Aural archetypes and cyclic perspectives in the work of John Coltrane and ancient Chinese music theory.

HAFEZ MODIRZADEH The shaman is, then, a cosmically instructed man. His initiation is appropriate to the outer forms of his existence, yet bears an archetypal stamp. !!Stephen Larsen "1988, 81# The following work, by relating musical constructs with cross!cultural concepts, proposes essential parallels between John Coltrane$s enigmatic diagram of 1960 "see Lateef 1981, inside cover; Schott 2000, 355!356# and several ancient cyclic music theories of China. Consequently, with a reconsideration of commonly accepted analytical approaches to Coltrane$s later musical periods, a new perspective o%ers a more artistically relevant view toward his developing musical conceptions of the 1960s as well as a more integrated understanding of modal practices in general. Historically, the inclusivity of jazz tradition has inspired many musicians to

introduce a variety of world in&uences into a predominantly African!American musical heritage. Beyond general concepts of pentatonicism, though, speci'c Chinese references to historical jazz practices have thus far remained untapped. Scholarly signi'cance in this area must move both analytical and performance worlds forward, primarily because of the manifold potential in applying ancient Chinese(theories toward the analysis of a twentieth!century musical culture like jazz.

Indeed, from two seemingly far!removed worlds, tangible new relationships are generated for Chinese traditional and American jazz music scholars alike in ways such as the following. * Ancient esoteric Chinese concepts applied practically by the jazz performer will a%ect cognitive interaction both socially with the listener and personally with the historical tradition at hand. * Theoretical insights, when compatible between two or more removed cultural! historical contexts, raise important potential for creating larger, more unifying musical theories!!not necessarily of any particular practice in itself but rather for more cultural practices in general!!in all, furthering our understanding of human commonalities through music. * Considering the possibility that similar resources could give rise to the conception of similar approaches between modulatory traditions, then from and beyond the singular jazz model presented here, speculation could be returned toward how ancient Chinese and other musical practices may relate to the surviving theoretical documents of their time. This comparative work hones theoretical aligning of those tonal processes that together reveal more than common pentatonic perceptions have thus far allowed. For example, in regard to a recently discovered Chinese bell!set from the 'fth century B.C., Liang "1985, 74!75# points out that: )The evidence for a modulation practice is especially compelling when one considers, for example, the purpose of having almost identical tuning modes, pitch names and registers in sub!sets G.5 and G.6, but with di%erent temperaments.... Regrettably, the ancient tonal and modulation practice has long been a lost art ever since the end of the Zhou period "1075!256 B.C.#.... *I+nstrumental artifacts suggest that the theoretical formula and recorded theoretical systems manifest a belated doctrine, whereas the actual music practices of the Zhou period may have been much more advanced than what was theoretically documented.,

thus inviting the potential of transcultural considerations to emerge from the models discussed. Hopefully. from a variety of backrounds. Put more succinctly by Alice Coltrane "1990#. though. to discover for themselves how manifold truth is realized through shared universals in music.By realigning our jazz perception of John Coltrane$s modal periods of the 1960s with ancient Chinese musical theoretical constructs. the following work assumes no responsibility for interpreting any speci'c kind of symbology with this material. for all theory must. whether actually practiced or not. For the sake of focus. "2# This continues to support the late saxophonist and composer$s ultimate triumph of integrating cosmological concerns with musical practice. referential approach. Appropriately. in the form of aural archetypes. carry an inherent sense of the speculative#. "1# His 1960 diagram. . what follows is yet another example of how John Coltrane$s search has inspired and in&uenced many. for the understanding of Coltrane. here described and reconstructed through the direct application of four Chinese theoretical sources. such cross!cultural study accepts the importance of comparing historically removed concepts. In all. other ancient musical systems may not align as neatly with John Coltrane$s diagram as with the musical theoretical implications of the Chinese sources. many other directions inspired by this particular study may be worthy of pursuit on their own terms but nevertheless must be spared here for the more practical purpose of deriving new tools for assembling an alternative take on Coltrane$s late musical creations.. And once again. this in turn also expanding our general view of Chinese music theory. theories. looms much larger than any single or sum source could explain. expressed musically. speci'c Chinese or African!American sociohistorical sources responsible for the musical conceptions discussed herein are not elaborated upon. In addition. as )speculative theory. Certainly. on some level. The larger intent behind this probe is to further a-rm the potential raised by John Coltrane$s successful articulation of his spiritual essence in both theoretical and practical terms. then that was the essence of his search. "which in itself seems a redundant phrase. and individual practices for the sake of initiating )new. a door opens onto a cross!cultural view compatible with more than one practice alone. )if it is possible to realize truth through sound. traditions. implicates an original )Afro!Asian. many other cultural!historical contexts well!deserving of similar comparative study are only brie&y treated in the conclusion.

trying to 'nd things.... accompanied with an integrative philosophy of universals. By the late 1950s. One source available during this time. which is di%erent from the astrology we use in the west!!so he knew the sign of the snake. "3# Porter "1998.. "134!135#... )Most of the books that absorbed him were on religion and cosmic philosophy. It$s well known that Coltrane utilized many books and studies. "quoted in Porter 1998. putting together what were basically large maps that exhibited the connection between mystical.. His interests in cosmology had a parallel to his music.. The book$s title is indeed suggestive of the range of material on musical matters that Coltrane was pursuing for practice during the 1950s. 255#. the horse. Coltrane )for years had been trying to relate mystical systems such as numerology and astrology. and scales from around the world. based clearly on expansive conceptualizations of the materials that he read as well as practiced. )we begin . meshing the basic concepts and techniques with that of his growing musical conception.On John Coltrane$s Eclecticism Particularly noteworthy were Coltrane$s cumulative abilities to integrate a diversity of both musical and extramusical information into a 'ercely original and evolving voice. 113# adds that Coltrane )would internalize many of the ideas he had gathered from di%erent world musics. and Greek tonal systems. Indian. and trying somehow to pull these threads into something he could play on his horn. exercises. What$s unusual about Coltrane is that he seems to have built his style out of many of these resources. Louis!Victor Mialy has mentioned that Coltrane. and mathematical concepts. The eclecticism gave his style originality!!the more widespread one$s sources. according to rumor. into all of jazz and beyond!!an eclectic collection of method books. Nisenson continues. )was also involved with oriental astrology. "167#. 83# comments. Coltrane stated: )Some I get into. this eclectic nature included a fervent interest in various aspects of the metaphysical as well. 216# notes that: )One way that Coltrane developed this unique sound world is by bringing into his music!!and through his in&uence. Alain Danielou$s Introduction to the Study of Musical Scales "1943#. and I don$t get any further than the 'rst few pages!!then I start looking around.. "quoted in Porter 1998. and advanced musical theory. is one hallmark of genius. In order to move across a variety of reading subjects while keeping prioritive time for musical practice. Porter "1998. man.. And he )continued to develop his musical theories. Eclecticism. scienti'c. 257#. instead of leaving them at home strictly for practice and technique development. the teachings of the great spiritual leaders. theories of modern physics and mathematics. it seems to me. "213#. the less one sounds like any of them. the dog. Nisenson "1995.. o%ered those intrigued by both science and mysticism a quick and accessible account of Chinese.

Armenian. In the present book we try to give some idea of these universal laws which the numbers represent. For instance. and to make a rapid survey of their application to music in the di%erent traditions. Brazilian. "6# Of all of Coltrane$s world music interests mentioned in his biographers$ writings!!including African. 29#. Through musical experience it is easy to see that numbers correspond to abstract principles and that their application to physical reality follows absolute and inescapable laws. which necessarily leads to transposition) "Danielou 1995. "Danielou 1943. therefore. numerology. on how its conceptualization (may be integral to gaining further crosscultural insights into Coltrane$s modal developments after 1959.. the link between metaphysics and physics. as well as universal tendences that fueled his )modal. Music was. more innovatively. justly considered by the ancients as the key to all sciences and arts. It is in music only that this connection between physical reality and metaphysical principles is evident. through which the universal laws and their multiple applications could be understood. "7# . brings us immediately into the almost forgotten science of numerical symbolism. Indian. The foreword is indeed thought!provoking: All music is based on the relations of sounds. "5# Until now. and Jewish!!notice of Chinese music is remote if not altogether absent "unless one considers general terms like oriental and exotic#. on )The Cycle of Fifths: The Musical Theory of the Chinese. Danielou covers areas of notable interest. work of the 1960s. has been given through mostly anecdotal evidence (and recording analysis with unfortunately little else to help identify any speci'c theoretical process at work. new in part because it didn$t rely exclusively on traditional jazz materials. "4# We can only speculate on his creative process in relation to Chinese cyclic music theory in general and. particularly the signi'cance of Yin and Yang. and pentatonicism as )the cyclic system.to get a sense of how *he+ collected materials freely from all sources and began to develop a new kind of jazz style.. Japanese. foreword# Since it has not yet been determined if Coltrane actually consulted Danielou$s book. discussion of Coltrane$s non!Western inspirations. Arabic. we refer to it here as a primary historical source of information through which to relate the theory of Coltrane$s diagram to its Chinese counterpart. in chapter four. and a careful study of the numbers by which these relations are ruled.

"Liang 1985.. In short. 1#. The structural integrity of this and similar African!American achievements. described below in very basic and literal terms. by resembling John Coltrane$s 1960 hand! drawn diagram. thereby generating numerological (signi'cance with pentatonicism and. for this reason. for its vision is so encompassing that it may include Persian or Burmese perceptions as well as African or Chinese! On Four Sources of Chinese Musical Theory It has been acknowledged that )in spite of the early interest in acoustics by Chinese scholars. The following four of these historical systems. early Chinese acoustical theory has established a pattern of tuning pitch!pipes by a sequence of falling fourths and rising 'fths called the twelve lu.C. by the third century B. modal dissonance. may reveal both those particularities and universalities that help us to compare removed sources while compromising neither. it is nevertheless made clear here that the lack of such comparative study by traditional methods of analysis has contributed to the eluding of other more relevant non!Western musical perceptions. transposition. carries that paradoxical nature of all great spiritual contributions. "and documented since the seventh century B.. the theoretical formulations . Fortunately. while having seemingly little relation to evolving performance practices during their time. continue to retain a structural and philosophical integrity in de'ance of any one style or period..Whether or not Chinese concepts had anything to do directly with John Coltrane$s own expansive approach to pentatonicism. Music. theories. understood through various other musical cultural parameters.C.C. John Coltrane$s music may be studied through a wide variety of cultural lenses. cyclic division of the octave by twelve "see Fig. all remained essentially at the level of intellectual exercises. The Tonal System of Fourths and Fifths Since approximately the second millenium B.#. consequently. 22#. or pan!tonality. The inclusivity of Coltrane$s approach toward the many world sources he absorbed and then articulated in such an exclusive manner. motivates a fresh look into the modal developments set forth by Coltrane himself during the 1960s. these )esoteric. through the innovativeness of his own originality. are combined to form a conceptual construct which. being the representation of the relationship between heaven .

. from the angular to the circular.. 2#. seven di%erent modes on a same key are named. to evolve from the motionless to the moving. dating from the 'fth century B. and B# . from the square to the circle.. The names of twelve lu are written on the inside one. the 'fths thus engendered are alternately of feminine and masculine character.. E. 34!35. "C. are represented by the cycle of 'fths. Originally. in their own 'eld. and identi'ed as recently as 1977. sixty modes can be read "5 X 12 = 60#.. 3#: )The diagram consists of two plates.. Nevertheless.. the four perceptible elements. But a static representation of a world in motion could not be an instrument of action upon that world.C.and earth. By shifting each of the sheng !names on the inner plate towards a certain lu!name on the outer plate. if we want to act upon the represented elements. 67!68#... these double!plates illustrated an ancient theory of shifting key "xuan gong# and changing mode "fan diao# in traditional Chinese musical practice "see Fig..# on the outside.. must quite naturally have this con'guration of a center or tonic "gong# surrounded by four notes assimilated to the four directions of space... the sounds will have to submit to the cyclic laws that. and B*&at+ are masculine "Danielou 1995. "C*sharp+ D*sharp+. and those obtained by a downward fourth "upper generation# .. "8# Double!Plate Diagrams A two!ring delineation of the six Yin and six Yang tones can be attributed to double!plated diagrams dating back to the 7th century A. The pentatonic scale thus presents a structure that allows it to be an adequate representation of the static in&uence of heaven on earth. Fifth and Major Third Generation of Zeng$s Bell!Set In addition. There are two possible directions to rotate the inner plate . since the sixteenth century...D. A. The notes in the series obtained by an ascending 'fth "lower generation# . are of feminine character. provides us with a particularly unique . and so on. "Chen 1999. Marquis Yi of Zeng$s entombed bell!set. G*&at+. "see Fig. the plates have been changed by switching the inside and outside plates. It is necessary. D. and the names of the seven sheng("also )musical tones. F. G. To express the movements of the universe. A*&at+.. Arising from the principles of yin and yang. by shifting the gong towards each of the twelve lu. 41#. the four seasons.

constructs a sixty!tone spiral of 'fths. in terms of instrumental technology. unfolding )through wholetones. The Guanzi `adding and subtracting by 1/3$ theory *12!lu system of descending fourths and ascending 'fths+ in comparison to the complex Zenghouyi bronze bell and stone!chime sets *from the earlier Zeng tomb+ is a good case in point. Liang "1985.ancient Chinese tonal system. than we had initially conceived. also transliterated Jing Fang#.. It appears to be a cultural phenomenon that theory and practice in Chinese music frequently did not coincide. Realizing that only one major!third is formed by this particular pentatonic scale . Ching Fang$s Sixty!tone Spiral Referring to temperament as well as tone and timbre .C. . 4#. and Pythagorean commas to reach near agreement with the reference tone after 53 consecutive operations... 75# has suggested that. the designers of the bell set ingeniously derived the names for the seven supplementary degrees by applying major!third relationship. reknowned acoustical theoretician and diviner. generating octave expansion with each revolution. the overblown 'fth system.C. lu cycles are acoustically more spiral in nature. during the Han Dynasty"206 B. thereby supporting that in )the work of Chinese acousticians we witness a remarkable balance between theory and practice... Starting with the 'rst four tones from the cycle of 'fths. The construct presented here represents these major third relationships within a complete cycle of fourths and 'fths "see Fig. 177!178# "see Ex. Players who knew the major!third relations of each note with the names marked on bells would be able to recognize di%erent keys and transpose the music into relative keys in convenience.#..!220 A.D. that theory did not often describe practical reality.. Ching Fang "77!37 B.. "Maim 1996..... semitones. 58# further indicates: )The theoretical inscription on the bodies of Marquis Zeng$s bell set provides us a unique sample for learning the early Chinese naming method of the twelve semitones in a pentatonic framework.. Chen Yingshi "1999... between the pursuit of absolute perfection on the one hand. it )generates the remaining 7 from major thirds above and below the 'rst four fundamental pitches .. *allowing+ for the practical use of more scales than .. In order to contain this open!ended occurrence. 1#. tonal practice and theoretical foundation. )In the light of recent 'ndings we must reconsider the fact that the music of the Zhou period could have been more sophisticated.

published in the latter$s own monumental Repository of Scales and Melodic Patterns "Lateef 1981. is similarly articulated between both . If we neglect the small di%erence between the thirteenth 'fth and the octave. which place themselves above those of the initial seven!note scale. We here focus on one of his own cyclic diagrams. "McClain 1979. we obtain the equalized chromatic division into twelve half tones on which all temperaments. space. 37!39#. "10# And the theoretical parallels raised with Coltrane$s document further illustrate his own successful musical embodiment of the cosmological with the practical.and the acceptance of common!sense simpli'cation on the other. "Danielou 1995. after at least 1960. having articulated the whole of his understanding so exhaustively through his performed music.. from the linear "or scalar# to the nonlinear "or cyclic#. no cadre of letters that could explain to us his development as a musical thinker!!or any other aspect of his obviously complex inner life. and the six perfect tones can be represented by the sides of an inscribed hexagon. While Coltrane may not have directly related any of his music to any of the above Chinese systems. crucial material does indeed exist from Coltrane$s hand. Ching Fang$s )calculations as they stand display that harmony of precision and simplicity properly called elegance. for reasons that are symbolic as well as musical. The twelve lu "or musical tones#. 2#. The reason given is that 12 "the number of each cycle# X 5 "the number of elements# = 60. "9# This diagram intimates elements of the above Chinese cyclic music theories from late antiquity in such speci'c ways that recognizing or taking note of such valuable clues would insist on shifting our existing perceptions towards Coltrane$s music. And yet. 205.. 49#.. a gift to Yusef Lateef (in 1960.. or equalized divisions of sound. 5#. could have )left no diary. the comparable modal perception hereby distilled renders uncanny connections between these earlier theories and Coltrane$s diagram and practice more than a millenium later "see Fig. The following description relates the artist$s elaborate sketch to the above construct "see Fig. "Nisenson 1995. 5#. and they stop the series at the 60th note. and time. inside cover#. are based. Danielou further explains this 've!octave phenomenon: )In practice. for that matter. 212#. as a cycle of ascending and descending 'fths delineated by Yin and Yang plates "see Fig. On Theoretical Parallels with John Coltrane$s Diagram It has been noted that Coltrane. after the 52nd 'fth *'fty!third note+ the Chinese follow the series only for the next seven degrees. The spiral is thus transformed into a circle.

corresponding to the rings$ consecutive degrees between c and f*sharp+ "other numberings also appear underneath the darker pencil in the original diagram#.g. Like Ching Fang. this is not the place to discuss Chinese temperament and various intervallic measurements or to argue for or against any historical connections with Pythagorean tuning. Although his work provided for a very di%erent sociocultural context than that of John Coltrane. and developed mystic rituals involving acoustical experimentation in sound chambers "see Kuttner 1990. in Danielou$s nonequal tempered notation of: C. the above Chinese concepts relate well to John Coltrane$s diagram: both the upper and lower placement of fourths and 'fths with chromatics articulate a sixty!tone cycle over 've octaves of whole!tone scales "both male and female rings# and chromatic scales "combined rings#. since the mathematical formulas Ching Fang used to derive nonequally tempered tones are not necessarily applicable to John Coltrane$s practice. however.g. DeWaskin 1982#. Ching Fang integrated science with the metaphysical and astrological. 6#.. 12 X 5 = 60#. In his case. Clearly. and c to e#. with major thirds outlined as well within rectangular boxes "e. a*&at+ to c. we may eventually arrive at the return of a fundamental transposed John Coltrane$s 've!octave cycle. Coltrane$s genius seems to have been in creating a closed system of great numerological signi'cance "i. re&ected a numerology of musical tones with natural phenomena. in Figure 6 1 have added the pentacle of Coltrane$s diagram within Fang$s nonequal tempered spiral. diagram "see Fig. just as the overtone series contracts intervallically while simultaneously expanding. Robinson and Alwein 1980. As has been shown. A!!#. mapping appropriate constellations. The chromaticism between Coltrane$s two rings also corresponds to the chromatic notes of the angles and sides of the hexagon in Danielou$s )Cyclic Division into Twelve. as conceived by Ching Fang "see Fig. these are still the very interests that would propel the latter$s musical search as well. evident in his own sixty!tone cyclic drawing of 1960. denies any micro!tuning relevance to Ching Fang$s 've!octave spiral. each fourth/'fth is a cell of adjoining chromatic steps "e. rather than alternating on a spiral. A++. Coltrane connects all thirty tritone relationships with lines and articulates two overlapping counterrows of the numbers 1!7. In order to draw more parallels. Paradoxically. 211!221. B+. Appreciation of both sixty!tone cycles is rendered with an imagined stare up into the ancient spiral and through intersecting revolutions. B*&at+. b!c!c*sharp+ e!f!f*sharp+#. . "11# In addition..e.of Coltrane$s own double rings. 7#. Emphasis is placed on connecting the chromatic tone!cells in Coltrane$s diagram with Fang$s semichromatic groupings by 'fths "i. being conceived in equal!temperament.e..

. In this context. the inner and outer plate construct alone begs rotational experimentation. and his own scale substitutions.It is questionable whether or not the Coltrane diagram would function solely as a re&ective device for its creator. here considered a necessary part of his modal development through 1961!63. often went beyond plain diatonicism. all potential intervallic combinations are left open for speculation. 150# makes a keen reference to the original diagram: )As for the particular form that *. During the late 1950$s he would draw the circle of 'fths and then connect the twelve key centers with lines.. 2#. progression was being honed. On Coltrane$s Practice Since 1959 and a Proposed Cyclic Perspective Modal jazz. from conventional harmonic function "see Ex. his legendary )Giant Steps. Porter "1998. where tonal sequences in thirds are delineated by "a# arpeggiated inversions. Coltrane$s solos.. Indeed. open!minded interest in all traditions. "12# And since it is not clear when Coltrane actually 'rst realized this system "the version discussed here is from 1960#. "b# chromatic turns. which also exist in Coltrane$s drawing#.+ takes!!the use of major thirds dividing the octave into three parts. In relation to this ground!breaking 1959 piece. "13# All this was met with an intensi'ed use of motives. The variety of conceptual relationships would seem to have more than likely worked themselves out through his horn as well. formally ushered in with the Miles Davis album Kind of Blue "1959#. "14# During the same year that Coltrane was participating in Davis$s modal excursions "presumably# around the time he drew the cyclic diagram#. He had a kind of ecumenical. Surely Coltrane was interested in the mystical as well as aural implications of third relations. . although using various scalar passages.. we may never know to what extent it helped shape "or was shaped by# his )Giant Steps.Giant Steps. continuing rather to expand on the previous legacy of chromatic passing tones. blues!in&ected minor pentatonics. 3#. Su-ce it to say that with regard to Coltrane$s actual practice of his own diagram. primarily involving rapid root movements in thirds "refer to the outlined major third sequences in Figure 6. and "c# pentatonic patterns "see Ex. mostly as a result of being liberated. with fewer chords. the use of three tonal centers!!I wouldn$t underestimate Coltrane$s interest in religion and mysticism. period. would establish a harmonic concept "or at least analytical perception# based primarily on the heptatonic scales and names of Greek modes.

8 and 9# Contrary to previous approaches. 2. leaving the players to their own invention of motivic sequences and patterns rather than prescribing any linear idiomatic or vertical harmonic approach. beats 3!4. perceivable through pentatonicism "see Fig. 8!10#. "17# The innovative take here is on stretching to o%er a more poly!modal perception of the piece. and yet now this take becomes a necessary alternative in light of Coltrane$s cyclic illustration. the implications of the original 1960 diagram now allow for a more convincing interpretation of John Coltrane$s integrated modal/tonal development via the intervallic/ motivic as continuing uninterrupted from at least 1959 "with )Giant Steps. "15# With this point of reference taken toward John Coltrane$s later musical periods. Indeed. Indeed. beats 1!2. m. Coltrane would demonstrate the continuity of a thought process that would have . another perception of recombining both tonal and modal concepts beyond conventional Western analysis may be attained "see Figs. harmonic# structures generated from pentatonicism. then. and Figs.It is important at this juncture to remind the reader that Coltrane$s cyclic diagram abstracts intervallic relationships of semi! and whole!steps.#. 3. with subsequent pieces from both the 1959!60 and 1961!62 periods. m. A derived cyclic concept. as with the twelve lu system. m. where the practical conversion of vertical!chordal structures into nonlinear ones is appropriately derived from the pentatonic cycle of 'fths "or the twelve lu system#. and Lateef 1981. Coltrane$s three most distinguishable motives in the rapidly moving )Giant Steps. 8!10#. will have both major and minor triadic "and so. perceived as stemming from the pentatonic cycle "see Fig. perhaps to counter conventional harmonic analysis. 3. actual pentatonic scales may only exist here within the abstract realm of stacking fourths or 'fths. up through his last works. chord progression (appear as: "1# The inverting of basic chordal (harmony. 3. thirds. inner cover# "3# Sequences built o% the chordal degrees of 1!2!3!5. 2. itself generated from the cycle of fourths and 'fths "see Figs. and fourths. "16# As can be seen in Example 3. 8 and 9# "2# Chromatic turns on dominant chords: chromatic tones neighboring each 'fth/ fourth are isolated in Coltrane$s original diagram with overlapping circles "see Fig. 3. and Figs.

are also included as part of the b*&at+ and e*&at+ motives#. with the recording of A Love Supreme. Coltrane revolves and transposes the main motivic cell of a fourth around this pentatonic cycle. while not strictly part of the scale. substitutions for the earlier and more basic )Tune!Up. from the same )Giant Steps. is compatible with the above: )Much of the melodic and harmonic material of the suite is derived from this pentatonic scale *F minor+. During the last thirty or so measures of the )Acknowledgement. Porter$s "1998. During the )Acknowledgement. "18# Considering the above then. 4#. movement. 233# analysis of Coltrane$s source material for )A Love Supreme... progression "this. By transposing this quartalism up or down by successive whole steps!!which is commonly practiced by both Coltrane and Tyner!!the cycle is exercised unbroken while also outlining the Yin and Yang rings of Coltrane$s diagram "see Ex. a crystallized (concept emerges that can now be directly compared to Chinese cyclic theory. while McCoy Tyner provides accompaniment with quartal harmonies on piano.. by late 1964... the sequence revolves around the c!f!b*&at+!e*&at+!a*&at+ portion of the cycle "d *&at+ and g*&at+. unifying twelve lu cycle of 'fths. while during measures 40!45. as it is called in Chinese modal practice# appears more closely related to the ancient mode of yu tiao "Levis 1936. 6#. "19# Once again. a shift is made downward by a whole!step "or by two preceding fourths# to extend the cycle below by d!g !c!f!b*&at+!e*&at+!a*&at+ "see Ex. session that would also include pieces based on pedals and ostinatos# as well as over more expansive one! or two!chord modal pieces like )Impressions. Coltrane$s famous transpositions of the 'rst movement$s underpinning motivic cell "minor third!perfect fourth# now fall within the purview of a larger. In measures 33!39 of Example 7.. appears frequently during the improvisations as an upper neighbor to E The notes D!&at and D! natural both occur. The note G.. 5#. sixth or bian tone. which would be spelled: f g"*&at+# a*&at+ b*&at+ c d"*&at+# e*&at+. "see Ex. where the basic F minor pentatonic scale "with its two secondary tones of the second and )changing. A scale sequence similar to that in Example 5 results from the above.variations of his )Giant Steps. 7#. solo. approach superimposed over constrictive tonal sequences such as his )Countdown. the original motive returns with . Coltrane divides the scale into two nonoverlapping *disjunct+ fourths. 73# than to the heptatonic Dorian mode (of ancient Greece "see Ex.

rather than linear.. fuller. 8#. Indeed. and eventually beyond. as well as human life itself. I entered into a phase which was contradictory to the pledge and away from the esteemed path. 1964!65. into his 'nal stages of so! called )cosmic. "Fraim 1996. musical enlightenment.. It has been reiterated that )The new technique would help him escape a linear form of improvisation to a more circular form. Inevitably. I do perceive and have been duly re! informed of His OMNIPOTENCE . when one studies Coltrane$s music from 1964!65. The more we listen to Coltrane. more productive life. Aristotelian worldview . Furthermore. such nonlinear conceptual development would explain Coltrane$s ability to move through his modal periods of 1959!60.. attempting new juxtapositions of that sound. chord or cycle. It would allow him to orbit a certain sound. The driving intensity behind Coltrane$s articulation of this Afro!Asian concept. by the grace of God. The most profound concept of non!Western for Coltrane was its cyclic. As time and events moved on.. but thankfully. A Love Supreme would become one of Coltrane$s best!selling masterpieces. 1961!63. a period of irresolution (did prevail. and sound.. 76#. through the mid!sixties. and of our need for. Yet Coltrane somehow melded the cyclic nature of Eastern music and thought with the elements of jazz . an artistic and religious testimony that acknowledges both resolution and pursuance within an understanding initiated some years earlier. 113!114#. it is more than scale or mode. it becomes more and more likely that his 1960 diagram would have practical bearing on the innovative directions he pursued. and made it work. in mind.. in terms of cycles seems incompatible with a linear. "20# Recombining 'fths may give a pentatonic impression. Increasingly. was fueled not only by Tyner$s quartalism on piano but more viscerally by Elvin Jones$ polyrhythmic insertions on drums... I experienced. This album is a humble o%ering to Him.more intense recombinative breaks of the cycle "see Ex.... Viewing the &ow of music. providing a logical metric .. Jones was a de'ning impetus behind the tonal/ rhythmic sum of Coltrane$s musical expression. a spiritual awakening which was to lead me to a richer. nature. seeing the sound from many perspectives and angles.. he )seems freed from standard Western musical theory.. spirit. the more we Westerners are able to absorb the Great Cycles of the East into our linear minds. and dependence on Him. now and again through the unerring(and merciful hand of God.. as Coltrane "1964# tells us: )During the year 1957. "Nisenson 1995. yet expressed motivically. 216.

and their connections with a removed musical/theoretical tradition that historically focused on the cyclic and numerological. itself the result of the 'rst 've 'fths of the cycle. In this case. which demonstrates how Coltrane arrived at relating passing tonal centers by rotating the cycle between its sharp side "e. b e a d g c f b*&at+ e*&at+ a*&at+ d*&at+. Since the pentatonic is a linear translation of both major and minor tonalities combined "their triads are contained in the pentatonic. Rashied Ali. we 'nd that... two individuals like Ching Fang and John Coltrane each shared the task of reconciling. in a general way. etc. on George Russell$s . as shown in Figure 8#. the convergence of vertical and horizontal tonal organization into one unifying nonlinear concept "also see note 15. altogether rests on the common extramusical inspiration of the subjects of study themselves.. the paralleling of ancient Chinese esoteric theories with a contemporary African!American musical legacy. 9#. Whether deliberate or unintentional. with Coltrane$s 'nal drummer. from 1967. within a closed system of sixty degrees. the dilemma of their day: one.counterpart to the open landmarks of modal jazz harmony. and its &at side "e. "21# A good example of this last period is )Venus. taken through the Chinese transposition of twelve lu. "22# Conclusion Cross!cultural comparative analysis of the above kind takes speculative risks in order to try to stretch and hopefully to connect those musical sources. the other. subsequently led )free. And so it is di-cult to imagine taking the cross!cultural path toward musical culture without inevitably reaching somewhere across some uncharted spectrum of universals. this does not necessarily imply that Coltrane was making any direct reference to such sources. some of his practice. and experiences that normally are left beyond more contained frameworks of study. the convergence of spiral and cycle..# "see Ex. for even though his was a research that touched upon many areas. Clearly. through a primarily African!American musical practice. the self!realized sum thereof remains crystallized in whole by the music itself.. etc.g.g. or the key of C to B#. Speci'cally here. cyclic theory allows for a musical perspective that reconciles the vertical and triadic of a Western harmonic perspective with the horizontal and pentatonic of a non!Western modal perspective. 10#. or the key of C to A*&at+. as an intuitive process no matter how well informed. through Chinese acoustical theory. perceptions. by re&ecting on Coltrane$s 1960 diagram. c g d a e b *sharp+ c*sharp+ g*sharp+ d*sharp+. it allows for all tonalities to be expressed within one unifying cycle "see Fig.

or Zeng systems of 'fths.. Given this Jungian sense. and major thirds. With regard to similarly organized tonal expressions represented within such basic geometric forms. while the content of archetypes is determined by the material of conscious experience. and with any outside in&uences. at any place. such aural archetypes establish a collective source of musical inspiration that has somehow transpired both time and place in world history. Present in all the constructs discussed above are some of the earliest and most enduring archetypes known. In general. Spirals and number rows of seven dots or lines have indeed existed since the Paleolithic period .. Rendered in visual terms. and wholeness "Fontana 1993. what are here referred to as aural archetypes. It$s this universal aspect of music that interests me and attracts me. while concentric circles are forms of the natural world re&ected from Buddhist mandala (to Aztec calendar (systems. As Coltrane summarizes. their folkloric aspect!!and you$ll discover the presence of the same pentatonic sonority . placing importance on the universe as )number that moves. or comparable modal structures. as aural archetypes the above may leave their musical content up to the cultural!historical stylization (of each performer. it is with this motivation that such innovations are inevitably connected. involving the four elements. For instance. like the circle. And.#. )If you want to look beyond the di%erences in style. seven! and particularly sixty!year periods that mark the renewal of cosmic order "Diop 1991.)Concept.!!with the Dogon and Woyo cosmologies of West and Equatorial Africa . *T+ake away their purely ethnic characteristics!!that is. respectively. fourths. "Jung 1959. language. Herein lies nature$s seal as related to the lu. )are not disseminated only by tradition. or double plates of shifting key and changing mode. further correlations with the Coltrane diagram can be made by comparing the earlier Danielou reading of Chinese symbolism and tonal system of fourths and 'fths!!having to )express the movements of the universe. can rearise spontaneously. then. perfection. but . 13#. for after all.. . you will con'rm that there is a common base . 59#. and migration. at any time. What is certain is that their cosmological and numerological incentives should not be understated.. they are themselves unconscious or primordial forms that are present and active in every psyche. 314!321#. the pentacle or pentagram has perennially stood for in'nity. 23!26. The latter peoples are said to include spiral matter and principles of opposites as the basis of creation..

A. "quoted in Porter 1998. emotional states. Other sources in English about Chinese music theory that were in print during Coltrane$s time . has been considered by W. a path begun some years earlier. If you live it. Alain Danielou "1904!94#. the academic and mystical turn re&exive. thereby making it imperative that he articulate his philosophy more through the musician than through any abstract writing.# Coltrane also studied related materials such as Slonimsky "1947#. This is why his diagram is of such value for the rest of us. For Coltrane. interwoven with undeniable universals that defy time and space. My music is the spiritual expression of what I am!! my faith. "1. my being. actions.. we can de'nitely accept the obligation of his musical tradition$s aural representation of theory.. "3. "quoted in Porter 1998. I want to speak to their souls. As he states it: )I$d like to point out to people the divine in a musical language that transcends words. which involves raising the translation of a text more closely toward the artistically accessible.. "2.. is testi'ed by his last works and ultimately by his timed departure. 211#. It is therefore also important to note the potential role such musicologycan have. "quoted in Zimmerman 1967. 1#. manifested ultimately through sound. Through his writings.# The term referential is used here as the practice that )also communicates meanings which in some way refer to the extra!musical world of concepts. of this realization. my knowledge. where a master intellect is expressed in increasing harmony with a spiritual domain.# Of this. Coltrane said: )My goal is to live the truly religious life and express it in my music. founder of the International Institute for Comparative Musicology in Berlin. 78#.that$s what I$m aiming for. just as they do in a poem or a painting. when you play there$s no problem because the music is just part of the whole thing. 1967.. It is somewhat like looking into the keyhole of a kaleidoscopic world. and character. "23# Coltrane$s attainment on July 26. "Meyer 1956. It is equally important to remember that )absolute meanings and referential meanings are not mutually exclusive : that they can and do coexist in one and the same piece of music. Such matters of human inspiration were a part of Danielou$s mission as well. where this singular drawing then becomes the illustrative essence of Coltrane$s chi. back cover# to be )the 'rst to wake up the West to the universality of musical harmony and its potential for planetary consciousness. culture and ritual. from a man much too preoccupied with the process of playing out his self!realization than writing about it. 232#. Mathieu ("1997.

and so could not verify witnessing the source or use of such a diagram.include Danielou "1943. It$s particularly evident in Africa. Egyptian.. )By turning to non!Western sources in the creating of his music. 113#.. It is interesting to note. that the catalog department for the Free Library of Philadelphia ("Central#. Similarly. the best theoretical source for Coltrane$s modal jazz period of the 1950s. has con'rmed having the original Danielou book since at least 1953 "according to card sizes used only prior to that date#. Jimmy Heath ("1999# stated that. being the eclectic person that he was. in attempting to tackle the elusive subject of )how spiritual ideas of essence. Eric Nisenson("1995. Coltrane writes out various scales that he identi'es by ethnicity "e.. he labels two pentatonic types as Chinese "Simpkins 1975. There$s a lot of modal music that is played every day throughout the world. Balinese.. therein. it was quite possible.. without knowing de'nitively. which Coltrane would have frequented through the late 1950s. 157# has used George Russell$s Lydian Chromatic Concept.# A Chinese concept of modal will certainly di%er from what has been historically categorized as modal jazz. but if you look .g. Coltrane has also been quoted as including China in the following. the proposed cyclic perspective on what has commonly been called modal in jazz is o%ered via a musical/cultural theory historically built on early Chinese perception in order ultimately to expand the use of the term modal jazz to include this view as well.# Ingrid Monson "1998. 109# has also stated that. and transcendence served as one of several factors shaping the deepening interest of jazz musicians in non!Western religious and musical expressions. 25!39#.# Regarding Coltrane$s awareness of or access to Danielou$s book. Yusef Lateef "1999# has remarked that. "4. he himself was )o% the scene. Coltrane was making a statement with profound social and cultural as well as musical implications.#. "6. Here. see also Danielou 1995#. at the particular stage I 'nd myself in. Japanese. for some time between 1955 and 1959. Algerian. Arabian.. related to his search for universals in music: )Currently. unity. and Levis "1936. Yasser "1932. Persian. I seem to be going through a modal phase. and how that interest was embodied musically in the more open forums generated by modal improvisational thinking. knowing that he was prone to look into many things while he lived. although he and Coltrane practiced together often. though. he was not aware of Coltrane$s getting into such books until the latter part of the 'fties. which is usually related to the concept of the Greek modes or scales rather than to a cycle of 'fths. etc. 63!80#. "7. "5.# In a private workbook.

a perfect fourth. Joachim Ernst Berendt "1987. to add further . 528#. or any set of tones. one of the most frequently noted sources of some of Coltrane$s practice during the late 1950s.$ or both. render a linear outline for the same twelve!tone generation by 'fths and major thirds that also aligns both Coltrane$s cyclic diagram and Zeng$s bell!set. "quoted in Porter 1998. Along Western lines. "8. "Slonimsky 1947.$.. An earlier cyclic drawing. "Mathieu 1997. A. in particular. without anyone losing their identity. B*&at+. consists mainly of lines connecting all intervals within a cycle of fourths and 'fths "Fujioka 1995. where the strings stack tones up in quartal sequence "E. "Powers 1980.# Such constructs are also relatable to Slonimsky$s Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns "1947#. Hamel was right when he said: `the root of modality common to all non!European and European cultures is the 'rst step toward a world music. depending on the particular musical and cultural context. Patterns 851. 149!150#. 2111#. and 903. "described as the )interval of 2 1/2 tones. Indigenous musical terminology (has been used as sparingly as possible and only when an equivalent description is not considered adequate enough to relate concepts cross!culturally. Therein.# Concerning the diagram.. can pertain to(either the straight or curved trace of a moving point. a full section is devoted to )Diatessaron Progressions. "the second half of which revolves around tonal centers a major third apart# being directly linked to Slonimsky "1947# "see Porter 1998. Coltrane$s exploration of fourths has been identi'ed in his earlier playing along to Bartok$s Concerto for Orchestra. It therefore seems that as a manner of simply being. 67#. outlining the objective of )equal division of 've octaves into twelve parts. in the geometrical sense. 377#. dated around 1957!58. and that Coltrane generously gave it to him. as in a scale: )the incrementally ascending or descending arrangement of the notes of a mode. India or China. etc.#. Mode has indeed been )de'ned as either a `particularized (scale$ or a `generalized tune.# "Porter 1998. Lateef "1999# has remarked that he did not ask for an explanation but simply wanted the diagram. 109!123#. "9.# All sources herein on Chinese music are in English.. D. F. toward a common language. 223!224# puts it another way: )Generally speaking. "11. it is here more descriptive of the former in music. "10. 894. C. you$ll discover this again in each case.at Spain or Scotland. all musical cultures of all periods and eras of mankind have been modal.# Although linear. its nonlinearity expressed when moving between several points of departure at any given time. 125#. With Coltrane$s )Giant Steps. that mode can relate to the cyclic as well "and cyclic need not always refer to the strict return to a point of departure#.

from the cycle#. both angles may now prove mutually instructive. from the cycle#. In Coltrane$s opinion in 1962. "14. 61#. 161#. "15. "12. that in regard to Coltrane$s key!changing practice with pentatonics. the same concepts of inside and outside playing that characterize the improvisor$s formulation of melodies from chords. A.. 73#. in a sense. Mathieu was )consistently proving himself one of the best in musical theory. 225# remarks that )artists `work and rework a mode$ by superimposing di%erent theoretical models upon its simple frame by embellishing it with elements outside its tonality.borrowing three notes.. Jones "1998. )While this is a subject on which Confucian theorists have expended vast resources of energy for over two thousand years.# Berliner "1994.: )Coltrane spontaneously composed a tightly uni'ed solo notable both for the abstract quality of its melodic motives.g.. he also recorded with George Russell that same year. applying.. folk practice is our best guide to its practical application. it is worth noting. knowing of the composer$s innovative The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization for Improvisation "1959# at least since that time.borrowing a single note. "quoted in Simpkins 1975. from c to g or f!!. who articulates harmonic experience with a 've!limit lattice of twelve centrally located tones fashioned by a similar arrangement of 'fths and major thirds. for a future study perhaps. Chinese pentatonic and heptatonic key changing "gongche!notation# mainly involves the shifting to: "1# a 'fth above or below "e.borrowing two notes. as in traditional ensemble practice since the eleventh century.# Refer to Lewis Porter$s "1998.# Along with Coltrane$s reteaming with Miles Davis in 1958. 162# descriptive motivic analysis for Coltrane$s solo on )So What. 188# adds.. 75!76#. If not directly in&uential on Coltrane$s early modal developments. which is discussed in the conclusion. and for the way he develops each of them.. or "3# a minor third above or below "e. from c to d or b*&at+!!. "2# a major second above or below "e.# Figures 8!10 were originally published by this author in The Horn Call "Modirzadeh 1995. Mathieu "1997.correlation to the seemingly unrelated Zeng bell!set illustrates the notion of aural archetype. "16.g. from c to e*&at+ or a!!. from the cycle# "Chen 1999.# Although the focus here is not to compare traditional Chinese with modal jazz practices. I believe that this is also exempli'ed in the work of W.g. Russell$s concept. "13. derived itself from both the linear "scales# and nonlinear "the .

# Ekkehard Jost "1994. 261!262# has independently a-rmed that: )Coltrane for some time persisted with both of these improvisational strategies. .. "quoted in Porter 1998. is the strongest tonality or chord producing scale that can be derived from a cycle of intervals of 'fths. the A sections are played over a pedal point (while the bridge is speeded up using his `Giant Steps$ chord substitution (formula. Other jazz masters.$ the restrictions of vertical!oriented improvising led Coltrane to return to modal playing and thus concentrate again on horizontal melodic development. will produce all the twelve tones of the chromatic scale. 23!25#. He continued: )Many musicians believe that Coltrane$s free playing was derived from playing `Giant Steps$ patterns over the modal pieces.... chooses to perpetuate the vertical! chordal perspective of Coltrane$s )Giant Steps. on the road to free jazz... C#. to the detriment of its modal relevancy between Kind of Blue and My Favorite Things: )`Giant Steps$ reverts to the multi!chordal structures Coltrane was working on earlier.. In this impressive transformation.. It is interesting to note that Russell$s own cyclic source of conception seems to become Coltrane$s as well. )has astrological signi'cance *and+ is said to represent love.. And then you superimpose (whatever sequences you want over them. But during his solo he is clearly playing the `Giant Steps$ over the pedal point as well. Kofsky "1998. "223#.. technical App. what in fact occurs is an uniterrupted sequence of arpeggiated chords. It carries tonality to the point where it begins to lose its identity. "18. if carried farther.. About a year after `Giant Steps. on separate occasions.... that based on ostinatos and that built on the `Giant Steps$ harmonies and melodic patterns. it is impossible to imagine .. certainly renders an intellectual and philosophical frame to much of the overall modal "and consequently. This example of Coltrane$s work played a negative role ... it seemed better to have them free to go!!as free as possible. and I felt that I should have the rhythm play the sequences right along with me. Porter "1998# has pointed out that the title of )Fifth House.. "Russell 1959.. including James Moody and Sonny Simmons.# With regard to the vital integrative forces of this period.cycle of 'fths#... non!Western# jazz practices from this period on: )The Lydian scale . and we all go down this winding road. Where Martin Williams"1967# heard an E!&at pedal tonein this piece .. the importance of the perfect 'fth interval as a source of tonal generation. . have mentioned to this author. As Coltrane himself put it in 1961: )At 'rst I wasn$t sure.. both based on the foundation of the perfect 'fth.. which. unfortunately. But after several tries and failures and failures at this. 166#. because I was delving into sequences. "166#. "17.

"1967# infers the diagram$s cyclic concept of tonal cell!recombining: )The new context of Coltrane$s last music changed the meaning of his dissonance.. 74#. In doing so. One result is the play!along record to A Love Supreme.# )Venus. Such insistence on a pedagogy based on earlier modal jazz practices of the 1950s "e. 165# states that: )African music is often cyclical and open!ended in form involving one or more repeated melodies or rhythmic patterns "ostinatos# as the basic foundation of a performance.# As a counterpart rhythmic concept. the 'rst in November of 1961 in West Germany (and again in August 1965 in Belgium "featured in the 'lm The World According to John Coltrane#... A parallel comparison can be made here with the Chinese musical ensemble concept of san ban. He said in 1964. "21. his adaptation of African rhythms. Porter "1998. cyclical pieces are often repeated for a long time with gradual variations added as a performance progresses. and his encouragement of Elvin Jones$ polyrhythms. made up of alternating scale degrees that spell out two seventh chords completely unrelated to the original melody. free from both meter and tempo. Miles Davis$ Kind of Blue# is ultimately misleading and misrepresentative (of both the proceeding "bebop# as well as succeeding jazz practices under discussion. `I feel that since we have used fewer chordal progressions. The earlier version continues motivic development in the 1959!60 vein of runs and passages in linear motion.g. "20. "22..# The clearest examples of Coltrane$s conceptual growth during these periods are his two televised versions of )My Favorite Things.# For instance. 214# adds: )So Coltrane looked for ways to thicken the rhythmic texture of his music even as he simpli'ed its harmonic motion by keeping to a repeated pedal point. we need more rhythm. where the soloist is instructed to improvise on an F Dorian mode..$ The growing rhythmic complexity of his music. while the latter breaks away with de'nitive fourth and 'fth intervals in cyclic progression... Coltrane helped create a new rhythmic basis for jazz. led by late 1965 to the elimination of strict time!keeping in his groups. and I want to experiment. . These repetitive.. Turino "1997."19. the Jamey Aebersold "1982# approach to jazz improvisation (has contrived a scale syllabus by which all practices under its purview are forcibly identi'ed. "Chen 1999.. thereby extending the vein set with A Love Supreme some months prior. So it was not about polytonality but shifting or changing tonalities. meaning a )non!metrical beat .

2 *October 2000+.. from which a majority of references on the artist are made herein. Giant steps. and mode are blurred. John . . The key areas *on )Venus.+ are sometimes ambiguous. and it might be best to simply identify where Coltrane is venturing to the &at side and where to the sharp side. referring more to one$s mastery of his or her own inner )energy. respectively.. 235!264#.. he could move from one key to another at will. "23. both of whom o%ered their own insights and critique toward the following work.. Schott "2000. appreciation goes to Dr. Originally published as )Spiralling Chinese Cyclic Theory and Modal Jazz Practice Across Millenia. for introducing me to the Mathieu and Diop sources.. as well as his exhaustive work on Coltrane "1998#. Impulse Records A!77 "1964#. Yusef Lateef and Jimmy Heath. or )breath. Atlantic Records 1311 "1959#. Musically. Impressions. Ted Williams. In practice. he tended to create some tonal structure in his improvisations. Steve Coleman and Pascal Bokar. this revised version makes possible the bridging of those musical scholarly communities represented by the Journal of Music in China and Black Music Research Journal. DISCOGRAPHY Coltrane. !!. "Porter 1998. and Tony Jones. sometimes in a particular sequence. A love supreme. approach and symbolism. 171#. )This ambiguity is itself one of the distinctive features of the music. 359# adds. 277!280#.# Literally )air.. Atlantic Records 1361 "1960#. by moving back and forth between keys. !!.... The distinctions between motif. for introducing me to the Danielou source as a crucial link in relation to both this and an earlier cross!cultural work "Modirzadeh 1992#. in Journal of Music in China "2..Coltrane$s changing !key approach also di%ered from the earlier music in that . it )can be illuminated through the examination of selective concepts relating to (psycho!aesthetic purpose. it may be more useful to speak of harmonic 'elds. Acknowledgments are in order for Lewis Porter$s invaluable support during the last stages of this article. no. Impulse Records A!42 "1961#. chord. for computer! graphic representation of the Chinese sources. "Liang 1985. My favorite things. !!. . As well.

Kenneth J. ed.!!. 1982. Journal of Music in China 1: 55!76. !!. . Kind of blue. A new approach to jazz improvisation. New Albany : Jamey Aebersold. A song for one or two: Music and the concept of art in early China. Coltrane. Liner notes.# DeWoskin. Alain. vol. Impulse Records A!77. Interview by Robert Palmer . London: India Society. London: India Society. Translated by Yaa!Lengi Meema Ngemi. Nada Brahma. Rochester: Inner Traditions. Impulse Records ASD 9277 "1967#. The world according to John Coltrane. 1943. Coltrane. Berendt. 1995. 28. REFERENCES Aebersold. New York Coltrane. Columbia Records (CL1344 "1959#. New York: Lawrence Hill (Books. 1964. The world is sound. 1994. Interstellar space . Berliner. Cheikh Anta. Civilization or barbarism : An authentic anthropology. of Introduction to the study of musical scales. Jamey. Thinking in jazz: The in'nite art of improvisation. "Rev. Joachim Ernst. Introduction to the study of musical scales. 1987. Danielou. Alice. 1990. 1999. Music and the power of sound: The in&uence of tuning and interval on consciousness. translated by Qinru Zhou. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Chen Yingshi. Fundamental theories of Chinese traditional music in ancient writings . 1943. Diop. 1982. Paul. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies. Davis. John. A love supreme. Rochester: Inner Traditions. Miles . 1991.

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: Prentice! Hall. 1932. Paul. Williams. Martin. Upper Saddle River.D. by Bruno Nettl et al. Newsweek July 31: 78!79. from UCLA(and a Ph. 2nd ed. 161!190. In Excursions in world music.J. Down Beat "December 14#: 15!17. A theory of evolving tonality. Yasser.Turino. John Coltrane!!Man in the middle. N.A. The music of Sub!Saharan Africa.. His interests lie in cross! cultural perspectives regarding the role of improvisation and innovation in musical tradition. from Wesleyan University in ethnomusicology and is Assistant Professor of Jazz and World Music Studies at San Francisco State University. HAFEZ MODIRZADEH received an M. 1967. 1997. New York: American Library of Musicology.. with an emphasis on Iranian and African!American musical cultures in particular. He is also an active saxophonist in the creative music scene of the larger San Francisco Bay area . Death of a jazzman. 1967. Zimmerman. Thomas. Joseph.