English 12 Terminology A active voice-The subject performs the action expressed in the verb.

The subject act. Ex. The dog bit the boy. (active) The boy was bitten by the dog. (passive) allegory -a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. Alliteration - The repetition of identical consonant sounds at the beginning of closely associated words. For example, "Peter Piper Pecked" Allusion-A brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art or fiction Analogy-The resemblance between two different things antagonist anti-climax-This is an event or conclusion that is an abrupt shift from the important to the comical or trivial. antithesis -Using opposite phrases in close conjunction. Examples might be, "I burn and I freeze," apostrophe-A figure of speech in which a person not present is addressed. argumentative essay anecdotal evidence- non-factual information based on a person's experience archaic language-old fashioned, out of date language and expressions. Aside-A stage convention used to indicate words spoken by a character but heard only by the audience and not by other characters on stage. assonance -The repetition of identical vowel sounds in different, closely associated words. For example, "in Xanadu did Kubla Khan" atmosphere-Words and details that create a feeling in the reader audience autobiography-A non-fictional account of a person’s life written by the subject. B Ballad -commonly written using a ballad stanza: a quatrain of alternating four- and three-stress lines, usually rhyming on the second and fourth lines (abab). ballad stanza bias-A subjective point of view in which the writer’s opinion affects the integrity of the work. Biography -A non-fictional account of someone’s life. If the work is about the writer’s life, it is called an autobiography. blank verse -Poetry written in unrhymed ("blank") lines of iambic pentameter. C Cacophony-Harsh sounds introduced for poetic effect -- sometimes words that are difficult to pronounce. Caricature-Ludicrously exaggerating the peculiarities or defects of persons or things for comic reasons case study -A detailed analysis of a person, group or event catastrophe-A disaster of huge proportions cause and effect character characterization-The methods a writer uses to develop the personality of a character. character foil-A character that is used to contrast opposing traits with another character chorus chronological order cliché-A metaphor or expression that has become overused. climactic order climax -The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem where the conflict reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. colloquialism colloquial language comedy comic relief compare and contrast comparison conflict

Epic-An extended narrative poem. euphemism-A mild expression used to describe an otherwise offensive word or topic. social class." "going to a better place. Moreover. Epigram-A short. falling action fantasy-Fantasy novels create settings and characters that do not exist in our world . while scrawny has a negative connotation. epilogue epiphany-An instant of revelation or insight in which a character suddenly recognizes a previously unknown truth." Euphony-Agreeable sounds which are easy to articulate. given/heaven contrast couplet-Two lines." or "leaving us. which rhyme. Dialogue-A conversation including two or more characters in a story is a dialogue. dilemma direct presentation-Direct presentation means the speaker is telling us about the character. the attitude of the speaker. Didactic. a person who is underweight might be described as slight. E Editorial. For example. dramatic monologue -A poem in the form of a speech or narrative by an imagined person dramatic form dynamic character-A character who changes significantly during the story (growing older is not a significant change). Drama-A composition in prose or verse for presenting through dialogue and acting. expository essay-an extended piece of writing made up of a number of paragraphs. expert testimony-Incorporating the opinions of someone who has sufficient knowledge in a field so that others may rely on his opinion exposition-A systematic explanation of a specific topic. external conflict F Fable-A brief story that is told to present a moral. Dialogue is often used to reveal character and conflict.is the vocabulary chosen by the writer. consonance-The repetition of similar consonant sounds at the ends of closely associated syllables or words. and can directly influence the atmosphere through connotative meanings. elegy-A solemn poem that mourns the death of a person or the passing of an era. witty. For example. diary diction. dramatic irony-Refers to a dramatic situation in which the audience knows something a character does not.connotation-The emotional associations and overtones related to a word. D Denotation-The literal dictionary definition of a word. or scrawny. emotional appeal-A writer elicits emotions to create empathy with characters or to convince a reader of an argument. or practical lesson. dying can be euphemistically described as "passing away. For example.An article that presents the opinion of an individual or a publication. or a people. pointed statement often in the form of a poem. dissonance-The juxtaposition of harsh jarring sounds (a synonym for cacophony) or the juxtaposition of closely related but not identical vowel sounds in one or more lines. Dénouement-plot descriptive essay dialect-Dialect is a form of speech characteristic of a particular geographic region. gored/bored. one following the other. especially a moral one. it is a piece of nonfiction extended metaphor-A metaphor that develops throughout a poem and that involves several points of comparison.intended to teach a lesson. Epitaph-An inscription on a gravestone or a short poem written in memory of someone who has died. The characters of fables are often animals who speak and act like human beings. It can reflect the level of education of the speaker (narrator). Slight has a fairly positive emotional connotation.

exaggerated emotions. The good characters always win and the evil ones are always punished. For example. simile. Historical references may be used in an essay to support an argument or as comparisons (see allusion in literature hyperbole-Deliberate overstatement or exaggeration to achieve emphasis. taste. foil foreshadowing form-a particular way or style of writing formal essay formal language frame story free verse-Poetry with neither rhyme nor rhythm and meter G genre graphic text-Lifelike or vivid writing. saint. "The sails at noon left off their tune" irony J Jargon-Specialized language often characteristic of a particular subject. limited omniscient-The third-person ("he/she") narrator who reveals the thoughts and feelings of only one character literal language-What is said is based exactly in reality without the comparisons used in figurative language. object. and tell of marvellous deeds supposedly performed. etc. or style of speaking peculiar to a people. imagery indeterminate ending indirect presentation informal essay informal language interior monologue-A type of stream of consciousness that depicts the inner thoughts of a character internal conflict internal rhyme-The rhyming of words within a line of poetry. For example. image-five senses: sight. H hero historical reference-Citing evidence from the past. nor the absurdities of the character. as in situational comedy. Characters who reveal only one personality trait. idiom-An expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements or from the grammatical rules of a language. smell. not necessarily those of the poet. I iambic pentameter-A line composed of five iambic feet . first person point of view flashback flat character-A simple or one-sided character in a story. one who does not change or develop.farce-A type of comedy based on a humorous situation such as a bank robber who mistakenly wanders into a police station to hide. I told you a million times to shut the door. figurative language-Figurative language is the use of figures of speech (metaphor. It is the situation here which provides the humor. and a conflict that pits an all-good hero or heroine against an all-evil villain. or touch. Juxtaposition-contrast L Legend-Applies particularly to a story associated with some period in the history of a people or nation. dialect. Legends are intended to glorify a hero. metaphor metre . hearing.narrative poem in which the first-person speaker expresses thoughts and feelings. giving a clear and effective picture. Idioms are language. M Melodrama-A drama that has stereotyped characters. often containing an element of fact but sometimes wholly untrue. lyric-a relatively short non. paradox) in writing to attain a special effect. not the cleverness of plot or lines.

repetition research resolution . Not to be confused with satire. especially by distortion and deception.) Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts. onomatopoeia oxymoron P Paradox-A statement that first appears to be contradictory but actually states a truth.). which is different from pure description or explanation. Narratives have plot. personification persuasive essay persuasive technique plot point of view pro and con argument prologue-This is an introductory speech preceding the action of a play or scene. serious in subject and dignified in style. narration narrator O objective (language tone etc. It occurs when the audience experiences the emotions of pity. Christopher Marlowe's "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" and Robert Burns' "Sweet Afton" are examples pathos-This is taken from the Greek root word for suffering or deep feeling. devoid of thoughts and emotions. the subject of the sentence is neither a do-er or a be-er. N Narrative-another word for story. Octave-An eight line stanza. Narration is story telling. ode-A lyric poem of some length. For example. mood mystery myth-A traditional story that is closely associated with a particular culture or group of people. objective point of view-The third-person ("he/she") narrator who reveals none of the thoughts and feelings of the characters is using the objective point of view. characters. tenderness.monologue-A speech spoken entirely by one person. This narrator records the details of the story as a video camera would. An octave and a sestet comprise a Petrarchan sonnet. passive voice-In the passive voice." The third-person ("he/she") narrator who can reveal the thoughts and feelings of several characters is speaking with an omniscient point of view. setting. and point of view. or sorrow. Propaganda-Systematic efforts to spread opinions or beliefs. protagonist proverb purpose pun Q Quatrain-A four-line stanza question and answer R refrain-A phrase or verse repeated regularly. =active voice) pastoral-A literary work that has to do with shepherds and rustic settings. History teaches us that we learn nothing from history. but is acted upon by some other agent or by something unnamed (The new policy was approved by the committee. omniscient point of view-Omniscient literally means "all-seeing. = passive voice) (The committee approved the new policy. parallelism-repetition parody-The imitation of either formal or thematic elements of one work in another for humorous purposes. The myth usually communicates the beliefs and values of that culture. personal essay-A first person narrative. conflict.

irony. or type.). or opinions. sometimes in order to provoke change. subjective (language tone etc. story within a story style stylistic technique-point of view.the ridicule of an idea. humor.rhetorical question-A question which implies that the answer is obvious--the kind of question that does not need actually to be answered. Satire usually mocks human vices or foibles. The main character is spoken of as `he/she". tone. setting simile slang soliloquy sonnet-A 14-line. imagery. W Wit-Intellectually amusing statements . S sarcasm satire.Based on or influenced by personal feelings. stereotype stock / stereotyped character-A character who remains primarily the same throughout the story. narrative pace. Sestet-A six line stanza in a poem. and personae of literature. surprise ending suspense symbol symbolism T Theme.summarizes the main ideas of a piece of writing thesis statement third person point of view-The speaker is a character outside of the main action of the story. tightly crafted lyric poem that focuses on a specific theme speaker stanza stream of consciousness statistical evidence static character-A character who remains primarily the same throughout the story. tastes. diction. The speaker may have unlimited or limited knowledge about the characters in the story. figurative language and many more. tone tragedy U understatement V Voice-Voice is the "sound" of the characters. point of view. person. See also persona. rhyme rhyme scheme rhythm rising action round character-Characters who show varied and sometimes contradictory traits. tone. narrators. The last six lines of an Italian or Petrarchan sonnet.central idea or purpose in a poem or a short story that usually gives insight into human nature or human experience Thesis.