MOREHEAD STATE UNIVERSITY

IET 698 – Research Methods Technology
Discussion Boards
Travis Fisher 5/9/2013

Contents
Session 1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Session 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 Session 3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 Session 4 ..................................................................................................................................................... 11 Session 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 Session 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 Session 7 ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 Session 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 Session 9 ..................................................................................................................................................... 23 Session 10 ................................................................................................................................................... 27 Session 11 ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Session 12 ................................................................................................................................................... 33 Session 13 ................................................................................................................................................... 37

Session 1
Please read the article linked above and discuss: What is the purpose for graduate education. Please read the attachment and discuss on the TEXT format NOT attachment.
It really is a shame that education seamlessly outweighs experience these days. Although I do believe in the education system, and also in furthering ones self as far as he/she can go, I also believe that there are situations in a work place where the hands on experience could never be simulated completely in a class room environment. Furthermore I believe that employees with this priceless experience should not fear the loss of their jobs after the company hires a new college grad or a "top out" in salary. In house training should be set in place for these types of employees to gain the credentials and prove their worth. College is not ideal for everyones situation and I think there are gray areas where that type of learning is not necessary for an experienced employee. The primary purpose of the Graduate School is to prepare scholars and researchers to master the content and methods of their special subjects, especially those who give promise of continuing development because they want to create knowledge and communicate it widely. After completing an intensive program of study, graduates should be able to claim professional standing in their chosen fields.

1

This article discusses the pros and cons of online learning. I agree with some of the points that are made about the benefits of online classes. For example an online student does all of his/her communicating through the written word so this skill must really be fine tuned. Online classes are typically far more tedious than a face to face so the student must be very self motivated and disciplined and much more time is spent learning the subject matter per week since it is up to the student to learn the material. I actually do like the fact that through online classes a student has all the necessary time to comfortably reply to a question in class. Although it is good that the student is given the time to reflect on the information before responding I personally think that it is more important to develop the skills needed to be able to verbally represent one’s own thoughts on the spot, especially in our field of study (engineering management). I agree that online learning has a lot of benefits but I do not prefer it to the traditional class room setting.

The article “Transforming Leadership: An Assessment Tool” by Dr. Jule D. Scarborough discusses how several modern leadership theories seem to fit the leadership needs of business today. Anderson Consulting performed studies on CEO’s of major companies that brought forth a serious concern those today’s’leadership standards and styles are not keeping pace with the needs of today or the future. As corporations grow so does their complexity and similarly so does the competition between corporations. The idea for advancement in this article is that as companies become more focused on the development of human resources and participation as opposed to power and control the more effective the organization will be. Some of the listed characteristics of effective organizations in this article are as follows: •&νβσπ;Create/communicate a compelling vision which will provide direction and guidance. •&νβσπ;Treat employees as business partners to secure informed cooperation and to tap knowledge and experience. •&νβσπ;Use information technology positively, making the leader the center of a human intelligence network, not a bureaucratic controller. The focus of the research in this article was mainly directed to the industry but was also directed towards the IT departmental leadership and program content. The author encourages IT departmental administrators to consider some sort of similar assessments to their selves and their department to harness the potential within the faculty and the IT programs. He says that each faculty member should be also challenged and engage in leadership activities so that they set a good example of how to be a leader for the students. Leadership skills are not something that should be learned after one graduates, its something that should be developed throughout ones life.

Session 2
Go to the Announcement Section, Click on the link for article, Digitization and Graphic Communication .............". Read and review the article and post your critical review on Literature, Methodology, Findings, and Summary.

2

In regards to the review of related literature, the author starts the research with an impeccable introduction. Unlike other researchers, Ms Sartorius uses simple vocabulary which makes it easier for her audience to understand the key points, for instance she writes “ This paper describes the changes faced by the field of graphic communications in light of new digital graphic communication media”. It is very clear what the problem statement is. The author also includes good sources that also explain the issue she is addressing on Multimedia Electronic Publishing and the Future of Graphic Communications, Graphic communicatio ns and the “digital revolution”, Technology literacy in the workplace, etc. When she writes about the digital revolution, she writes , “In 1998, the London College of

Printing conducted a study analyzing the training needs of the pre-press industry (Pira International, 1999).The study identified a skills gap generated by the convergence of once highly differentiated text, image origination and manipulation areas into one that allows for still and moving images to be treated within a single digital environment. In regards to the methodology, even though the operational definitions are not clearly specified in her research, she does mention the use of surveys and what companies and people were studied as part of her participants and instrument of research. Also, in the design and procedure, she does not include details on how the study was done. This makes the findings questionable. Finally, her summary does have a thorough explanation on the causes and consequences of the digitization of the workflow. In my opinion this was a good research but it lacks more information about how the studies that were done.

What is research? Why should there be any question about the definition of research?
Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested. People often use a systematic approach when they collect and interpret information to solve the small problems of daily living. Here, however, we focus on formal research: research in which we intentionally set out to enhance our understanding of a phenomenon and expect to communicate what we discover to the larger scientific community. Although research projects vary in complexity and duration, research typically has eight distinct characteristics: 1. Research originates with a question or problem. 2. Research requires a clear articulation of a goal. 3. Research follows a specific plan of procedure. 4. Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub problems. 5. Research is guided by the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis. 6. Research accepts certain critical assumptions. 7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to resolve the problem that initiated the research. 8. Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical. Research is a valuable tool we acquire through the course of our studies. It's purpose should be questioned so that it can also be answered, such is the way of research. Research is not a universal tool, 3

As a manager of the plant I believe the research that would be conducted could potentially be biased seeing as you would be an employee of the same plant you’re debating on whether or not to shut down or expand. many of the independent dairies are being taken over by large food chains. the companies strongpoints will likely be revealed in which case the president should set in motion a procedure to embellish on those good qualities. In particular. Yes I believe there is a major conflict of interest here. More than likely the manager would vote to expand the plant if anything. a life insurance company. How might research help the new president make the right decisions? In answering this question. different topics might require different types of research. Some items it manufactures. Corporate headquarters asks you to conduct an investigation to determine whether any of these plants should be closed. The company is currently unprofitable and is. You are asked to comment on its quality. What will you look for? 4 . many equipment companies are bypassing the wholesalers and selling directly to dairies. The new president of an old. many equipment companies are bypassing the wholesalers and selling directly to dairies. survival will be more difficult in the future. Also by eliminating the major problems. These are both forms of research development but they are totally different tools. Because the industry is changing in several ways. or reduced.though it may seem like one at first. and likely the larger chain companies will steal a lot of the customers. from there the major financial problems can be eliminated first. You have received a research report done by a consultant for your firm. Pareto charts could be used to isolate the vital few problems with the existing company. For example. The company sells a wide line of equipment and supplies to the dairy industry. and similar plants. the company is very old. and some may require Finite Element Analysis. Maybe instead of trying to compete on a larger scale the company can step it down a notch and focus on utilizing all of its profitable traits. but rather. For instance if the company is still manufacturing products that can be bought elsewhere much cheaper than that particular task might need to be eliminated for the sake of time and money. consider the areas of marketing and finance as well as the whole company. You are manager of the Midwestern of a major corporation. expanded. In particular. As a researcher the best decision might be to close the plant. In addition. The first step should be an extensive research on the market and also set a competitive benchmark. established company is facing a problem. but since it is so old it will likely have a small but loyal branch of customers that can now be catered to more thoroughly. and many it wholesales to dairies. The study is a survey of morale in the home office and covers the opinions of about 500 secretaries and clerks plus about 100 executives and actuaries. supervising five animal feed plants scattered over four states. By defining the term research for any given problem you are actually defining the first few steps of that should be conducted on that project. but as a manager you would want to keep the plant open. Is there a possible conflict between your roles as research and manager? Explain. in the president’s opinion. creameries. moved. operating inefficiently. For insctance some projects may require surveys.

Before anything I would ask some of the following questions: •&νβσπ. If your people trust you and feel they’ve been given permission to speak up they wil l likely be very honest about their workplace satisfaction and discussing whatever is on their minds. d) Analyzing and interpreting the data to see whether they support the hypothesis and resolve the question that initiated the research. c) Gathering data relevant to the hypothesis. b) Positing a hypothesis that. In addition to possibly solving problems based on the information given by employees. Qualitative surveys are easier and faster. Usually. Quantitative research simply means the results are measurable and projectable. This kind of survey is good for providing benchmarking that allows you to measure progress and improvement over time and implement a process of continuous improvement.Do you want to establish benchmarks against which you can measure improvement? •&νβσπ. if confirmed. or conducting a small ‘group’ research session.There are a number of alternative methods available for assessing employee satisfaction so the first decision is which approach and which workplace satisfaction survey methods are appropriate for this situation. Also you could arrange a team event to get feedback from a cross-functional team. List defining characteristics of the Scientific Method (Research) The textbook defines the scientific method as a means whereby insight into the unknown is sought by: a) Identifying a problem that defines the goal of ones quest.Or key people are leaving and you need to understand why? Some possible approaches are quantitative research. their will also be a boost of morale in the workplace because the workers will feel like their opinions and suggestions are important.Are you looking for some general feedback on just how satisfied employees are? •&νβσπ. and then all the results are consolidated to provide baseline measures of employee satisfaction. They generally rely on a larger sample size. Explain and differentiate between Omnibus studies and Syndicated research? An omnibus survey is a method of quantitative marketing research where data on a wide variety of subjects is collected during the same interview. while sharing the common demographic data collected from each respondent. standardized questions and scoring systems. or even a crossfunctional team meeting. 5 . resolves the problem. They may involve interviewing a few people from across the company as ‘barometers’ for the organization morale. quantitative surveys.Or are your needs more tactical? Maybe there is a specific morale or performance problem on which you need additional insight? •&νβσπ. multiple research clients will provide proprietary content for the survey.

Industry Management of Companies and Enterprises Plastics Product Manufacturing Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing Employment (1) 7. Session 3 Go to the BLS site in the External Link and go the employment/unemployment.00 $54.53 $43. For example: Marketing results. he who has two jobs will fail at one or both of them. Survey results.050 6. you have been assigned the responsibility of conducting a research study to estimate the sales potential of your products in the domestic (U. “He who serves two masters disappoints one or both”. These charts are the most relevant industrial occupational reports I could find while surfing this website. This kind of research is usuallya large-scale marketing research project undertaken by market-research companies and subsequently offered for sale to interested parties.740 Percent of Hourly industry mean wage employment 0.Syndicated data can be structured or unstructured data that is primarily provided by external sources (data providers) as a result of their analysis and studies conducted.460 $89.860 $108. Discuss key issues and concerns arising from the fact that you.440 $93.260 Printing and Related Support Activities 4.950 $88.460 5. As area sales manager of a company manufacturing and marketing outboard engines. Labor in a workplace should divided equally from the top down according to employees pay scale and qualifications.27 1.580 0.040 4.84 Annual mean wage (2) $113. and prepare a report on Employment Trends for Science and Technology graduates. the manager.S.37 1.15 1. are also the researcher. My concern here is that the manager might be taking on too much work and in turn he may reap unsuccessful results.13 $44.20 $52. Go to occupations. or Canadian) market.96 Industries with the highest concentration of employment in this occupation: Employment (1) Percent of industry Industry Hourly Annual mean wage mean wage 6 .79 $42. or in this case. Common Usage patterns and forecasting information.

77 (2) $107.180 $86.19 0. I will judge Jason’s proposal based on the review of literature. It is good that he included a review of literature in the beginning.620 210 1.22 $58. I think that some minor adjustments to the format could go a long way.53 $41.61 $51.180 $107.63 1.73 1.420 $99.01 0. and methodology. and Artificial Synthetic Fibers and Filaments Manufacturing Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Clay Product and Refractory Manufacturing Top paying industries for this occupation: 2.29 $59.370 $123.06 $64.510 4.880 Industry Oil and Gas Extraction Federal Executive Branch (OES Designation) Office Administrative Services Scientific Research and Development Services Machinery.63 Annual mean wage (2) $133. 7 . I don’t think that it has a very professional appearance.84 1.210 380 Percent of Hourly industry mean wage employment 0. presentation of paper. as far as I know you are supposed to also include the date and location of the information accessed. The references used seem to be strong sources but are not properly cited throughout the paper.47 $47.130 $119. Methodology: Since he works at this place the participants in the research can likely be trusted sources so the methodology is good.78 $43.870 Click on Jason's draft of thesis proposal and discuss his proposal.employment Basic Chemical Manufacturing Lime and Gypsum Product Manufacturing Resin.170 $122.72 $57.12 $59. The problem of the paper is clearly stated.74 1. Presentation of paper: Although the paper contains some good information.54 0.310 $123. Synthetic Rubber. Equipment. and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers Employment (1) 870 230 120 1.700 $90.68 $51.330 650 1.03 0. Literature: First of all this article is set up in a manner that allows it to flow from one topic to the next and Jason provides headings to allow the reader to follow his train of thought.

discussions on Forums I and II. The instructor encourages you to review the assigned literature. Although we do not copy other classmate's work. the execution of the investigation. The instructor doesn't encourage isolated responses as in many exams. make comments. Reading Assignments. join the discussions and engage in intellectual conversations.Applicability •&νβσπ. you shall continue to react to other participants. access the manuscript. issues and topics as a TEST. and the publication of the research. the depth of your knowledge and your involvement. The instructor doesn't grade you based on right OR wrong answers.Locality •&νβσπ. This article extensively covers the information of chapter one. Reflection On Forum II The instructor is pleased to review your more than 20 pages of responses.Methodology •&νβσπ. agree or disagree. Please do not consider the DB questions. As I grade the DB work. Are Americans Becoming Internet Slave? Read and review the article and post 8 . The instructor encourages joint discussions. your informed discussions are important. It explains the formulation of the research problem. Go to the Assignments. we should react to it. This is not a TEST that you respond to questions and leave the Forum. I look at the level of your work. comments.Funding This article does a fine job in distinguishing between what is research and what is not research.Please carefully study the linked document below on "graduate research" and discuss your understanding of the topic on this thread. It defines research as having four categories: •&νβσπ.

a computer. the findings would have been more powerful if the article had used more than one source. In regards to the researchers review of literature this article was on the short side of convincing. a pen or pencil. I think this information is critical when weighing the validity of any survey based research. For instance. or watching television. Although the author does well in stating in the introduction the instrumentation of the survey and specifying conductor of the research. and more time working for their employers at home--without cutting back their hours in the office. sampled 4. For example. Also. and Summary. but also enhance our communication experience in others. adversely. On one hand this tool can bring us together communicatively and on the other it can be the wedge in between us. As a replicative work the idea is to reiterate the truth and validity of an existing work. Finally. shopping in stores. This thesis was gathered by the Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society (SIQSS). I felt that this article was limited in its finding. you might be able to find several products right now in your eyeshot that have the characteristics of a problem. if the research being conducted is an original work then the problems will be much more elusive. whereas. we know that it was a descriptive survey. If the research being conducted is a replication of an existing research then yes of course research problems can be found everywhere.your critical review on the Literature. such as. Please discuss you findings: Upon reading this article I have found validity in its suggestions that Americans have become too dependent on the internet. an automobile. On the other hand. a backpack. Problems though they may be. Americans report that they are spending less time with friends and family. This article brought to life some interesting discussion points but they felt lacking in description. email and social medias also allow us to be very brief and mechanical in our communication. The methodology could have been strengthened if graphs and tables were provided to visually represent the multitude of quantitative data. more sources would be added credibility. without the internet it might not be possible to remain in touch with a long lost friend or stay so close to a family member fighting in a war over seas. What we do not know is the demographics of the sample group and the questions on the survey. etc. The article states that as Internet use grows. failure should really not be an option here. Although the data being presented was all over the spectrum it was represented by the study conducted at Stanford University alone. I do agree that technologies like the internet result in a declination of social awareness to some extent. Where are research problems found? Problems can be found everywhere. Findings.113 adults in 2. the question here is. Methodology.689 households. are they researchable? Unless ones motives to research these problems is to ultimately discover and develop a more effective and efficient alternative product or process then the research 9 . kitchen utensils. the procedure of informing the reader about the research and how it was conducted is good. researchable problems are far less general.

State the problem in a way that reflects an open mind about its solution. Say precisely what one means. Just as the importance of good research is to improve what was previously known about a certain subject matter. but finding a good problem is somewhat of a problem in and of itself. is this product really worth my money? So to answer the question. The commonality that links these two types of research is the process and criteria to be met in the problem selection and the execution of research. or innovate on an existing one. Edit one’s work (Leedy & Ormrod 2010). Above all. Think through the feasibility of the project that the problem implies. 10 . and ideally its problem statement should reveal and reference the parenting research. the development of a reasonable theoretical framework for the study begins with identifying a good research question and addressing every loose end. Also. problems can be found everywhere. and also build upon what was commonly known to be true about that particular subject. the customer will eventually ask. no such references shall be made. suppose one has an idea to invent an alternative product or process. These five strategies are useful in articulating the research problem: 1. most importantly. In an original work. whether it is a replication or an original work. 2. to provide further evidence that the parenting study was true. is this problem really worth the research? Even if one was positive on the originality of the research problem. 4. The purpose of replicative research is. What are the characteristics of a researchable problem? There are two types of research: replications and original work. In addition.being conducted is a replication. similarly. just maybe the way research is conducted can also be improved. some of the greatest researchers are those who present questions that stray our minds to think outside the box. 5. State the problem clearly and completely. When selecting a problem to research. similarly there methods may have been rather unorthodox. the researchable problem should be of passionate interest to the researcher. will the work put into developing the idea be worth the results or will the means be worth the ends? These are good questions to ask in a projects early stages. Although there are strategies and criteria that are useful in developing a good study. during the research process these two would share common techniques and criteria that would apply to all research. 3.

Make estimates of time and costs. G. E 2 I Pricing H 1 J Project report F. I 1 Activity Required Predecessor Normal Time Normal Cost Crash Time Crash Cost A (None) 3 weeks $3000 2 weeks $5000 B (None) 4 $4000 2 $6000 C (None) 5 $5000 3 $8000 D A 8 $5000 6 $6000 E A.Session 4 Select a research report from a management journal. Employee opinion surveys d. Outline a proposal for the research as if it had not yet been performed. Generate a CPM schedule for the project. Market research b. Computer service effectiveness at the individual store level. Include a point scale and weighting algorithm. Advertising effectiveness c. a. Market research Pertinence of provided information – weight 25% Reliability of provided information – weight 40% Timeliness of provided information – weight 25% 11 . a.B 3 $3000 2 $4000 F C 5 $4000 3 $8000 You are the manager of a research department in a large department store chain. Credit card operations e. Develop a list of criteria for evaluating the types of research activities listed below. Critical Path Method Activity Description Required Predecessor Duration A Product design (None) 5 months B Market research (None) 1 C Production analysis A 2 D Product model A 3 E Sales brochure A 2 F Cost analysis C 3 G Product testing D 4 H Sales training B.

weight 10% d. Advertising effectiveness Customer base coverage of advertising plan – weight 30% Volume of new business created – weight 30 Repeat business generate – weight 30% Cost of advertising – weight 10% c. and inexpensive videotaping and playback possibilities. Computer service effectiveness at the individual store level. Each score would then be weighted with the associated percentage with the low score providing the best research results. Modern multimedia capabilities add credibility to research proposals because instead of using the traditional methods of presenting a written proposal a researcher can support that writing % 12 . Employee opinion surveys Reliability of survey results – weight 40% Pertinence of responses to company goals – weight 20% Pertinence of responses to current company problems – weight 30% Amount of time interruption to production .Cost of research – weight 10% b. Credit card operations Reliability of results – weight 40% Pertinence of responses to issues under study – weight 40% Cost of research – weight 20% e. Consider the new trends in desktop publishing. multimedia computer authoring and display capabilities. Reliability of results – weight 40% Pertinence of data collected – weight 40% Cost of research – weight 20% Each category is weighted on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being the best response possible and 5 being the worst response possible. How might these be used to enhance research proposals? Give several examples of appropriate use.

Design a form for a research proposal that can be completed easily by your research staff and the sponsoring manager. and post it on the Discussion Board. methods. The selected books went through three refining rounds until they were narrowed down to a final list of ten books that represented the most important ideas in the area of manufacturing systems. Further. introduction. Introduction: This article does a good job of addressing the problem in the introduction which is how the program has clearly demonstrated the a web-site based consortium approach can more effectively deliver a Ph D level degree program to a wider audience than other more traditional strategies but the advantages that are initially gained are lost in some instances in the vastness of the system. Many product managers and corporate officers have requested market surveys from you on various products. review of the literature. You are the new manager of market intelligence in a rapidly expanding software firm. teamwork is more important than turf.with visual aids. Review of literature: I couldn’t find any significant problems or limitations with any of the information in this article. These ten books clearly demonstrate that the ability to change is a notion that should be taught and learned in a manufacturing technology graduate program. and conclusions. findings. A Delphi study was conducted. Use the text to engage you colleagues in discussions. Findings/Conclusion: In successful manufacturing of the future.pdf ) Read the article and post a 250 word critique explaining your reaction to the topic. competitive production must include a mindset of flexibility. Methodology: The methodology was also clearly stated. The Delphi study discussed here could be on effecteive way of beginning to establish a core base of knowledge in any program. as well as today. Discuss how your form improves communication of the research objectives between the manager and the researcher 13 . For example sites like youtube make it very easy and inexpensive for people to advertise their own ideas in a modern and professional format. Do NOT use attachment. Consortium faculty from manufacturing systems were instructed to submit a list of books they believed to be essential for covering the basic ideas in their area. For this week’s assignment you are asked to go to the Assignments and click on the Readings and read the article "A Reading List for Establishing a Base of Knowledge for Technology Management: A Delphi Study" (mcnabb032503.

The instructor expects the research practitioners in this class to use a similar system to review the assigned work. I have suggested in the proposal to form a focus group which would encourage any and all opionions and feelings about the company to be shared by the people involved. and an unsolicited proposal is when you send them a proposal they haven’ t even asked for. List and explain types of ethical violations in research. if any. Request for Bid or in a Request for Quote. Session 5 When we are asked to review or evaluate the scholarly work such as articles. Scientific misconduct is defined as "the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research" (Scientific Misconduct. 14 . The requests for proposals shows what does a customer wants in a detailed manner and are issued by customers themselves in times when their requirements are not fulfilled. Such kinds of requirements are usually found in Request for Proposal. (VS Pages. We criticize the work as if we were to accept or reject the scholarly work for publication. Having a rubric like this will be very useful for future work in this class. I think that after becoming familiar with the criteria in this rubric I will also begin to conduct better research myself.During the process of this proposal communication between the manager and research would be improved. Proposal for Market Research for Software Firm. The unsolicited proposals are circulated in brochures. There is much difference between summarizing an article and reviewing it! Do not summarize it if you are asked to review it. fliers etc. 2013).572 KB) What. books. I have attached the Evaluation Form used by the Journal of ATMAE editors to accept or reject the articles. are the differences between solicited and unsolicited proposals? A solicited proposal is a written response to any requirement that have been previously published. 2013) Basically a solicited proposal is when the customer asks for a proposal.pdf (657. manuscripts. WE DO NOT summarize the work. leaflets. However an unsolicited proposal is used to advertise or publicize a new product and not used to respond to the needs of any customer. After this proposed market research is conducted there should be a unanimous vision shared between the researcher and manager pertaining to the decision-making process for this comany's future endeavors.

2. Informed consent is appropriately documented. These codes are in place to minimize false reporting and unethical behavior in experimentation.e. Privacy and confidentiality of research subjects is appropriately protected.The treatment of human subjects.Maintaining integrity of all experiments and research •&νβσπ. When appropriate. the research plan makes provisions for monitoring data collection. Granted.Honesty •&νβσπ. Studies that include the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Unit 731.Publishing the research and results •&νβσπ. The role of the Institutional Review Board exists to protect the rights and welfare of individual research subjects and to assure that the following requirements are satisfied: 1. Over time. these are all extreme cases. Informed consent is sought form each subject or his/her legally authorized representative. 4. fair. •&νβσπ. i.Personal responsibility for the research •&νβσπ. 6. Risk to subjects are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. and 8.Acknowledging others contributions This is a partial list of the most important factors that are considered to be a typical code for scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. Selection of subjects is equitable. 7. but to ensure these types of things will not happen again we have committees like the Institutional Review Board. and the Nazi Experiments. The code of scholarly conduct is written by each institution to reflect their values but always contains certain universal ideas: •&νβσπ. 3. Risk to subjects are minimized.Granting access to others to allow reproduction of the testing •&νβσπ.To determine scientific misconduct the code of scholarly conduct would have to be defined. When some or all of the subjects are likely to be vulnerable to coercion or undue 15 . 5. many horrible studies have been conducted that sacrificed the welfare of humans and animals.

a paragraph to be read prior to completing an on-line survey. fraud. http://listverse. (2013). a script which is read to the participant prior to proceeding with a telephone survey.com/scientific-misconduct Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments. an annual basis. additional safeguards have been included. Retrieved from http://explorable. Informed consent means the knowing consent of an individual without undue inducement or any element of force. Research involving human subjects can pose complex ethical issues which require careful thought and consideration on the part of both researchers and research participants. The Institutional Review Board has to approve that these requirements are followed before they approve a research study and must review these documents on. (2013). The following is a list of the minimum information which should be provided for all types of research including anonymous surveys or questionnaires as required by the Code of Federal Regulations: • • • • A statement that the study involves research Explanation of the purposes of the research Name(s) of the principal researchers and sponsor(s) where appropriate Expected duration of the subject's participation 16 . Sufficient information must be presented (in understandable language) so that the potential subject can make an informed judgment about participation. 2013) This information can take on a variety of shapes. Prospective participants should always be given adequate information on both the possible risks and the potential benefits of their involvement to allow them to make informed decisions about whether or not to participate in the research. Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2008/03/14/top-10-evil-human-experiments/ http://listverse. I have included a couple links about some of the most inhumane studies ever conducted if anyone is interested. duress or any other form of constraint or coercion.influence.com/2008/09/07/top-10-unethical-psychological-experiments/ Works Cited Scientific Misconduct. It can be provided to the potential participant as: a document which may or may not require a signature. at the least.(UNC Charlotte.com/2008/09/07/top-10-unethical-psychological-experiments/ List and explain the components of the informed consent.

• Statement describing the extent. The purpose of the code is to provide members and other interested persons with guidelines for making ethical choices in the conduct of their work. (2013).• • • Description of the procedures to be followed Identification of any procedures which are experimental Description of any reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts to the subject • Description of any benefits to the subject or to others which may reasonably be expected from the research • For research involving more than minimal risk.com/c/code-of-ethics/ 17 . 3) specific rules of conduct which may be subdivided in various ways.uslegal.uncc. and 4) implementation of the code. which will define administrative processes. (2013). or where further information may be obtained. reporting. an explanation as to whether there are any treatments or compensation if injury occurs and. Retrieved from Research & Economic Development: http://research. Codes typically divide into four distinct elements: 1) an introduction or preamble.edu/compliance-ethics/human-subjects/informed-consent What are Characteristics of Effective Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://definitions. Works Cited UNC Charlotte. (US Legal. A code of ethics is a set of principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior. 2013) Works Cited US Legal. what they consist of. if so. their right to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun and the subject may discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is otherwise entitled. and sanctions. to which confidentiality of records identifying the subject will be maintained • Statement that participation is voluntary. 2) a statement of purposes and values. if any.

com/about_6468770_hospitalvolunteer-training. click on Funding. how will you find out? Be as specific as possible. first aid. well-organized. After wielding oneself with some fundamental knowledge. and likely even the application process for a volunteer position would be found on the hospitals web site.nsf. you will first be trained in the basics. For such research I feel like a step in any direction would be the right one. Go to the National Science Foundation (NSF) site.ehow. Step 3 – Before sending your proposals to NSF: 18 . " open the PDF file. (2013). like John said. Such general information as this is made so readily available to us because of the internet. Since you know relatively little about this subject. HR or someone from upper management for an interview. After doing a brief internet search I found that as a hospital volunteer. Retrieved from http://www. That’s two birds and one stone so-to-speak.html Session 7 Go to the External Link.jsp Step 1 – Before you write: A good proposal begins with a clear idea of the goals and objectives of the project. safety and medically specific safety training.Session 6 You have been asked to determine how hospitals prepare and train volunteers. and understandable. review the document and post as TEXT on the Discussion Board Forum 7 (No Attachments) a summary of four steps "Advice to Proposal Writers" NSF URL: http://www. These include business practices. Similarly to John. in which case that is probably the first person you would want to see anyways. Likely there would be some sort of volunteer team leader. Step 2 – Writing the proposal narrative: A good proposal is always readable. a face to face visit should be scheduled with.gov/pubs/policydocs/pappguide/nsf08_1/gpg_index. 2013). go to the topic of "A guide to proposal writing. presuming that all the other facets would have undoubtedly steered you in that direction regardless. eHow. I believe the internet would be a trusty enough foothold to begin with. Most volunteers have to obtain CPR certification as well as first aid certification (eHow. grammatically correct.

It also provides six of the following steps that are helpful in creating a successful survey: 1. Start drafting the questions for your survey 5. rather than a quantitative. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitativeapproach to studying these questions.html and begin to learn how to make surveys. with a purpose of describing and understanding the phenomena from a participants' point of view. methodology. Write the objectives and goals for your survey 2. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach. Decide what type of survey you want to conduct 3. but not really practiced. This is to familiarize you with writing preparing surveys. Step 4 – Awards and Declinations: If the proposal is successful. Please discuss your learning of this site. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students.Encourage your professional organization to form a committee to help members review their proposals before submitting them to NSF. End your survey with demographic questions Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. Is it usefull? This web site was useful in that it explained that the first step to making a survey is in deciding whom you will target. current customers and non-customer consumers who may have an interest in your products. make the best possible use of the funds awarded.com/how_4495824_makesurvey. Create a qualifying question at the beginning of your survey or questionnaire 4. Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully designed research proposal is something to be preached.ehow. Divide the body of your questionnaire into different sections 6. Identify at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly 19 . How to make Surveys:Visit http://www. Do students learn how to properly research better through active learning like a face to face class discussion or by actually performing the research alone? It is best to use a qualitative research approach here because we are trying to answer a question about a complex phenomena. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative.

Data collection •&νβσπ. historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges.encountered when doing research. There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.Evidence of localization •&νβσπ.Identification of research problem •&νβσπ. Having a detailed research proposal would lead the way for a systematic research project and would help the researcher see in the beginning what would likely result from the research.Recognition of authorship •&νβσπ.Reporting and evaluating research The Historical Research Method comprises of several techniques and guidelines that historians use such as: •&νβσπ.Specifying the purpose of research •&νβσπ.. novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study.Analysis of data 20 .Identification of origin date •&νβσπ. It is essential to not to cut corners here because there needs to be a plan explained in explicit detail within the proposal so that the readers can feel comfortable with giving the "go ahead" on such research. For each problem.Determine specific research questions or hypotheses •&νβσπ.g.Analyzing and interpreting the data •&νβσπ.Literature review •&νβσπ. explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem. The major steps in conducting research are: •&νβσπ. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal. pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid. Another problem could be that the data suggested an unexpected conclusion after it had been analyzed and interpreted. In regard to quantitative research proposals. The entire idea behind a proposal is to provide the details that upper management need to be on board with what you believe your research can offer the company. One problem that commonly arises for a researcher is converting a question into a clearly stated research problem.

p. face-to-face interviews. paper surveys. rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. 2013). It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. The sample size is typically small. Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. They produce results that are easy to summarize. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions. and dive deeper into the problem. opinions. and other defined variables – and generalize results from a larger sample population. in qualitative research the focus of the study may become more apparent as time progresses. Qualitative research may be necessary in situations where it is unclear what exactly is being looked for in a study.com/what-is-thedifference-between-quantitative-and-qualitative-research.•&νβσπ. Qualitative research. 2013). It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons. mobile surveys and kiosk surveys. and generalize. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. longitudinal studies.snapsurveys. compare. and motivations. Some common methods include focus groups (group discussions). and systematic observations (snapsurveys. so that it can be examined in as unbiased a manner as possible. (1946). online polls. 168. is a much more subjective form of research. in which the research allows themselves to introduce their own bias to help form a more complete picture. Gilbert J. behaviors.wisegeek.nsf. Session 8 How does qualitative research differ from quantitative research? Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. so that the researcher needs to be able to determine what data is important and what isn’t. It is used to quantify attitudes.Attribution of credibility Works Cited Garraghan. snapsurveys. on the other hand. ISBN 0-8371-7132-6. and respondents are selected to fulfill a given quota. While quantitative research generally knows exactly what it’s looking for before the research begins. individual interviews. opinions.gov/funding/ 21 . New York: Fordham University Press. A Guide to Historical Method. (2013). Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics. Quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys – online surveys.Identification of integrity •&νβσπ. telephone interviews. wisegeek. Quantitative research involves gathering data that is absolute. website interceptors. Often the data presented from qualitative research will be much less concrete than pure numbers as data (wisegeek.htm NSF Site: http://www. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. and participation/observations. such as numerical data.com/blog/what-is-the-differencebetween-qualitative-research-and-quantitative-research/ The Quantitative data collection methods. Retrieved from http://www. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research.

and the range of complexity from small designed artifacts to large engineered systems. “yes”. Experiments typically yield quantitative data. in depth. Analysis of qualitative data is difficult and requires accurate description of participant responses. or measured in units of measurement. The program is focused on gaining an understanding of the basic processes and phenomena underlying a view of design where the system life-cycle context informs the identification and definition of preferences. or in rank order. such as the relationship of systems to the environment. effective accommodation of uncertainty in decision-making. other research methods. Qualitative Quanitative.gov/home/funding Find a source of grant for your present or future occupation (Two-year college faculty. company manager and discuss your findings on the DB Forum 8. for example. However.Visit the NSF site at: http://www. and to find out. This type of data can be used to construct graphs and tables of raw data. Retrieved from http://www. information.nsf.simplypsychology. if looking for symptoms of mental illness. and knowledge in a digitally-supported environment. Quantitative research gathers data in numerical form which can be put into categories. the significance of manufacturability. and one example of a Quantitative Research. 2013). Qualitative research is useful for studies at the individual level.g. Whereas open -ended questions would generate qualitative information as they are a descriptive response. sorting responses to open questions and interviews into broad themes. “no” answers). The Engineering and Systems Design (ESD) program supports descriptive and normative research leading to a theory of engineering design and an understanding of systems engineering. university instructor/administrator. such as observations and questionnaire can produce both quantitative and qualitative information. (2013). for example. a rating scale or closed questions on a questionnaire would generate quantitative data as these produce either numerical data or data that can be put into categories (e. On the NSF website I found a grant opportunity for the field of my interest which is engineering design. in 100 words describe an example of a Qualitative research.g. Quotations from diaries or interviews might be used to illustrate points of analysis.org/qualitativequantitative. case studies). and the relationship between data. For example. Expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data and great care must be taken when doing so. A good example of a qualitative research method would be the case study (Qualitative Quanitative. analysis of alternatives. as they are concerned with measuring things. The program funds advances in a descriptive understanding of design and basic design theory that span multiple domains.html 22 . the ways in which people think or feel (e.

Session 9 In WHICH situations you would use a personal interview. The reason is somewhat obvious.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e06. small businesses and even medium-sized enterprises are far less likely to have access to telephones. i. for example) •through the mail (preferably including a pre-addressed. it is still the case that telephone surveys are rarely without bias. To a greater extent. including: •in person –r the researcher can ask the respondents to deposit completed surveys in a designated location (a drop-box. 2013). telephone survey. these are conducted with far less frequency in the developing world. are very common in the developed world. as this method requires literacy and potentially computer/online access on the part of the respondents (FAO Corporation. in group settings. Self-administered questionnaires can be conducted in a number of ways. the dialogue is conducted on several levels. Even then. Researchers can present potential respondents with the questionnaire in a variety of ways. When human beings communicate directly with each other much more information is communicated between them. government agencies and other organizations or institutions. Retrieved from http://www. only a relatively small proportion of the total population has a telephone in the house. Moreover. by mail. •online – questionnaire completion can be conducted through email or direction to a particular website Care must be taken in identifying the target population when considering a self-administered questionnaire.htm 23 . FAO Corporation. (2013). stamped envelope for return) – such questionnaires can be directly mailed to potential respondents. telephone interviewing has potential in surveys of businesses. which are often superficial. Telephone interviews among consumers. and household drop-off. facial expressions and body language all communicate what the other party means. It goes beyond verbal expression. telephone owners tend to be urban dwellers and have above average incomes and are therefore unrepresentative of the population as a whole.e. or selfadministered questionnaire? In the face-to-face interview it is possible to record more than the verbal responses of the interviewee. including individually.fao. Whilst it is true that many businesses have a telephone. online. The nature of words used. or picked up by potential respondents at a specific location. When two people face one another.

or attitudes. – It is used to answer questions related to how much. – Is often used for theory testing (Will a $1-off instant coupon generate more sales for Kellogg’s Special K?). Please review attached document and DISCUSS the Qualitative Research. If it is a telephone interview timing a major factor. This document is chapter 8 of Cooper Text. how many. 24 . it usually measures consumer behavior. For example. – The researcher who interprets the data and draws conclusions from it is rarely the data collector and often has no contact at all with the participant. – Identical data are desired from all participants. how often. ♦&νβσπ. in a mall when a salesmen tries to offer someone a good deal on a new phone. that person is likely to walk right past that salesmen unless he can engage them in a informal conversation. but it is a dominant one.How do environmental factors affect response rates in personal interviews? How can we overcome these environmental problems? Environmental factors play a major role in a person’s level of honestly and even their willingness to answer the questions in the first place. knowledge. The call must be made on a weekend or in the evenings because people work during the week and would be reluctant to take their time to answer the questions. If it is a personal interview a major factor would be the environment the interview will take place in and the charisma of the interviewer. so evolution of methodology is not acceptable. when. requiring that the researcher maintain a distance from the research so as not to bias the results. – In marketing research. – The survey is not the only methodology of the quantitative researcher. and who. opinions.Quantitative research attempts precise measurement of something.

called frequency of response.Qualitative research: – The purpose of qualitative research is based on “researcher immersion in the phenomenon to be studied. – Once a quantitative survey. participant observer. field observation. gathering data which provide a detailed description of events. but rarely tests it. Project 25 . Problem Statement . catalyst.epa. categorized.” – It is sometimes labeled interpretive research because it seeks to develop understanding through detailed description. situations and interaction between people and things. Go to the External Link. Go to the EPA site or click on URL http://www. – It often builds theory.gov/ogd/recipient/tips. it is quickly common knowledge among a research sponsor’s competitors. *thus+ providing depth and detail.htm See the Tips for Writing Grant Proposals and discuss the Project Summary. – One objective is the quantitative tally of events or opinions. Introduction of the Organization .– Data often consist of participant responses that are coded. ♦&νβσπ. or experiment is started. or group interview moderator). and reduced to numbers so that these data may be manipulated for statistical analysis. – Both the researcher and research sponsor often have significant involvement in collecting and interpreting data (participant.

Project Evaluation. please see the link below: http://www.What the program will accomplish • Program cost • Organization experience and capacity.Steps taken to accomplish program objectives • Program Evaluation. Statement of Need.How will the program continue once funding is gone? • Program staff 4. Organizational Information. How will you measure success? What are your plans for improvement? • Plan for sustainability. Executive Summary. Future Funding.dailywritingtips.Two pages • Reason(s) proposed program is needed. Program Description.One page • Mission and History • Summary of past and former programs 26 .com/grant-writingtips/ 1. Project Methods or Design.Usually one page • Proposed program summary • Solution.Objectives.Three pages • Program design and implementation • Goals and Objectives • Methods. supported with statistical information • Reasons the organization is the right candidate to fulfill those need(s) 3. by whom and when.The methods for reporting program results. and Project Budget.Brief statements to establish credibility with similar programs 2. If the link is not available.

Retrieved from http://physics. 6.html Session 10 Dr. Here is an excerpt: 27 .• Accomplishments 5. Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results.Varies • 501 © 3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions.Tax exemption letter • Organization Bylaws and Articles of Incorporation • List of Board members • Financial Statements • Letters of support Explain the Scientific Method The scientific method is the best way yet discovered for winnowing the truth from lies and delusion. Invent a tentative description. who works as a cocktail waitress. •2. Program Budget. D is conducting an interview with Amber. •3. When consistency is obtained the hypothesis becomes a theory and provides a coherent set of propositions which explain a class of phenomena.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/ node6. The simple version looks something like this: •1. that is consistent with what you have observed. Attachments. called a hypothesis. •5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation. Be sure to review their guidelines on what they do not fund. Observe some aspect of the universe. •4. Physics. (2013). 2013).ucr.One page Provide an outline of all program costs and expenses.ucr.ucr. A theory is then a framework within which observations are explained and predictions are made (Physics.

The History Database program was created for the purpose of research. and cataloging with historical materials and for recording information to assist in the preservation of historic sites. you can begin writing the chapter or article from a first draft. writing.Dr. the men give you more and more problems. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge. The program provides simplified data entry. if one customer is giving me a hard time. D: As the evening progresses. Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. The interviewer is being biased by stating the questions with his/her preconceived opinions about the interviewees job. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. it is not polite to address someone about how they earn a living with such a negative context. I come in a around 7:00 p. librarians. don’t they? What do you do about that? Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. D should do differently. another often steps in and helps out. Dr. but because the interviewer seemed to casting a negative judgment on this persons job they may have been subconsciously defending their line of work instead of providing honest answers. D: What shift do you typically work? Amber: Night. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project.m. including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. museum curators. researchers. I get the manager to step in if they don’t straighten up. and others whose entries include 28 . and searching facilities for use by historians. How bad is it to work here? Amber: Not so bad. Regardless of whether the answers were honest or not. Dr. editing. preservationists. If the information is stored in a computer database. archivists. and work until 2:00 a. They’re regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. If the interviewer had taken a more neutral standpoint the interviewee may have given different answers.m. Computer database management can make the writing process much easier and more efficient. In fact.

If the 29 .textual descriptions. Results could be inaccurate if samples are not selected randomly. The program also helps a beginning computer user make use of a historical database in the same way that a reference librarian helps a freshman make use of a library. Surveys that get mailed out that have a sense of urgency are often discarded as junk mail. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not. Telephone surveys suffer from a well known source of coverage bias because they cannot include households without telephones. Do you agree? Explain your position. Rather than being pushy with people it is best to show them respect. In science and statistics. validity is the extent to which a concept. what do you recommend instead? People do not like to feel pressured into taking a survey. The authors of your textbook (Leedy) suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Coverage bias: Coverage bias can occur when population members do not appear in the sample frame. Describe and distinguish between Internal validity and external validity. People will typically respond positively to a survey that has some sort of incentive. External validity has to do with the generalizability of the findings to the population. Nonresponse bias occurs when the observed value deviates from the population parameter due to differences between respondents and nonrespondents. but often unavoidable. novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Define "VALIDITY". Yes I agree because Bias in surveys is undesirable. In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey. Internal validity has to do with the accuracy of the results. The major types of bias that may occur in the sampling process are: Non-response bias: When individuals or households selected in the survey sample cannot or will not complete the survey there is the potential for bias to result from this non-response. The History Database program is presently used by a variety of historical researchers and organizations. Coverage bias occurs when the observed value deviates from the population parameter due to differences between covered and non-covered units. Selection Bias: Selection bias occurs when some units have a differing probability of selection that is unaccounted for by the researcher. conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world.

There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e. pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid. a. Session 11 Go to External Link. · Sourcing – identifying the author.comparing documents to each other to see if they provide the same information and lead to the same conclusions. Elaborate on the participants (subjects) of this research (who?). You must determine if the content in the document or source is accurate. read the article "Women At Work . In historical research there is Negative criticism which refers to establishing the reliability or authenticity and accuracy of the content of documents and other sources of information. What is your understanding of the literature? g.g. how different would you do? d.org/jit/Articles/bost1198. date of creation. f. . Explain the quantitative analysis of this research.pdf Review the article and respond to the questions on the Discussion Board. then it would be hard to generalize the results to the entire US population. What Methodology was used for this research? e. · Contextualization – identifying when and where the event took place and the context in which it took place. What were the main reasons for this research (significance)? b. a. or other information that identifies the source.. Discuss some of these unique challenges. Explain the instrument used. If you were to conduct this research.sample selected is only Hispanics under the age of 25. h. c. historical research). What do the authors mean by referring to "The actors" in this paper. What were the main reasons for this research (significance)? 30 .. place of creation. this determination is achieved by using the following three heuristics: · Corroboration -." URL: http://nait.

The purpose of replicative research is. In an original work. Also to present some of the problems for industry and society as a whole if the inequities continue. g.What are the characteristics of a reseachable problem? Give example. The author referenced several graphical representations. Some major reasons discussed in the article as to why equity is so important are that it is fair and morally correct to give equal pay for equal performance. Second. to provide further evidence that the parenting study was true. b. and ideally its problem statement should reveal and reference the parenting research.  Selecting a problem .To attempt to present the issues of gender equity in the workforce from several points of view and to provide clues to identify causes for the continued inequities. Explain the instrument used. the researchable problem should be of 31 . If I were to add anything it would be a questionnaire. The commonality that links these two types of research is the process and criteria to be met in the problem selection and the execution of research. There are two types of research: replications and original work. whether it is a replication or an original work. Women in the workforce. Quantitative research method was used. What Methodology was used for this research? e. Using your Text. no such references shall be made. The ideas are clearly articulated and are represented with graphs. it is an important waste of talent when women are diverted from jobs because of their gender. What do the authors mean by referring to "The actors" in this paper. f. c. Discuss the following Topics. h. how different would you do? I like the way the research was performed. If you were to conduct this research. The third reason is that it is the law that we must comply with nondiscrimination on the basis of gender. most importantly. When selecting a problem to research. The article discussed the amount of money women earn and the percentage women in the workforce and their earnings in cents compared men’s dollar. Elaborate on the participants (subjects) of this research (who?). What is your understanding of the literature? This was a rather informative article regarding equity among men and women.

Just as the importance of good research is to improve what was previously known about a certain subject matter. The earth is in trouble.html What are the reasons for conducting a literature review There are several reasons why you may conduct a literature review:       to ensure you have a thorough understanding of the topic to identify potential areas for research to identify similar work done within the area identifying knowledge gaps that demand further investigation to compare previous findings to critique existing findings and suggest further studies. have increased significantly even in the last fifteen years. 5. the forests are full of trees. any efforts to distract the public from that are made by corporate interests that earn bigger profits by polluting. and also build upon what was commonly known to be true about that particular subject.edu/schoolhouse/WP/sampleprobstat. Think through the feasibility of the project that the problem implies. Although there are strategies and criteria that are useful in developing a good study. But the EPA's data disproves this: the emissions of greenhouse gases.passionate interest to the researcher. for example. 32 . Also. Above all. 4. during the research process these two would share common techniques and criteria that would apply to all research. the earth and sea are cleaner than ever. some anti-environmentalists have claimed that the earth is actually in fine shape: global warming is a myth. http://faculty. These five strategies are useful in articulating the research problem: 1. similarly there methods may have been rather unorthodox. some of the greatest researchers are those who present questions that stray our minds to think outside the box. Edit one’s work (Leedy & Ormrod 2010). just maybe the way research is conducted can also be improved. As long as we ignore that. 3. State the problem in a way that reflects an open mind about its solution. Give an Example of a problem statement Recently. and not taking any of the action we need to take. 2.virginia. State the problem clearly and completely. the development of a reasonable theoretical framework for the study begins with identifying a good research question and addressing every loose end. we are living with a false sense of security. Say precisely what one means.

Double check it. "Temperature may affect fermentation. Most commonly. an investigator will formulate a hypothesis based on the problem or subproblems of the research." 3. The hypothesis helps an investigator to collect the right kinds of data needed for the investigation. then statement. What type of error is the researcher 33 . A hypothesis is important because it guides the research. Is your If-then statement testable? Is it specific enough? Is it going to be something that you can investigate? Is it an original contribution? What does this tell us about the cause of a phenomenon. An investigator may refer to the hypothesis to direct his or her thought process toward the solution of the research problem or subproblems. What is the purpose of investigating this? What are you trying to prove? This is going to be the first part of your hypothesis the IF statement. You don't have to choose a topic that you know a lot about. 2001). "If fermentation rate is related to temperature. Decide what you think is going to happen based on that IF statement. A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not. Pick a topic. Hypotheses are also important because they help an investigator to locate information needed to resolve the research problem or subproblems (Leedy and Ormrod.edu/piercech/researchmethods/generating%20a%20research%20hypothes is/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis%20index." http://people.uwec. Think about the effect. then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer". Define. then increasing the temperature will increase gas production. this topic needs to be testable. Discuss and provide examples for Generating a hypothesis. This is your THEN statement.Why do we generate a hypothesis and give an example of a good hypothesis An example of a formalized research hypothesis is "If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light .) a conditional statement. A hypothesis is the an educated guess that you plan on investigating--that being said. The hypothesis is driven by the research question. "Does temperature affect fermentation?" 2.htm Session 12 Using your Texts and the Internet. Often times. Think about the cause. hypotheses take three formats: 1.) an If.) a question.

Step 3: Select and search appropriate databases or search tools. Conducting a Review of the Literature: Step 1. Define. B. In choosing a level of probability for a test. error rate is usually set in advance by the researcher. Things to Keep in Mind: 1. Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known. The Type I.The information cycle determines where and when certain types of information are published. and what their strengths and weaknesses might be. Using your Texts and the Internet. In writing the literature review. in fact. Be organized around and related to the research question you are developing. your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic. true. Step 2: Identify the keywords and phrases that describe your topic by making a list of possible synonyms. Familiarize yourself with the scholarly journal literature by browsing the Library's E-Journals lists. Type I and Type II errors are inversely related: As one increases. which is usually unknown.concerned about making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of error. A review of the literature is a compilation of the research that has been published on a topic by recognized scholars and researchers. you are actually deciding how much you want to risk committing a Type I error—rejecting the null hypothesis when it is. 2. D. For this reason. or α (alpha). the other decreases. 3. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach for other types of error in the study. A literature review should do the following: A. the area in the region of rejection is sometimes called the alpha level because it represents the likelihood of committing a Type I error.Library databases are different than Web search engines.Most topics are interdisciplinary. A Type I error is often represented by the Greek letter alpha (α) and a Type II error by the Greek letter beta (β ). 34 . C. Identify gaps or areas of controversy in the literature. recursive process. so don't limit your search to one field or subject database. The Type II error rate for a given test is harder to know because it requires estimating the distribution of the alternative hypothesis.Be aware that research is a cyclical. Formulate questions that need further research. 4. Discuss and provide examples for Conducting a literature review "Tour of University Library" Online or Walk in.

Discuss and provide examples for Selecting a problem Sources of problems Characteristics of good problems Selecting a problem The selected research subject should be practical and realistic. qualifications and training of the researcher. Define. Perhaps the best way to generate problems is to cultivate the habit of critical reading and listening. Can the necessary cooperation be obtained from those who must participate in the research as subjects? Sources of problems There certainly is no shortage of worthy research problems if you know how to hunt. 3.What is the problem? This should explain why the team is needed. 2.What form can the resolution be? What is the scope and limitations (in time. Define. A good problem statement should answer these questions: 1. In other words. are: importance of the subject. the researcher must ask himself the following questions: 1. 2. 35 . so that the related research material/sources are easily available within one’s reach. Is he well equipped. to conduct the research? 3. technologies) that can be used to solve the problem? Does the client want a white paper? A web-tool? A new feature for a product? A brainstorming on a topic? Using your Texts and the Internet. resources. When bringing together a team to achieve a particular purpose provide them with a problem statement. Discuss and provide examples for The problem statement A problem statement is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem solving team and should be presented to them (or created by them) before they try to solve the problem. concerning his background. This means constantly bringing questions to mind while you are poring over books and journals and while you witness lectures and discussions. which must also be considered while selecting a problem. money.Using your Texts and the Internet. before selecting a problem. Some of the other criteria. costs involved. and the time factor. Does the research/study come within the budget he can afford? 4.Who has the problem or who is the client/customer? This should explain who needs the solution and who will decide the problem has been solved.

but at a minimum. People will typically respond positively to a survey that has some sort of incentive.The sorts of questions you pose identify the kinds of problems to investigate. power nearly always depends on the following three factors: -the statistical significance criterion used in the test -the magnitude of the effect of interest in the population -the sample size used to detect the effect In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey. Do you agree? Explain your position. but often unavoidable. Statistical power may depend on a number of factors. Yes I agree because Bias in surveys is undesirable. what do you recommend instead? People do not like to feel pressured into taking a survey. 36 . Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not.Time Conscious List several steps researchers can take to optimize the power of their statistical tests. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Surveys that get mailed out that have a sense of urgency are often discarded as junk mail. either on your own job or someone else's. a further source of topics is that of problems met on the job. Beyond critical reading and listening. Characteristics of good problems SMART S-Specific M-Measurable A-Attainable/Achievable R-Realistic T. The major types of bias that may occur in the sampling process are: Non-response bias: When individuals or households selected in the survey sample cannot or will not complete the survey there is the potential for bias to result from this non-response. novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Some of these factors may be particular to a specific testing situation. Rather than being pushy with people it is best to show them respect.

or is it just a routine application of known techniques? Is it an important problem. whose solution will have useful effects? Is special funding necessary to solve the problem. Does the proposal explain clearly what work will be done? Does it explain what results are expected and how they will be evaluated? How would it be possible to judge whether the work was successful?   37 . or to solve it quickly enough. Session 13 Review and Discuss the criteria for a good grant proposal at: http://research. Coverage bias: Coverage bias can occur when population members do not appear in the sample frame. or could it be solved using the normal resources of a well-found laboratory? Do the proposers have a good idea on which to base their work? The proposal must explain the idea in sufficient detail to convince the reader that the idea has some substance.microsoft. It is absolutely not enough merely to identify a wish-list of desirable goals (a very common fault). and should explain why there is reason to believe that it is indeed a good idea.     Does the proposal address a well-formulated problem? Is it a research problem. Coverage bias occurs when the observed value deviates from the population parameter due to differences between covered and non-covered units. and ask whether the answers to the questions below are clear. even to a nonexpert.com/users/simonpj/papers/Proposal. Selection Bias: Selection bias occurs when some units have a differing probability of selection that is unaccounted for by the researcher. Telephone surveys suffer from a well known source of coverage bias because they cannot include households without telephones. There must be significant technical substance to the proposal.html Discuss major criteria for writing a good grant proposal Here are the major criteria against which your proposal will be judged.Nonresponse bias occurs when the observed value deviates from the population parameter due to differences between respondents and nonrespondents. Read through your case for support repeatedly.

Do the proposers have a good track record. Where do the statistics come from? Because unemployment insurance records relate only to persons who have applied for such benefits. the Government 38 .bls. How many people are unemployed? How did they become unemployed? How long have they been unemployed? Are their numbers growing or declining? Are they men or women? Are they young or old? Are they white or black or of Hispanic ethnicity? Are they skilled or unskilled? Are they the sole support of their families. especially in the case of young researchers. Why does the Government collect statistics on the unemployed? 2.  Why should we submit the mini-thesis or grant proposal now? Starting now is especially ideal for those who are choosing to do a thesis because you have the opportunity to receive feed back from others. and because it is impractical to actually count every unemployed person each month. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Absence of a track record is clearly not a disqualifying characteristic. they have to be interpreted properly so they can be used —together with other economic data—by policymakers in making decisions as to whether measures should be taken to influence the future course of the economy or to aid those affected by joblessness. Who is counted as employed? 5. Who is counted as unemployed? 6. What are the basic concepts of employment and unemployment? 4. or do other family members have jobs? Are they more concentrated in one area of the country than another? After these statistics are obtained. and if you already know what topic you will choose for a thesis then you also get a head start. Frequently Asked Questions at: http://www. both of doing good research and of publishing it? A representative selection of relevant publications by the proposers should be cited. but a consistent failure to publish raises question marks. Who is not in the labor force? Why does the Government collect statistics on the unemployed? Government statistics tell us about the extent and nature of unemployment. good practice. Visit the U.htm Read and discuss the following questions on the Discussion Board Forum 13: 1.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics.gov/cps/cps_faq. Is there evidence that the proposers know about the work that others have done on the problem? This evidence may take the form of a short review as well as representative references. Where do the statistics come from? 3.

For example.conducts a monthly sample survey called the Current Population Survey (CPS) to measure the extent of unemployment in the country. What are the basic concepts of employment and unemployment? The basic concepts involved in identifying the employed and unemployed are quite simple: People with jobs are employed. Persons also are counted as employed if they have a job at which they did not work during the survey week because they were: On vacation Ill Experiencing child-care problems Taking care of some other family or personal obligation On maternity or paternity leave Involved in an industrial dispute 39 . whether they were paid or not. Who is counted as employed? Employed persons consist of: All persons who did any work for pay or profit during the survey reference week. People who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. People who are jobless. This includes all part-time and temporary work. All persons who did at least 15 hours of unpaid work in a family-owned enterprise operated by someone in their household. All persons who were temporarily absent from their regular jobs. looking for jobs. The CPS has been conducted in the United States every month since 1940 when it began as a Work Projects Administration program. people are considered employed if they did any work at all for pay or profit during the survey reference week. Not all of the wide range of job situations in the American economy fit neatly into a given category. and available for work are unemployed. It has been expanded and modified several times since then. year-round employment. as well as regular full-time.

(Excluded are persons under 16 years of age. and persons on active duty in the Armed Forces. 4. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics.htm Read and discuss the following questions on the Discussion Board Forum 13: 1. have actively looked for work in the prior 4 weeks. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. In all other cases. the individual must have been engaged in at least one active job search activity in the 4 weeks preceding the interview and be available for work (except for temporary illness). Who is not in the labor force? Persons not in the labor force are those who are not classified as employed or unemployed during the survey reference week. How are seasonal fluctuations taken into account? 3.gov/cps/cps_faq. Workers expecting to be recalled from layoff are counted as unemployed.Prevented from working by bad weather Who is counted as unemployed? Persons are classified as unemployed if they do not have a job. Labor force measures are based on the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years old and over. whether or not they have engaged in a specific jobseeking activity. Visit the U. Family responsibilities keep others out of the labor force. What do the unemployment insurance figures measure? 5.S.) The labor force is made up of the employed and the unemployed. How large is the labor force? 2. How are the unemployed counted in other countries? How large is the labor force? 40 . all persons confined to institutions such as nursing homes and prisons.bls. The remainder —those who have no job and are not looking for one —are counted as "not in the labor force. Frequently Asked Questions at: http://www. and are currently available for work." Many who are not in the labor force are going to school or are retired. Is there a measure of underemployment? 6.

some countries collect their official statistics on the unemployed from employment office 41 . Australia. an agency of the U. However. These variations make it difficult to tell whether month-to-month changes in employment and unemployment are due to normal seasonal patterns or to changing economic conditions. Department of Labor. There were about 80 million persons not in the labor force. To deal with such problems.S. the normal seasonal fluctuations are smoothed out and data for any month can be more meaningfully compared with data from any other month or with an annual average. Statistics on insured unemployment in the United States are collected as a by-product of UI programs. it responds to economic forces and social trends. More recently. How are seasonal fluctuations taken into account? The seasonal fluctuations in the number of employed and unemployed persons reflect not only the normal seasonal weather patterns that tend to be repeated year after year.The labor force is not a fixed number of people. no official government statistics are available on the total number of persons who might be viewed as underemployed. but also the hiring (and layoff) patterns that accompany regular events such as the winter holiday season and the summer vacation season. a statistical technique called seasonal adjustment is used. a number of East European nations have instituted labor force surveys as well. it would still be difficult to quantify the loss to the economy of such underemployment. Even if many or most could be identified. and its size changes with the seasons. It increases with the long-term growth of the population. Data on UI claims are maintained by the Employment and Training Administration. How are the unemployed counted in other countries? The sample survey system of counting the unemployed in the United States is also used by many foreign countries. Mexico. Claimants who qualify for benefits are counted in the insured unemployment figures (as "continued claims"). Many time series that are based on monthly data are seasonally adjusted. there were roughly 145 million employed and 9 million unemployed making up a labor force of 154 million persons. What do the unemployment insurance (UI) figures measure? The UI figures are not produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. When a statistical series has been seasonally adjusted. Japan. and are available on the Internet at: Is there a measure of underemployment? Because of the difficulty of developing an objective set of criteria which could be readily used in a monthly household survey. Workers who lose their jobs and are covered by these programs typically file claims ("initial claims") that serve as notice that they are beginning a period of unemployment. and all of the countries in the European Economic Community. On average in 2008. including Canada.

S. including the United States. The allotted time to gather information using these tools must be considered in early planning. concepts. 3. use both labor force survey data and administrative statistics to analyze unemployment. months for the entire university. and a year or more if the study were to be conducted nation-wide.S. What do we need to conduct such research? Do we need a questionnaire? Do we need to pilot test that questionnaire? Do we need to identify a sample? Do we need enough time to send and receive surveys if needed? Surveys and quesitonaires would suffice for such research. 42 . Do you know of any research that has been conducted without a QUESTION or OBJECTIVE? I think that even if someone was researching solely for the sake of learning they are doing so because of an initial question or personal objective that spawned their interest.registrations or unemployment insurance records. So to answer the question. 2. Comparative labor force statistics tables showing annual averages from 1960 onward. as well as monthly estimates of unemployment rates approximating U. no I have never heard of research that is as spontaneous and ill planned as beginning without even a general goal in mind. How long would it take to conduct a seemingly simple research such as "finding the reasons for students tardiness? Depending on the size of the study which was not given in the question this research could take hours for a small class like ours. Many nations. Large studies are followed by many variables. Do you know of any research that has been conducted without a QUESTION or OBJECTIVE? How long would it take to conduct a seemingly simple research such as "finding the reasons for students tardiness? What do we need to conduct such research? Do we need a questionnaire? Do we need to pilot test that questionnaire? Do we need to identify a sample? Do we need enough time to send and receive surveys if needed? 1. are available. concepts for selected countries. The International Labor Comparisons program of the Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusts foreign unemployment rates to U.