THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP...

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A very remarkable development in the early history of Buddhism is what we may call the multiplication of its founder. It was the belief that the doctrine promulgated by 'Saakyamuni had been preached by previous Buddhas, their careers too being similar to his. The four Nikaayas mention six predecessors of 'Saakyamuni ¢w Vipassin (Skt. Vipa'syin(, Sikhin (Skt. 'Sikhin) , Vessabhuu (Skt. Vi'svabhuk or Vi'svabhuu) , Kakusandha (Skt.Krakucchanda) , Konaagamana (Skt. Kanakamuni) and Kassapa (Skt. Kaa'syapa). These names agree in all the schools, a circumstance pointing to an early date of this development. The doctrine of a succession of Buddhas led to the belief in a future Buddha. It was Metteyya (Skt. Maitreya) who was supposed to dwell in the Tu.sita heaven. It was considered a point of great importance that each Buddha in the course of his career had met the being predestined to become his successor in a later existence and had revealed to him his future Buddhahood. This revelation was called vyaakara.na. The homage paid to the former Buddhas is evidenced by epigraphical documents. In March 1895 Dr. Fhrer discovered two broken parts of a pillar-shaft on the bank of a large tank a mile south of the village of Nigliva in the Nepal Taraaii(1) . The Braahmii inscription on the shaft proved to be a record of A'soka. It reads(2):"When the King, His Majesty Piyadassi, had been anointed fourteen years, he enlarged the Stuupa of the Buddha Konaakamana to the double (of its original size) and when he had been anointed [twenty] years, he came himself and worshipped (this spot) [and] caused [a stone pillar to be set up]." The missing words in the concluding portion of the text were supplemented by Georg

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IX. the body of the stuupa had been almost destroyed by the neighbouring villagers.nas were erected during the time of the Andhra dynasty about the latter part of the first century B.htm Bhler (3) from the similarly worded inscription on the A'soka pillar. In the case of the southern tora. 2 E.. his presence is indicated by a footprint either single or double. but portions of the eastern tora. Monograph on Buddha 'Saakyamuni's Birth-place in the Nepalese Tarai (Archl. The first reads: Bhagavato Vipasino Bodhi and the others are couched in the same formula. This pillar was erected by A'soka on the site of the Lumbinii Garden. Survey of Northern India.skrama. In scenes relating to his last existence.C. The railing of the Great Stuupa of Sanchi with its four profusely decorated tora.na and the railing were found by him beneath the ruins and removed to the Calcutta Museum.Inscriptions of Asoka (Corpus Inscr.edu. were restored in 1881-83 and in the process some of the composing members were misplaced. but it is impossible to make out their original position.na. the traditional place of the Nativity of 'Saakyamuni.C. 33f.809 symbol. XXIII. Fhrer at Rummindei in December 1896. These reliefs are moreover provided with short inscriptions in each of which the name of the respective Buddha is mentioned. This is evident from the railing belonging to the stuupa of Bharhut which is assigned to the middle of the 2nd century B.Hultzsch. discovered by Dr.nas still occupies its original position. thosed of Vessabhu and Konigamana in the south-east and that of Kassapa in the south-west quadrant.. When Sir Alexander Cunningham discovered the famous monument in 1873.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP.I) Oxford 1925. a parasol over his horse (in the Mahaabhini. vol. it is true. vol. It is a point of great significance that the seven Maanu. 165. the six former Buddhas.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. an empty seat.ntu.. The southern and western gateways which had collapsed owing to injudicious diggings. The circular reliefs must have been employed to decorate the stambhas of the railing.VI. the relief in question is now at the back. The west gateway shows the symbols of the seven Buddhas not on the top lintel but on the four dies supporting the superstructure. Ind. pp.si-Buddhas (viz. These tora. but there can be little doubt that this is due to an error committed in the reconstruction of 1881.. vol. He notes however that the reliefs referring to Vipassi and Kakusandha were found in the north-west. http://ccbs. Sir John Marshall ascribes this divergent arrangement to the slovenness alike of composition and execution 2 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . pp. Fhrer. which enabled the initiated to identify them. including the events preceding his Enlightenment. We may therefore conclude that they were placed at some distance from one another(4). Here we find the six Buddhas symbolised by their respective Bodhi-trees. p. The same rule applies to his predecessors. the six past Buddhas and 'Saakyamuni)are symbolically represented on the four gateways and moreover on three of them occupy a very conspicuous position on the front face of the top lintel(5). 3 Wiener Zschr.na) or some other ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 1 A.) Allahabad 1897. It is well known that in early Buddhist art the Tathaagata is never represented in bodily form.

He wears a robe fitting close to the body and his right hand wrapped in it clasps it on his breast. is typical of Kaa'syapa Buddha.31.edu.38. whereas the last in secular dress. seven in monastic robes being Buddhas. The excavations carried out for a century in the North-West have yielded an incredible number of images of every size showing the Buddha characterized by his monastic dress and by the halo encircling his head.45f. pp. The Monuments of Sanchi. It offers a unique representation of the Buddha Kaa'syapa acquainting the young Brahmin Jyotipaala with his future rebirth in which he will become the Buddha Gautama(10).htm characterizing the sculptural decoration of the western tora. must be the future Buddha. http://ccbs.na) made by the Buddha Diipa^nkara. Grnwedel's conclusion enabled him to identify the numerous detached images of this Bodhisattva which have come to light in the monasteries of Gandhaara(7). A well preserved relief from Takht-i-Bahai now in the Peshawar Museum shows the standing figures of the seven Buddhas and Maitreya. It shows the facade of a vihaara enshrining a Buddha figure seated on a lotus in the attitude of preaching (dharmacakramudraa) between two standing Bodhisattvas.ntu. 21. Evidently the artist varied the postures merely for aesthetic reasons(8). Anyhow the place of honour assigned to these symbols seems to imply a great veneration of the personages whom they indicate. 137. is absent but the Bodhitree of 'Saakyamuni is reproduced.. Beneath the central figure the relief shows a row of eight nimbused figurines. It may be assumed that the latter arrangement was chosen for the sake of variety. 39.. 3 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . which we may safely attribute to the Graeco-Buddhist School of Gandhaara. the second Buddha. pl. and holding a vessel in his left hand.. Maitreya. the immediate predecessor of 'Saakyamuni. plates 15.D. 142. but here the attitude referred to above is associated with the fourth and seventh figures representing Krakucchanda and 'Saakyamuni. Foucher.810 lahore Museum.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. Berlin(9). 132. London 1879. plates 29-30. It was Grnwedel who first recognised the seven Buddhas on a piece of sculpture in the ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 4 A. Calcutta 1940. revolutionized Buddhist iconography. The Stuupa of Bharhut. 234. 200.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. pp. 135. It deserves notice that no other examples of this scene have come to light. Cunningham. said to have been found near the village Muhammad Naarii(6). 54. A relief relating to Sikhin. In this connection we may mention an interesting Gandhaara sculpture in the Museum fr V“lkerkunde. But the author was mistaken in assuming that this attitude "which in some ways reminds us of the statue of Sophocles in the Lateran".na. On the north and east gateways we find the bodhidrumas of the seven Buddhas of our age placed side by side on the same lintel. The creation of the Buddha image ( circa 50 A. P. according to Marshll). Grnwedel draws attention to the sixth figure representing the Buddha Kaa'syapa. 231. 5 John marshall and A. whereas Gandhaara has yielded numerous replicas of the earlier revelation (vyaakara. but also four or five stuupas alternating with three or two trees.

3. turns his clasped hands towards the buddha of the future age.pp.htm At Mathuraa too the motif of the eight Buddhas was known. Berlin 1900. but the last of the row has a high head-dress and ornaments and must be Maitreya.nas of Sanchi.. London 1901.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. A similar connection we have traced between the Yak.811 the Graeco-Buddhist school of the north-west. These developments are clearly expressed in the pictorial art of Ajanta. p. cit.68.nas of Sanchi and Mathuraa and the images of Ga^ngaa and Yamunaa which from the Gupta period onwards flank the doorways of Brahmanical temples (12).I. pl.. 1909-10. 9 Ibidem. P. This motif therefore affords an example of the mixed character of Mathuraa Art derived from the Buddhist mounments of Central India. Senart). Above the central entrance to the inner court there is a well preserved frieze showing eight figures seated cross-legged with heads marked by aureoles and hands held in various symbolical attitudes (13). 458. fig.25a and fig. James Burgess. The latter is depicted with long curly locks. Four of the seated figures wear monk's robes. Foucher. Among the twenty-six caves constituting the marvellous rock-cut sa^nghaaraama the large monastic cave no. A kneeling figure at his side.. their appearance in bodily shape must derive from Gandhaara. p. XVII is remarkable for its profuse and varied paintings. Buddhist Art in India.edu.R. We are tempted to suggest also a connection between the Mathuraa sculptures described above and the Brahmanical temples of the mediaeval period where seated figures of the nine Grahas are often found over the lintel of the door. Calcutta 1914. pp. vol.319-335. vol. pp. 164f. Both must have been the right hand half of a lintel over the entrance to a small shrine. pp. II. Perhaps it has been erroneously applied to the village of Narai.188f.77.. fig. 10 Jyotipaalasuutra.ntu. The place assigned at Mathuraa to the eight Buddhas over the doorway of a sanctuary agrees with the prominent position occupied by their symbols on the tora. p. I.323. 3 miles west of Takht-i-Bahai. apparently wearing a crown. but also influenced by ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 6 A locality of this name is not traceable in the Peshawar district.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. as appears from two reliefs. 332 f. op. 11 A. On the piece in the Lucknow Museum we have four seated figures.sii ('saalabha~njikaa) figures decorating the tora. the one in the local collection and the other in the Lucknow Museum(11). 457. fig. Mahaavastu (ed. Art grŠco-bouddhique du Gandhaara. 7 A. the last of the row recognisable as Maitreya by his dress and ornaments and by the little vessel in his left hand.S. http://ccbs. Buddhistische Kunst in Indien. On the other hand. 8 Foucher. Cf. a high crown and rich ornaments in contrast with the other wearing monk's robes. Grnwedel.. A. They evidently represent the seven Buddhas of the present age and Maitreya the future saviour.193. The sculpture in the Mathuraa Museum shows five figures seated cross-legged each with two attendants standing behind. vol. The six predecessors of 'Saakyamuni have alternately their right shoulder bare of 4 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 .

http://ccbs. a square inner court and a sanctuary. darkgreen for Kaa'syapa and orange-coloured (Pali kaasaaya!) for 'Saakyamuni and Maitreya. I.. the first four are black. the Buddha kaa'syapa.36. who sits in the European fashion on a si. a temple consisting of a double verandah. p. vol.812 numerous Buddhist monuments exposed in the course of Sir John Marshall's extensive excavations at Taxila is the Jauliaa~n monastery situated on the top of a hill at some distance from the Parthian city. At Ajanta another example of the eight Buddhas is found in cave XXII. Two of them (A 15 and D 5) deserve special notice on account of short Khar. on Brahmanical temples.Yazdani.griffiths.mhaasana. the court being enclosed on its four sides by lines of chapels enshrining images and facing the central monument. from the Gupta period all through the Middle Ages.385-402.s.Yazdani's polychrome reproduction(14) that the robes of the eight Buddhas are also marked by different colours ¢w cream-coloured for the first five. pl.III. Except the fourth figure (Krakucchanda). 40. vol. Among the ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 12 Etudes Asiatiques..The Colour and Monochrome Reproduction of the Ajanta Frescoes based on Photography. each containing an amatory couple. is contiquous with two stuupa courts on different levels..61. Part. 14 G. Their names in Gupta script are written below whilst inscriptions above the figures give the name of the trees(15). some holding strings of flowers. pp. Here the subject is depicted on the right hand wall inside the shrine.The Paintings in the Buddhist CaveTemples at Ajanta. Ajanta.htm covered with the robe. There is also a marked difference in the complexion of the eight figures. 69-70. Above each figure his special bodhi-tree is delineated in such manner that in most cases it is readily recognised.thii inscriptions which in the case of D5 contain the designation of the images to which they 5 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . op. pl.II. these two characteristics being associated with the abhaya-and dhyaana-mudraa. 'Saakyamuni himself is distinguished by the dharmacakra-mudraand Maitreya apparently by the varamudraa. cit. the fifth (Kanakamuni) is grey and the remaining three are golden-yellow. they are seated cross-legged on lotus-flowers.edu. ¢w According to Griffiths. especially above and at the sides of the doorway. 15 Griffiths. London. 91. 13 J. Archaeological research has produced a few inscriptions indicative of a special worship devoted to 'Saakyamuni's predecessor. p. each under his bodhi-tree with cherubs. vol. a building of moderate dimensions. 1896.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. 52-59. It is moreover evident from Dr. The mithuna is a favourite decorative motif frequently found not only on Buddhist monuments but also.ntu. P. 1925.I. The monastery. pl. hovering above. The main stuupa stands in the upper court amidst a cluster of smaller caityas. In strange contrast with the hieratic row of solemn Buddha figures we notice under it is frieze of eight panels. pl. The plinths of the subsidiary caityas in both courts exhibit a fine stucco decoration in which Buddha figures are prominent.

Another discovery relating to the present subject was made at Mathuraa by Dr.1937.. Thomas Watters. by S. Cambridge. then curator of the local museum. believed to be Kaa'syapa's birthplace.thii Inxcriptions.edu. XLVIII. p. no. viz. I-II. Calcutta 1914. it consists of the lower half of a standing image if sandstone which must belong to the Kushaa.na period usually indicate the image as `Bodhisattva' even when it is clearly intended to show the Buddha after his enlightenment. 1951. and D. vol. 2. pp. pl.e. We note parenthetically that the epigraphical designation of the Buddha is in itself remarkable.Ind.Taxila. p. London 1884. vol.400. Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Saarnaath. vol.htm belong.. London 1905. for the year ending 31st March 1938. transl. 19 Buddhist Records of the Western World. Sten Konow.375. a stuupa) has also been erected over the relics of the entire body of Kaa'syapa Tathaagat. Record fo Buddhistic Kingdoms. the fifth century A.R. P. Excavations carried out between the years 1913 and 1934.13.Agrawala.an illustrated Account of Archl. 20 Beal. p. 94-97.S. p.35-38. I. I..ntu. V. p. op. Cf. by James Legge. Dec.X. This may be infered from the style and from the character of the Braahmii inscription incised in clear lettering on the pedestal. Fa-hsien visited a town. but at any rate it designates the figure as an effigy of Kaa'syapa. vol. p.. pl. p.which was situated fifty li to the west of the city of 'Sraavastii(19).I. The itineraries of the Chinese pilgrims contain several passages indicating that the Buddha kaa'syapa took a part in popular worship. 1905/6. Muttra. 1886. cit. part II. The stucco figures decorating the main stuupa are ascribed by Marshall to a relatively late date. The inscriptions of the Ku.vol.. "Towers were erected on the spot where he had an interview with his father and also where he entered Nirvaa.p.63.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. transl.Agrawala: Ruvakasa daana.VIII. 18 Ep. 2739.na period(17). Annual Report on the Curzon Museum of Archaeology.Beal.813 distance of 60 li or so to the north-west of 'Sraavastii. A great tower (i.It is exceptional that the term Buddhapratimaa is used as in the Anyor image in the Mathuraa Museum. II. The interpretation of this short inscription is far from easy. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India. p. I. It was read by Dr.176.na. but does not mention its name nor does 6 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 .tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. Allahabad 1939.D. http://ccbs. 17 Journal United Prov. Hist.s. Oxford. Soc. This is certainly the case with the colossal standing image erected by Friar Bala of Mathuraa at Benares on the ca^nkrama of the Lord(18) in the third year of Kani.35. To-wai." The same information is found in the Si-yu-ki of Hsan-tsang(20) who locates the town at a ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 16 Sir John Marshall. The inscriptions beneath the central figure on the south and west face of this caitya read Ka'savo Tathagato and justify the conclusion that it was erected in honour of the Buddha Kaa'syapa(16).Sahni. Kharo.vol.m deva-putro Maagho Budhasa Ka'sapasa padramahasthakena.ska and with similar statues set up by the same person in other sacred spots.saa.

a village situated nine miles west of the extensive ancient site. Travelling north from Na-pei-kea(22) less than a yojana.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. Here he saw two stuupas marking the spots where the same events in the career of this Buddha had taken place. The fate which has befallen the inscribed railing of the great stuupa and.na of the respective Buddha. Simla 1871. situated to the north and south of the town he ascribes to A'soka. 7 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . the reputed birthplace of Krakucchanda Buddha.I. The other two stuupas of Fa-hsien's account. http://ccbs. XI. This fragmentary inscription was read by Cunningham sthaha.nii.. The birthplace of the Buddha Kaa'syap is one of the many Buddhist sites which certainly ought ot be completely excavated. were unable to read the Braahmii of the third century B. pp. Calcutta 1880.na.sa) of the railing.70-78. It is inscribed with six ak. where he saw two stuupas erected at the places where his Buddha met his father and where he attained parinirvaa.C.na Stuupa.S. It must have been enclosed by a stone railing which evidently had been partly destroyed by the villagers and utilised for building purposes.s.Hs¡¼an-tsang too visited both towns but does not mention their names. he came to another town believed to be the birthplace of Kanakamuni.. we may add. Cunningham traced a monastery not far from the great stuupa and another mound which he suspected to mark the site of the monument erected on the spot where Kaa'syapa was believed to have met his father. In this connection it is inter¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 21 A. It was situated at a distance of twelve yojanas to the south-east from 'Sraavastii. pp.edu. 'Sikhin and Vi'svabhuu.mva aaraa[ma]. Tandvaa was twice visited by Cunningham (in 1861 and 1871). known as Sahe. In each of them he beheld the same two memorial stuupas which he attributes to A'soka. Cunnigham (21) has identified the birthplace of Kaa'syapa with Tandvaa. After visiting To-wai. It is evident from his account that the place at which either Buddha met his father was the reputed spot of their Bodhi.htm he make mention of the Nirvaa. The Chinese pilgrims do not speak of memorial stuupas erected in honour of the three earlier Buddhas Vipa'scit. At the side of the two Nirvaa.na-stuupa of Kanakamuni with the Nigliiva pillar mentioned above. which has been definitely proved to represent the famous town of Sraavastii and the neighbouring Jetavana.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. and vol.R.saras of early Braahmii. who explored a mound to the north-west of the village which contained the remains of a large stuupa of solid brickwork with a diameter of 74 feet.th-Mahe.ntu. What Hsan-tsang says about the contents of the inscription need not prevent us from identifying the lion-pillar at the Nirvaa. 348-350. XXI-XXIII. Among the thousands of stone fragments examined by Cunningham there was a piece which must have belonged to the coping (u.na-stuupas the pilgrim noticed a stone pillar crowned by the figure of a lion and inscribed with a record of the events connected with the Nirvaa. The inscription on the railing shows that Hs¡¼antsang's attribution of the stuupa to A'soka is perhaps correct. numberless other ancient monuments all over India clearly shows that there is periculum in mora. Fa-hsien came to a town named Na-pei-kea. It is tempting to accept his suggestion that the first word is the ancient name of Tandvaa. vol.th. For we may safely assume that the guardians of the sacred monument. p. from whom the pilgrim derived his information.

nasiye Bhagavato ca. 6) calls the place Na-p'i-ka and identifies it with Naabhika " the name of a town in the far north". which in the course of time tended to increase in number."On a stone of the temple". A notable example of such a "walk" was recovered by Cunninghan at Bodh-Gayaa(27).htm 22 Watters (II. the pilgrim says. the ancient capital of Gandhaara. thus named after the girdle and bathingmantle of those two Buddhas.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. The novice Sumana was then deputed to Paa. When such hallowed traces were shown to the pilgrim near the top of some mountain.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. The ca^nkrama of the Buddha developed into a monument in the shape of a terraced cloister. The monastery founded in the days of Kakusandha was named Pa. as the "Bodhisattva" of the third year of Kani. P.. The place of the Eyegift was Pu. was converted by Mahinda. These accounts are of one and the same pattern.msa(23) in which the chronicler relates at great length how the king of La^nkaa.Here king Tissa at the head of his army came to meet him and placed the holy relics on the frontal globe of an elephant.mkame).. In Hsan-tsang's itinerary we frequently meet with short references to "traces where the three (or four) past Buddhas sat down and walked".skalaavatii.ska's reign is stated in the inscription on the back fo the image to have been set up at Benares on the ca^nkrama of the Lord (Baaraa. alighted on Mount Missaka.sa. and the first monastery Tissaaraama was founded. "is the impress of the foot of Kaa'syapa Buddha".nkaa. as was the case near 8 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 .nas.edu.ntu. Are we allowed to conclude from this passage that paaribhogika relics of the past Buddhas were actually worshipped in Ceylon(25)? Sung-yun (26) notices a stuupa and temple in Gandhaara at the place "where Tathaagate plucked out his eyes to give in charity". and the two thuupas connected with Konaagamana and Kassapa were the Kaayabandhana-and the Dakasaa. It is well known that footprints of 'Saakyamuni were and still are worshipped in Buddhist countries.Dharmmaasoka on receiving the joyful tiding filled the ammsbowl of his son's messenger with relics and Sumana carrying these teasures to La.814 esting to note a passage in the Dipava. the king of La^nkaa informed him that he intended to raise a thuupa in honour of the Teacher. The noble elephant after passing through the town proceeded to the very spot which Kakusandha. Konaagamana and Kassapa had formerly visited and here the thuupa was built.tikacetiya. the son of Asoka. They are sometimes natural cavities in the rock resembling the impress of a human foot or more frequently they were carved on a stone slab and show the sign of the cakra and other lak. But it existed also in the Convent of the Dharmacakrapravartana near Benares.tiyaaraama after the drinking vessel of that Buddha. differing only in the motive of each visit and in the nomenclature of the persons and localities. Devaanampiya Tissa. The chronicler seizes the opportunity to insert accounts of the visits of the three former Buddhas(24). When Mahinda after a stay of five months wished to return to Jambudiipa. the footsteps being marked by conventional lotus-flowers. http://ccbs.taliputa in order to obtain the indispensable relics for such a monument.

msa an ancient Buddhist Historical Record. V. pl.mbhuu. From time to time it emits a glorious light. op.e. Outside the enclosure of the Dharmacakrapravartana-Sanghaaraama Hsan-tsang saw not only a 'stuupa on the spot where 'Saakyamuni predicted the future attainment of Buddhahood to Maitreya but not far from it a similar monument 9 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . London 1892. pp. p. 26 Beal.The older pilgrim's information may therefore be discarded as valueless.Geschiedenis van het Buddhisme in Indiee. also contained a memorial of Kaa'syapa. "To the north-west of the Bodhi-tree".ntu. 25 H.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. edited and translated by Hermann Oldenberg. 34-73.. "in a vihaara is an image of Kaa'syapa Buddha. i.htm ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 23 The Diipava.rha (Girivraja) (28) or on the Hira. By its side were vestiges of the site used for sitting and walking by the four past Buddhas(30). p. vol. Haarlem 1884. London 1879. cit. When on the contrary they belonged to some sa^nghaaraama in the plains.8-10. we may safely assume. Hsan-tsang's detailed account of Mahaabodhi. It must be the same marvellous convent described by Hsan-tsang and apparently seen by him from a distance on his way from Kali^nga to Andhrade'sa. 27 A. Archaeological Commissioner of Ceylon. In the course of this paper we have mentioned examples of images of Kaa'syapa Buddha. At the end of the chapter he says that what he reports is merely from hearsay. Another great place of pilgrimage.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. that they were svaya.Kern. they probably were artificial imitations in the shape of carved slabs of stone. he says.rgadaava near Benares. Cunningham found the remains of a small vihaara which answer exactly the described position but the miraculous image it enshrined was not recovered.815 the hot springs on the Vipulagiri. 24 Ibidem. paranavitana. the site of the M.edu. one of the five mountains enclosing Raajag.200. informs me that " there is no evidence that the monuments ascribed to the three predecessors of 'Saakyamuni actually existed at any time during the historical period". contains a passage of great interest for our subject. Fa-hsien(29) gives in his thirty-fifth chapter a very fantistic description of a rock-cut monastery consisting of five stages which he calls a sanghaaraama of the former Buddha Kaa'syapa and locates in the Deccan. natural cavities in the rock. http://ccbs. the present Bodh-Gayaa. e. at Naalandaa.. The old records say that if a man actuated by sincere faith walks round it seven times. where 'Saakyamuni started turning the Wheel of the Law. Dr. P. II.. he obtains the power of knowing the place and condition of his former births".g.nyaparvata near the right bank of the Ganges. Cunningham. XV. chapters XI-XV. I. It is noted for its miraculous and sacred qualities. The Chinese pilgrim in his further description of Mahaabodhi mentions a stuupa and stone pillar marking the spot where the Buddha Kaa'syapa had sat in meditation.Mahaabodhi. CIII. But he connects it with Naagaarjuna and makes no mention of Kaa'syapa. vol. The Chinese pilgrims furnish brief acconts of two sanctuaries dedicated to the worship of this Buddha.

2. II. Beal. Stuupas were built not only to enshrine their bones and other bodily relics. 1-3) Buddhacarita (ed. M. his relatives and in a single case on all beings.816 tinent.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP. Those which we have mentioned supply but scanty information regarding the religious and secular motives underlying this popular worship. 'Saakyamuni's name in this previous birth. http://ccbs.na. was not Prabhaapaala. 30 Beal. pp. P.ntu.214 f. which prompted his followers to consecrate tangeable monuments to their memory. op. Near this stuupa there was an artificial platform of dark blue stone.rha cf. which had been a ca^nkrama of the four past Buddhas(31)..II.124. fifty paces long by seven feet high. 31 Beal.na period it is stated that the image was dedicated for the worship of all Buddhas (sarvabuddhaanaa. after preaching the doctrine in remote ages. Watters II. 29 Legge.htm erected on the place where he had received a similar prophecy from his predecessor K'aa'syapa. Johnston) X.Watters. Western critics will be inclined to question what blessings the worshipper could expect from superhuman beings. II.naa)(32) on himself. The inscriptions on images and relic-caskets supply some indications on the benefits generally desired by the donors.139.Cunningham. It must be borne in mind that the stuupas and monasteries which have been recovered and explored are only a small part of the numberless Buddhist sanctuaries which once were scattered over the whole subcon¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 28 On the five mountains of Raajag.na). first paid to the Teacher and soon extened to his predecessors. cit. but also to mark the hallowed spots where great events in their career were believed to have taken place.139.207.si.141.s.cit. In the Kharo.. II. II.) . Bh. ¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w¢w 10 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 . But in other votive inscriptions of the Ku. Watters. According to Hsan-tsang's informants a sevenfold circumambulation of the shrine of Kaa'syapa at Mahaabodhi procured the faithful the remembrance of their previous existences (jaatismara. Fa-hien's Record. op. (Bombay ed. who.m pujaartham).tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. but Jyotirpaala (Pali Jotipaala). had passed into the state of parinirvaa.edu. as pointed out by Watters.36. P.52. pp. No more precise indications are available and we are therefore reduced to hypothesis.48. vol. vol.II. The evidence of the ancient monuments supplemented by the narratives of the Chinese pilgrims testifies the reverence in which the Indian Buddhists held the past Buddhas and in particular Kaa'syapa. The creation of the Buddha image enabled the faithful to expand their fervour on effigies of the Master which often were invested with miraculous properties such as he himself had possessed.thii inscriptions found on Buddha images and relic-caskets in Gandhaara a favour frequently solicited by the donor is the bestowal of health (arogadak. Mahaabodhi. p. 96f. 21. We may well assume that it was this Buddhabhakti. Among the innumerable Buddha figures adorning the ancient sa^nghaaraamas many may have been meant to represent the Buddhas of the past.saa. But in religious matters the mind of the believers is not moved by rational motives but by promptings of sentiment.

. List of Words.THE PAST BUDDHAS AND KAA'SYAPA IN INDIAN ART AND EP..edu.p.ntu. op.nae. arogadakshi.htm 32 Sten Konow.v. 11 de 11 08/12/2010 17:26 .tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/leiden. http://ccbs.181. cit. i.