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IS : 259s - 1978 (Reaffirmed 2000)

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

(First Revision )
Third Reprint JUNE 1994

UDC

620.179.152:006.76

@ Copyright 1979 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

Gr 6

February 1979

IS : 259s -

19%

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

(First Revision )
Non-Destructive
Chairman SARI N. V. PANDIT Mem hers H. R. BADYAL Snur S. KAR ( nlfernate ) Sn~r N. C. BAGC~I
SIIRI

Testing Sectional Ccrrmnittee, SMDC 25


Representing M. M. Suri & Associates (P) Ltd, Bombay

Indian Iron & Steel Co Ltd, Calcutta Non-Destructive Calcutta Testing Society of India,

SltRI I-1. P. GHOSE ( Akernate I ) Suar P. SANDELL ( Alternate II ) National Test House, Calcutta Smtr 0. C. BWVAS SHRI J. N. BIIATTACIIARYYA ( .&ernale ) Indian Oxygen Ltd, Calcutta Snsr S. K. BUIL~~AN Suur S. MALLI~ ( Allernate ) METALLURGIST, Ministry of Railways CIlY:MIST i & RDSO, LtJcENOW ASSI~WNT DIILIWT~R ( NDT ), RDSO, LUCIWOW ( Alternate ) NJatigedi Physical Laboratory Dr; A. P. CIllIAPGAii

( CSIR ),

New

SRRI M. K. DAS GUPTA ( Alternate ) Central Boilers Board, New Delhi S. c. DEY Indian Tube Co Ltd, Jamshedpur SICILI D. DUTTA Hindustan Steel Ltd, Ranchi SIII~I V. EASWARAN Directorate General of Civil Aviation, SITRIK. B. GANESAN Central Mechanical Engineering Dn S. JANA Institute, Durgapur SHRI S. ROY ( Alternate ) Larson & Toubro Ltd, Bombay SHRI J. C. KAPUR SHRI K. K. VASU ( Akernate ) Bharat Electronics Ltd, Bangalore SEIRIA. KIZSHAVAMURTHY SUBI B. S. SATYANARAYANA (Alternate)
SIJRI

New Delhi Research

( Continued on page 2 )

_. . _BUREAU

@ OF

Co&right INDIAN

1979 STANDARDS

This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 2595 - 1978
( Continuedfrom page 1 ) Mem hers SHRI J. K. K~rarwa Represen1ing Directorate General New Delhi of Supplies and Disposals,

SHRI Ra&ns ( Alternak ) SHIEI S. N. MOOKERJEE ACC Vickers Babcock Ltd. Durgapur SHI.I S. K. PAX-DALA Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Tiruchirapalli SHRI P. HEXACIIBNDHAN ( Alternate ) SHRI H. S. PARCH1 Kamani Metals & Alloys Ltd, Bombay SHRI R. T. BAJAJ ( Alternate ) Sr~ar M. M. PHADKE Tata Engineering & Locomotive Co Ltd, Jamshedpur SHARI B. K. SINJXA ( Alternate ) SHRI R. C. PRASAD Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd, Ranchi Sr11r1P. K. BANERJEE ( Allerrtate) SHRI.S. RAD~EYSHIAM Hindustan Steel Works Construction Ltd, Calcutta SHRI N. K. MAJUMDAR ( Alternate) Sirr:~ N. V. RAQIIAVAN Mining & Allied Machinery Coqoration Ltd, Durgapur Srnrr S. Kuaran ( .1lternale ) SIIKI D. S. I. Rao Bharat Heavy Plates & Vessels Ltd, Visakhapatnam Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal S~tnr A. V. HARNE ( Alternate ) Srrnr B. N. RAY Ministrv of Defence ( 1 \ DGI I SXRI S. R. MAZUX~AR ( Alternate ) R~;PRxSESTATIVE Walchandnagar Industries Ltd, Walchandnagar Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbnd Srr~rr I. R. ROY SI-~RIN. I.. Sao ( rillernale ) DJ~ B. K. S.\T:RA~~ Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum SXRI C. R. SATYA ( Alternate ) Burn & Co Ltd, Howrah SHRI T. K. SEN Saru R. M. SIXTRHAL Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Hardwar SSIRI B. K. Slsarf ( Alternale ) SHRI R. K. SRIVASTAVA Mukand Iron 8; Steel Works Ltd, Bombay SHRI S. G. N. SWAMY ( Alternate ) DR bf. VENKATESWARLU Electronics Corporation of India Ltd, Hyderabad S~~ICI R. R. WANORKAR Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay SHRI K. BALSRANANOORTHY ( Alhrnafe ) Air India, Bombay SHIU K. N. M. YELAIfANKA SHRI P. L. R. RAO (Alternate) Director General, BIS{ E.u-oficio Member ) SHI~I C. R. RADIA RAO, Director ( Strut & ivfet ) Secretary SHRI B. MUKHERJI Deputy Director ( Metals ),BIS

IS : 2595 - 1978

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

( First Revision )
0. FOREWORD

0.1 This Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institulion on 25 October 1978, after the draft finalized by the Non-Destructive Trsting Sectional Committee had been approved by the Structural and hktals Division Council. 0.2 This standard was first published in 1963 as a guide to industry for carrying out radiographic testing satisfactorily. This was taken up for review by the Committee and is now being issued as a revised standard source-to-object distance, with several modifications relatin g to minimum clli,ctivc optical focus size and the recommended test arrangements. The recommendations made in this code are based on accepted current practice for enabling the best results to be achieved. It is hoped that the use of this code shall ensure a more unified practice and help in attaining satisfactory sensitivity in radiographic testing. 0.3 The problems of personnel protection against X-rays and gamma rays have not been covered in this code and reference has been made to IS : 25!!8-1966* for these requirements. 0.4 In the preparation of this standard, assistance has been derived from: Draft IS0 proposals on basic rules for radiographic examinations of metallic materials of X-rays and gamma-radiography. International Organization for Standardization. ASTA.I E 91-1968 Standard Recommended practice for radiographic testing. American Society for Testing and Materials. I. SCOPE 1.1 This standard covers the basic rules of industrial radiography using X-rays and gamma rays for flaw-detection purposes, using film techniques applicable to metallic products and materials. *Safety code for radiographic testing.

IS t 2595 - 1978 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.1 For the purpose of this standard, shall apply. 3. CLASSIFICATION the definition given in IS : 247%1963*

OF RADIOGRAPHIC

TECHNIQUES

3.1 The radiographic techniques are divided into the following two classes: a) Class A - a general technique, adequate for most applications; and b) Class B - a more sensitive technique intended for use where the usual method may give unsatisfactory results or is unlikely to reveal the anomalies sought. It generally requires longer exposure times. 3.2 In addition to having an adequate flaw sensitivity, some applications of radiography require the radiographs to cover a range of specimen thicknesses. Several modifications of either Class A or B shall produce an increase in thickness latitude ( see 7.5 ). 3.3 The technique, required for a particular application should be agreed in advance between the purchaser and the supplier, taking account of the flaw-sensitivity required, the thickness latitude necessary, the equipment available, cost, accessibility, etc. 4. TEST ARRANGEMENT

4.1 The test arrangement consists of the radiation source, test object and the film or film-screen combination in a cassette. It depends on the size and shape of the object and the accessibility of the area to be tested. Generally one of the arrangements illustrated in Fig. 1 to 7 should be used, Fig. 1 being the most usual case. 4.2 The beam of radiation should be directed to the middle of the section under examination and should be normal to the surface at that point, except when especially seeking certain flaws which it is known are best revealed by a different alignment of the beam. When radiographs are taken in a direction other than normal to the surface, this should be specified in the test report. 4.3 Double wall techniques are not practicable. should be used only if single wall techniques

*Glossary of terms relating to industrial radiology.

1s : 2595 - 137 8

s e B = d= t= bE

Radiation sovrce with an effective optical focus siaef Film Source-to-object distance Material thickness Distance between film and the surface of the object nearest the source

FIG. 1

ARRANGEMENT I,SINGLE WALL PENETRATION WITH PLANE WALLS

OBJECTS

NOTE - Source off-centre on concave side, film on convex side. ment is preferred to Arrangement IV ( Fig. 4 ).
FIG. 2

This arrangc-

ARRANGEMENT II, SINGLE WALL PENETRATION OBJECT

WlTHCURVEDWALLs 5

IS : 2595 - 1978

may NoTa - One advantage of this technique is, that the whole circumference tc radic?graphed in one exposure. lhie xrangement is preferred to Arrangements II (Fig. 2), IV ( Fig. 4) and V ( Fig. 5 ). $:a.3

~~RRANC~EMENT111, SIN~LEWALLPENETRATIONOBJECTWITH CURVEDWALLS,SOURCE LOCATEDCENTRALLY

Frc. 1 ARRANGEMENT IV,SINGLE WALLPEF~ETRATIONOBJECTWITH C~JRVID \-V:\LLS, SOURCE ON CONVEX SIDE,FILM ON CONCAVE SIDE

IS : 2595 - 1978

FIG. 5 ARRANGEMENT V, DOUBLE WALL PENETRATION, SINGLE WALL EVALUATION, SOURCE ANDFILMOUTSIDE, BECAUSE THE SOURCE ISCLOSE TO THEUPPER WALL, FLAWS IN THISWALL SHALL NOT BEEVALUATED

NOTE- For some a plications the radiation beam might bc used at a different angle ( i. e. not perpen d! ocular to the centre of film ). FIG. 6 ARRANGEMENT VI, DOUBLE WALL PENETRATION, DOUBLE WALL

EVALUATION SOURCE AND FILMOUTSIDE

IS:259501978

Fro. 7 ARRANGEMENP VII, SINGLE WALL PENETRATION,~ OBJECTSWITH PLANE OR CURVEDWALLS OF DIFFERENT THICKNESSES OR MATERIALS, Two FILLS WITH THE SAMEOR DIFFERENT SPEEDS

5. SURFACE CONDITIONS 5.1 Visible surface irregularities which might adversely affect evaluation
of the radiograph should be removed before radiography is carried out. In special cases it may be advantageous to remove excessive surface roughness before the test.

6. IDENTIFICATION AND MARRING


each section of a test object being radiographed. The image of these markers should appear in the radiograph to ensure unequivocal identification of the section, as well as the position of the area being examined. The use of a film imprinter or other means prior to development- is also permitted. 6.2 In general permanent markers on the test object shall provide reference points for the accurate re-location of the position of each radiograph. Where the nature of the material and its service conditions render stamping impossible, other suitable means for re-locating the radiographs should be sought: This may be done by paint marks or by accurate sketches. 8

6.1 Markers in the form of letters or symbols should always be afhxed to

IS : 2595 - 1978

7. TECHNIQUE

FOR MARKING

RADIOGRAPHS

7.1 Principles - The ability to detect flaws on a radiograph depends on conditions and on the photographic density difference the viewing (contrast) between the image and the background, when the film is sensitivity placed on an illuminated viewing screen. Overall radiographic depends on the following factors: a) Radiation source and energy, b) Scattered radiation, c) Type offilm and screens, d) Film characteristics, conditions, and and specimen thickness. and Intensifying Screens X-rays
GAMMA

e) Geometric f) Materials 7..2 Choice of Film

types of industrial 7.2.1 Film Types -The industrial radiography are given in Table I.
TABLE FILM
CLG3SES

films suitable
RAY FILMS SPISIII~

for

CLASSIFICATION

OF X-RAY G~1sr~~s.s

AND

GI GII GIII GIV

Very

fine-graincd film

lilm grail1 six

Very stow

slow hpcd

Finegrainccl

Film with mcrlium

Medium

l:ilm with larger gram size

High spcwl

7.2.1.1 Foi Class A techniques, GI, GII and GIII Glass B technique GI and GII should be used. GIV recommended to be used with fluorescent or fluoro-metallic

films, and for films are only screens.

7.2.2 Intensifying Screens - Screens of metal foil of thicknesses given in Table 2 should be used. These screens shall be clean, smooth and free from mechanical defects which might affect the interpretation. They shall be held in close contact with the Glrn emulsion. 7.2.2.1 Fluorescent,iJuoro-metallic screens - In general for a given source of radiation, fluorescent/fluoro-metallic materjals should be used only when the exposure necessary without them would be prohibitively long. In any event, if such fluorescent/fluoro-metallic screens should be used, they should be proven capable of achieving the required quality level. Good screen-film contact is essential for the successful use of fluorescent/fluoro-metallic screen. 7.2.2.2 In the double film technique diate screens should be used. ( see 7.5.2 and 7.5.3 ), intcrmc-

IS : 2595 - 1978
7.2.3 Cn.rsct~cs nnd Film floldt~s - Films and screens should be contained in C;I\W~(CX. Thr casscttrs for holding film may bc either rigid or ilexible tlcl~~~n(ling 011 tlic spccimcn and the circumstnnccs under which the ratlio~ral)h is taken. When scrcc~~s arc used in combination with the film a good uniIi)rm contact I)ctwt.en screens and film is important. In such cases, use of rigid, spring I)ack cassettes is recommended. Cassettes may be prc~sccl or clamped against the material to be radiographed. The weight nf the rnatcrial or thr: flexing of the cassettes, when bent to fit inside some structure, may be used to ensure contact. 7.3 Geometric Conditions - In order to reduce geometric unsharpness given in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2 should be to the minimum the requirelnents fLlGlled. In case of curved spccimensZ the source should be positioned to avoid any geometrical distortion. 7.3.1 So~ce to Ol?ject I3istnnce

7.3.1.1 The minimum distance d between radiation sources and the nearest surface of the specimen is given in Fig. 8 in terms of specimen thickness t and the effective optical focus size f for the two test classes. For direct determination of source to object distance ( see nomogram in Fig. 9 ). The correspondin g gcomctric unsharpness Ug may be calculated by the f01lowing formula: Ug - f.tld 7.3.1.2 In calculation of the minimum source to object distance, the cll;-ctivc optical focus sizefshall be as given below for the different shapes of focus ( see Fig. 10 ):

f= f=

n for a square the square.

focus where a is the length

of each side of b are the

a+b -for a rectangular focus where 2 lengths of the sides of the rectangle.

a and

f = d for circular

focus where (1 is the diameter focus where 0 and

of the surface. the major

f=

n-?-b 2

for elliptical

b are

and minor

axis of the ellipse.

7.3.1.3 For specimen thickness in the range, 40 to 100 mm, the source-to-object distance is usually a compromise between the technically desirable distance and ncceptablc short exposure time. In this thickness range. an increase in d shall generally produce an improvement in flaw sensitivity. 10

IS: 2595 - 1978


7.3.2 Object-to-Film Dhznce - The cassette should be in close contact with the surface of the test object whenever possible. \Yhen this is not possible and when the distance between the film and the surface of the object near k st to the source ( b ) is very large compared to the thickness t. t should be replaced by b on the abscissa of Fig. 8.

B FIG, 8
REQUIRED

THICKNESS

t,
IN TERM
OF

MINIMUM VALUES OF RATIO f


d E source to object distance t = material

THICKNESS1

where

f = effective optical focus size in mm, and


thickness in mm.

in mm,

11

IS: 2595- 1978 7.3.3 Special Rules for ObjEcts with Curved Test Areas - When objects with curved test areas are to be tested, the distance d according to Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 may be reduced to half the valuebut not less than the relevant radius of the object - if placin g the radiation source inside the

z---l00
E-- 80

6 5

Fro. 9 NOMOGRAMFOR THE DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM SOURCE-TO-OBJECT DISTANCE IN TERMS OF MATERIAL THICZKNESS AND EFFECTIVE OPTICAL Focus SIZE FOR CLASSES A ANI) 8

IS : 2595 - 1978
test object ( for example, a pipe or pressure vessel ). Arrangement II or III leads to a more suitable direction of radiation than at Arrangements IV, V or VI. 7.4 Radiation Source - An image on a radiograph on a viewing screen is discerned because of the photographic density difference between the image and the background - the image contrast. This image contrast depends on, amongst other things, the radiation energy used in relation to the material and thickness of the object. The amount of scattered radiation reaching the film also affects this image contrast, and steps need to be taken to minimize this scattered radiation ( see 8 ).

LIP I
SQUARE CIRCULAR FIG. 10

RECTANGULAR

ELLIPTICAL

IDEALIZED FORM OF EFFECTIVEOPTICAL Focus

7.4.1 Choice of Radiation Energy 7.4.1.1 The choice of radiation energy is dependent on the specimen thickness and its material, and sometimes on the accessibility for suitable radiographic equipment. As a genera1 rule, the radiation contrast increases as the radiation energy is decreased, so that, unless other reasons prevail, the lowest radiation energy, compatible with an acceptable exposure time, should be used; ( for X-rays up to 450 kV see Fig. 11; for X-rays above 1MeV and for gamma-rays see Table 3). .Other voltages may also be used if the required quality is acheived.

13

IS:2595-1978
TABLE 2 CHOICE OF INTENSIFYING ( Clause 7.2.2 ) X-RAY KILOVOLTACE OR GAMMA-SOURCE Co60 Ir 192 6 400 kV CLASS A CLASS B SCREENS

0.1 to 0.5 mm Front and 0.4 to 0.7 mm Front and Back Screens of Steel* or Back Screens of Lead, Steel* or Copper? Coppert A----_--___-~ r----------0.05 to 0.25 mm front and back screens of lead 0.02 to 0.25 mm front and back screens of leadt 01 to 1.0 mm lead front and back screens

1 to 2 MeV 2 to 6 MeV 6

1.0 to 1.5 mm front and back or steel*

screens of copperi 1.5 mm back or tungsten

to 12 MeV

I.0 to 1.5 mm front screen and < screen of coppert, steel* or tantalum 1.0 to 1.5 mm front screen no back screen of tantalum

More than 12 MeV *Alloyed or unalloyed.

$For X-ray kilovoltages berow 100 kV no front screen is necessary . .. .. lead screen is sometimes useful to reduce scattered ractiatlon.

t.%ealsoTable 3.

a!though a thin

7.4.1.2 There are characteristics suitable for Iridium 132 and Cobalt Tantalum 182, Ytterbium

only a few gamma-ray radio-isotopes with industrial radiography and only two of these 60 - are widely used. Caesium 134 and 137, 169 and Thulium 170 are used in special cases.

7.4.1.3 If the use of X-ray equipment with respect to accessibility is of flaw technically impossible or if there exists larger probability detection due to more advantageous direction of radiation-beam, it is recommended to use radioactive sources instead of X-ray tubes in the thickness ranges given in Table 3 within brackets, although image quality of radiographs taken with radioactive sources is not as high as that of radiographs taken with X-ray equipment in these thickness ranges. 7.4.2 Radiographic Equivalence Factors - It is that factor by which the thickness of the material should be multiplied in order to determine what thickness of a standard material shall have the same absorption. Radiographic equivalents factors of several common metals are given in Table 4 with aluminium taken as the standard material and arbitrarily given factor of 1.0 at.50 and 100 kV and steel for higher voltages.

14

xs : 2595 - 1978
This may be used a) to determine the practical thickness limits for radiation for metals other than the standard material, and sources

b) to determine exposure factors for one metal from exposure charts compiled for other metals.
TABLE 3 THE RANGE WHICH DIFFERENT OF MATERIAL RADIATION 7.4.1.3 THICKNESSES ( in mm ) FOR SOURCES ARE SUITABLE and 7.5.2) COPPER AND LEAD AND ITS

(Cluuses 7.4.1.1, CLASS Class A RADIATION SOUBCE Ir 192 co 60 X-rays 1 to 2 MeV X-rays More than 2 MeV Class B Ir 192 COG0 X-rays 1 to 2 MeV X-rays More than 2 MeV

STEEL, IRON, NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS 20to 100 ( 10 to 100 I* 40 to 200t 50 to 200 50 and over 40 ( 10 60 (40 60 to to to to to 90 90 )+ 150 200)* 150

ITS ALLOYS 15to 90


30 to 170

ALLOYS 5to 40
15 to 125

35 to 80 50 to 135

15 to 35 40 to 100

60 and over

*see 7.4.1.3. tFor 40 to 60 mm, 0.4 to @7 mm unalloyed ) or copper have to be used.

front

and

back

screens

of steel (alloyed

or

some applications, where the thickness 7.5 Thickness Latitude -For or the absorption of the specimen changes rapidly over a small area, so that the thickest and thinnest sections may not be rendered with adequate contrast on a single film, it is desirable to use a modtfied or a special radiographic technique to ensure that the range of thickness.required to be examined falls within the useful film density .region. Any of the five techniques listed below may be used. 7.5.1 Use a higher X-ray kilovoltage with filter on the X-ray tube, close to the are: for 200 kV X-rays for 400 kV X-rays 16 than shown in Fig. 11 together source. Suitable filter thicknesses 0.5 mm lead 1.0 mm lead

TABLE

APPROXIMATE

RADIOGRAPHIC

EQUIVALENCE ( Clause 7.4.2 )

FACTORS

FOR VARIOUS

METALS

METAL

X-RAY
(2) 0.6 1.0 -

SO-kV

lOO-kV

X-RAY
(3) 0.6 1.0 12.0 12.0 18.0 16-O -

150-kV X-RAY (4) 0.05 0.12 0.45 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 14.0

220-kV X-RAY (5) 0.08 Ol8 0.35 1-O 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.3 l-3 12.0

400-kV X-RAY (6) 1.0 l-0 1.4 1.3 I.3 1.3 -

1 MeV X-R_~Y (7) 1.0 1.0 l-2 l-3 5.0

2 MeV X-RAY (8) -

4 to 25 MeV X-RAY (9) _ 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 3.0

r---h--_-~ Ir-192 Cs-137 (10) _ O-35 __ 1.0 1-o 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 4.0 (11) 0.35 1.0 1.0 1-I 1.0 1.1 1.3 3.2

G_o~I~-RAY
Co-GO (12) 0.35 _ 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.3

(1) Magnesium Aluminium Titanium z Steel 18 : 8 Stainless steel tipper Zinc Brass+ Inconel Lead alloys

1.0
1.0 1.2 1.3 2.5

*Tin or lead in the brass will increase NOTE -In this table, all other cases. aluminium

these factors. ha+ been taken as the standard material for 50 and 100 kV X-rays, and steel in t: ;; g I 5: s

IS:2595-1978 7.5.2 Expose two films of the same speed in one cassette, each to have density at the minimum value specified in 9.1 under the thinnest part of the specimen. Superimpose the two films to examine the thicker region. This portion shall be recorded on both films, either of which may be viewed alone. 7.5.3 Expose two films of different speeds in one cassette, using an exposure suitable to produce acceptable film densities on the image of the thickest part of the specimen on the faster film and on the thinnest part of the specimen on the slower film. 7.5.4 Use a special single emulsion film, for example, density line-copying film.

7.5.5 Reduce the minimum to l-5 for Class B.

permissible

to 1.0 for Class A and


lead to a poorer flow

NOTE -The techniques mentioned in 7.5.4 and 7.5.5 sensitivity than would be obtained with a normal technique.

7.6 Exposure Charts - Exposure charts relating the material thickness, kilovoltage and exposure are usually furnished by the manufacturers of radiographic equipment for use with their units. The exposure charts apply to a set of specific conditions such as: a) the radiation b) a certain sources used,

focus to film distance,

c) a particular type of film and screen, d) processing conditions used, and e) the film density on which the chart is based.

Onlyif all the conditions used in making a radiograph are kept the same as in the preparation of the exposure chart, values of exposure may be read directly from the chart. Any change will require application of correction factors. 7.7 Precautions Against Scattered Radiation

7.7.1 Scattered radiation reaching the film is an important cause of reducing image quality, particularly with X-rays between 150 and 400 kV. Scattered radiation may originate both from inside the specimen and outside. In order to minimize the effect of scattered radiation, the area of the field of radiation should be masked so that it covers only the area of interest. This is normally done by marking the primary cone of the radiation beam, either with a physical cone or with a diaphragm on the tube head. The film should also be shielded from radiation scattered from other parts of the specimen or from objects behind or to the side of the specimen. This may be done by using a back intensifying screen of extra

18

1s : 2595 -

1978

thickness or by using a sheet of lead behind the film screen combination; this extra sheet may be inside the cassette or be placed immediately behind the cassette. Depending on the set-up, typical lead thicknesses are in the range of 1 to 4 mm. 7.7.3 If the edge of the specimen is within the method of reducing undercutting scatter is generally shows two typical methods. radiation necessary. field, a Fig. 12

i i \

m
FIG. 12

LEAD

SHEET

a
OF

FILM

METHODS OF REDUCING THE EFFECT

SCATTERED RADIATION

7.7.3 With X-rays of 6 MeV energy or more used without back intensifying screens, shielding against scattered radiation is not necessary, unless there is scattering material close behind the film. 7.7.4 In general, with X-rays between 150 and 400 kV and with gamma rays, if a beam rcstrictor may not be used, such as when panoramic exposure are being made, the exposures should be made in as large a room as possible, so that extraneous scatter is attenuated by distance; the specimens, whenever possible, should be well above floor level and the floor near the specimen should be covered with lead. 19

1s : 2595 - 1978 8. IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS by an image

8.1 The quality of the radiograph shall he determined quality indicator. conforming to IS : 3657-1966*.

8.2 The image quality indicator sensitivity which may be expected to be obtained with Class A and Class B techniques is given in Table 5.
TABLE SPECIMEN TXIICKNESS (1) mm 3 6 12 25 40 50. 75 100 150 5 IMAGE QUALITY ( PERCENTAGE INDICATOR SENSITIVITIES SENSITIVITY ) IN CLASS B TECHNIQUE ~-_.----h-_-_-_~ Wire Type Step/Hole Type (4) 2.4 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 I.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 (5) 5.1 3.6 3.0 2.5 2.1 1.8 I.6 1.4 1.3

IN CLASS A TECHNIQUE h-_-_-Y 7--------Wire Type Step/Hole Type (2) 2.4 1.7 1.5 I.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 (3) 4.6 3.0 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.8

9. FILM DENSITY 9.1 The exposure conditions shall be selected so rhnt the background density including fog density of the radiograph in the area of the specimen being examined is l-5-3.0 for Class A techniques, and 2.0-3.0 for Class B techniques. Higher densities may be permitted if adequate film viewing conditions are provided. 9.2 Radiographic film should be checked periodically for fog density which should not exceed 0.3 for GI, GII and GIII types of film, and 0.4 for GIV type film. 10. FILM PROCESSING 10.1 Layout of Processing Room-Unless the processing. room is completely equipped in every detai!, it is, impossible to get highest possible photographic quality in the exposed radiographs. The layout of the processing room should be compact, floor space occupied being as small as practical and the arrangement of a different equipment should be suitably planned. In assigning the space for the processing room, proper considera*Spccifirat;on for radiographic image quality indicators.

20

IS : 2595 - 1978 tion should be given to the total quantity of work to be processed, and the processing tanks, namely, developing, stop bath, fixing and washing tanks, should be designed accordingly. A loading bench for handing of films and other things should he provided on the other side of the room away from the processing tanks and within its convenient reach racks should be provided for hangers, cassettes, exposure holders, clamps, etc. A small lead-lined film storage bin should be provided for storing films for daily use. The room should either have a double door or a light-tight vestibuled entrance. The location of the processing room adjacent to the radiographic room with lead-protected film transferring cabinet in the wall serves for maximum out-turn of exposed films. Though the interior of the processing room should be coloured suitably to avoid any reflection of light, it should in no case be coloured black. It should be cool and dry, and ventilation provided by the constant circulation of clean and fresh air is an important factor. Air-conditioning the processing room is recommended which could profitably be utilized for the storage of X-ray films properly. 10.2 Illumination - As far as possible, the general illumination should be indirect. For light in specific sections of the processing room, such as the loading bench, processing tank, etc, the choice and arrangement vary depending on the amount and angle of illumination desired. For general illumination, a white light is provided at a place away from the loading bench.
10.3 Safety of Illumination - Screen-type films are more sensitive and hence liable to fogging from safelights. The checking of safelight, therefore, plays an important role in eliminating fogging of films.

A simple method of checking the safety of illumination is to cover part of a film with black cover and expose the remainder for different lengths of time at the loading bench and then to subject the test film to standard development. If no density shows on the portions that received a reasonably long exposure, as compared with covered part, the illuminaticn may be assumed to be safe. 10.4 Processing - Only the general technique of processing is given below irrespective of the type of processing chemicals used. In regard to the specific conditions, such as time - temperature development schedules,
replenishment or renewal of solutions, specific practices for certain, films,

etc, the recommendations should be followed. 10.4.1 industrial solutions radiographs are contained

of the manufacturers

of radiographic

supplies

General Considerations -

The most common method of processing is the tank processing system. The processing in tanks that are deep enough for the largest

21

IS t 2595 - 1978
film to be hung in them vertically. The temperature of the processing solutions is kept at 20C and is controlled by regulating the water-bath in which the processing tanks are immersed. 10.4.2 Developing -With only the safelight on, the exposed films should be taken out of the cassettes and mounted on the developing hangers. The number of films to be developed at a time should be. such that a minimum separation of 25 mm exists between hangers. The hangers should then be lowered as one unit smoothly and carefully into the developer without any splashing of the developer solution. The films shall not touch each other when in the developer. The development time should be strictly according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. During the developing process sufficient agitatioxl should be provided by lifting the films with the hangers, clear of the developer allowing the films to drain for one or two seconds and then re-immersing them smoothly into the developer. The procedure should be repeated every minute during the course of development. 10.4.3 Rinsing - When the development is complete, the liangcrs should If the level of the be lifted and transferred to a stop bath for rinsing. developer solution is maintained simply by additions of replenisher, sufficient time should be allowed to let the excess developer on the films drain back into the tanks before transferring into the stop bath. The hangers should be lifted, drained and re-immersed several times before they are transferred to the fixing bath. 10.4.4 Fixing - When the films are placed in the fixer solution during fixation, the hangers should be agitated once or twice to ensure uniform action of the chemicals. The total fixing time should be at least twice the clearing time, that is, the interval between the placing of the film in the fixer and the disappearance of the original diffuse milkiness. to a 10.4.5 Washing - The films should then be next transferred washing tank. The hourly flow of water should be not less than 4 times nor more than 8 times the volume of the tank and the time of washing should be at least 20 minutes. The films should be placed in the washing tank near-the outlet end. As more films are put in the washing tank, those already partially washed are moved towards the inlet so that the final part of the washing of each film is done in fresh uncontaminated water. After washing, to prevent water spots on the films these may be rinsed in a solution of wetting agent for about a minute before drying. 10.4.6 Dtying - Films should be left on the hangers and mounted so as to hang more or less rigidly for drying. For dark rooms where a considerable number of films is to be processed, suitable driers with builtin fans, filters and heaters may be used. 22

h3 :2595 - 1978
11. VIEWING RADIOGRAPHS - The link used for viewing radiographs should provide 11.1 Illuminator light of an intensity that would eliminate the average density areas of the radiographs when calculated and it should diffuse the light evenly over the viewing area. Commercial fluorescent illuminators are satisfactory for radiographs of moderate density; however high intensity illuminators should be used for densities up to 3.5 or 4 0. Masks should be available to exclude any extraneous light from the eyes of the viewer when viewing radiographs smaller than the viewing port or to cover low density areas. 11.2 Viewing Room - The viewing room should have subdued lighting rather than total darkness. The brightness of the surroundings should be about the same as the area of interest in the radiographs. The room illumination should be so arranged that there are no reflections from the surface of the film under examination. 11.3 Viewing Distance - The maximum film viewing distance shall be of the order of 40 cm. The use of low power magnifying lens ( x 3 or x 4 ) of reasonable area should be used for viewing radiographs. 12. PROTECTION EXPOSURE OF PERSONNEL FROM RADIATION

12.1 The exposure of any part of the human body to X-rays or gamma rays may be highly injurious to health. It is, therefore, essential that whenever radiation sources are used, adequate precautions should be taken to protect the radiographer and any other person in the vicinity. 12.2 To ensure precaution against the exposure of personnel engaged in the use of industrial radiation sources, the safety requirements given in IS : 2598-1968 shall be followed. 13. RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING AGREEMENTS

13.1 There should be mutual agreement between the . purchaser and the supplier on the following points: a) Marking of the object to be radiographed, b) Class of radiographic technique, c) Kadiation source, d) Type of film and screen, e) Film plan, f ) Image quality indicator, g) Test arrangement, and h) Maximum difference in material thickness for each exposure.
*Safety code for radiographic testing.

23

IS:2595-1978 14. RECORDS, MATERIAL REPORTS AND IDENTIFICATION OF ACCEPTED

14.1 Records - A log book should be maintained in the radiographic section wherein complete record ofeach job examined should be entered. The record should include such. details as (a) job numbers; (b) the identification of the parts, material or area radiographed; (c) the date of exposure; (d) complete information on radioaraphic technique used, that is, type of X-ray equipment or gamma ray source, type of film and screen, focus ( source ) to film distance, kilovoltage, tube current, exposure time, marking system; and (e) any other special circumstances which would allow a better understanding of results. If any rectification or repair and reexamination is done on the job, this should also be entered in the log along with the interpretation and observations on the radiographs with interpreters initials for each job.
The radiographs should be properly wrapped in folders and kept serially in a filing cabinet. The job number, the identificati,on of the job, date of exposure, etc, shouId be written on the folders so as to correspond with the record kept in the log book. The custody of radiographs and the length of time they are required to be preserved should be agreed to between the contracting parties. 14.2 Reports -When written reports on radiographic examination are required, these should include the following, in addition to such other items as may be agreed to between the contracting parties:

a) b) 4 .4 4

The

job

number;

Identification of parts, material or area. A sketch of the job showing the location of the area corresponding to each of the radiographs would be very helpful for proper identification; The interpretation and observations on the radiographs; and the as revealed by the whe.n The radiographic sensitivity image quality indicator; and The radiographic called for. standard attained to which

results conform,

14.3 Identification of Accepted Material - If radiography is used for acceptance or rejection of material, all parts and material which have been accepted should be marked permanently to indicate the face of radiographic acceptance to the final inspectors.

24

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