# Programme: Bachelor in Civil Engineering Subject Code: BAA 1112 Topic: Civil and Structural Drawing

OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you will be able to : i. Describe the term that are use to classify building structure. ii. Understand type of structural drawing documents iii. Classify a structural elements with consecutive numbering and grid systems methods

Introduction
 Engineers also use the medium of graphic to express

what they have design.  Engineer’s drawings are more to technical drawing that was an outcome from the design procedure .  In this chapter, students will be introduce with structural system of a building that are designed by civil engineer as for building is one of the field that need the expertise of a civil engineer.  This system is later documented in the civil engineering drawing plan.

Engineers design the bone of building Architect design the appearance of the building .

of buildings. constructions. maintenances etc. Building structural components  Civil engineers are well known to practice engineering knowledge in the applications designs. loads(stress) and deformation(strain) in its member  This system is divided to superstructure system and substructure system .1.  Buildings are supported by a structural systems that is designed and constructed to support and transmit applied loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable.

Building superstructure  The superstructure system is the vertical extensions of building physical structure above the foundations  Columns  Beams  Load bearing walls  Slab  Trusses  Staircase .

Columns  Columns are rigid. relatively slender structural members design to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members .

Beams  Beams are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer loads across space to supports elements mostly a columns .

Load bearing walls  A load-bearing wall is a wall that bears a load resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure or a beam. .

with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the supports .Slab  Slab is a plate structure that are rigid. planar. usually monolithic structure that disperse applied loads in a multidirectional pattern.

. Widely use to support roof.Truss  Truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes.

Structure – Civil Eng .  Landings of stairway should be logically integrated with the structural system to avoid overly complicated framing conditions Appearance.Architect.Staircase  Stairs provide means for moving from one level to another.

Building substructure  The substructure is the underlying structure forming the foundation of the building  This systems a later to be discuss in geotechnical engineering drawing chapter. .

depend on the projects owners will contains different type of drawings. .  Basically there are 3 types of documentation for a construction project:  Tender documentation  Construction documentation  Completion documentation  Each documents in different formats.2. Classification of drawing doc.

 Generally there are 5 types of drawing can be identified for the purposes of document classification:  Design layout drawing  Design detail drawing  Shop detail drawing  General information drawing  As-built drawing .2. Classification of drawing doc.

.General information drawing  A drawing containing information required for the understanding of related drawings. engineers will specified type of materials that must be used in the construction of the building.  Documented in tender and construction documents. or for the performance of the work depicted on them.  Normally in general information drawing.

 Information on the design always mentioned in the drawing.General information drawing  Reinforced concrete and steel are well known a modern materials for building constructions. Ex: 2y24 means the concrete are design with 2 steel reinforcement with a diameter 24 mm throughout the beam (design detail drawing) .

as designed. shape and relationship. .  Documented in all phase of documentation.Design layout drawing  A type of drawing depicting the plan. of major structural elements. size.

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of any given part of a structure or structural element.Design detail drawing  A type of drawing doc. in accordance with the design.  Documented in construction and completion documents . depicting all the information required for the construction.

Design detail drawing steel connections .

Design detail drawing staircase .

and intended for use in a certain projects. Ex: roof truss.Shop detail drawing  A type of drawing that are prepared by fabricators depicting all necessary information for the fabrication of structural elements (design layout/detail drawing).  Construction and completion documentations .

As-built drawing  A drawing depicting a structure or structural element as constructed.  Documented in completion document at the end of the project to be kept each by owner. . contractor. consultant and for some case the local authorities.

Classification of structural elements  Each structural element customarily labelled by a discrete reference using a suitable combination of letters or numbers. or both .  This reference may be by either consecutive numbering or a grid system.3.

Consecutive numbering  In a consecutive numbering system. Floor levels may be designated either by sequential levels or traditional storeys (see Table 2.)  Stem-the type of structural element.  Suffix-the individual number of the structural element. . the reference should comprise aprefix. stem and suffix.2. as follows:  Prefix-the location or floor level of the structural element.

. 4 B 21. . . . . . . . . . . 10 S 4. . . . . . . . . . .Consecutive numbering  Codes for the prefix and stem are given in Table 2. . slab No 4 . . .  Level 10. beam No 21 .  Examples:  Fourth floor. . . .  The individual number for the structural element (suffix) should be allocated using a consecutive numbering system for that type of element.2.

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Layout drawing Detail drawing .Consecutive numbering  Each element will be catalogued so that the layout drawing and the details drawing are relate on each other.

i.  Grid directions should be selected to allow for expansion to accommodate any anticipated future extension .Grid system  A grid reference system consists of one set of grid-lines in one direction with a second set of grid-lines in another direction.  Grid systems are generally used with regularly shaped structures but grid lines do not necessarily have to be at right-angles to each other. Any grid system shall be consistent throughout a project. architectural and engineering drawings shall have the same grid orientation.e.

bearing no relation to any recognized map grid or True North.  Australian standard recommended that.C... B. the grid-lines running down the sheet be marked alphabetically (A.. 3..Grid system  The project grid may be adopted with a completely arbitrary orientation.) and the grid-lines across the sheet be marked numerically (1. 2. for structural grids. 2.).1. as shown in Fig.  Some civil engineering practitioner use a transverse systems from above .

Australian standard recommendations .

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DISCUSSION Q&A .