Latin spelling and pronunciation

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This article is about Latin phonology and orthography. For English pronunciation of Latin words, see Traditional English pronunciation of Latin.

Ancient Roman inscription in Roman square capitals. The words are separated by engraved dots, a common but by no means universal practice. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. Latin spelling or orthography refers to the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present. They all use some phase of the same alphabet even though conventional spellings may vary from phase to phase. The Roman alphabet, or Latin alphabet, was adapted from the Old Italic alphabet to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. The Old Italic alphabet had in turn been borrowed from the Greek alphabet, itself adapted from the Phoenician alphabet. A given phoneme may well be represented by different letters in different periods. Latin pronunciation continually evolved over the centuries, making it difficult for speakers in one era to know how Latin was actually spoken in prior eras. This article deals primarily with modern scholarship's best guess at Classical Latin's phonemes (phonology) and their pronunciation and writing; that is, how Latin was spoken and spelled among educated people in the late Republic, and then touches upon later changes and other variants.

Letters and phonemes
It has been suggested that Latin#Phonology be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since
June 2010.

It did have a Roman cursive used for rapid writing. making it possible to distinguish between CUI /kuj/ (with a diphthong) and QUI /kʷiː/ (with a labialized velar stop). ‹C› was primarily used before ‹I› and ‹E›. except in a very small number of words. and were primarily employed for transcribing Greek . ^ In the classical period. 3.C. [edit] Consonants [edit] Table of single consonants Velar plain labial Labial voiced Dental D /d/ T /t/ TH /tʰ/ Z /z/[C 4] Palatal Glottal B /b/ P /p/ PH /pʰ/ G /ɡ/ C or K /k/ [C 1] Plosive voiceless aspirated[C 3] voiced QV /kʷ/[C 2] CH /kʰ/ Fricative voiceless F /f/[C 5] M /m/[C 6] S /s/ N /n/ R /r/[C 8] L /l/[C 9] I /j/[C 10] V /w/[C 11] G/N [ŋ][C 7] H /h/ Nasal Rhotic Approximant Consonant table notes (C 1. which could be spelled ‹KS›. etc. and Gnaeus as CN. letters (and digraphs) are paired with the phonemes they represent in IPA. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. ‹CS› or ‹XS›. In archaic inscriptions of Early Latin. when written in certain combinations as digraphs. ^ ‹C› and ‹K› both represent /k/. Thus QUĪ was realized as [kᶣiː][2] ^ The digraphs representing aspirated phonemes began to be used in writing around the middle of the second century B. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. which was a sequence of overlapping sounds. individual letters did not simply correspond to individual phonemes. ‹K› had been replaced by ‹C›. the same vowel letters represented another series of vocalic phonemes termed diphthongs. in classical times.): 1. some consonant letters represented different phonemes when written as part of a digraph or in certain sequences. Adding to all this. ‹C› originally represented both /k/ and /ɡ/. However. (June 2009) Although the Latin alphabet was able to closely represent the phonemes of Classical Latin. it was used in the abbreviation of common praenomina (first names): Gāius was written as C. which is not represented in this article. The vowel letters individually represented both long and short vocalic phonemes. Hence. the Latin letters are only an approximation of the Latin language.This section needs additional citations for verification. /kʷ/ (spelled ‹QV›) became labio-palatalized velar plosive ([kᶣ]) when followed by a front vowel. 3. ‹X› represented the consonant cluster /ks/.[1] ‹Q› clarified minimal pairs between /k/ and /kʷ/. Like all writing systems. Misunderstanding of this convention has led to the erroneous spelling ‹Caius›. 2. while ‹K› was used before ‹A›. where in Old Latin it had often been used for /ks/. not a sequence of letters. 2. Latin as yet had no equivalent to the English lower case. Similarly. In the tables below. English upper case letters are used to represent the Roman square capitals from which they derive.

the sound is usually doubled. ‹M› is always represented as the phoneme /m/ here and in other references.[12] 10. According to Allen. theta (‹Θ› /tʰ/). Compound words preserve the /j/ of the element that begins with it: ADIECTĪVUM /adjekˈtiːwum/. like Spanish or Italian ‹rr›. LACHRIMA. In the around the second and first centuries BCE zeta (‹Ζ›) was adopted to represent /z/. ^ /l/ (represented by ‹L›) is thought to have had two allophones in Latin.[6] This might mean that the sound was geminated. GRACCHUS. and is sometimes spelled accordingly (for instance in Cicero and Julius Caesar):[13] IŪS [juːs]. the Proto-Indo-European phone which the Latin ‹F› descended from and the way the sound appears to have behaved in Vulgar Latin.e. in addition to representing vowels.g.[5] In classical verse. the fact that all such endings in words of more than two syllables lost the final ‹M› in the descendant Romance languages strengthens this hypothesis. Since ‹CH›. Thereafter Z was either /z/ or /dz/. CITHARA. in proximity to /l/ and /r/. Based on Italian Greek. thereby reducing the phonemes' erstwhile marginal status.names and loan-words containing the aspirated sounds represented by phi (‹Φ› /pʰ/). particularly in Spain. In addition to the metrical features of Latin poetry. ‹Z› always counted as two consonants. CUIUS [ˈkujjus]. ^ ‹V› and ‹I›. In such cases. 7. initially as allophones of the unaspirated plosives.[4] 4. e.and de. comparable to many varieties of modern English. Lloyd.[11] 9. Since such a doubled consonant in the middle of a word makes the preceding syllable heavy. For simplicity. or maybe an alveolar flap [ɾ]. it was velarized [ɫ] as in English full at the end of a word or before another consonant. 11. ^ The Latin rhotic was either an alveolar trill [r]. and chi (‹Χ› /kʰ/). where ‹ζ› still represented /dz/. and to [ŋ] before velar consonants as in QUINQUE [ˈkʷiŋkʷe]. ^ /n/ assimilated to [m] before labial consonants as in IMPAR < *in-par [impaːr]. in other positions it was a plain alveolar lateral approximant [l] as in English look.before a vowel in Latin was represented Z standing for /dz/: ZETA for]. di. and because this is not known for certain. ^ /z/ was at first represented by ‹S› or ‹SS› in Hellenistic Greek loanwords (e. either voiceless or simply by nasalizing the preceding vowel. in the latter case. /m/ at the end of words was pronounced weakly. Before a vocalic ‹I› the semi-consonant was often omitted altogether in spelling.[9] Also. or in the middle of the words between two vowels. ‹G› probably represented a velar nasal before ‹N› (AGNUS: [ˈaŋnus]).[7] 6. SONA from ζώνη). the aspiration was likely reproduced only by educated speakers. . and ACHAEA.g. this resulted in standard forms such as PULCHER. Sturtevant and Kent make this argument based on certain misspellings of inscriptions. ^ The phoneme represented by ‹F› may have also represented a bilabial [ɸ] in Early Latin or perhaps in free variation with [f]. ^ It is likely that. PHILIPPUS. at least among educated speakers. or pronounced /dz/. as in Spanish ‹r›.[8][10] 8. ‹PH› and ‹TH› were already available to represent these sounds graphically. ^ /j/ appears at the beginning of words before a vowel. the vowel in that syllable is traditionally marked with a macron in dictionaries.i.[3] Subsequently. such as in the praenomen Gaius [ˈɡaː. 5. TRIUMPHUS. by the Classical period. although the vowel is usually short. for instance in reicit [ˈrejjikit] ('he/she/it threw back').[8] For instance DECEM ('ten') was probably pronounced [ˈdekẽː]. were used to represent the corresponding approximants. the aspirates began making an appearance in a number of Latin words which were not learned borrowings from classical Greek. with a tap of the tongue against the upper gums. Note that intervocalic ‹I› can sometimes represent a separate syllabic vowel /i/. [zː]. i.

[15] [edit] Adoption of Greek upsilon ‹Y› was used in Greek loanwords with upsilon (‹ϒ›. nasal or oral. [edit] Sonus medius An intermediate vowel sound (likely a close central vowel [ɨ] or possibly its rounded counterpart [ʉ]). [ɔ]. ‹CC› /kː/. In Early Latin.[edit] Double consonants Double consonants were geminated (‹BB› /bː/. It developed out of a historical short /u/ which was later fronted due to vowel reduction.[14] Short /e/ most likely had a more open allophone before /r/ tending toward near-open [æ]. representing /y/). Latin originally had no close front rounded vowel as a distinctive phoneme. and speakers tended to pronounce such loanwords with /u/ (in archaic Latin) or /i/ (in classical and late Latin) if they were unable to produce [y]. Front long Close I /iː/.[17] [edit] Nasal vowels . ‹E› represents either /e/ or /eː/. OPTIMUS. IM /ĩː/ Mid E /eː/. LACRUMA) and other words. but in the 2nd century BC. which was described as being in the shape of a sickle.). LACRIMA (also spelled DOCIMENTUM. ‹A› can represent either short /a/ or long /aː/. etc. /o/. this sound was not as fronted and may have retained some rounding. they began to be distinguished in books (but not in inscriptions) with a diacritical mark known as the sicilicus. called sonus medius. etc. OM /õː/ short V /u/ O /o/ A /aː/. [ɪ] and [ʊ]). VM /ũː/ O /oː/. which may occur long or short. In the vicinity of labial consonants. double consonants were not marked.[16] Such a vowel is found in DOCUMENTUM. EM /ẽː/ Open [edit] Long and short vowels short I /i/ E /e/ Central long short Back long V /uː/. OPTUMUS. /i/ and /u/ ([ɛ]. Short mid vowels and close vowels were pronounced with a different quality than their long counterparts. AM /ãː/ A /a/ Each vowel letter (with the possible exception of Y) represents at least two phonemes. being also more open: /e/. can be reconstructed for the classical period. [edit] Vowels [edit] Monophthongs Latin has five vowel qualities.

so the syllable before the consonant is light if it contains a short vowel. it is considered to belong to the following syllable. however. while the breve is sometimes used to indicate that a vowel is short (‹ă›. A heavy syllable (sometimes called a "long" syllable) is a syllable that contains either a long vowel or a diphthong. ‹ĕ›. ‹ū›). Length is the duration of time that a particular sound is held before proceeding to the next sound in a word. Long consonants were indicated through doubling (cf.[22] Study of syncopation. "vowel length" is a confusing term for English speakers. the stress is on the first syllable. by increasing the height of the letter. However. ‹OE›. [edit] Syllables and stress See also: Dreimorengesetz In Latin the distinction between heavy and light syllables is important as it determines where the main stress of a word falls. Certain combinations of consonants. If a single consonant occurs between two syllables within a word. nor between the vocalic and consonantal uses of ‹I› and ‹V›. e. especially in dictionaries and academic work.[23] . the first of the consonants goes with the first syllable. and is the key element in classical Latin versification. /aj/ and /oj/ lowered the tongue position in the falling element.Latin vowels also occurred nasalized. or in the case of long ‹I›. or by a vowel plus either ‹M› or ‹N› before a fricative. In Latin words of two syllables. ‹EV› originally represented diphthongs: ‹AE› represented /aj/. or ends in a consonant. the stress is on the penultimate syllable if this is heavy. In the modern spelling of Latin. If two or more consonants (or a geminated consonant) occur between syllables within a word. [edit] Diphthongs ‹AE›. ‹ŭ›). macrons are frequently used to mark long vowels (‹ā›. and ‹EV› represented /ew/. Vowel length was often phonemic in Latin: anus /ˈanus/ ('old woman') or ānus /ˈaːnus/ ('ring. or dropping of short unaccented syllables.[20] This process. ‹EI›. ‹EI› represented /ej/. Unfortunately. anus'). in Greek loan words indicates that this standard system was evolving from an earlier first-syllable accent in the time of Plautus. and have ceased to be phonemic in the modern Romance languages. ‹tr›. otherwise on the antepenultimate syllable. ‹OE› represented /oj/.[19] and started to become monophthongs (/ɛː/ and /eː/. where the previous long and short versions of the vowels have either been lost or replaced by other phonetic contrasts. A short-lived convention of spelling long vowels by doubling the vowel letter is associated with the poet Lucius Accius. and some scholars say that it may have been regular by the 5th century. ‹ē›.[21] [edit] Vowel and consonant length Vowel and consonant length were more significant and more clearly defined in Latin than in modern English. Later spelling conventions marked long vowels with an apex (a diacritic similar to an acute accent). ‹ŏ›. This was indicated in writing by a vowel plus ‹M› at the end of a word. ‹ō›. ‹AV›. two different words with distinct pronunciations). ‹ī›. but Latin orthography did not distinguish between long and short vowels. soon after the Archaic period. are exceptions: both consonants go with the second syllable.g.[18] as in monstrum /mõːstrũː/. respectively) in rural areas at the end of the republican period. who in their language call "long vowels" what are in most cases diphthongs. does not seem to have been completed before the 3rd century AD in Vulgar Latin. making it heavy. rather than plain vowels. ‹AV› represented /aw/›. ‹ĭ›. In words of three or more syllables. anus 'old woman' and annus 'year'. Distinctions of vowel length became less important in later Latin. the 3rd century BC.

probably because in this position it did not change from /w/ to /v/ in post-classical times. that is. Most modern editions adopt an intermediate position. the first vowel. but can be deduced from the verse form. one may see a circumflex used to indicate a long vowel where this makes a difference to the sense. and also made the correct distinction between long and short vowels. or possibly (in the case of /i/ and /u/) pronounced like the corresponding semivowel. Elision also occurred in Ancient Greek but in that language it is shown in writing by the vowel in question being replaced by an apostrophe. so the use of accent marks allows speakers to read aloud correctly even words that they have never heard spoken aloud.[24] Textbooks and dictionaries indicate the length of vowels by putting a macron or horizontal bar above the long vowel. pronunciation of Latin in Europe came to be dominated by the phonology of local languages. mainly in early printed texts up to the 18th century. is to use ‹I› and ‹U› only for the vowels. while they have kept the accents in the same places. with the language being used as an international language among intellectuals. it was omitted altogether. Only occasionally is it found in inscriptions. even when printing classical Latin texts. for instance Româ /ˈroːmaː/ ('from Rome' ablative) compared to Roma /ˈroːma/ ('Rome' nominative). and ‹J› and ‹V› for the approximants. less common today. at least in verse. represented by a vowel plus ‹M›) and the next word began with a vowel. but most Latin speakers since the 3rd century have not made any distinction between long and short vowels. [edit] Pronunciation [edit] Post-Medieval Latin Main article: Pronunciation of New Latin Since around the beginning of the Renaissance period onwards. resulting in a variety of different pronunciation systems. This is also the convention used in this article. Many publishers (such as Oxford University Press) continue the old convention of using ‹I› (upper case) and ‹i› (lower case) for both /i/ and /j/. Usually the non-vocalic ‹V› after ‹Q› or ‹G› is still printed as ‹U› rather than ‹V›. distinguishing between ‹U› and ‹V› but not between ‹I› and ‹J›. varies in respect of ‹I› and ‹V›. whereas in Latin elision is not indicated at all in the orthography. but this is not generally done in regular texts. Occasionally. and ‹V› (upper case) and ‹u› (lower case) for both /u/ and /w/. An alternative approach. for instance in Roman Catholic service books. an acute accent over a vowel is used to indicate the stressed syllable. [edit] Loan words and formal study . [edit] Latin spelling and pronunciation today [edit] Spelling Modern usage. was regularly elided.[edit] Elision Where one word ended with a vowel (including a nasalised vowel. as in scriptust for scriptum est. This would be redundant for one who knew the classical rules of accentuation.[25] Sometimes.

and tended to reflect the sound values associated with the nationality of the speaker (Brittain. ‹E›. Instructors who take this approach rationalize that Romance vowels probably come closer to the original pronunciation than those of any other modern language (see also the section below on "Derivative languages"). ‹OE›. However. for example. ‹OE›. ‹E›. Before then. What is taught to native anglophones is suggested by the sounds of today's Romance languages. if followed by a vowel and not preceded by ‹S›. an Italian pronunciation of Latin became commonly accepted. But English. This pronunciation corresponds to that of the Latin-derived words in Italian. the pronunciation of Latin in church was the same as the pronunciation as Latin in other fields.[26] The digraphs ‹AE› and ‹OE› represent /ɛ/. except after ‹G›. Romance. otherwise short. but studies by Frederick Brittain (published as Latin in Church. in most cases. ‹C› denotes [tʃ] (as in English ‹ch›) before ‹AE›. as opposed to ‹U›) • ‹TH› represents /t/. represents [tsi]. there is ordinarily little or no attempt to pronounce them as the Romans did.g. in formulae. Latin words in common use in English are generally fully assimilated into the English sound system. ‹H› is silent except in two words: mihi and nihil. ‹T›. or other teachers do not always point out that the particular accent their students learn is not actually the way ancient Romans spoke. [edit] Ecclesiastical pronunciation Because of the central position of Rome within the Catholic Church. curriculum vitae. a pronunciation suiting the phonology of the receiving language is employed. in the phrase da nobis hodie from the Pater Noster. ‹E›. with little to mark them as foreign.[29] ‹V› as /u/ is clearly distinguished from the consonant /v/. /v/ is now distinguished from the other two sounds in writing (‹V›. ‹TI›. the direct descendants of Latin. saliva. the history of its pronunciation).. cranium. or ‹X›. respectively). ‹I› or ‹Y› represents /ʃ/. In the Oxford style. usually because of spelling features such as the digraphs ‹ae› and ‹oe› (occasionally written as ligatures: ‹æ› and ‹œ›. Latin in Church. for example. instructors and students attempt to recreate at least some sense of the original pronunciation. ‹ae› represents /eɪ/. e.[27] ‹S› between vowels represents /z/. where it represents /k/. the history of its pronunciation) show that this was not the case until the latter part of the 19th century. as ‹H› is fully pronounced in North America in all cases. In this classroom setting. However. ‹I› or ‹Y›. where it represents /w/. • • • . The following are the main points that distinguish modern ecclesiastical pronunciation from Classical Latin pronunciation: • • • • • Vowels are long when stressed and in an open syllable. applied both to loan words and formal study of Latin. ‹OE›. Other words have a stronger Latin feel to them. ‹Q› or ‹S›. ‹G› denotes [dʒ] (as in English ‹j›) before ‹AE›.When Latin words are used as loanwords in a modern language. other languages—including Romance family members—all have their own interpretations of the Latin phonological system. which both denote /iː/ in English.[citation needed] The digraph ‹ae› or ligature ‹æ› in some words tend to be given an /aɪ/ pronunciation. for example. ‹I› or ‹Y›.[28] ‹SC› before ‹AE›. the silent ‹H› is regional. using loan words in the context of the language borrowing them is a markedly different situation from the study of Latin itself. However.

Most Romance languages merged short /u/ with long /oː/ and short /i/ with long /eː/. Spanish. as in excelsis — /ekʃelsis/[29] ‹X› may sometimes be articulated as /ɡz/ at the end of certain words like REX /reɡz/ and before some long vowel sounds. with the rare exception like Stravinsky's Oedipus rex (opera). there are. the /s/ of which merges with a following ‹C› that precedes ‹AE›. Portuguese. used by the Catholic Church in Rome and elsewhere. The rise of HIP and the availability of guides such as Copeman's Singing in Latin has led to the recent revival of regional pronunciations. Monophthongization of /aj/ and /oj/ into /e/. ‹Z› represents /dz/. The local dialects of Vulgar Latin that emerged eventually became modern Italian. or the Liturgia Horarum. Latin did not strictly "die". Dalmatian. ‹I› or ‹Y› to form /ʃ/. Romansh. it merely evolved over the centuries in diverse ways. ‹E›. The Opus Fundatum Latinitas is a regulatory body in the Vatican that is charged with regulating Latin for use by Catholics similar to the way Académie française regulates the French language within the French state. ‹OE›. A startling occurrence was its use in the motion picture The Passion of the Christ. a baptism. Sardinian. then they are to use this pronunciation. /tʰ/). is concerned with liturgical texts. The ecclesiastical pronunciation has since that time been the required pronunciation for any Catholic performing an action of the Church and is also the preferred pronunciation of Catholics whenever speaking Latin even if not as part of liturgy.• • • • • ‹PH› represents /f/. ‹GN› represents /ɲ/. nevertheless. See also: Ecclesiastical Latin [edit] Pronunciation shared by Vulgar Latin and Romance Because it gave rise to many modern languages. Outside of Austria and Germany it is the most widely used standard in choral singing which. ‹CH› represents /k/. . as can be seen from the table above. Key features of Vulgar Latin and Romance include: • • • Almost total loss of /h/ and final /m/.[30] Pius X issued a Motu Proprio in 1903 making the Roman pronunciation the standard for all liturgical actions in the Church meaning that any Catholic who celebrates a liturgy with others present be it the Mass. and /kʰ/) and the close front-rounded vowel [y] in all environments. Conversion of the distinction of vowel length into a distinction of height. Romanian. ‹Y› represents /i/. • Loss of marginal phonemes such as aspirates (/pʰ/. • In his Vox Latina: A guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin. and subsequent merger of some of these phonemes. very significant differences. but. and many others. and whose adoption Pope Pius X recommended in a 1912 letter to the Archbishop of Bourges. "is probably less far removed from classical Latin than any other 'national' pronunciation". French. William Sidney Allen remarked that this pronunciation. ‹X› represents /ks/.[31] Anglican choirs adopted it when classicists abandoned traditional English pronunciation after World War II.

then /tsj/ before finally developing into /ts/ in loanwords into languages like German. into /β/." 1. which demonstrates several features more clearly than prose. Trojæ qui primus ab oris Italiam.[33] Palatalization of /k/ before /e/ and /i/. Occitan. probably first into /kj/. Quantitative metre. then /sj/ and /s/ in Catalan. t. /tʃ/ in various Italian dialects. /ts/ in Italian. and of /j/. The change of /w/ (except after /k/) and /b/ between vowels. 3.• Loss of /n/ before /f/ and /s/[32] (CL sponsa > VL sposa). /θ/ in Castilian Spanish. then /v/ (in Spanish. Traditional (19th century) English orthography Arma virúmque cano. who. because of fierce Juno's vindictive wrath. fato profugus. Lavináque venit Litora. but partially) underwent a second palatalisation. French (and Occitan. of /ɡ/ before Latin /a/. and Romance languages [edit] Examples The following examples are both in verse. into /dʒ/. • • • • Further information: Latin. x) into /tsj/. Occitan. French and some dialects of Occitan had a second palatalisation of /k/ to /ʃ/ (French ‹ch›) or /tʃ/ before Latin /a/. then into /ʒ/ in Catalan. Vulgar Latin. Occitan. came first from the borders of Troy to Italy and the Lavinian shores. driven by fate. Book 1. then /tj/. French and Portuguese. sævæ memorem Junonis ob iram. /θ/ or /s/ in Spanish (depending on dialect) and /s/ in Catalan. [β] became an allophone of /b/ instead). multùm ille et terris jactatus et alto Vi superum. though this phenomenon's influence on the later development of Romance languages was limited due to written influence and learned borrowings. verses 1–4.[34] Palatalization of /ti/ followed by vowel (if not preceded by s. Ancient Roman orthography (before 2nd century)[35] ARMA·VIRVMQVE·CANO·TROIAE·QVI·PRIMVS·ABORIS ITALIAM·FATO·PROFVGVS·LAVINAQVE·VENIT LITORA·MVLTVM·ILLE·ETTERRIS·IACTATVS·ETALTO VI·SVPERVM·SAEVAE·MEMOREM·IVNONIS·OBIRAM 2. Modern orthography with macrons (as Oxford Latin Dictionary) Arma uirumque canō. Translation: "I sing of arms and the man. French and Portuguese.[34] Palatalization of /ɡ/ before /e/ and /i/. Trōiae quī prīmus ab ōrīs . [edit] From Classical Latin Virgil's Aeneid. he [was] much afflicted both on lands and on the deep by the power of the gods. French and Portuguese.

. p. (1989). 4. "Italianate" ecclesiastical pronunciation [ˈpandʒe ˈliŋɡʷa ɡloriˈoːzi ˈkorporis misˈteːrium saŋɡʷiˈniskʷe pretsiˈoːzi kʷem in ˈmundi ˈpreːtsium ˈfruktus ˈventris dʒeneˈroːzi reks efˈfuːdit ˈdʒentsium] [edit] Article notes 1. Sanguinísque pretiósi. quem in mundi prétium fructus ventris generósi Rex effúdit géntium. Classical Roman pronunciation [ˈarma wiˈrũːkᶣe ˈkanoː ˈtroːjaj kᶣiː ˈpriːmus ab ˈoːriːs iːˈtaliãː ˈfaːtoː ˈprofuɡus. Rhymed accentual metre. For a fuller discussion of the prosodic features of this passage. p. A Latin Reader for Colleges. laːˈwiːnakᶣe ˈweːnit ˈliːtora muɫt ill et ˈterriːs jakˈtaːtus et ˈaɫtoː wiː ˈsuperũː ˈsajwaj ˈmemorẽː juːˈnoːnis ob ˈiːrãː] Note the elisions in mult(um) and ill(e) in the third line. 2. multum ille et terrīs iactātus et altō uī superum. [edit] From Medieval Latin Beginning of Pange Lingua by St Thomas Aquinas (13th century). Some manuscripts have "Lavinia" rather than "Lavina" in the second line. 5. 27 ^ Sturtevant 1920. the king of nations. Translation: "Extol. Pange lingua gloriósi Córporis mystérium. 26 ^ Allen 2004. 15–16 ^ Allen 2004. Harry L. 17 ^ Allen 2004. saeuae memorem Iūnōnis ob īram. Traditional orthography as in Roman Catholic service books (stressed syllable marked with an acute accent on words of three syllables or more). poured out as the price of the world. [my] tongue. pp. p. 6. 4. the mystery of the glorious body and the precious blood. 2. pp." 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. which the fruit of a noble womb. p. 115–116 ^ Levy. ^ Allen 2004. 150. see Latin poetry: Dactylic hexameter. Lāuīnaque uēnit lītora. 3.Ītaliam fātō profugus.

Evidence For The Pronunciation Of Latin. both in papyrus and on stone or bronze. xxxviij). Chicago: University of Chicago.. 56 ^ Allen 2004. ISBN 0-521-37936-9. 33 ^ Allen 2004. Section v ^ Allen 2004. p.. ^ Lloyd 1987. this intervocalic softening is very slight (Liber Usualis. interpuncta are used simply to divide words. 29. on wax tablets. 15. . p.). pp. De lingua latina. 13. 14. The regular use of the interpunct as a word-divider continued until sometime in the Second Century. 1962). p. 47 ^ Allen 2004. pāter ..: "Mock Accents in Renaissance and Modern Latin (in Comment and Criticism)". ^ Gilbert.. Ward. 273-274 ^ Hayes. 273-275 ^ This simplification was already common in rural speech as far back as the time of Varro (116 BC – 27 BC): cf. where it made a difference to the position of the accent . and Latin was written with increasing frequency. (Jun. 23 ^ Allen 2004. 24. 608-610. Chapter 1. 91. 9 (Jun. 23. . 84 ^ Allen 2004. Metrical stress theory: principles and case studies. ^ a b Liber Usualis. 80 ^ a b Lloyd 1987. p. Throughout these periods the word-divider was a dot placed half-way between the upper and the lower edge of the line of writing.7.Allen 2004. pp. p. ^ a b See Pope. Vol.. pp. Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age. p. 12. 1939). dated from early mediaeval times and was by no means limited to Italy: "Already in the Old English period vowel-length had ceased to be observed except in the penultimate syllable of polysyllambic words. where it seems to have been lost even in literary Latin by the end of the Republican period (Smith 2004. not the least of which was the use of Latin instead of the official language of the eastern empire.. . and even in graffiti from the earliest Republican times through the Golden Age and well into the Second Century.. Chap 6. Greek) 32. following usage in Rome rather than in Italy in general. Otha Wingo. p. Vox Latina—a Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin (2nd ed. 22.. 5:97 (referred to in Smith 2004. xxxviij 30. p. 10. 54. 102 27. Bruce (1995). . 35. except that prepositions are only rarely separated from the word they govern.g. ^ This pronunciation of mihi and nihil may have been an attempt to reintroduce /h/ intervocalically. 55. 26. 108 31. ^ Also criticised for various other anachronisms[who?]. for instance being made heavy by lengthening the vowel if it were originally light (hence e. 20. 17.. p. Vol. 119 34. 48). ^ Allen 2004. like many of the others. in scriptura continua. The Classical World. 9. 77 ^ Ralf L. 39 ^ Allen 2004.. p. in papyri. Allan H. if this follows next. for pǎter)" . 19. 18. No. pp 15–16. p. 2. 81 ^ Lloyd 1987. 59 ^ Clackson 2008. PMLA. pp. 1972. As a rule. 11. 28. No. 47). 51 ^ Allen 2004. p. ^ In ecclesiastical Latin. 25. William Sidney (1978). p. pp." E. 21. ^ Allen 2004. the first syllable of a disyllabic word. ^ This change. p. ^ Sturtevant 1920.. p. Cambridge University Press. Mouton. Otherwise new rhythmical laws were applied. 207–218 ^ This approach is also recommended in the help page for the Latin Wikipedia. 8. Section 4. when it began to fall into disuse.. ^ Clackson & Horrocks. p. p. [edit] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Latin pronunciation • • • • • • Latin alphabet Latin grammar Latin regional pronunciation Traditional English pronunciation of Latin Deutsche Aussprache des Lateinischen (German) – traditional German pronunciation Schulaussprache des Lateinischen (German) – revised "school" pronunciation [edit] References • Allen. 28–29 33. p. ^ Allen 2004. ^ "The word-divider is regularly found on all good inscriptions. 16. p.

The Blackwell History of the Latin Language. Clackson. Geoffrey (2007). ISBN 0199257736. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1910.htm?title=. Paul M. ISBN 978-0-8716-9173-6. Jane Stuart (2004). Lloyd. Tuomo (1999) (in Finnish. ISBN 978-0-521-68495-8. Mowbray. Smith. Pope. Latin in Church.).). (1952) [1934]. "Latin".org/cathen/09019a. The pronunciation of Greek and Latin.newadvent. The Ancient Languages of Europe. Frederick (1955). M. (1987). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.• • • • • • • • Brittain. In Roger D. Sturtevant. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press. (2nd ed.). From Latin to Modern French with especial consideration of Anglo-Norman (revised ed. Frances Ellen (2007) [1894]. Cambridge University Press. Horrocks. Pekkanen. Diane Publishing. Woodward. http://www.gutenberg. Clackson. Latin). James (2008). [edit] External links • • • PHONETICA LATINÆ: Classical and ecclesiastical Latin pronunciation with audio examples "Ecclesiastical Latin". Lord. Ars grammatica—Latinan kielioppi (3rd-6th From Latin to Spanish. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Oxford. K. Phonetics and Philology: Sound Change in Italic. http://www. The Roman Pronunciation of Latin: Why we use it and how to use it. . Gutenberg Project. Oxford University Press. ISBN 951-570-022-1. The History of its Pronunciation. Edgar Howard (1920). James. ISBN 978-1-4051-6209-8.