ε (z1) c = ν ( p1 + p 2 ) − 2 p1 2E Prism 2 νa [ν( p1 + p 2 ) + 2 p 2 ] 2E νb = ε (y2 ) b = ( p 2 − p1 ) 2E c 2 = ε (z2 ) c = ν ( p1 + p 2 ) − 2 p 2 2E ∆a (1) = ε (x1) a = ∆a ( 2 ) = ε (x2) a = ∆b (1) ∆b ( 2 ) ∆c (1) [ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .74) ] By: Eduardo W.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 461 ε (y1) + ε (y2 ) = 0 [ ( [ ] [ ⇒ [σ + ν p ] + [σ )] [ )] ( 1 (1) 1 σ y − ν σ (x1) + σ (z1) + σ (y2 ) − ν σ (x2 ) + σ (z2 ) = 0 E E (1) (2) ⇒ σy − ν σz + σy − ν σz = 0 ⇒ y 1 ] ] + ν p2 = 0 y thus σy = − ν( p1 + p 2 ) 2 Prism 1: σ (x1) = 0 . σ (y2) = − ν( p1 + p 2 ) 2 .

and the stress field in the dam (state of plane strain) is given by: σ11 = − γx 2 γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 2 = − γx1 σ 22 = σ12 1 4 Consider: Poisson’s ratio: ν = . Remember that kg s in the International System of Units (SI) the term “specific” is related to “per unit mass”. a) Obtain the graphical representation of the surface force (traction vector) acting on the face AB due to the ground reaction.14 NOTE: Although in the literature γ is known as the specific weight. obtain the extreme values of the stresses at the respective points. Solution: a) The stress and strain fields in the dam: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. b) Obtain the principal stresses at the points A and B . since the term “density” is related to “per unit volume”. where b is the body force per unit mass b = = 2 . also known as the unit weight. c) Obtain the strain field in the dam.e. Starting from the Mohr’s circle in stress. Young’s modulus E . The shape and dimensions of the cross 2 section are indicated in Figure 7. [] r r r r N m γ = p = ρ b = ρ g . where γ is the specific weight of water. V. i. which is not the case of γ .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 462 Problem 7.14.mass density h [γ ] = 5 γ 2 γ A kg m N = 3 3 2 m s m B x2 Figure 7. the correct term would be the weight density.27 A gravity dam of triangular cross section is made up of concrete with specific weight equal to 5 γ . in reality γ is the module of the body force per unit volume. x1 O γ = ρg 45º g -acceleration of gravity ρ . Chaves (2013) .

thus: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .0] .: σ ij = λTr (ε )δ ij + 2µ ε ij ⇒ σ 33 = λTr (ε )δ 33 + 2µ ε 33 ⇒ σ 33 = λTr (ε ) The term Tr (ε ) can be obtained by means of the double scalar product between σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε and the second-order unit tensor. Chaves (2013) .1. i.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY  − γx 2  σ ij =  − γx1   0  − γx1 0   γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 0  2  0 σ 33   . For the side AB ˆ whose normal unit vector is n i = [0.e. Starting from σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε we can obtain σ 33 .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 463  ε11 ε ij = ε12  0  ε 12 ε 22 0 0 0  0  ˆ We obtain the surface force by means on the traction vector t (n) = σ ⋅ n . we obtain: ˆ  t 1 ( AB )   − γx 2  ( AB )   t 2  =  − γx1  t ( AB )    3   0  0  0  − γx1 − γx1     γ  γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 0  1 =  ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 2  2  0 σ 33  0  0      The surface force on the base of the dam: h A B ( AB ) B − 3γh 2 − γh t1 h A − γh t2 (according to x1 -direction) ( AB ) (according to x 2 -direction) x1 O 45º 5 γ 2 B A t ˆ (n ) x2 b) Note that σ 33 is already a principal stress. V.

x 2 = h) is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we obtain: σ 33 = λ (σ11 + σ 22 ) = ν − γx 2 + γ ( x1 − 3x 2 ) = γ ν [x1 − 5 x 2 ] = γ [x1 − 5 x 2 ]   2 2(λ + µ ) 2 8   where we have considered ν = λ .5 − 0. Mohr’s circle in stress at the point A : σ S ( γh) σ S max = 0. x 2 = h) is given by: ( σ ijA)  − γx 2  =  − γx1   0   − γx1 γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 2 0    − γh   0 = 0   γ [x1 − 5 x 2 ]  0   8   0 0 − 3hγ 2 0   0  − 1 0   −3 0 =0 2   − 5h γ   0 0 8      0   0  hγ  − 5 8   Note that this space is already the principal space.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 464 σ : 1 = λTr (ε )1 : 1 + 2µ ε : 1 ⇒ Tr (σ ) = 3λTr (ε ) + 2µ Tr (ε ) = [3λ + 2µ ]Tr (ε ) ⇒ Tr (ε ) = σ + σ 22 + σ 33 Tr (σ ) = 11 3λ + 2µ 3λ + 2µ Then.4375 − 1. the component σ 33 is defined as follows: σ 33 = λTr (ε ) = ⇒ σ 33 − λ 3λ + 2µ λ 3λ + 2µ σ 33 = (σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 ) λ (σ11 + σ 22 ) 3λ + 2µ  λ  λ ⇒ σ 33 1 −  3λ + 2µ  = 3λ + 2µ (σ11 + σ 22 )    ⇒ σ 33 = λ 2(λ + µ ) (σ11 + σ 22 ) By replacing the values of σ11 and σ 22 . Chaves (2013) .625 −1 σ N (γh) The stress state at the point B( x1 = h. V. 2(λ + µ ) The stress state at the point A( x1 = 0.

then: 3λ + 2µ λ λ 1 1 σ− Tr (ε )1 = σ− Tr (σ )1 2µ 2µ 2µ 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) We can also express the above equation in terms of E and ν : µ =G = E= (1 + ν) E 1 ⇒ = 2(1 + ν) 2µ E µ (3λ + 2µ ) 1 1 ⇒ = λ+µ µ (3λ + 2µ ) E (λ + µ ) 1 ν λ λ = = 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) 2 E (λ + µ ) E Then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . V. Chaves (2013) .5 −2 σ N (γh) 0 c) We can obtain the expression of the strain field by starting from the equation: σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε : σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε ⇒ 2µ ε = σ − λTr (ε )1 ⇒ε= λ 1 σ− Tr (ε )1 2µ 2µ Remember that we have obtained that Tr (ε ) = ε= Tr (σ ) .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY ( σ ijB )  − γx 2  =  − γx1   0   − γx1 γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 2 0    − γh   0  = − γh   γ [x1 − 5 x 2 ]  0   8   0 465 − γh γ (h − 3h) 2 0   − 1 − 1 0     0  = − 1 − 1 0  γh − 1   0 γ   0 [h − 5h]  2  8  0 The principal stresses at the point B( x1 = h. x 2 = h) are given by: −1− σ −1 =0 −1 −1− σ ⇒ (−1 − σ) 2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ (−1 − σ) 2 = 1 ⇒ ( −1 − σ) = ±1 σ1 = −2 ⇒ σ 2 = 0 σ S ( γh) σ S max = 1 − 0.

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 466 ε= λ 1 σ− Tr (σ )1 2µ 2µ (3λ + 2µ ) ε= (1 + ν) ν σ − Tr (σ )1 E E The trace of σ is given by: Tr (σ ) = σ11 + σ 22 + σ 33 γ  γ  5 = (− γx 2 ) +  ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) +  ( x1 − 5 x 2 ) = γ ( x1 − 5 x 2 ) 2  8  8 1 4 With that we obtain the strain tensor components. salinity. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. with ν = . consider that the mass density of seawater equal to ρ = 1027 kg / m 3 . calculate the volume variation that is experienced by the cube. as follows: ε ij =  − γx 2 5  ε ij =  − γx1 4E   0   5 5 σ ij − γ ( x1 − 5 x 2 )δ ij 4E 32 E − γx1 γ ( x1 − 3 x 2 ) 2 0   1 0 0  5 γ ( x1 − 5 x 2 ) 0 1 0 0 −    32 E 0 0 1  γ   [x1 − 5 x 2 ]  8  0   1 − x1 0 − 8 ( x1 − 3 x 2 )  5γ  1  = − x1 − (−3 x1 + 7 x 2 ) 0 4E  8  0 0 0      Problem 7.28 A metallic cube with sides a = 0. Consider the acceleration of gravity equals to g = 10m / s 2 .3 . Chaves (2013) . Solution: Because of the depth and cube dimensions we can take as a good approximation that the whole cube is subjected to the same pressure. and the Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. Hypothesis: Although the mass density varies with temperature. V. (see Figure 7. and pressure (depth).15). Knowing the Young’s modulus of the metal E = 21× 1010 Pa .20m is immersed in the sea at a depth z = 400m .

where A is the area and F can be obtained by A means of the Newton’s second law F = ma = Vρ g (weight of water column).29 A solid cylinder of radius 0.25m is made up of a material whose mechanical properties are: E = 3 × 10 4 MPa (Young’s modulus) and ν = 0.2 3 × (−2. only normal strains appear: εz = εy = εx = [ ( )] 1 1 [− 4. V. Problem 7.15 F . which can be considered infinitely rigid. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .108 )] × 10 6 σx − ν σy + σz = 10 E 21 × 10 Thus ε z = ε y = ε x = −7.346 × 10 −5 .108 0 − p  0 0     As we have only normal stress components and the material is isotropic.108 × 10 6 2 2 = 4.108 − 4. Then: The pressure can be obtained by p = p= Ahρ g kg kg m m F Vρ g = = = ρ gh = 1027 3 10 2 400m = 4.8768 × 10 − 7 m 3 where we have considered that Tr (ε ) = −2. Chaves (2013) .3 (− 4.108 σ ij =  0  MPa     0 − 4. and all of this is enclosed in a hermetically sealed container as shown in Figure 7.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY h = 400m 467 p p p Figure 7.108 0 0  − p 0  0 −p 0 = 0 − 4.2 (Poisson’s ratio).346 × 10 −5 ) = −1.108 − 0.05m and height 0.82 × 10 −6 In small deformation regime the linear volumetric deformation is equal to the trace of the infinitesimal strain tensor: ∆V L = DV ≡ ε V = Tr (ε ) V0 ⇒ ∆V = V0 Tr (ε ) = 0. Said cylinder is placed between two pistons.16.108 × 10 6 Pa A A A m s m s The stress tensor components in the cube are given by: 0   − 4.

w ). V. Solution: a) The stress tensor components σz = − F 2. then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.35619 × 10 5 =− = −30MPa A π(0. and by suitable mechanism. F y z A′ A x 0. v . b) Obtain the strain tensor components. By operating the mechanical press.25m x Corte AA′ F 0. c) Obtain the displacement field components ( u . At a generic point of the body: a) Obtain the stress tensor components. the normal stress only produce normal strain.1m Figure 7.35619 × 10 5 N (piston force+pressure) on the bases of the cylinder. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 468 The container is filled with oil. the fluid pressure is raised to the value 15MPa .05) 2 σ x = σ y = −15MPa Thus: 0   − 15 0  0 σ ij =  − 15 0  MPa   0 0 − 30   b) For a isotropic linear elastic material.16: Triaxial compression test. we apply a total axial force of F = 2.

Obtain the actions performed by the testing machine on the faces ABFE and BCGF . ∂w ∂z Integrating and obtaining the constants of integration we finally obtain the displacement field: u = −2 × 10 −4 x .Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) .7 LINEAR ELASTICITY [ 469 )] ( 1  ε x = E σ x − ν σ y + σ z  1  ε y = σ y − ν (σ x + σ z ) E  1  ε z = E σ z − ν σ x + σ y  [ [ ] )] ( By substituting the values of the variables we obtain the following strain tensor components: 0 − 2 0  0 − 2 0  × 10 − 4 ε ij =    0 0 − 8   c) The displacement field As we are in small deformation regime. Obtain the strain field. the following is fulfilled: εx = ∂u ∂x . εy = ∂v ∂y εz = .33MPa .17. A deformation is imposed to the material as shown in Figure 7. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real . Obtain the stress field. V. v = −2 × 10 −4 y . Obtain the principal stresses in the center of the hexahedron.1m is made up of a material whose mechanical properties are represented by the Lamé constants: λ = 8333. in which all faces remains planar.30 A hexahedron with sides 0. Obtain the stress in the center of the hexahedron. µ = 12500 MPa . Obtain the principal strains in the center of the hexahedron. the faces AEFB and DHGC become parallelogram and the remaining faces continue squares: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Obtain the displacement field. w = −8 × 10 −4 z Problem 7.

Chaves (2013) . Moreover we can also verify that there is no displacement in the directions x and z .0005 0    εz    Draft By: Eduardo W.17: The deformed hexahedron.17 we can verify that there are only shear strain components.001 + ∂z ∂y 1  γ xz  2 0 0   0 1 0 γ yz  =  0 0. Solution: a) According to Figure 7.001z w = 0  b) By considering the strain tensor components:   εx 1 ε ij =  γ xy 2 1 γ  2 xz  1 γ xy 2 εy 1 γ yz 2  ∂u 1   γ xz  ∂x  2   1  ∂v ∂u  1  γ yz  =   +   2   2  ∂x ∂y  ε z   1  ∂ω ∂u     +    2  ∂x ∂z  1  ∂v ∂u   +  2  ∂x ∂y    ∂v ∂y 1  ∂ω ∂v   +  2  ∂y ∂z    1  ∂ω ∂u   +   2  ∂x ∂z   1  ∂ω ∂v    +  2  ∂y ∂z      ∂ω  ∂z  we can conclude that ε x = ε y = ε z = γ xy = γ xz = 0 and the component γ yz is given by: γ yz =   εx 1 ε ij =  γ xy 2 1 γ  2 xz  University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain 1 γ xy 2 εy 1 γ yz 2 ∂v ∂w = 0. V. then u = 0 . w = 0 .001 E E′ F′ F α C = C′ D = D′ y A = A′ B = B′ x Figure 7.0005  2  0 0.001 = v z ⇒ v( z ) = 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 470 z H′ H G G′ tg(α ) ≈ α = 0. By means a triangle analogy we can obtain the displacement v : tg(α ) ≈ α = 0.001z The displacement field: u = 0  v( z ) = 0.

1. i. For the face ABFE the unit vector is given by n i = [1.0005 Remember that in the small deformation regime.0005 =0 0.e.0005   0 0.33MPa .5 0 0  MPa σ′ = 2 × (12500)  ij    0 0 0 0 − 0.: 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0. µ = 12500MPa . The surface force is obtained by means of the traction vector ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n .5 0  0 0        3 For the face BCGF .0005 2 ⇒ ε 2 = +0.0005 ⇒  ε 3 = −0. we obtain: 0 0  0  0 0 0 0  MPa = 0 0 12.5 0 = 0 t 2  t ( ABFE )  0 12.5 MPa σ ij = 2 × (12500)  0 0.0] . λ = 8333. then we work in the principal space to obtain the principal stresses by using σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε .0005 −ε ⇒ ε 2 = 0.5 0  0 12. thus  t 1 ( BCGF )  0 0 0  0   0   ( BCGF )        = 0 0 12. V.0005 ε = ±0. the unit vector is given by n i = [0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.0005 0 12.5     g) To obtain the total force acting on one surface.7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 471 z E′ E v(z ) z α y c) The stress field σ = λTr (ε )1 + 2µ ε Considering Tr (ε ) = 0 . f) The principal strains: −ε 0. thus:  t 1 ( ABFE )  0 0 0  1  0   ( ABFE )        = 0 0 12.0.0] .5 1 =  0  MPa t 2  t ( BCGF )  0 12. we multiply the surface force by the area of the corresponding face.5        3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .0005 − 12. the stress and strain share the same principal directions.5 0  0      e. Chaves (2013) .0005  MPa = 0 12.

1 (thermal expansion coefficient). AD = Consider the following material properties: E = 2.18: z H E H′ E′ G F′ F α C = C′ D = D′ A = A′ G′ y B = B′ x Figure 7.19. b) Obtain the traction vector on the plane Π . when the prism is subjected to a temperature variation of ∆T = 20º C . Chaves (2013) . and α = 5 × 10 −8 N cm 2 10 cm . 3 (Young’s modulus). The prism edge lengths are: AB = 4cm . we apply the forces F1 = 10 N and F2 = 2 N as indicated in said figure. c) Obtain the values of the forces F1 and F2 to be applied to guarantee that in the solid there is no displacement according to the directions x1 and x2 .18: The surface forces in the hexahedron. V. Problem 7.31 Consider the prism as indicated in Figure 7.5 × 10 6 ν = 0. AA′ = 2cm . ºC a) Obtain the principal stresses.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 472 If we do the same procedure for the other faces we obtain the representation of the surface forces on the faces as indicated in Figure 7. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.25 (Poisson’s ratio). Is it on that plane Π where the maximum shear acts? Justify your answer.

0 . since there is no shear stresses. Chaves (2013) .7 LINEAR ELASTICITY x2 473 A2 A1 F2 B Π D A F1 F1 x1 60º A′ F2 x3 Figure 7. b) x2 r ˆ t (n) B Π ˆ n A D x1 A′ 60º x3 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .19 a) The stress field A1 = 8.15 0  cm 2    0 0  0  0    whose values are the principal stresses. A2 = 4 × 10 3  F1 A  1 σ ij =  0  0    ⇒ 0 − F2 A2 0  0 0 0  1.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.25 N = 0 0 − 0. V.

0825 − 0.60621778 N The Mohr’s circle in stress is drawn as follows τ σ III = −0. . Then. Chaves (2013) .25 = 0 − 0.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 474 r ˆ  3  1 ˆ The unit vector components are: ni =  .1775 − 0. the traction vector t (n) is  2  given by: r ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ⋅ n ˆ t i(n) 2   ˆ ˆ t (n) = σ ij n j i   0 0  1.075 = 1.1775    0    Thus: σS = r ˆ t (n) 2 − σ 2 = 1.25 0 Draft σ N ( N / cm 2 ) By: Eduardo W.0825 − 0. 0 .075 0]     3  2  1  = 0 . V.15 0     0 0 0      3  2   1.0825  1   = − 0.9 2  0    The tangential stress component is obtained as follows: r ˆ t (n) 2 = σ2 + σ2 N S ⇒ σS = r ˆ t (n) 2 − σ2 N where r ˆ t (n) 2  1.15 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain σ I = 1.0825  r (n) r (n) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (n ) ( n ) = t ⋅ t = t i t i = [1.075 0]− 0.9 2 = 0.075  2    0  0      The normal stress component is: r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ σ N = t (n) ⋅ n = t i(n) n i σN    = [1.

7 LINEAR ELASTICITY 475 We verify that for any point in the solid. 0 and the maximum tangential stress is: 2   σ I − σ III = 0.Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the maximum tangential stress is on the plane  2 ˆ defined by the unit vector n i =  .66666 N   F2 = σ 22 A2 = −44.  2  τ max =  2 . Chaves (2013) . we set the following system:  1+ ν ν ν   1+ ν   ε11 = 0 = E σ11 + α∆T − E Tr (σ ) = E σ11 + α∆T − E (σ11 + σ 22 )       1+ ν ν 1+ ν ν     ε = 0 = σ 22 + α∆T − (σ11 + σ 22 ) σ 22 + α∆T − Tr (σ ) =  22 E E E E      By solving the above set of equation we obtain: σ11 = σ 22 = − Eα∆T N = −3. the forces are given by:  F1 = σ11 A1 = −26.7 > σ S 2 c) We consider the following strain field: ν 1+ ν σ − Tr (σ )1 + α∆T 1 E E ν 1+ ν ε ij = σ ij − Tr (σ )δ ij + α∆Tδ ij E E ε= For the particular case Tr (σ ) = σ11 + σ 22 we have: 0 0 0  σ11 0 0 0  = 1 + ν  0   E  0 0 ε 33   0    0 σ 22 0 0 1 0 0   + α∆T − ν Tr (σ ) 0 1 0 0    E   0 0 1  0    Then. V.44444 N University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real .33333 2 (1 − ν) cm Then.

Chaves (2013) . V.476 SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.

c) If the velocity field is steady and the medium is incompressible.k v k = v i . assumption (c) is FALSE.1 Demonstrate whether the following statements are true or false: a) If the velocity field is steady. t) r a) In a steady velocity field we have = 0 whereby the acceleration field becomes: ∂t r ∂v ( x . t ) = 0 . t ) &= r v ( x . t ) = v (t ) . r r r b) A homogeneous velocity field implies that v ( x . assumption (b) is FALSE. t ) = v ( x ) and an incompressible medium means r r r that ∇ x ⋅ v ( x . assumption (a) is TRUE. so.11 Introduction to Fluids 11. t ) = a=v +∇x 1 24 4 3 ∂t ∂t =0 Then. Solution: r r ∂v ( x . t ) ⋅ v ( x.1 Solved Problems Problem 11. the acceleration is always zero. the acceleration field is always equal to zero. t ) ∂v ( x .k v k 1 24 4∂t 3 =0i r r r r ∂v ( x ) r r r r r r r r & r r a=v = + ∇ x v ( x) ⋅ v ( x) = ∇ x v ( x) ⋅ v ( x) 14 244 4 3 ∂t Independent of time Then. r r r r c) A steady velocity field implies that v ( x . we can conclude that: r r r r r r r r r r r r ∂v ( x ) &= r r a=v + ∇ x v ( x) ⋅ v ( x) = ∇ x v ( x) ⋅ v ( x) ∂t Then. whereby: r r r r r r r r r r ∂v ( x . then the acceleration field is also. . b) If the velocity field is homogeneous. t ) & a i = vi = i + vi .

11 + vi . i + λ*v j . we obtain the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations of motion for homogeneous materials.11 + u 2.3) Note that.32 ) + µ (v2. j + ρ b i = ρvi ) and the constitutive equations: σ = − p1 + λ* Tr (D)1 + 2 µ *D σij = − pδ ij + λ*δ ijD kk + 2 µ *Dij (11.k . j = − p.33 ) + µ (v3.13 + v2. j = vi .3 + ρb 3 = ρv3  or: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.kj (11. we obtain: ⇒ 2D ij .2 Show the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations of motion: & ρvi = ρb i − p.i and 2D kk = v k .j + 2 µ *Dij .i = ρvi & ⇒ (λ * + µ * )(v1.3i ) + µ * (vi .2) r Then. 22 + v2. ji + µ * vi .1 + ρb1 = ρv1 &  *  * * & (λ + µ )(v1. jj + v j .33 ) − p. λ *. 2 + ρb 2 = ρv2  * * * & (λ + µ )(v1.i + 2 µ *Dij . by considering 2D ij = vi .i + λ*δ ijD kk .1) is presented as follows: & (λ * + µ * )v j .31 ) + µ * (v1.5) into the equations of motion ( σ ij . In addition. in this formulation. j + v j . ji ⇒ D kk . ji + µ *vi . V.11 + v1. j = (− pδ ij + λ*δ ijD kk + 2 µ *Dij ) j = − p. Chaves (2013) . 22 + v1. j + ρ b i = ρ vi ).4) whereby the equation in (11. 2i + v3. 23 + v3. NOTE 1: The explicit form of the equation (11. i.i + λ + µ v j .e. jj + v j . ji + µ vi .1i + v2. by substituting the equation in (11. j = − p. we are considering that the material is homogeneous. 22 + vi .11 + v2. 21 + v3. 22 + v3.i + (λ * + µ * )v j .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 478 Problem 11. jj * * * (11. 22 + v3. j = vk .ij = vi .1) Solution: The Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations of motion are a combination of the equations of r r & r & motion ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv (σ ij . jj Navier-Stokes-Duhem r r r r equations of motion & r r r r ρv = ρb − ∇ x p + (λ * + µ * )∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) + µ *∇ x 2 v (11.k + v k .33 ) + ρb i − p.33 ) − p.i + λ*D kk . j = 0 . j = − p.12 + v2. the Cauchy stress tensor divergence ( ∇ x ⋅ σ ) can be evaluated as follows: ( σij . j = − p.i + 2 µ *D ij .33 ) − p.i + λ*D jj . jj + v j . j (11. ji ( ) ) = − p.5) & Then. j = µ *. ji + µvi . k = 2v k .2) becomes: ( σij .11 + v3. jδ ij + λ* δ ijD kk ) . j + 2 µ *Dij .i = ρvi (λ * + µ * )(v1. jj + ρb i − p.

jl + ρbi − p. i = ρvi & ⇒ (λ* + 2 µ * )v j . we have: σij = − pδ ij + λ*δ ijD kk + 2 µ *D ij ⇒ σij .i + (λ*D kk ) .k . j ⇒ σij . jl = a j .i + µ * (vi . i = ρvi and the equivalent in tensorial notation: r r r r & r r r r r (λ* + µ * )[∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v )] + µ * [∇ x ⋅ (∇ x v )] + ρb − ∇ x p = ρv r r r r r r r & r r r r r r r ⇒ (λ* + µ * )[∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v )] + µ * ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) + ρb − ∇ x p = ρv r r r r r r & r r r r r ⇒ (λ* + 2 µ * )[∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v )] − µ * ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) + ρb − ∇ x p = ρv [ [ ] ] In the Cartesian System we have: r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ v = vi e i = v1e1 + v2 e 2 + v3e 3 r r  ∂v r r ˆ  ∂v ∂v  ˆ ∂v  ˆ ∂v  ˆ  ∂v (∇ ∧ v ) ≡ rot (v ) = (rot (v ) )i e i =  3 − 2 e1 +  1 − 3 e 2 +  2 − 1 e 3  ∂x  ∂x   ∂x  ∂x2  ∂x1 ∂x3 2 3 1  4243  4243  4243 1 4 r 4 1 4 r 4 1 4 r 4 =(rot (u ) )1 r r r r r  ∂ (rot (v ) )3 ∂ (rot(v ) )2 − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ v ) =   ∂x2 ∂x3  =(rot (u) )2 =(rot (u) )3 r r r r   ∂ (rot (v ) )1 ∂ (rot (v ) )3   ∂ (rot (v ) )2 ∂(rot (v ) )1  ˆ ˆ ˆ e1 +  e 2 +  e 3 − −     ∂x  ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 3      r r  ∂ (rot (v ) )3 ∂(rot (v ) )2   ∂  ∂v2 − ∂v1  − ∂  ∂v1 − ∂v3      −    ∂x2  ∂x1 ∂x2  ∂x3  ∂x3 ∂x1      ∂x2 ∂x3   r   r  r r r    ∂ (rot (v ) )1 ∂ (rot (v ) )3   ∂  ∂v3 ∂v2  ∂  ∂v2 ∂v1      − − − − ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ v ) i =  =     ∂x1  ∂x3   ∂x3  ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x2   r r  ∂ (rot (v ) )  ∂ (rot (v ) )1   ∂  ∂v 2 ∂v  ∂  ∂v3 ∂v2   −     1 − 3 −   −    ∂x  ∂x ∂x1 ∂x2    1  3 ∂x1  ∂x2  ∂x2 ∂x3      [ ] NOTE 3: If we are dealing with heterogeneous material. j = − p. j whereby University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. jδ ij + (λ*D kk ).i + (λ*D kk ).105 (Chapter 1) that the following is true: r r r r r ∇ ∧ (∇ ∧ a) = ∇ (∇ ⋅ a) − ∇ 2 a indicial →   ilq  qjk a k .i + 2( µ *D ij ) .11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 479  *  ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v  ∂  ∂v1 ∂v2 ∂v3  *   + µ *  21 + 21 + 21  + ρb1 − p. Chaves (2013) . j = (− pδ ij + λ*δ ijD kk + 2 µ *D ij ) . ji − a i .k ).3 2 2  ∂x  ∂x3  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x3  ∂x2    1   NOTE 2: We have proven in Problem 1. ji − ilq  qjk vk . jl with which the equation (11.1 = ρv1 & + + (λ + µ )  ∂x ∂x1  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x3  ∂x2     1    ∂ 2v ∂ 2 v2 ∂ 2 v2  ∂  ∂v1 ∂v2 ∂v3   * *  + ρb 2 − p. 2 = ρv2   + µ *  22 + & + + + (λ + µ ) 2 2  ∂x ∂x2  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ∂x2 ∂x3     1    2 2 2 (λ * + µ * ) ∂  ∂v1 + ∂v2 + ∂v3  + µ *  ∂ v3 + ∂ v3 + ∂ v3  + ρb − p = ρv  2    &3 3 . ji + µ * (v j . jj Then. j + v j .1) can also be written as follows: & (λ* + µ * )v j . j δ ij + 2( µ *D ij ).i and D kk = vk .i + (λ*vk . j = − p. ji − ilq  qjk vk . jj + ρbi − p.i ) . j Taking into account that 2D ij = vi . ji + µ *vi .i + 2( µ *Dij ).i = ρvi & ⇒ (λ* + µ * )v j . we can obtain r r r rr r 2r r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x v ) ≡ ∇ x v = ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) indicial →  vi . the above equation becomes: [ ] σij . ji − µ *ilq  qjk vk . j + v j . V. jj = v j . j = − p. jl ) + ρbi − p. j = − p.

i ) .i ) . 2 + v2.3 = ρv3  ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  ] [ ] ] [ ] (11. 2 = ρv2  ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂ * r ∂ * ∂ ∂ & λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + µ (v3.3 = ρv3  ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2  [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] (11. 2 ) + µ * (v2.3 + v3. j = µ * (vi .i ) .3 )   ∂x3 ∂x2  ∂x1  The three equations in (11. k ).1 )  2 µ * (v1. 2 ) + µ * (v2. 2 ) + ρb 2 − p. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 480 & σij .1 ) + µ * (v1.8) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. 2 ) + µ * (v2. 2 ) + λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + µ (v2. and its explicit components are: vi = + = ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂t ∂x1 Dt ∂t ∂x j  ∂v1 ∂v1  ∂v ∂v + v1 + 1 v2 + 1 v3   ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂t ∂x1  ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v  & ai = vi =  2 + 2 v1 + 2 v2 + 2 v3  ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂t ∂x1  ∂v3 ∂v3  ∂v ∂v + v1 + 3 v2 + 3 v3   ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂t ∂x1 ∂ µ * (vi . 2 ) + ∂x3 ∂x2  ∂x1   ∂  ∂ ∂ µ * (v3.3 + v3. ( i = 1. i + µ * (vi .i ) + µ * (vi . 2 + v2.1 + v1. j + v j .1 ) + λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + µ * (v1. 2 + v2. 2 + v2.3 ).1 + v1. j + ρbi = ρvi [ ] & − p. V. 2 ) + ρb 2 − p.3 + v3.1 = ρv1  ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂ * r ∂ * ∂ ∂ & 2 µ * ( v2 . 2 = ρv2  ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3   ∂ * r ∂ ∂ & λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + 2 µ * (v3.7) or [ ] [ ] [ ]  ∂ * r ∂ ∂ & λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + 2 µ * (v1. j + ρbi = ρvi ⇒ (11.1 ) + µ * (v1. j + v j .1 ) +  ∂x3 ∂x2  ∂x1   ∂  ∂ ∂ * * * * µ (vi .3 + v3.6).i ) ∂x j [ ] [ = ] [ ] [ ] [ ∂ ∂ ∂ µ * (vi .1 + v1. j + v j .3 + v3.1 ) + ρb1 − p. are explicitly given by: [ ] [ ] [ [ ] [ [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ [ ] [ ] ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]  ∂ * r ∂ ∂ ∂ & 2 µ * (v1.1 = ρv1  ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3   ∂ * r ∂ ∂ & λ (∇ ⋅ v ) + 2 µ * (v2.3 + v3.6) Note that r r vk .3 ) + µ * (v3.i ) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ]  ∂  ∂ ∂ µ * (v1.3 + v3. 2 + v2. 2 + v2. i + (λ*vk .1 ) + ρb1 − p.3 ) + µ * (v3.3 ) + ρb3 − p. 2 + v2.1 + v1.i ) + µ * (vi .1 + v1.3 ) + ρb3 − p.3 ) + µ * (v3.1 ) + µ * (v1. j + v j . j =  µ (v2.1 + v1.2.3 ) + 2 µ * (v3. 2 )  2 µ ( v2 .1 ) + µ * (v1.3 ) + µ * (v3.3 ) + 2 µ * (v3.1 + v1.k = Tr (∇v ) = (∇ ⋅ v ) & ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v Dvi ∂vi ∂vi & v j = i + i v1 + i v2 + i v3 . 2 ) + µ (v2.

11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 481 NOTE 4: To obtain the dynamic equations of motion in a rotating fluid on the sphere.12) ) Solution: Taking into account the material time derivative of the Eulerian velocity we obtain: & vi ≡ r r r r r r r r ∂v ( x . and it was shown that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.i + (λ * + µ * )v j . t ) a=v = ∂t Dvi ∂vi ∂v i ∂v = + v j = i + vi . t ) ⋅ v ( x. Problem 11. j v j Dt ∂t ∂x j ∂t (11.32: r r r r r r r r a f = a r + 2(ω ∧ v r ) + Ω T ⋅ v r + ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) r r r r r r r r ⇒ a r = a f − 2(ω ∧ v r ) − Ω T ⋅ v r − ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) r (11. and the acceleration for a fixed system was obtained in Problem 4. Chaves (2013) . V. [ ] ( (11. j v j are the components of r r r (∇ x v ) ⋅ v .106). (Ω T ⋅ v r ) is the curvature term. t ) & r + ∇ x v ( x. jj Navier-Stokes-Duhem r r r r equations of motion & r r r r ρ v = ρ b − ∇ x p + (λ * + µ * )∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) + µ *∇ x 2 v (11.11) Show the equation of vorticity: r r r µ* r2 r r ∂ω r + 2∇ x ⋅ (ω ⊗ v ) skew − ∇ ω = 0 The equation of vorticity ρ x ∂t r r r r r r where ω is vorticity vector and is given by ω ≡ rot (v ) ≡ ∇ x ∧ v . 2[ω3 vr 3 cos(φ ) − ω3 vr 2 sin(φ ) ] r r   2(ω ∧ v r ) i =  2[ω3 vr1 sin(φ )]    − 2[ω3 vr1 cos(φ ) ]   − vr1vr 2 tan(φ ) + vr1vr 3   1  2 T r (Ω ⋅ v r ) i = r  vr1 tan(φ ) + vr 2 vr 3  x   − vr21 − vr22   r r r r 2r (ω ∧ (ω ∧ r )) i = − ω r (11.13) The resulting components of the algebraic operation vi . and the components of these terms are. (see Chapter 1 in Problem 1. ji + µ * vi .10) r Then.3 Consider & ρ vi = ρ b i − p. we have to consider the rotation of the Earth and the curvature. ω ∧ (ω ∧ x ) is the centrifugal term.9) r r r r r where (2(ω ∧ v r )) is the Coriolis term. if we want to consider these terms we replace a r into the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations.

∂t  ∂t  ∂t r Considering that the field b is conservative. j ω j = (v i ω j ).17) Note that the following relationships hold: [ r ∧ [(∇ r ] r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ ∇ x (v 2 ) = 0 . r r r  ∂v  ∂ r r r ∂ω r ∧ ∇x   = ∇x ∧v = . the equation in (11. i ω j = (vi ω j ). ∇ x ∧ [∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v )] = 0 .i + (λ * + µ * )v j . and considering that the curl of any r r r r conservative vector field is always zero we obtain ∇ x ∧ b = 0 .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 482 r r r 1 r r r r r r r (∇ x v ) ⋅ v = (∇ x ∧ v ) ∧ v + ∇ x (v ⋅ v ) 2 r r r 1 r r = (∇ x ∧ v ) ∧ v + ∇ x (v 2 ) 2 r r 1 r = ω ∧ v + ∇ x (v 2 ) 2 (11. r r ∇x ] [ ] r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ∧ v ) ∧ v = (∇ x ⋅ v )(∇ x ∧ v ) + ∇ x (∇ x ∧ v ) ⋅ v − ∇ x v ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) r r r r r r r r r r r r ⇒ ∇ x ∧ [ω ∧ v ] = (∇ x ⋅ v )ω + [∇ x ω] ⋅ v − ∇ x v ⋅ ω r x [ ] [ ] ] [ . j ω j + vi ω j . i (v i ω j ). j = v i . i = vi .15) Taking into account (11.16) Then we take the curl of the above equation: r r 1 r  ∂v r r 1 (λ * + µ * ) r r r µ * r 2 r  r r ∧ r r ∇ x  + ω ∧ v + ∇ x (v 2 ) − b + ∇ x p − ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ v = 0 2 ρ ρ ρ x   ∂t (11.11) becomes: & ρ vi = ρ b i − p. ∇ x ∧ [∇ x p ] = 0 . Chaves (2013) . i −vi ω j . the Eulerian acceleration can also be represented by: r r r r r ∂v ( x . i ω j + vi ω j . the equation (11. i vi .14). t ) = v 2 ∂t (11.13) and (11. t ) r r 1 r 2 &= + ω ∧ v + ∇ x (v ) a ( x. ] r r r r r r r 2r 2 2 r r r r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ ∇ x v = −∇ x ∧ ∇ x ∧ (∇ x ∧ v ) = ∇ x ∇ x ∧ v = ∇ x ω .18) Note that the following relationships hold: (v i ω j ). jj r r r r & r r r r ρ v = ρ b − ∇ x p + (λ * + µ * )∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) + µ *∇ x 2 v r r r  ∂v r r 1 r 2  2r r r r r ⇒ ρ + ω ∧ v + ∇ x (v )  = ρ b − ∇ x p + (λ * + µ * )∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) + µ * ∇ x v 2   ∂t r r 1 (λ * + µ * ) r r r µ * r 2 r r ∂v r r 1 r 2 r ⇒ + ω ∧ v + ∇ x (v ) − b + ∇ x p − ∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) − ∇ v =0 ρ ρ ρ x ∂t 2 (11. ji + µ * vi . V.14) Then. [ Considering the previous expression. j (11. j ⇒ ⇒ v i .19) which in tensorial notation become: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.17) becomes: r r r r r r r r µ* ∂ω 2 r r r r r + (∇ x ⋅ v )ω + (∇ x ω) ⋅ v − ∇ x v ⋅ ω − ∇x ω=0 ρ ∂t (11. j −v i ω j . j = (vi ω j ).

20) where we have applied the definition that the divergence of the curl of a vector is zero.21) ] With that we prove the equation of vorticity given by the equation in (11. V. i.18) becomes: r r r r r r r µ* r2 r r ∂ω r r r ∇ ω=0 + (∇ x ⋅ v )ω + (∇ x ω) ⋅ v − ∇ x v ⋅ ω − ρ x ∂t r r r r r r r r r µ* r2 r r ∂ω r r r r ∇ ω=0 ⇒ + ∇ x ⋅ [ω ⊗ v ] − (∇ x ω) ⋅ v + (∇ x ω) ⋅ v − ∇ x ⋅ [v ⊗ ω] − ρ x ∂t r r r r r µ* r2 r r ∂ω r r + ∇ x ⋅ [ω ⊗ v ] − ∇ x ⋅ [v ⊗ ω] − ∇ ω=0 ⇒ ρ x ∂t r r r r r r µ* ∂ω 2 r r r ⇒ + ∇ x ⋅ [ω ⊗ v − v ⊗ ω] − ∇x ω =0 ρ ∂t r r r µ* r2 r r ∂ω r ⇒ + 2∇ x ⋅ (ω ⊗ v ) skew − ∇ ω=0 ρ x ∂t [ (11. Taking into account (11.e.20). r r r r r r ∇ x ⋅ ω = ∇ x ⋅ (∇ x ∧ v ) = 0 . Chaves (2013) . the equation (11.12). University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS r r r r r r r r r (∇ x ⋅ v )ω = ∇ x ⋅ [ω ⊗ v ] − (∇ x ω) ⋅ v r r r r r r r r r r (∇ x v ) ⋅ ω = ∇ x ⋅ [v ⊗ ω ] − (∇ x ⋅ ω)v = ∇ x 483 r ⋅ [v ⊗ ω] r (11.

SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 484 Problem 11. Find the total traction force E acting on the closed surface S which delimits the volume V . we obtain: σ ij = − pδ ij + λ * δ ij D kk + 2µ *D ij = − pδ ij − D 2 *   µ δ ij D kk + 2µ *D ij = − pδ ij + 2µ *  D ij − kk δ ij  3 3  4 244  1 4 3 dev Dij dev σ ij = − pδ ij + 2µ *D ij Then ∫ dev ˆ E i = ( − pδ ij + 2µ *D ij )n j dS S and by applying the Gauss’ theorem. j )dV V By: Eduardo W. Chaves (2013) . rˆ t (n) ˆ n V Figure 11. j )dV = ∫ ( − p .i + 2µ *D ij .j dV = ∫ (− p . Consider that the bulk viscosity coefficient to be zero. V.j V Draft dev dev δ ij + 2µ *D ij .1 Solution: We know that the following holds: ˆ dE i = t i(n) dS The total traction force is given by the following integral: ∫ ∫ ∫ ˆ ˆ E i = t i(n ) dS = σ ij n j dS = σ ij . we have: κ * = 0 ⇒ λ * = − µ * (Stokes’ condition). we obtain: Ei = ∫ (− pδ ij dev + 2µ *D ij V University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain ) . by considering the stress constitutive equation for Newtonian fluids. 2 3 Then. j dV S S V ˆ ˆ where we have used the relationship σ ij n j = t i(n) . Next. if the bulk viscosity coefficient is zero.4 r Let us consider a body immersed in a Newtonian fluid.

material). and the thermodynamic pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure. Chaves (2013) .e.5 Let us consider a fluid at rest which has the mass density ρ f . V. i. If mass density in the body is equal to ρ s and the body force (per unit mass) is given by b i = − gδ i 3 . obtain the resultant force and acceleration acting on the body.e. µ * is a homogenous scalar field (homogenous . p = p 0 whereby we have: r E= ∫ [− ∇ r x p 0 ]dV (11. Prove Archimedes’ Principle: “Any body immersed in a fluid at rest experiences an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the volume fluid displaced by the body”. the above equation in tensorial notation becomes: r E= ∫ [− ∇ r x ] r p + 2µ * ∇ x ⋅ (D dev ) dV (11.22) V Problem 11.23) V r E p0 V -volume ˆ n r Ws x3 x2 x1 Figure 11.2 The weight of the fluid volume displaced by the body is given by: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. Then.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 485 where we have considered that µ *j = 0 j . If the fluid is at rest D dev = 0 holds.4 we showed that E = ∫ − ∇ x p + 2µ *∇ x ⋅ (D dev ) dV . i. Solution: r [ ] r r In Problem 11.

ρ f > ρ s ⇒ R > 0 . two bodies with different masses in free fall.g. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. we can obtain the acceleration of the body as: a3 = R3 ms = ∫ g (ρ f − ρ s )dV V ms = ∫ g (ρ f −ρs) V ms ρs dV ρs g (ρ = f −ρ s) ρ s ∫ρ V ms s dV = g (ρ f −ρs) ρs NOTE: It is interesting to note that if the medium ( f ) is such that ρ f = 0 we have a 3 = − g . where m s is the total mass of the submerged body.e. Moreover.26) V which thereby proves Archimedes’ principle. by means of a simple experiment.g. on the moon where we can consider that the mass density of air is equal to zero. if r r the body is a gas. V. e. j = −ρ f b i ⇒ p 0. j = −ρ f b i r r ⇒ ∇ x ⋅ (− p 0 1) = −ρ f b r r ⇒ ∇ x p0 = ρ f b (11. Chaves (2013) . Here we have clearly seen. j + ρ f b i = 0 i ⇒ σ ij .e. with mass density ρ s .24) V Then. a feather and a hammer. i. as did Galileo. by considering both (11. that a freely falling body was independent of the mass. we can conclude that: r W f r r r = ρ f bdV = ∇ x p 0 dV = − E ∫ ∫ V (11.i = ρ f b i Next. will have the same acceleration and will reach the moon surface at the same time. For example.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 486 r W r = ρ f bdV ∫ f (11. i.23) and (11.24). the body weight.25) ⇒ (− p 0 δ ij ). e. Now. and if not the body falls. the body rises. by applying the equilibrium equations we have: r r r ∇ x ⋅σ + ρ f b = 0 r r ⇒ ∇ x ⋅ σ = −ρ f b σ ij . r r if we consider that R = m s a . the acceleration is independent of the mass. can be obtained as follows: r r W s = ρ s bdV ∫ V and the resultant force acting on the body is given by: r r r r r r R = E + W s = − ρ f bdV + ρ s bdV = (ρ s − ρ f )bdV ∫ ∫ V ∫ V V whose components are:     0   Ri = (ρ s − ρ f )b i dV = − g (ρ s − ρ f )δ i 3 dV =  0    V V  g (ρ f − ρ s )dV  V    ∫ ∫ ∫ thereby verifying that: if the body has a mass density lower than fluid mass density.

B ˆ nB r vB A ˆ nA V r vA Figure 11. by considering the entire volume we obtain: In an incompressible medium. where σ ij = − pδ ij + τ ij . Solution If we consider that σ kk = −3 p + τ kk we can obtain: dev σ ij = σ ij − σ kk (− 3 p + τ kk ) τ dev δ ij = − pδ ij + τ ij − δ ij = τ ij − kk δ ij = τ ij 3 3 3 Problem 11.3 Solution: Dρ & ≡ρ =0.27) and by applying the divergence theorem (Gauss’ theorem) we obtain: r ˆ ∫ v ⋅ n dS = 0 ∫v S ˆ k n k dS =0 S (11.6 Prove that the Cauchy deviatoric stress tensor σ dev is equal to τ dev . k = 0 holds. here we can consider the mass continuity equation ρ + ρ v k .7 Obtain the one-dimensional mass continuity equation for a non-viscous incompressible fluid flow through a pipeline. Then.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 487 Problem 11. the velocities at the cross sections University of Castilla-La Mancha r ∫v SA and Draft SB can be expressed as follows: By: Eduardo W. k dV =0 V (11. Then. Dt r r & Moreover. consider the volume V between the two arbitrary cross sections A and B .k = ρ (∇ x ⋅ v ) = 0 . the mass density is independent of time ∫∇ r x r ⋅ v dV ∫v =0 V k . V. r r where ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 or v k . Chaves (2013) .28) Thus: r ∫v A ˆ ⋅ n A dS + SA Ciudad Real – Spain B ˆ ⋅ n B dS = 0 SB Next.

5 kg m3 Alternative solution: r r ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ) = 0 indicial →  ( ρ v i ) .02 x 2 + 0.05 = ρ 0. i.02 ) = 0   2  ∂ρ 0. From the mass continuity equation we can obtain: r r ∂ρ r r + ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ) = 0 ⇒ ∇ x ⋅ (ρ v ) = 0 ∂t r Then.05 and v 2 ( x 2 = 5) = 0.i = ρ . whose prismatic axis is x 2 . is defined by its components as follows: v1 = 0 . thus: (ρ v 2 ) x2 = 0 1.05 . v = v ( x ) .02 × 0 + 0. and by substituting the velocity into the integral we can obtain: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ − v A n A ⋅ n A dS + v B n B ⋅ n B dS = 0 ∫ ∫ SA SB v AS A = vB S B Problem 11.i = 0   ∂v1 ∂v 2 ∂v3 ∂v  ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ vi + ρ i =   ∂x v1 + ∂x v 2 + ∂x v3  + ρ  ∂x + ∂x + ∂x   ∂x i ∂xi  1 2 3 2 3  1   =0   Thus:  ∂ρ    ∂x (0.05)  + ρ (0. m3 Solution: r r r Note that the velocity field is stationary.8 The velocity field of a gas in motion through a pipeline.02 × 5 + 0.02 x 2 + 0. Find ρ at x 2 = 5m .05) 2 By integrating the above equation.02 ⇒ =− ∂x ρ (0.02 x 2 + 0.15 = (ρ v 2 ) ⇒ x2 =5 ρ ( x 2 = 5) = 0.e. At x 2 = 0 the mass density ρ is equal to 1. Chaves (2013) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 488 r ˆ v A = −v A n A r ˆ v B = vBn B .i v i + ρ v i .5 × 0. we can conclude that ρ v is constant along x 2 -direction. so: (ρ v 2 ) x2 = 0 = (ρ v 2 ) x2 =5 v 2 ( x 2 = 0) = 0.5 v3 = 0 kg .15 .05 = 0. V. v 2 = 0. we obtain: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.05 = 0.

with that we obtain C = 0.02 x 2 + 0.075 (0.05) The constant of integration can be obtained by applying the boundary condition. σ kk = −σ m to be equal 3 Solution: It was deduced that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. and.075 = 0.02 × 5 + 0.e.10 Determine the conditions needed for mean normal pressure p = − to thermodynamic pressure p for a Newtonian fluid.9 The Cauchy stress tensor components at one point of a Newtonian fluid. at x 2 = 0 ⇒ ρ = 1.5 .02 x 2 + 0.05) + LnC =   C ⇒ Lnρ = Ln   (0.02 x 2 + 0. are given by:  − 6 2 − 1 σ ij =  2 − 9 4  Pa    − 1 4 − 3   Obtain the viscous stress tensor components. we can obtain: σ ij = − pδ ij + τ ij κ* = λ * + 2 * µ =0 3 σ ii = −3 p p=− σ ii (− 6 − 9 − 3) = 6 =− 3 3 Then: τ ij = σ ij + pδ ij 2 − 1  − 6 2 − 1  6 0 0   0  2 − 9 4  + 0 6 0  =  2 − 3 4  Pa =       − 1 4 − 3  0 0 6   − 1 4 3       Problem 11. in addition.02 x 2 + 0.5 3 (0. V.05)  C ⇒ρ = (0. Solution: In the case in which the bulk viscosity coefficient is zero (Stokes’ condition) we have p = p = p 0 .05) m Problem 11.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 489 Lnρ = Ln(0.075 : ρ= 0. Chaves (2013) . in which the bulk viscosity coefficient is zero.05) x2 = 5 →  ρ= kg 0. i.

j + ρ b i = 0 i r r r − ∇ x p + ρb = 0 − p. V. i. .29) − p. This relationship is precisely the equation of state of the problem statement: ρ = ρ ( p) ⇒ ρ =ρ0 + p k Then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. j δ ij + ρ b i = 0 i tensorial ←    (11.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 490 dev dev σ ij = 2µ *D ij 1 σ kk = − p + k *D ii 3 .11 A baratropic perfect fluid has as equation of state ρ = ρ 0 + p .30) With that we can conclude that the pressure field is only a function of the coordinate x 3 . Chaves (2013) . x3 ) ∂x 2 ∂x 2  dp ( x3 ) ∂p  (i = 3) ⇒ − ∂x + ρ b 3 = 0 ⇒ dx + ρ g = 0 3 3  (11. where k is constant. under the action of the gravitational field b i = [0 0 − g ]T . By the fact we are dealing with a barotropic fluid. Solution: The constitutive equation in stress of a perfect fluid: σ = − p1 The equations of motion become: r r & r ∇ x ⋅ σ + ρb = ρv indicial →  & σ ij . Obtain k the pressure field for a quasi-static regime (zero acceleration). p = p holds when the following is satisfied: κ* = 0 or D ii = 0   Tr (D) = 0 or 2 3 λ* = − µ * Problem 11. x3 ) (i = 1) ⇒ − ∂x1 ∂x1  ∂p ∂p  − p. p = p( x3 ) . i +ρ b i = 0 i Considering the body force vector b i = [0 0 − g ] we obtain:  ∂p ∂p + ρ b1 = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ p = p ( x1 . i +ρ b i = 0 i ⇒ (i = 2) ⇒ − + ρb2 = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ p = p ( x1 .e. x 2 . x 2 . j + ρ b i = ρ vi = 0 i { = 0i (− pδ ij ). this implies that the mass density is only a function of pressure ρ = ρ ( p ) . σ kk = − p = − p + κ *D kk 3 { −p Thus.

the energy equation becomes: r r & ρ u = σ :D − ∇ x ⋅ q + ρr = σ :D & ⇒ ρ u − σ :D = 0 For a perfect gas the stress tensor is a spherical tensor and is given by: σ ( p ) = − p1 where p is the thermodynamic pressure.31) The solution of the above differential equation is the sum of a particular solution and a homogeneous solution: −g ( x3 ) dp( x 3 ) g Homogeneous solution: + p = 0 ⇒ p = Cexp k dx3 k Particular solution: p = −kρ 0 Thus: p = Cexp ( −g x ) k 3 − kρ 0 Problem 11.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 491 dp( x3 ) + ρg = 0 dx3 dp( x3 )  p + ρ 0 + g = 0 dx3 k  dp( x3 ) g + p = −ρ 0 g dx3 k (11. u = u (ρ ) . the specific internal energy is a function of the mass density. Chaves (2013) . the specific internal energy for a ideal gas is given by: u= 1 p + constant ( γ − 1) ρ Solution: For the proposed problem.12 A perfect gas is an ideal and incompressible fluid in which in the absence of heat sources the pressure is proportional to ρ γ (barotropic motion). thus: r r & ρ u + p∇ x ⋅ v = 0 ⇒ρ University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain r ∂u r & ρ + p∇ x ⋅ v = 0 ∂ρ Draft By: Eduardo W. V. Show that when r = 0 (no internal heat source). the energy equation becomes: & ρ u − σ :D = 0 & ⇒ ρ u + p1 : D = 0 & ⇒ ρ u + pTr (D) = 0 r r & ⇒ ρ u + p∇ x ⋅ v = 0 For a barotropic motion. where γ is a constant and γ > 1 . Then.

where k is a proportionality constant.32) where c is a positive constant.13 k ργ + constant ( γ − 1) ρ 1 p + constant ( γ − 1) ρ r A fluid moves with velocity v around a sphere of radius R . r Note: Given a vector u . θ. where the velocity components in spherical coordinates ( r . we must prove that ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 We obtain the following derivatives: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the divergence of this vector in spherical coordinates is: ∂u φ cot(θ) r r ∂u 1 ∂u θ 1 2 r div u ≡ ∇ x ⋅ u = r + + + uθ + u r r ∂θ r sin(θ) ∂φ r r ∂r Solution: r r To demonstrate that a motion is isochoric. the energy Dt equation becomes: r ∂u r & ρ + p∇ x ⋅ v = 0 ∂ρ r r ∂u r r ρ ∇ x ⋅ v + p∇ x ⋅ v = 0 ⇒ −ρ ∂ρ ρ   r ∂u r ⇒ − ρ 2 + p ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 1 3  ∂ρ  2  ≠0 with that the following holds: −ρ2 ∂u + p=0 ∂ρ ⇒ p ∂u = 2 ∂ρ ρ As pressure is proportional to ρ γ . Chaves (2013) . then: −ρ2 ∂u + p=0 ∂ρ ⇒ ∂u kρ γ = = kρ ( γ − 2 ) ∂ρ ρ 2 By integrating the above equation we obtain: u= = Problem 11. φ ) are given by:   R 3 3R v r = c 3 − + 1 cos(θ)   2r 2r   3 R 3R  v θ = c 3 + − 1 sin(θ)   4r 4r   vφ = 0 (11. we can state that p = p (ρ ) = kρ γ .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 492 Considering the mass continuity equation r r Dρ r r & + ρ ∇ x ⋅ v = 0 ⇒ ρ = −ρ ∇ x ⋅ v . Check whether we are dealing with an isochoric motion or not. V.

Solution: According to the principle of conservation of mass we have: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the output pressure p ( 2) as a function of the other variables of Figure 11.4.cross section area.4 p . we are dealing with an isochoric motion. (β and ρ 0 are constants ) where p is pressure.14 A barotropic fluid flows through a pipeline as shown in Figure 11. and said fluid has as equation of state:  ρ p = β Ln ρ  0     . in steady state. Problem 11. S . p (1) p( 2) v (1) v( 2) S (1) S (2) Figure 11. and ρ is the mass density. v .pressure.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 493   − 3R 3 3R   ∂v r ∂   R 3 3R  =  c 3 − + 1 cos(θ) = c   2r 4 + 2r 2 + 1 cos(θ)  2r 2r ∂r ∂r           R 3 3R  ∂v θ ∂   R 3 3R  c 3 + − 1 cos(θ) = − 1 sin(θ) = c 3 +     4r 4r ∂θ ∂θ   4r   4r      With that it is possible to obtain the divergence of the velocity field: ∂v φ cot(θ) r ∂v 1 ∂v θ 1 2 r + vθ + v r ∇ x ⋅v = r + + ∂φ r r ∂r r ∂θ r sin(θ) { =0  − 3R  3R 1  R 3 3R  = c + 2 + 1 cos(θ) + c 3 + − 1 cos(θ) +  2r 4   4r r  4r 2r     3 +  2   R 3 3R   cos(θ) 1   R 3 3R  − 1 sin(θ) + c 3 − + 1 cos(θ)  c 3 +  4r   2r  sin(θ) r   4r 2r  r         By simplifying the above we obtain: r r ∇ x ⋅v = 0 So.4. Calculate.velocity. V. Chaves (2013) .

t )∇ x ⋅ v ( x . V. t )v ( x . t )dV  =  Dt  V ∫ r r   DΦ ( x. t ) .e. t ) = 0 . t )v ( x. t )]⋅ ndS = 0 S by denoting ρ = Φ( x . t ) + Φ ( x . it fulfills that: r D DdV   DΦ ( x. t ) dV Dt  V ∫ r r r r   ∂Φ ( x . Chaves (2013) . t ) Φ ( x . t )] ⋅ ndS = 0 ∂t Dt V V S ∫ ∫ ∫ By applying the steady state condition. t ) r =  +∇x ∂t V  ∫ ⋅ (Φ( x. m2s Introducing the equation of state. we obtain the following equation:  ρ p = β Ln ρ  0   ρ p  ⇒ = Ln  β ρ   0  p  p           ρ   ⇒ exp  β  =   ⇒ ρ ( x ) = ρ 0 exp  β   ρ    0 Then: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. t ) we obtain: r r r ∂ρ ( x . r r ˆ ∫ [ρ ( x)v ( x)]⋅ ndS = 0 ∫−ρ (1) v (1) dS + S(1) ∫ρ ∫ S(1) S ⇒ ∫ ⇒ ∂ρ ( x . t ) r =  + Φ ( x . t )dV = dV + [ρ ( x . t ) dV ∂t  V ∫  ∂Φ ( x . we obtain: ∂t r r r r ˆ ˆ [ρ ( x )v ( x )] ⋅ ndS + [ρ ( x )v ( x )] ⋅ ndS = 0 ( 2 ) v ( 2 ) dS S( 2 ) =0 S( 2 ) ⇒ −ρ (1) v (1) S (1) + ρ ( 2 ) v ( 2) S ( 2) = 0 Thus: ρ (1) v (1) S (1) = ρ ( 2) v ( 2) S ( 2) (11. t )∇ x ⋅ v ( x .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 494 D ρ dV = 0 Dt V ∫ and given a property Φ( x . t )]dV r r ˆ ∫ [Φ( x. t )v ( x. t )) dV  V = = ∫ ∂Φ ( x .33) Remember that q = ρ v is the mass flux. and the SI unit is [q] = r r r kg . t )v ( x. t )dV =   Dt V Dt Dt  V ∫ ∫ r r  DΦ ( x. t ) D ˆ ρ ( x . t ) dV + Φ ( x . t )  r dV + Φ ( x . t ) dV + ∂t V ∫ r r  r r ⋅ [Φ( x. t )∇ x ⋅ v ( x . t ) r r =  + ∇ x Φ ( x . i. t ) ⋅ v ( x . t ) r dV + ∇ x ∂t V ∫ ∂Φ ( x .

Chaves (2013) . then: v (1) S (1) = v ( 2) S ( 2) ⇒ Q(1) = Q( 2 ) (see Problem 11. Consider that the velocity field is steady and irrotational.34)  v(1) S (1)   ⇒ p( 2 ) = p(1) + β Ln  v( 2 ) S ( 2 )    NOTE: The volumetric flow rate.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 495 ρ (1) v(1) S (1) = ρ ( 2) v( 2) S ( 2) ρ 0 exp  p ( 1)   β  ⇒ exp ⇒     v(1) S (1) = ρ 0 exp  p ( 2 ) − p (1 )   β  p( 2 ) − p(1) β ⇒ p( 2 ) − p(1)     =  p( 2 )   β      v( 2 ) S ( 2 ) v(1) S (1) v( 2 ) S ( 2 )  v(1) S (1)   = Ln  v( 2 ) S ( 2 )     v(1) S (1)   = β Ln  v( 2 ) S ( 2 )    (11. the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations of motion become: & ρ vi = ρ b i − p. i. which can be rewritten as: ρ (1) v (1) S (1) = ρ ( 2) v ( 2) S ( 2) ⇒ ρ (1) Q(1) = ρ ( 2) Q( 2) For the particular case of an incompressible medium we have ρ (1) = ρ ( 2) . we have m = = 2 s  S ρ  m s kg   ∫ obtained ρ (1) v (1) S (1) = ρ ( 2) v ( 2) S ( 2) . obtain the Bernoulli’s equation: gh + p ρ + v2 = constant 2 Bernoulli’s equation (11.15 Starting from the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equations of motion.e. often represented by Q .7) Problem 11. In this example. V. Solution: r r Considering an incompressible medium (∇ x ⋅ v ) = 0 .36) Hypothesis: incompressible and non-viscous fluid. ji + µ * v i .35) r r  q ⋅ dS  kg m 3 2 m 3 We check the SI unit [Q ] =  . is the specific total flow.i + (λ * + µ * )v j .37) By: Eduardo W.: Q= ∫ S r r q ⋅ dS ρ r r r r ρ v ⋅ dS =∫ = ∫ v ⋅ dS ρ S S Volumetric flow rate  m3     s  (11. (also known as volume flow rate). and a non-viscous fluid (λ * = µ * = 0) . jj r r r r & r r r r ρ v = ρ b − ∇ x p + (λ * + µ * )∇ x (∇ x ⋅ v ) + µ *∇ x 2 v r r & r ⇒ ρv = ρb − ∇ x p University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft (11.

With that the equation (11.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 496 r r & r Note that the ρ v = ρ b − ∇ x p are the Euler equations of motion. Note that the Bernoulli’s equation is the application of the conservation of energy. we obtain the Bernoulli’s equation: gh + p ρ + v2 = constant 2  v 2   p  N m 3 Nm J m 2 . in the system there is no energy loss: constant energy energy at A energy at B p ρ v2 2 p A ρ A v2 2 A gh A h B B B gh B Figure 11.37) can be rewritten as follows: ρ 2 r r r ∇ x (v 2 ) = ρ b − ∇ x p r 1 r 1 r 2 r ∇ x (v ) − b + ∇ x p = 0 ρ 2 ⇒ (11. The material time derivative of the velocity. where g is the acceleration of gravity and h is the piezometric height. and irrotational where we have considered that the steady velocity field ∂t r r r r r r ∇ x ∧ v = rot v = ω = 0 .15)). unit of energy per unit mass. i. and also by considering that the mass density field is homogeneous  p 1 r  = ∇ x p holds. Chaves (2013) . where ϕ is a potential.39) Considering that the potential can be represented by ϕ = gh . i. becomes: r r ∂v r r 1 r 2 1 r &= + ω ∧ v + ∇ x ( v ) = ∇ x (v 2 ) v 2 2 ∂t r ∂v r = 0 . (see equation (11.38) becomes:  ρ  r the relationship ∇ x  ρ   p v2  r =0 ∇ x ϕ + +  ρ 2 i   ϕ+ ⇒ p ρ + v2 = constant 2 (11.38) r r Considering that the body force (conservative field) can be represented by b = −∇ x ϕ . the equation in (11.e. Then. V.e.5 University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. which is the unit of = = = = = 2 kg kg s 2  2   ρ  m kg We check the SI unit: [gh] =  specific energy.

Consider that in the section BB ′ .17 A large diameter circular tank is filled with water. v (1) = 1m / s h(1) v( 2 ) = 2 m / s H h( 2) Figure 11. The water pours through a small orifice located at a height H below the water level of the reservoir. V. Chaves (2013) . If the volumetric flow rate is Q . (see Figure 11. the flow pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W.6 Solution: The mass continuity equation: v (1) h(1) = v ( 2 ) h( 2) ⇒ h( 2 ) = v (1) v( 2) h(1) = 1 h(1) 2 The Bernoulli’s equation: ( H + h(1) ) + 0 + h( 2 ) + 0 + v (22) 2g v (21)   2g      ⇒ H = h( 2 ) − h(1) + v (22 ) − v (21) 2g ⇒ H= − h(1) 2 + 3 2g Problem 11.7). Hypothesis: Consider that H does not vary with time (steady state). Hypothesis: No energy loss is considered.16 Let us consider a perfect and incompressible fluid in steady regime that is flowing through the channel as shown in Figure 11.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 497 Problem 11. obtain the orifice diameter D .6. Obtain the value of H .

7 Solution: The water can be considered as an incompressible perfect fluid. we can conclude that: Q = v ( B ) S ( B ) = 2 gH University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain πD 2 4 Draft ⇒ D= 4Q π 2 gH By: Eduardo W. Applying the Bernoulli’s equation: z+ p v2 + = const. ρ g 2g where it fulfills that: Point A ⇒ Point B ⇒ p atm  +0  ρg  2  v( B )  p 0 + atm + ρg 2g   H+ ⇒ v ( B ) = 2 gH Considering that the volumetric flow rate is given by Q = v ( B ) S ( B ) .SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 498 A H B ( p − patm ) patm B′ C′ C Pressure Pressure B Cross section BB′ Cross section CC ′ Figure 11. V. Chaves (2013) .

respectively.8: Pitot tube. Pitot tube Pipeline h( 2) h(1) v(1)  1   p(1)  h v( 2) = 0  2   p( 2 )  Figure 11. Consider that there is no energy loss in the system.8. Chaves (2013) . V.11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 499 Problem 11. Solution: By applying the Bernoulli’s equation between the point 1 and 2 .18 Consider a pipeline which has be introduced a pitot tube as shown in Figure 11. we obtain: gh + ⇒ p (1) ρ p (1) ρ + v (21) + 2 v (21) 2 = = gh + p( 2) ρ + v (22 ) 2 p ( 2) ρ 2( p ( 2 ) − p (1) ) ⇒ v (1) = ρ The pressure values at the points 1 and 2 are given. by: p (1) = ρ gh(1) p ( 2 ) = ρ gh( 2 ) . with that the velocity v (1) is obtained as follows: v (1) = 2( p ( 2) − p (1) ) University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain ρ = 2(ρ gh( 2 ) − ρ gh(1) ) ρ Draft = 2 g (h( 2 ) − h(1) ) By: Eduardo W. Obtain the velocity at the point 1 in terms of h(1) and h( 2) .

r ∇ xψ ψ (1) = const. and the definition of r r r gradient ∇ x ψ we obtain the relationship dψ = ∇ x ψ ⋅ dx . Two streamlines can not intersect. which has a steady velocity field and irrotational. v = ∇ x φ .19 Consider an incompressible non-viscous fluid. University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. i. it is normal to the isosurfaces φ = const . Consider also that the velocity field is independent of x3 -direction. With that we are considering that the velocity field is conservative. Control volume ψ ( 4) = const.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 500 Problem 11. Obtain the governing equations of the proposed problem in terms of the velocity potential φ and streamlines ψ . r r v ( x) t Streamlines ψ ( 2) = const. i. we can define a streamline ( ψ ) to the curve in which the tangent at each point has the same direction as the velocity. Solution: Velocity potential: In this example we can represent the velocity field by means of a potential r r φ .e. but for a conservative field the curl is always equals zero. Remember that a field whose curl is zero it does not necessarily imply that the field is conservative.e. but in steady state motion they do. r Note that the velocity has the same direction as ∇ x φ .9 Based on the definition of differential dψ (the total derivative). the streamline and trajectory do not coincide. In general. ψ (5) = const. r x Figure 11.e. ∇ x ∧ v = rot v = ω = 0 . Chaves (2013) . Streamline: Given a spatial velocity field at time t . V. hence r r r r r r the curl of the velocity field is zero. i.

we obtain: r r dψ = ∇ x ψ ⋅ dx indicial →  dψ = ψ . ⇒ dψ = 0 and also by applying the r r definition dψ = ∇ x ψ ⋅ dx .1 dx1 + ψ . 2 dx 2 + ψ .10 r r r Note that it holds that ∇ x ψ ⋅ ∇ x φ = 0 . i. Chaves (2013) .11 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS 501 r r v = ∇ xφ ψ + dψ r ∇ xψ ψ = const. Hence. at a point.3 dx3 = 0 ⇒ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ ∂ψ dx1 + dx 2 + dx3 = 0 ∂x 2 ∂x3 ∂x1 For the 2D-case (bidimensional) we have: ∂ψ ∂ψ dx1 + dx 2 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 (11.40) Given that in a streamline it holds that ψ = const.i dxi = 0 ⇒ dψ = ψ . The differential dx in the streamline. With that we can conclude that: 0   0  r r   = 0  ( dx ∧ v ) i =  0    (v 2 dx1 − v1 dx 2 ) 0     ⇒ v 2 dx1 − v1 dx 2 = 0 (11.41) we conclude that: University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain Draft By: Eduardo W. the problem is state on the plane x1 − x 2 (2D-case). V.40) and (11.41) If we compare the equations (11. the following is fulfilled: r r r dx ∧ v = 0 In the Cartesian system: ˆ e1 r r dx ∧ v = dx1 ˆ e2 dx 2 ˆ e3 r dx3 = 0 v1 v2 v3 r ˆ ˆ ˆ = (v3 dx 2 − v 2 dx3 )e1 + (v 3 dx1 − v1 dx3 )e 2 + (v 2 dx1 − v1 dx 2 )e 3 = 0 Components: (v3 dx 2 − v 2 dx3 ) 0 r r (dx ∧ v ) i =  (v 3 dx1 − v1 dx3 )  = 0      (v 2 dx1 − v1 dx 2 )  0     For this example the velocity field is independent of x3 . ⇒ dψ = 0 in the streamline Figure 11.e. has the same direction as the velocity at this point.

45) By: Eduardo W.SOLVING PROBLEMS BY MEANS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS 502 v1 = − ∂ψ ∂x 2 . Draft r ∇2ψ = 0 x (11. the above equation becomes: ∂v 2 ∂v1 − =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 Taking into account the equations in (11. V.42) r r 1) Starting from an incompressible fluid: (∇ x ⋅ v ) = 0 we obtain: v i . v2 = ∂ψ ∂x1 (11.43) (11. Chaves (2013) .i = ∂v1 ∂v 2 ∂v3 + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 2D → ∂v1 ∂v 2 + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 r r Considering that v = ∇ x φ .44) r  ˆ e 3 = 0   Then:  ∂v 3 ∂v 2     ∂x − ∂x  3   2 0    ∂v1 ∂v3      = 0  −       ∂x3 ∂x1   0  ∂v ∂v     2 − 1     ∂x1 ∂x 2    As we are dealing with a 2D-case.42) we conclude that: ∂v 2 ∂v1 =0 − ∂x1 ∂x 2 ⇒ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ =0 + ∂x 2 ∂x1 ⇒ r ∇2ψ = 0 x With which the problem is stated by the equations: r ∇2φ = 0 x University of Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real – Spain . we obtain: ∂ 2φ ∂ 2 φ r + 2 =0 ⇒ ∇2φ = 0 x 2 ∂x1 ∂x 2 r r r r r r 2) Based on the fact that the fluid is irrotational ∇ x ∧ v ≡ rot v = ω = 0 we obtain: ∂v1 ∂v 2 + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ⇒ ˆ ˆ ˆ e1 e 2 e3 r r r r ∂ ∂ ∂ ˆ r =  ijk v k . j e i = 0 rot (v ) = ∇ x ∧ v = ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x3 v1 v2 v3  ∂v  ∂v  ∂v ∂v  ∂v  ∂v ˆ ˆ =  3 − 2 e 1 +  1 − 3 e 2 +  2 − 1  ∂x  ∂x   ∂x   1 ∂x 2  2 ∂x3   3 ∂x1  (11.

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