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2 (2012) 99–111

MYU Tokyo

S & M 0872

*

Corresponding author: e-mail: tab@tool-a.mech.kyushu.ac.jp

99

Residual Stress of Hoop-Wound CFRP Composites

Manufactured with Simultaneous Heating

Daisuke Tabuchi

*

, Takao Sajima

1

, Toshiro Doi

1

, Hiromichi Onikura

2

,

Osamu Ohnishi

1

, Syuhei Kurokawa

1

and Takahiro Miura

Department of Intelligent Machinery and Systems, Graduate School of Engineering,

Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395, J apan

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University,

744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395, J apan

2

International Research Center for Hydrogen Energy, Kyushu University,

744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395, J apan

(Received December 20, 2010; accepted March 7, 2011)

Key words: composite material, filament winding, residual stress, simultaneous heating, finite

element method (FEM)

Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is used to strengthen high-pressure hydrogen

composite vessels. However, the existence of excessive resin between CFRP layers

and a drop in the strength of CFRP resulting from the fiber tension during the layer

stacking of CFRP composites are the points at issue. To solve them, a curing method

using simultaneous heating has been proposed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate

the influence of the simultaneous heating on the residual stress of the CFRP composite.

CFRP test specimens were manufactured with simultaneous heating, and strains from

their stress releases were measured. As a result, with the simultaneous heating method,

the difference in residual stresses between the CFRP inner and outer surfaces is smaller

than that with the conventional filament winding (FW) method. We conclude that the

simultaneous heating method has an advantage to increase the pressure capacity of

composite pressure vessels.

1. Introduction

Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is used to strengthen high-pressure hydrogen

composite vessels. To produce a pressure vessel reinforced by CFRP, the filament

winding (FW) method is implemented. In this method, a dry carbon fiber is soaked in

a resin bath, where resin impregnates the fiber. This is followed by the stacking of wet

fibers on a mandrel. After the stacking, the resin is cured using an autoclave.

100 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

However, a drop in the strength of CFRP resulting from the fiber tension during the

layer stacking and the existence of excessive resin between CFRP layers are the points at

issue.

(1–3)

To solve them, a curing method using simultaneous heating has been proposed. By

heating the resin in the FW process, the resin viscosity decreases, and excessive resin

is thought to be eliminated. Moreover, by curing the resin simultaneously in the FW

process, the drop in the strength of CFRP resulting from the fiber tension is thought to be

reduced.

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of the simultaneous heating

method on the residual stress of hoop-wound CFRP. CFRP composite ring specimens

were manufactured with simultaneous heating. The strains resulting from the stress

release of specimens were measured, and residual stresses were evaluated.

The residual stress measurement test is explained in § 2; the residual stress

measurement results are explained in § 3; finally, the discussion is provided in § 4.

2. Residual Stress Measurement Test

To evaluate the effects of the simultaneous heating method on the residual stress of

hoop-wound CFRP, composite ring specimens were manufactured using an FW machine

under different conditions. As winding parameters, fiber tension (5, 15, and 25 N)

and method of heating (simultaneous heating method and conventional method) were

selected. Stress release strains were measured by cutting the specimen into pieces and

then residual stresses were evaluated.

2.1 Manufacturing of specimens

CFRP composite specimens were manufactured using the FW method. The primary

materials used in this study are a high-strength carbon fiber and an epoxy resin. The

carbon fiber band T800HB, which contains 12,000 filaments, was manufactured by

Toray Industries, Inc. Toray T800HB has a tensile strength of up to 5,490 MPa and an

elastic modulus close to 295 GPa. The resin is jER

TM

801PN epoxy cross-linked with

jERCURE

TM

EMI24 curing agent. The carbon fiber band, which is impregnated with the

resin, is wound in the hoop direction around an aluminum alloy liner by an FW machine.

This machine was uniquely developed by us, and the liner can be heated by hot air.

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the FW machine using internal heating. Table

1 shows the mechanical and geometrical properties of the specimen. Figure 2 shows

the stacking sequence of the FW method. Figure 3 shows the CFRP ring specimen. As

winding parameters, fiber tension (5, 15, and 25 N) and method of heating (simultaneous

heating method and conventional method) were selected, and six specimens were

manufactured. The simultaneous heating method (SIM) is a method in which fiber bands

are stacked on a heated liner (80°C). The conventional method (CNV) is a method in

which fiber bands are stacked on a liner at room temperature. After completion of the

winding sequence, these composites were cured at 80°C for 3 h. After curing, these

composite pipes were sliced with a 9.7 mm axial length using a carbide tool.

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 101

Table 1

Properties of specimen.

Properties of carbon fiber TORAY T800HB-12K

Elastic modulus, E (GPa) 295

Tensile strength (MPa) 5,280

Filament diameter (μm) 5

Filament number 12,000

Properties of epoxy resin

Elastic modulus, E (GPa) 3.2

Tensile strength (MPa) 50

Properties of specimen

Laminate constitution [90]

8

Specimen width (mm) 9.7

Winding pitch (mm) 2

Outside diameter of liner (mm) 99

Liner thickness (mm) 2

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of FW machine using internal heating.

102 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

2.2 Strain measurement by stress release

To clarify the residual stresses of CFRP of specimens, strains resulting from stress

release were measured. Electrical resistance strain gages were fitted on the CFRP outer

surface. Then, strains were measured by cutting the CFRP through the thickness using a

thin slitting saw until the ends of the cut ring did not rejoin.

3. Results

The hoop residual stresses at the outer surface of the CFRP specimen σ

θ

were

calculated from the stress release strains ε

r = c

in accordance with the following equation.

σ

θ

= −E

θ

· ε

r = c

, (1)

where E

θ

is the hoop modulus of each specimen, and it is calculated in accordance with

the following equation.

E

θ

= V

f

×E , (2)

where V

f

is the volume fraction of carbon fibers in CFRP of each specimen (Table 2).

The resin modulus is remarkably smaller than the carbon ones, which is ignored here.

Figure 4 shows the hoop residual stresses of each specimen obtained from the above

equation. The specimens formed by the CNV method snapped closed as they were cut,

and there was a high compressive hoop stress at the outer surface of the CFRP of the

specimen. Also, a high tensile hoop stress was expected to be at the inner surface.

The specimens formed by the SIM method were hardly deformed, and it was

understood that less hoop residual stress existed in the CFRP of the specimen. It was

also understood that the residual stresses at the outer surface of the CFRP of each

specimen tended to become tensile in proportion to the fiber tension.

Fiber band

Aluminum alloy liner

Fig. 2 (left). Stacking sequence.

Fig. 3 (right). CFRP ring specimen.

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 103

4. Discussion

To verify the results obtained from the above experiments, an analysis of the residual

stresses induced at the FW process was carried out by applying the method proposed by

Kokan and Gramoll.

(4)

Figure 5 shows the geometry for the composite specimen. The

stress distribution in a composite pipe may be found by decomposing the problem into

a number of simpler ones, solving each of them, and superimposing the solutions. In

the following section, numerical results were obtained with the following geometry, a

=47.5 mm and b =49.5 mm. c was varied according to the winding parameter, that is,

V

f

, cross-sectional area of the carbon fiber, number of stacking, and the winding pitch of

each specimen. Table 3 shows them for calculation.

4.1 Fiber tension stresses

Faupel and Fisher

(5)

described a technique to analyze the effects of fiber tension on

wire-and-ribbon-wound cylinders. It is applied to calculate residual stresses caused

by fiber tension. As the fibers are wound, the underlying material is subjected to a

compressive load by fiber tension σ

T

. The hoop stress in the CFRP of the specimen σ

θ_c

is

given by

Table 2

Volume fraction (V

f

) of each specimen.

Fiber tension

Specimen 5 N 15 N 25 N

V

f

-CNV [%] 48.6 55.1 65.9

V

f

-SIM [%] 59.1 66.0 68.0

Fig. 4. Experimental hoop stresses at outer surface of specimen.

-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

5N 15N 25N

R

e

s

i

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a

l

s

t

r

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s

a

t

o

u

t

e

r

s

u

r

f

a

c

e

[

M

P

a

]

Winding tension[N]

SIM

CNV

104 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

1

r

2

+a

2

2r

2

ln

r

2

a

2

c

2

a

2

− σ

θ_c

σ

T

− −

−

−

−

−

. (3)

The radial stress in the CFRP of the specimen σ

r_c

is given by

r

2

a

2

c

2

a

2

ln

r

2

−a

2

2r

2

σ

T

σ

r_c

−

− −− −

−

−

. (4)

The hoop stress in the liner of the specimen σ

θ_l

is given by

σ

θ_l

2

σ

T

1+

a

2

r

2

ln

c

2

a

2

a

2

b

2

−

−

− −

− − − − . (5)

The radial stress in the liner of the specimen σ

r_l

is given by

σ

r_l

2

σ

T

1

a

2

r

2

ln

c

2

a

2

a

2

b

2

− −

−

−

−

−

−

− − −. (6)

Table 3

Outer radius of specimen c.

Fiber tension

Specimen 5 N 15 N 25 N

c-CNV [mm] 51.5 51.3 51.0

c-SIM [mm] 51.2 51.0 51.0

Fig. 5. Geometry of a thick-walled fiber-wound vessel.

c

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 105

Equations (3)–(6) were used to determine the hoop and radial prestresses caused by

fiber tension of 5, 15, and 25 N.

4.2 Heating stresses

With the CNV method, the specimen liner is heated after layer stacking. Therefore,

stresses are generated in the wound carbon fiber by a thermal expansion of the liner.

These stresses were analyzed by finite element method (FEM). A two-dimensional

axisymmetric structural solid element was used. Table 4 shows the properties used for

this analysis.

This curing process involves a rising temperature from room temperature (15°C)

to curing temperature (80°C). During this time, the resin has not yet gelled, and this is

modeled by assuming decreased composite transverse stiffnesses and Poisson's ratios.

Therefore, this analysis was carried out with ν

rθ

=ν

rz

=0 and E

r

= E

z

=8.9 Mpa. Figures

6 and 7 show the FEM results. These figures are plotted with the hoop and radial stresses

due to the heating as the vertical axis and the radial position of the CFRP of the specimen

as the horizontal axis.

4.3 Cooling stresses

After the curing process, stresses are generated by the cooling process. These stresses

were analyzed by FEM using the same model as in the case of the heating. Figures 8 and

9 show the FEM results in the case of CNV. Figures 10 and 11 show the FEM results

in the case of SIM. The properties used for this analysis are the same as those shown in

Table 4.

4.4 Total stresses

The total residual stress state is the superposition of these solutions.

Table 4

Properties of CFRP and liner.

Properties of composite

Hoop elastic modulus, E

θ

(GPa) V

f

×Ε

Radial elastic modulus, E

r

(GPa) 8.9

Axial elastic modulus, E

z

(GPa) 8.9

Poisson’s ratio, ν

θr

, ν

θz

0.34

Poisson’s ratio, ν

rz

0.02

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion, α

r

, α

z

(°C

−1

) 70 ×10

−6

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion, α

θ

(°C

−1

) −0.074 × 10

−6

Density, ρ (g cm

−3

) 1.57

Properties of liner

Elastic modulus, Ε (GPa) 73

Poisson’s ratio, ν 0.33

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion, α (°C

−1

) 23 ×10

−6

106 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

Fig. 6 (left). Hoop stresses due to heating at CNV.

Fig. 7 (right). Radial stresses due to heating at CNV.

Fig. 8 (left). Hoop stresses due to cooling at CNV.

Fig. 9 (right). Radial stresses due to cooling at CNV.

-150

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50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

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]

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5N

15N

25N

Tension

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-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

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15N

25N

Tension

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-50

0

50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

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o

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[

M

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a

]

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5N

15N

25N

Tension

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

47.5 49.5 51.5

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a

d

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s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

Tension

4.5 Comparison of analytical results and experimental ones

The results obtained above were compared with the experimental results in § 3.

Figure 12 shows the comparison between calculated data of the hoop stress at the outer

surface of the CFRP of the specimen (theory) and the experimental data (exp) for each

specimen. This shows that the calculated data are not coincident with the experimental

data.

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 107

Fig. 10 (left). Hoop stresses due to cooling at SIM.

Fig. 11 (right). Radial stresses due to cooling at SIM.

Concerning the case of the CNV method, the calculated values are higher than the

experimental values, except for the case of fiber tension of 5 N. In § 4.1, fiber tension

σ

fiber

was used as σ

T

in eqs. (3) to (6). Considering a volume fraction and the rule of

mixture, the actual σ

T

may be

σ

T

= σ

fiber

V

f

. (7)

The stresses caused by fiber tension may be smaller than the previous calculated values.

-150

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-50

0

50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

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s

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[

M

P

a

]

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5N

15N

25N

Tension

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

47.5 49.5 51.5

R

a

d

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s

t

r

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s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

Tension

Fig. 12. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental results.

-100

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-40

-20

0

20

5N 15N 25N

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[

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]

Winding tension[N]

SIM-exp

CNV-exp

SIM-theory

CNV-theory

108 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

Therefore, residual stresses were recalculated by substituting eq. (7) into each

equation in § 4.1. Figures 13 and 14 show the states of hoop stress and radial residual

stress in the case of the CNV. Figures 15 and 16 show the states of hoop stress and radial

residual stress in the case of SIM.

Figure 17 shows the comparison between experimental hoop stress at the CFRP outer

surface of the specimen (exp) and its calculated values considering V

f

(theory).

Fig. 13 (left). Total hoop residual stresses at CNV.

Fig. 14 (right). Total radial residual stresses at CNV.

Fig. 15 (left). Total hoop residual stresses at SIM.

Fig. 16 (right). Total radial residual stresses at SIM.

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

H

o

o

p

s

t

r

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s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

47.5 49.5 51.5

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

H

o

o

p

s

t

r

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s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

47.5 49.5 51.5

R

a

d

i

a

l

s

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 109

Fig.17. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental results (considering V

f

).

Concerning the case of the CNV method, these values were relatively close. Because

of stress release, each specimen snapped closed as they were cut, and there was a high

compressive hoop stress at the CFRP outer surface of the specimen, and high tensile

hoop stress was expected to be at the inner surface, as shown in Fig. 13. Considering a

vessel that is pressurized from the inside, there is a higher hoop tensile stress at its inner

part, and its pressure capacity is limited by the strength of its inner part. Thus, these

residual stress distributions are thought to have a disadvantage for increasing the pressure

capacity of the vessel.

On the other hand, the calculated data are not coincident with the experimental data

in the case of the SIM method. Considering these results and Fig. 16, it is understood

from Fig. 16 that high tensile stresses occur at the interface between the CFRP and the

liner of the specimen. This means that a separation may occur if the adhesive force is

smaller than these stresses. A separation was actually observed for the SIM-method-

manufactured specimens.

Thus, the residual stresses were recalculated assuming that the separation occurred.

If the separation occurs, the stresses will be balanced throughout the CFRP part.

Considering CFRP stress lines (Fig. 15) as straight lines, a shift exists and the stress level

becomes zero at the radial middle CFRP position.

Figure 18 shows the residual stresses when the separation occurs. Figure 19 shows

the comparison between calculated residual stresses and experimental ones at the outer

surface of the specimen. By assuming the separation, the calculated values are in good

agreement with the experimental ones. With the SIM method, the difference in residual

stresses between the CFRP inner and outer surfaces is smaller than that with the CNV

method. It can be explained by the small influence of thermal expansion of the liner.

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-60

-40

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0

20

5N 15N 25N

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[

M

P

a

]

Winding tension[N]

SIM-exp

CNV-exp

SIM-theory

CNV-theory

110 Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24 No. 2 (2012)

Moreover, it is found that the inner hoop stress tends to be compressive and the outer

hoop stress tends to be tensile when the fiber tension becomes higher. By applying an

adequate fiber tension, compressive inner hoop stress and tensile outer hoop stress at

the CFRP will be introduced. This will increase the pressure capacity of the composite

pressure vessel.

Here, the effect of the separation on the strength of the CFRP is assumed not to be

significant. However, this may cause damage at the interface, and needs to be discussed

later.

5. Conclusions

To evaluate the effect of the simultaneous heating method on the hoop-wound CFRP

residual stress, composite ring specimens were manufactured with an FW machine under

different conditions. As winding parameters, fiber tension (5, 15, and 25 N) and method

of heating (simultaneous heating method and conventional method) were selected. The

stress release strains were measured by cutting the specimen into pieces and then residual

stresses were evaluated. Conclusions are the following.

1. Considering the effect of the volume fraction of carbon fibers, the calculated residual

stress is in good agreement with the experiments.

2. With the simultaneous heating method, the difference in hoop residual stresses

between the CFRP inner and outer surfaces is smaller than that with the conventional

FW method.

Fig. 18 (left). Total hoop residual stresses at SIM (in separated CFRP).

Fig. 19 (right). Comparison of theoretical results with experimental results at SIM (assuming

separation).

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50

100

150

200

250

47.5 49.5 51.5

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Radial positon [mm]

5N

15N

25N

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Winding tension[N]

SIM-exp

SIM-theory

Sensors and Materials, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2012) 111

3. With the simultaneous heating method, it is found that the inner hoop stress tends to

be compressive and the outer hoop stress tends to be tensile when the fiber tension

becomes higher. This suggests that for CFRP, compressive inner hoop stress and

tensile outer hoop stress can be introduced by applying an adequate fiber tension.

References

1 M. R. Piggott: Adv. Compos. Mater. 6 (1996) 75.

2 J . W. Lee and C. E. Harris: ASTM STP 1059 (1990) 521.

3 M. R. Etemad, E. Pask and C. B. Besant: Composites 23 (1992) 253.

4 D. Kokan and K. Gramoll: Compos. Eng. 4 (1994) 979.

5 J . H. Faupel and F. E. Fisher: Engineering Design (J ohn Wiley, New York, 1981) p. 739.

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