On Drawing the Mind into the Heart: Psychic Wholeness in the Greek Patristic Tradition

David Bradshaw University of Kentucky dbradsh@uky.edu

A recurrent complaint about western culture is that it suffers from a divorce between the head and the heart. The heart here stands for feeling passion imagination and intuition! the head for reason especially insofar as it is critical of the deliverances of the heart. "igns of a tension between them can be found in virtually every area of modern life from music to literature to the technocratic organi#ation of society to ordinary practices of friendship and romantic love. Above all they are to be found in the area of religion. $on%believers tend to look upon religious belief as a surrender of the head to the heart&that is a matter of believing something because one wants or needs it to be true rather than because of firm rational evidence. 'any believers unwittingly encourage this perception by practicing forms of evangelism and worship that give primacy to feeling over rational conviction. (n the other hand philosophies which are opposed to religion especially those grounded in science generally make no attempt to address the heart at all. They assume that a stance of neutral disinterested ob)ectivity is the only one that could possibly be relevant in deciding the fundamental *uestions of life. The result is that we seem to be faced with the choice between a +heart first, approach to life and a +head first, approach. $ot surprisingly most people find this an impossible choice to make. Their response instead is to compartmentali#e- they concede that science and reason ought to govern public life but when it comes to matters of feeling emotion or personal commitment they look for guidance elsewhere. 'y aim in this paper is two%fold. .irst / wish to describe how the vocabulary of the heart and the head entered western thought. /f we understand how this particular way of mapping out the terrain of human e0istence arose we will see that there is nothing about it that necessarily implies a conflict between the two poles that it identifies. 1e will also see that to forestall the

the heart is hard to know and indeed it can be fully known only by 4od. As we will see the 4reek 5hurch .s being should actively share in this love. The book of Deuteronomy commands +thou shalt love the 8ord thy 4od with all thine heart and with all thy soul and with all thy might . of the soul 2the thumos3 rather than any particular physical organ. 8et us begin with the heart.possibility of conflict by refusing to acknowledge a separate role for the heart 2as in philosophies that derive their inspiration from science3 would be a serious mistake. has opened up the possibility of overcoming this division. 1e must first understand the Biblical idiom in its own right before we can see how it was later transformed. 6is complaint is not precisely that the /sraelites are hypocrites for it is *uite likely that they believe that they are serving 6im as they ought. 6owever they also held that 7esus 5hrist as the great +unifier of what is disunited . 6owever what the heart represents in the Bible is different from what it represents in modern thought. The 6ebrew word generally translated :heart. Thus one finds +the heart of the sea. to indicate the depths of the sea and +the heart of the heaven. /t is rather that despite their words and their conscious thoughts they are far removed from 6im in the deepest wellspring of their being. < Although it is the name of the physical organ we call the heart most of its uses are metaphorical. The peculiar assumption that these are somehow linked and can be located together in the heart is due to the influence of the Bible. 2lēb and its cognates3 occurs over eight hundred times in the (ld Testament. This passage illustrates a point of crucial significance. According to / "amuel +man looketh on the outward < . "econd / wish to describe the particular approach to harmoni#ing the heart and the head that was adopted within the 4reek% speaking branch of the 5hristian tradition during the 'iddle Ages. 2<?-9=3. Although 4reek philosophy has a great deal to say about the passions and emotions it identifies their source as a faculty or +part. /n its broadest sense it designates the hidden inaccessible core of something. = As applied to human beings it indicates the inner reality of someone as distinct from superficial appearances.> /n /saiah 4od complains of the /sraelites that they +draw near me with their mouth and with their lips do honor me but they have removed their heart far from me.9 /t also does not connect the emotions with imagination intuition or +feeling. meaning that every depth of one. to indicate its unattainable heights. in the broader sense.athers believed that the possibility of a conflict between the heart and the head is part of our fallen human condition.

2Dan. (ne point on which the Biblical conception is sharply different from the modern conception however is that in the Bible the heart has no particular connection with emotion. The conte0t makes plain that to be of an +understanding heart. <-=B3! in other words it is Daniel.s heart deviseth his way. 8ater in the same book we find +A man. 7eremiah e0claims that +the heart is deceitful above all things and desperately wicked. is not primarily a matter of mental acuity but of the possession of rightly ordered intentions and desires. There is an especially interesting e0ample of this view in the book of Daniel. The book of Eroverbs commands +( ye simple understand wisdomand ye fools be ye of an understanding heart.+/ the 8ord search the heart / try the reins even to give every man according to his ways and according to the fruit of his doings. 2D-F3. The reason that this is seen as a form of understanding is that for them to be rightly ordered re*uires that they be formed in light of the knowledge of 4od. This is not to suggest that there is no connection between the heart and outward deeds. King "olomon in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple declares to 4od that +thou only knowest the hearts of the children of men. 9A-?%9B3.appearance but the 8ord looketh on the heart. 'oses tells the /sraelites that 4od made them wander in the wilderness +to know what was in thine heart whether thou wouldest keep his commandments.but the 8ord directed his steps. 27er. "o far the Biblical conception of the heart is not too different from the modern conception. / take it what he means is that their years in the wilderness were a period of trial during which as a result of their actions their hearts took on a definite and knowable form. @-=B3. 6ere too the = . 29@-A3. Because it is the whole person at his deepest level it is the seat not only of the emotions but also of reason intelligence and desire. /n light of the passages )ust mentioned he could scarcely be suggesting that 4od did not already know their hearts insofar as these could be known.who can know itC. 29@-?3. 2Deut. Daniel in e0plaining to $ebuchadne##ar the meaning of a dream by which $ebuchadne##ar has been deeply troubled states that 4od has revealed it to him 2Daniel3 +that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart. 6e then answers his own *uestion. 2// 5hron. D-<3.s role as prophet to reveal to $ebuchadne##ar that which is deepest within him. 'ost people today would tend to agree that the heart is deep and hard to know although it e0presses itself in action and to some e0tent can also be shaped by action. Actions express what is in the heart and to some e0tent they even shape what is in the heart. /n fact the Bible draws little distinction among these different functions.

Thus the heart can have a more or less receptive condition insofar as it is or is not responsive to 4od.heart is the organ of rationally%informed desire no more 2or less3 intellective than volitional and desiderative.That they may walk in my statutes and keep mine ordinances and do themand they shall be my people and / will be their 4od. The guilt that David feels is the product e*ually of his reason will and desire. 2<>-A3 6e means not primarily that they will know about 4od but that they will know 6im by responding to 6is direction and feeling 6is presence. he probably refers instead to 2b3 a characteristic way of thinking. <-9@3 he would seem to be referring to 2c3 the specific content of the divine mind.s heart smote him because he had cut off "aul. is not only one that is healthy and functioning properly but one that is readily moved rather than being cold and insensitive. Eaul *uotes from the 4reek translation of /saiah +1ho has known the mind 2nous3 of the 8ordC. 2/ 5or. 1hen in 7eremiah 4od promises of the /sraelites +/ will give them an heart to know me.+/ will take the stony heart out of their flesh and will give them an heart of flesh.2a3 the faculty of understanding to 2b3 the characteristic way that faculty is e0ercised to 2c3 a particular act of its e0ercise to 2d3 the virtue of e0ercising it well. /n saying that his +heart smote him .@ The best way to get a handle on this range of possibilities is to think of its meaning as related in various ways to the act of understanding.mind reason understanding thought )udgment resolve and disposition. "pecifically it ranges from.F /t is in light of both the depth of the heart and its holistic integrity that we can understand the supreme importance of a heart that is rightly ordered. the author conveys first that the guilt is present at a deeper level than the relatively superficial thoughts that led him to perform the act itself! and second that it affects David so completely that he feels it as a physical blow albeit one coming from within. 299-9?%<B3. 2/ "am.or e0ample when "t. /n G#ekiel the change between these two states is put in terms of an actual replacement of the heart. 1ithout such a heart any real communion between man and 4od is impossible. 6e may hint as well > . Actually it bears a range of meanings.s skirt. The same is true when we read that +David. A +heart of flesh. 1hen he then goes on to declare triumphantly +But we have the mind of 5hrist . 6ere / will focus particularly on the 4reek term nous the most common term for mind in the $ew Testament. . <>-F3. /n light of the holistic nature of the heart in the Bible how has it come to be contrasted so sharply to the mindC To answer that *uestion we must consider the growth of the concept of the mind.

Eaul often attaches to it a moral character speaking of a +fleshly mind 2nous3.athers one further point which needs clarifying is the different ways in which the mind and the heart relate to 4od.or our purposes there are two important points to notice. in Gnglish. 6ere too the renewal of the mind is a thoroughgoing transformation that brings one into conformity with the will of 4od. 25ol. The second point to notice is that because nous possesses a moral and spiritual character our current fallen nous is in need of transformation. The same is true in the opposite sense of the +mind of 5hrist. 1e F . 1hat we need is not more of what we already are but a radical transformation. @-F // Tim.it is not so much a distinctive intellectual ability as a way of thinking and feeling that is in service to 5hrist and takes him as its model.A 6e does not refer here merely to failings of intellect but to a habitual tendency to think and feel in ways that are self%serving or morally debased. <-9D3 a +corrupt mind.s very faculty of understanding since otherwise our sharing in his way of thinking could be merely a temporary or accidental fact. Eaul commands +be not conformed to this world. >-<=%<>3. 2/ Tim.but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind 2nous3 that ye may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of 4od. 2Gph. . Glsewhere Eaul directs his audience to +be renewed in the spirit of your mind 2nous3 and . /n both passages Eaul assumes that the +world. Before turning to the 4reek . The first is that because of this range of meanings nous does not stand in opposition to feeling or emotion in the same way as does :mind. (ne of the most familiar verses in the $ew Testament is that where "t. Already we can see how the notion of +drawing the mind into the heart. . 2Hom. might make sense on such a view. which constitutes our normal and habitual sphere of reference&roughly the values and e0pectations that are thrust upon us by society&will not be helpful in this endeavor. /t is rather that between the core of what we are and our phenomenal consciousness composed as it is of thoughts emotions feelings and desires whether habitual or transitory. ItoJ put on the new man which after 4od is created in righteousness and true holiness. 9-<D3. /t is plain that the Biblical contrast between the heart and the mind is not at all that between feeling and thought. 6ere the +renewing of the mind. ..that we share in 2a3 5hrist. =-D3 or a mind that has been tested and found unworthy 2Hom. 9<-<3. results not so much in a new intellectual ability as in a practical understanding of the will of 4od that is effective within the sphere of action.

Eerhaps the most vivid e0ample of how the heart as a spiritual organ cannot be separated from the physical organ is an episode in the book of 7eremiah. / have mentioned 4od. The heart is here not only a metaphor for the deepest level of his being! it is also the physical organ itself one that 7eremiah.. The physicality of the heart is thus an essential component of its meaning. Although this language is metaphorical it is also closely tied to an awareness of the heart as a physical organ one that we do not see but that we depend upon in all that we do and that occasionally 2when it is agitated3 we can feel as a physical presence.+Then / said / will not make mention of him nor speak any more in his name./ am in derision daily every one mocketh me. "ince it was his attempt to obey 4od that brought him to this point he places the blame for what has been done to him s*uarely upon 4od. 2'att. 2<B-A3.+( 8ord thou hast deceived me and / was deceived.thou art stronger than / and hast prevailed. 7eremiah has been placed in the stocks and publicly ridiculed for his prophecies. 6e then adds that he had resolved to speak 4od. refrain from speakingJ. ( generation of vipers how can ye being evil speak good thingsC for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.s conscious mind cannot escape or overrule however much he might wish to do so. But his word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones and / was weary with forbearing and / could not stay Ii. 9<-=>%=F3 @ . 8et us consider what Biblical motivation there might be for such a view.e.and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. of the /sraelites and give them a +heart of flesh. 7esus in rebuking the Eharisees observes that their words have an appearance of righteousness but do not witness to a good heart. The 4reek . /n the $ew Testament where the polarity of the heart and the mind is much more prominent than in the (ld Testament this sense of the heart as a mystery grows even stronger. His word was in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones .have seen that both of them can be more or less pure and that both are in need of some kind of transformation. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things. 2<B-?3.athers were primarily concerned with the different ways this is true in each case and how the transformation of each must work together before they can coalesce into a unity. The fact that the heart is a physical organ which we do not see but whose power wells up from within us makes it mysterious in a way that the mind is not.s promise in G#ekiel that he will take away the +stony heart.s word no more but the word itself would not allow him.

=-=3. 2// 5or.inally we must mention the letters of "t. The fact that as it does so it +burns within us. is sumballousa literally +drawing together. The heart is thus a mystery deep within a person one from which well up thoughts and actions that even the person himself may not fully understand. 9-9D3.8ater he elaborates +out of the heart proceed evil thoughts murders adulteries fornications thefts false witness blasphemies. 2Gph. 'ary +kept all these things and pondered them in her heart. $o doubt the Eharisees believed they were righteous but their words and deeds revealed otherwise. 2>-9D3.s teaching A . /n speaking of the heart as an organ of spiritual receptivity / mean to emphasi#e its physical character. 9-<<3 as having +shined in our hearts.these are the things which defile a man. /n this it contrasts with the mind which is instead 2as in Eaul.. D 'uch later in the same 4ospel after the resurrection of 7esus he appears to his disciples and e0plains to them the prophecies pertaining to himself. Eaul speaks of 4od as giving +the earnest of the "pirit in our hearts. . 6e describes the new 5hristians in 5orinth as an epistle +written not with ink but with the "pirit of the living 4od! not in tables of stone but in fleshy tables of the heart. 2// 5or. >-@3 and as having +sent forth the "pirit of his "on into your hearts crying Abba . Eaul where the heart as an organ of spiritual receptivity is a recurrent theme. 28uke <-9?3. indicates that )ust as with 7eremiah the heart is still very much a physical organ as well as a place of spiritual receptivity.ather. 1hen they at last reali#e who he is he vanishes and they e0claim to one another. Thus he prays for the Gphesians that +the eyes of your heart be enlightened that ye may know what is the hope of his I4od.+Did not our heart burn within us while he talked with us by the way and while he opened to us the scripturesC.sJ calling and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints. /t is also an organ of perception one that is capable of receiving mysteries in a way that the conscious mind is not. 6ere too it is the heart that recogni#es and receives the mysteries that 7esus reveals. 2// 5or. 29F-9?%<B3. The word translated :pondered. 24al. 8ike 8uke he understands the heart as capable of receiving and understanding mysteries in a way surpassing the mind. 2<>-=<3. After the birth of 7esus accompanied as it was by the appearance of +a multitude of the heavenly host . 'ary draws all that she has seen and heard into her heart where its meaning will unfold not so much intellectually as by her continual act of living in light of it. >-@3.? 8ater he urges them not to be like those who are +alienated from the life of 4od through the ignorance that is in them because of the hardness of their heart.

about the renewal of the mind3 a faculty of spiritual receptivity. Eaul then if the mind is alienated from the heart it will also be alienated from 4od. This means that if the heart has received the "pirit of 4od as prophesied in the (ld Testament and proclaimed boldly by "t. /f the mind should be turned ever so little toward frivolity and yield to unclean thoughts look out&the spirits of error have roamed the pastureland and have entered and have overturned there the beautiful things.s heart. /ndeed it is so deep within us that we do not fully know its contents or understand what it utters. /f the river eats away the foundations of the wall the wall will be destroyed and the garden flooded.9< Ultimately it is only through the heart that grace can penetrate our whole being including the body.s thoughts becomes a ma)or theme in later authors.9= The necessity of guarding the heart through watchfulness over one. The mind as the level of conscious awareness is more immediately sub)ect to our control yet is also sub)ect to self%deception. 'acarius has a vivid sense of the capacity of the heart for both good and evilThe heart itself is but a small vessel yet there also are dragons and there are lions! there are poisonous beasts and all the treasures of evil. is capable of knowing it fully and transforming it through 6is love. (ne who speaks e0tensively of the heart is the unknown fourth%century author 2conventionally referred to as 'acarius3 of the Macarian Homilies. The difference is that as an organ the heart is part of our physical make%up something that we did not choose and cannot readily change. And there are rough and uneven roads! there are precipices. 6esychius of "inai 2eighth or ninth D .athers. +"o it is also with man.+The heart directs all the organs of the body and when grace gains possession of the heart it rules over all the members Iof the bodyJ and the thoughts.or there in the heart the mind abides as well as all the thoughts of the soul and all its hopes.9B 6e likens the heart to an enclosed garden outside of which is a fast%moving river. 8et us now turn to the 4reek .. Glsewhere he alters the metaphor slightly describing how )ust as a gardener who works hard must still look to heaven for rain we too must +work the soil of the heart by free deliberation and hard work . 'acarius e0plains. As an e0ample we may take "t. But there is also 4od also the angels the life and the kingdom the light and the Apostles the treasures of grace&there are all things. /t has good thoughts but the rivers of evil are always flowing near the heart seeking to bring it down and draw it to its own side. (nly 4od who +searches the heart . while recogni#ing that without grace our labors can bring nothing. . 99 To guard the heart one must guard the mind keeping it from evil thoughts.. This is how grace penetrates throughout all parts of the body.

+1atchfulness is a continual fi0ing and halting of thought at the entrance to the heart.s natural state so that watchfulness is not an unnatural restraint but instead a return to our natural condition.9D Besides seeking 5hrist.9A The name of 7esus +gladdens the earth of our heart. /ndeed our true task is always the same and is always accomplished in the same way.to call upon our 8ord 7esus 5hrist with a burning heart so that 6is holy name intercedes for us. . . The goal is that the invocation of 7esus become a +prayer which is ever active in the inner shrine of the soul.9F 6esychius adds however that to attain purity of heart also re*uires the aid of 5hrist. 6e e0plainsA certain 4od%given e*uilibrium is produced in our intellect through the constant remembrance and invocation of our 8ord 7esus 5hrist provided that we do not neglect this constant spiritual entreaty or our close watchfulness and diligence. And shortly after this he adds+8et us purify our minds for / believe that when the mind is completely pure and in its natural state it gains penetrating insight and it sees more clearly and further than the demons since the 8ord reveals things to it. +/t is impossible to find the Hed "ea among the stars or to walk this earth without breathing air! so too it is impossible to cleanse our heart from impassioned thoughts and to e0pel its spiritual enemies without the fre*uent invocation of 7esus 5hrist.9@ 6ere he has in mind less the imitation of 5hrist as a model than the fre*uent indeed constant invocation of 5hrist in prayer.. .. within the heart is known as the +7esus prayer.ollowing a number of earlier authors 6esychius holds that purity is the intellect.s aid invoking him constantly is also a way of keeping the intellect occupied while freeing it from the need for +thoughts . ? . 6e writes/n this way the soul can attain in the 8ord that state of beauty loveliness and integrity in which it was created by 4od in the beginning. that is mental images which can distract it from 4od.. As Antony Ithe 4reatJ the great servant of 4od said +6oliness is achieved when the intellect is in its natural state.. 9> .century3 whose work On Watchfulness and Holiness was highly popular in the monastic tradition.<B "uch constant invocation of 7esus seeking to establish his name as a prayer which is +ever active.. like rain falling on the earth making it soft and pliable. /n this way predatory and murderous thoughts are marked down as they approach and what they say and do is noted! and we can see in what specious and delusive form the demons are trying to deceive the intellect.9? Ultimately then +none but 7esus 5hrist 6imself unifier of what is disunited can give your heart lasting peace from passions.. <9 The last author / shall cite is "t. 6esychius e0plains.

s thoughts and by constantly invoking the aid of 7esus. Hegrettably the points that / have attributed to the 4reek .athers&the emphasis on the heart as the channel of divine grace the use of the 7esus prayer the goal of +drawing the mind into the heart...4regory Ealamas 29<?@%9=F?3 who more than anyone else articulated the intellectual foundations of the monastic practice of the 7esus prayer. This means that the mind and the heart must come to act as one each in its own proper way responding to divine grace. There is a real physical connection to be made one that is only possible because we are both physical beings and spiritual beings and our spirituality is incomplete if it does not permeate our physical being. /ndeed to western ears the statement of Ealamas that the 9B . 1here but in the heart the controlling organ the throne of grace where the mind and all the thoughts of the soul are to be foundC<< (n the one hand the heart is the natural seat of the mind the +first rational organ of the body. Then in the words of 'acarius grace will issue from the heart and +penetrate throughout all parts of the body. The only solution is to lead the mind back into the heart by constant watchfulness over one. . Elainly for the 4reek . 6owever it is also not simply a process of mental self%correction. 5onse*uently when we seek to keep watch over and correct our reason by a rigorous sobriety with what are we to keep watch if we do not gather together our mind which has been dissipated abroad by the senses and lead it back again into the interior to the selfsame heart which is the seat of the thoughtsC This is why . has nothing to do with a surrender to sentimentality. Ealamas *uotes the words of 'acarius about how when grace gains possession of the heart it +rules over all the members and the thoughts.! on the other our mind in its current state has been +dissipated abroad by the senses. 'acarius immediately goes on to say +/t is there one must look to see if grace has inscribed the laws of the "pirit. /t re*uires rigorous watchfulness over one.&have played little role within western 5hristianity. / have focused on eastern 5hristianity because / believe it is there that the Biblical understanding of the mind and the heart reaches its fullest e0pression.athers +drawing the mind into the heart. 6e then continuesThus our heart is the place of the rational faculty the first rational organ of the body. /n this way what / referred to earlier as the faculty of spiritual receptivity will again be centered in the organ of spiritual receptivity where 4od especially imparts the gift of grace... .s thoughts and feelings re)ecting any that are alien to divine grace.

This is a comple0 sub)ect that deserves a lengthy discussion in its own right. By so doing they offer hope that we can again unite thought and feeling into a living whole. Although there are a number of 4reek terms that can be translated +will. thelēsis and sometimes prohairesis3 none of them covers the same range of meaning as voluntas. 6e uses it to designate roughly that in us which chooses in a way not governed by reason. APPENDIX Due to space limitations / was not able to address within the main body of the paper the *uestion of how in the 1est the heart came to be associated with feeling and the mind with reason. The 4reek . 2boulēsis. has a distinctly parado0ical ring. / believe that many of the ills of western culture can be attributed to this grave distortion of Biblical teaching.heart is +the first rational organ of the body. Did the flesh of the one cause the desire as he lookedC But why did not the flesh of the otherC (r was it the dispositionC But why 99 . That is because we have grown accustomed to contrasting the heart as the locus of feeling with the mind as the locus of reason. Augustine. 6ere / will offer )ust a few observations. The great divide separating the psychology of the 8atin%speaking 1est from that of the 4reek .athers is the concept of voluntas +will.<= Voluntas was made central to the 8atin theological tradition by "t.. 6e likens this case to that of two identical men of whom one succumbs to temptation and the other does not/f two men alike in physical and moral constitution see the same corporal beauty and one of them is e0cited by the sight to desire an illicit en)oyment while the other steadfastly maintains a modest restraint of his will what do we suppose brings it about that there is an evil will in the one and not in the otherC 1hat produces it in the man in whom it e0istsC $ot the bodily beauty for that was presented e*ually to the ga#e of both and yet did not produce in both an evil will. This meaning emerges most clearly in his discussion of why some angels fell away from 4od 2becoming demons3 while others remained steadfast even though all had been created e*ually good.athers present us with a theology of the mind and heart that never lost touch with its Biblical roots.

Bernard of 5lairvau0 and "t. Thomas A*uinas all identify the heart with voluntas.s answer is that there is no answer other than the will itself.s physical and spiritual natures coincide. All that is important for our purposes is that by isolating voluntas and giving it the central role that he does Augustine made the polarity of reason and will the dominant theme of medieval philosophical psychology. 9< . The trouble is that the heart as we have seen is not a distinct faculty at all! it is more like a distinct level one at which a person.<F Although Augustine does not directly contrast will to reason plainly if will is to play the role that he attributes to it its choices cannot be determined by the rational apprehension of what is good. Thus to a remarkable e0tent the heart simply disappeared from the picture. Anselm "t. 1e need not e0amine here the various answers that were given to this *uestion.<> Augustine. Augustine himself acute Biblical e0egete though he was has remarkably little to say about the heart. Although / have not checked other authors in these three the identification with voluntas is taken as obvious in a way which suggests that it was a commonplace.not the disposition of bothC . Among later authors "t. 6e dismisses any association of the heart in the Bible with the physical organ asserting instead that it is a metaphor for the soul 2 anima3 or mind 2mens3. But medieval psychology was committed to understanding the soul in terms of its distinct faculties of reason and will. $othing e0ternal to the will makes it choose as it does! the final e0planation is simply that one person has a good will and the other a bad one. The second stage is the remarkable shift that occurred within the western Guropean consciousness during the twelfth century.<@ Because of this interpretation he apparently sees no particular reason to speak of the heart at all and his own e0tensive psychological investigations 2in the De rinitate and elsewhere3 focus instead on the soul or the mind. Thus Augustine be*ueathed to his successors the bedeviling *uestion of precisely how reason and will are related. 1e find in this era a new preoccupation with the pursuit of intensity and vividness of feeling especially 2though not solely3 religious feeling. (n the other hand any choice however free is always a response to the alternatives that reason presents.<A They too do not themati#e it in any significant way. The removal of the heart from philosophical psychology then is the first stage of our story. 4iven such a view what becomes of the heartC /t is not obvious what the answer to this *uestion should be.or we are supposing that both were of a like temperament of body and soul.

or Augustine . .Andrew 8outh contrasts the mysticism of "t. the soul.s love of 4od and the soul. <? 1hatever may have been the cause of these changes they created a ma)or new psychological category that was not readily at home within the Augustinian psychology of reason and will. "mor est affectio naturalis. 8ove and knowledge of 4od are united in the kind of knowledge we have of 4od namely wisdom sapientia. . Although / have not attempted to verify this con)ecture in detail one indication that it is on the right track is the growth of devotion during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to the "acred 6eart of 7esus. una de #uattor&:8ove is a feeling one of four. . 2Aside from the shifting meanings of the heart one would have to take into account changing conceptions of reason as well. A more detailed investigation would surely turn up some important *ualifications as well as additional causal factors that / have not attempted to discuss here. 1ith Bernard however there is a sharp contrast between knowledge and love for love is not primarily a desire for possession and delight in possessing as with Augustine but a feeling. <D (ther signs of the new preoccupation with feeling can also be found at this time&for e0ample in the courtly love movement and in naturalistic trends within religious art. 9= . . !apientia in contrast to scientia ordinary knowledge is concerned with eternal reality and contemplation of it .s knowledge of 4od go togetherthe soul wants to know 4od more and more because it loves him and loves him because it knows that he is supreme Truth and Beauty. =93 $onetheless / believe that these two great shifts in medieval psychology are at least much of the reason that the heart and the mind are separated in the way that we find today. .=B (bviously this story needs fleshing out at many points. 2the others being fear )oy and sorrow3 . / would suggest as a plausible hypothesis that the heart was adopted popularly 2if not officially so to speak3 in order to serve as the home for this new category of feeling that e0ists in isolation from knowledge. Bernard with that of earlier authors such as Augustine precisely by the way in which it isolates feeling from understanding. . 1hen he contrasts sapientia and scientia he is not contrasting a higher intellectual activity with a lower but a feeling which delights in the good and finds it sweet with an intellectual activity. .

9> .

A! trans.listeningJ heart to )udge thy people that / may discern between good and bad.reat /etter 2$ew Lork. 9D On Watchfulness >9! tr.9B! tr. @ "ee the heological Dictionary of the )ew estament ed. 9B Homilies >=. 9 9@F. = Deuteronomy >-99 Esalm >@-< G#ekiel <D-D 7onah <-=! cf.7. . reason a feeling for the truth which emanates from the world and addresses man. as :reprobate. 9 9@?. F An especially interesting case is / Kings =-? where King "olomon prays to 4od +4ive therefore thy servant an understanding Iliterally. 6e was totally receptive to that truth but this was not passivity but an intense activity the ob)ect of which was response prudent articulation. 'aloney 9@A. 9< Homilies <@.<B! tr. 9 9?F. 'aloney <<9 slightly modified. *hilo%alia vol.K. 9 < . 9 28ondon.aber 9?A?3 9@=. > Biblical translations are from the King 7ames Kersion which / regard as superior to modern translations in both beauty and accuracy. 9 9AD. 4. 9> On Watchfulness @! translation in he *hilo%alia tr.K.. 1hen at the age of twelve 7esus is found *uestioning the rabbis in 7erusalem 'ary again +kept all these sayings in her heart . *hilo%alia vol. 9A On Watchfulness ?A! tr.or this statement and much of what follows / am indebted to the e0cellent discussion in 6ans 1alter 1olff "nthropology of the Old estament 2Ehiladelphia.Eaulist Eress 9??<3 <<<. /t produces an ability to control in which basically everyone can participate. 'aloney 99@ modified. 9F On Watchfulness 9A? citing Athanasius /ife of "ntony <B and =>! tr.ortress Eress 9?A>3 >B%FD. which translates %ardia 2heart3 here as +understanding. 9@ On Watchfulness <D! tr..aber and . The discovery of truth on the basis of the modern concept of reason on the other hand is rather an e0perience of power. 9? On Watchfulness <9! tr. 9 9@@. "ee on this point 4erald 6ammond he Ma%ing of the &nglish 'ible 2'anchester. *hilo%alia vol. youth so that we see at least some of this process. he -ifity !piritual Homilies and the . . .The classic statement of this view is Book /K of Elato. making plain that 7esus.5arcanet $ew Eress 9?D<3 9%9F.@! tr.s part in the remaining events of 7esus. > ?F9%@B. Ealmer Ehilip "herrard and Kallistos 1are vol.. *hilo%alia vol. The "olomon of / Kings = could&regarded ob)ectively&have said that he would yield to Lahweh so that the world might not remain dumb for him but that it might be understood by him. 4erhard von Had Wisdom in (srael 28ondon. 1hen 7esus is presented at the Temple "imeon prophesies to her +Lea a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also . D 8uke is careful to mention 'ary. 4eorge 'aloney *seudo+Macarius. A That is the literal meaning of ado%imos translated in the K. 99 Homilies >=."5' Eress 9?A<3 <?@%?A.. 9 9?>. 4erhard Kittel 24rand Hapids '/Gerdmans 9?@A3 vol. birth will bring her sorrow as well as )oy 2<-=F3. *hilo%alia vol. $evertheless there has survived even when today we speak about a :wise man .6. 1olff "nthropology >=. (ur reason is technically determined! it is knowledge about what one can do and as such is in opposition to the receptivity of wisdom and e*ually hostile to the attainment of trust. <B On Watchfulness 9D>! tr. a statement that emphasi#es her open and receptive spirit 2<-F93.. ? / have modified slightly the K.7.G. 1e mean by this a man who has at his disposal knowledge which can be used for other than merely technical ends and who actually also has no method ..s $epublic. something of the understanding of reason which the ancients had. /ndeed / would add that it is beautiful because it is accurate in that it tries to convey the literal sense of the te0t rather than ad)usting to an idiom in which the reader is presumed to be comfortable. *hilo%alia vol. 9= Homilies 9F. The eminent (ld Testament scholar 4erhard von Had comments on this passage+1hat he I"olomonJ the paradigm of the wise man wished for himself was not the authoritative reason which reigns supreme over dead natural matter the reason of modern consciousness but an :understanding.

F! cf. 'arcus Dods )icene and *ost+)icene -athers ed. 4765+4855 25ambridge.University of Toronto Eress 9?DA3. and .A! A*uinas !umma heologiae /a//ae O. <@ On the rinity N. A art.@! trans. <D Andrew 8outh +Bernard and Affective 'ysticism.od3s -ore%nowledge. <F /n N//. 2uantification and Western !ociety."chwabe 9?D@3.rom Aristotle to Augustine. <A Anselm On ruth 9< On the 1oncordance of .. *redestination. in he 2uestion of &clecticism.5ambridge University Eress 9??A3! Gdward 4rant .A2?3 "ermon <@F5! cf.>.regory *alamas. <> art.Gerdmans 9?D=3 "eries / vol. both in Merton and Hesychasm.ree% *hilosophy ed. =9 "ee for e0ample Alfred 5rosby he Measure of $eality. 7ohn Dillon and A. Bernadette Dieker and 7onathan 'ontaldo 28ouisville. < ob).The 7esus Erayer in (rthodo0 "pirituality ."84 Eress 9?A@3 <%9B at =."ee further /rMnMe 6ausherr he )ame of 0esus 2Kalama#oo '/. =B "ee +"acred 6eart of 7esus. <= "ee on this point 5harles Kahn +Discovering the 1ill.Eaulist Eress 9?D=3 >=.5ambridge University Eress <BB93.. and +The Eower of the $ame.5istercian Eublications 9?AD3! Kallistos 1are +6ow Do 1e Gnter the 6eart and 1hat Do 1e . Benedicta 1ard 2(0ford. in he (nfluence of !aint 'ernard ed. *rayer of the Heart ed. < <<?%=B. = //a//ae O. 5ornelius 'ayer 2Basel.or a fuller discussion of Ealamas see the introduction to this volume by 7ohn 'eyendorff as well as my own "ristotle &ast and West. $icholas 4endle .race with Human -reedom ///.=! trans. <> 1ity of . !tudies in /ater . 4oulven 'adec +5or. //a//ae O.A.<. 9. .? Augustine goes on to add that the good angels must have received more grace from 4od than did the evil angels! however this concession does not affect his theory of the will.<! Bernard of 5lairvau0 !ermons on the !ong of !ongs ><. Metaphysics and the Division of 1hristendom 25ambridge5ambridge University Eress <BB>3 <<?%><.od N//. in "ugustinus+/exi%on ed. 8ong 2BerkeleyUniversity of 5alifornia Eress 9?DD3 <=>%F?. >> art. Ehilip "chaff 24rand Hapids '/. 1ollected &ssays 2BerkeleyUniversity of 5alifornia Eress 9?AD3 especially +$atural "cience and $aturalistic Art in the 'iddle Ages.! 5olin 'orris he Discovery of the (ndividual. <9 . Medieval $eligion and echnology. in the )ew 1atholic &ncyclopedia with the literature there cited.ons Kitae Eress <BB=3. he riads 2$ew Lork.ind 1hen 1e GnterC.od and $eason in the Middle "ges 25ambridge. << riads /. <? "ee for e0ample 8ynn 1hite 7r. 4565+4755 2Toronto.