Smart Integration of Renewable Energy into

Electrical Supply Systems
Long Beach, CA, USA, 17
th
- 21
th
March 2013
E. Ortjohann, A. Schmelter, N. Hamsic, P. Wirasanti
South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences / Campus Soest, Germany
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
2
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
3
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
4
Source: Research of Renewable Energy: http://www.fvee.de, Richtlinie 2009/28/EG Erneuerbare Energien
 German Government's Renewable Energy Target

 18 % Renewable energy share in total primary energy consumption of
Germany up to 2020

 Renewable energy share in the electricity supply system of Germany:
 35.0 % up to 2020,
 50.0 % up to 2030,
 65.0 % up to 2040,
 80.0 % up to 2050.


Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
P
o
w
e
r

[
G
W
]
Year

Photovoltaic
Wind
 Installed capacity of grid tied PV systems and wind turbines

5
Source: BMU, Prognos AG

Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
2
9

G
W

2
5

G
W

3

G
W

2
1

G
W

1
7

G
W

2
7

G
W

2012
 Wind non valid values
 PV approx. 7,3 GW

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
P
o
w
e
r

[
G
W
]
Year

Photovoltaic
Wind
 Installed capacity of grid tied PV systems and wind turbines

6
Source: BMU, Prognos AG

Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
2
9

G
W

2
5

G
W

3

G
W

2
1

G
W

1
7

G
W

2
7

G
W

2012: distribution grids
 Wind approx. 95 %
 PV approx. 90 %

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
P
o
w
e
r

[
G
W
]
Year

Biomass 9.3 GW
Photovoltaic 39.5 GW
Wind 55.0 GW
7
 Estimated electrical capacity of RES in Germany up to 2020
 approx. 110 GW
Source: BEE Branchenprognose2020
Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
8
 Offshore wind development
Source: http://www.bard-offshore.de/
Alpha Ventus:
12 turbines
60 MW
Source: http://www.alpha-ventus.de/
Baltic 1:
21 turbines
48.3 MW
Source: http://www.enrw.de
BARD Offshore 1:
80 turbines
400 MW (2013)
Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
2011
7,7 %
of electricity
demand
47 TWh
2020
25.0 %
of electricity
demand
150 TWh
9
 Repowering is already in process









 Goals of Germany:
 Halving the number of wind turbines
 Double the installed wind power
 Triple the electricity generation related to 2011

Source: http://www.wind-energie.de/ (recalculated for 2011)
Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
10
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
11
 Conventional power systems


Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration
U
n
i
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

s
u
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

Active
Controlled Area
Passive
Controlled Area
3~
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pumped
Hydro
Grid
220 kV / 380 kV
110 kV
10 to 30 kV
400 V
3~
Reginal
Grid
Special
Loads or
Suppliers
Regional
Grid
Special
Loads or
Suppliers
3~
3~
3~
Offshore
Wind
Park
Power Plant
3~
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
12
 Moving towards decentralized power systems


Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration
B
i
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

s
u
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

Active
Controlled Area
.
.
.
.
.
.
Grid
220 kV / 380 kV
110 kV
10 to 30 kV
400 V
3~
=
3~
=
3~
=
3~
3~ 3~
Power Plant
Offshore
Wind
Park
Pumped
Hydro
3~
3~
=
3~
=
Regional
Grid
Reginal
Grid
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
3~
Special
Loads or
Suppliers
3~
Special
Loads or
Suppliers 3~
=
3~
=
3~
=
3~
3~
3~
3~
=
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
13
 Transfer of the conventional control schemas into all grid levels


Conventional control schemas of transmission networks must be
extended to distribution networks !
P
V
-P
a
rk
W
in
d
p
a
rk
B
io
m
a
s
s
e
B
a
tte
rie
-
s
p
e
ic
h
e
r

CHP


CHP


CHP



H

CHP


CHP


CHP


CHP


CHP

T
a
n
k
-
s
te
lle
W
a
s
s
e
rk
ra
ft
K
ra
ftw
e
rk
S
c
h
a
lt-
a
n
la
g
e
F
lu
s
s
W
a
s
s
e
rk
ra
ft
Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
14
 Grid Code for decentralized generators in Germany

 Power reduction (supervisory side)
 Frequency and voltage droop (unit side)
 Fault Right Through (unit side)
Source: VDN, German Grid Code
Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
15
 Inverter as Flexible Grid Interface for Integration of DERs


Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration
Unit Control
3~
=
(~)
Grid
Energy Conversion
System (ECS)
3 (4) 2 (3)
Load
Load
~
~
~ ~
~
~
~
~
~ ~
G
3~
Photovoltaic Generator
Wind Power System
Communication
Local
Control
Inverter is the Essential Device for
optimal integration of DERs
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
16
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
17
 Technical requirements of inverter as grid integration of DERs

 DERs integration into Active Network

 Symmetrical active network




 Asymmetrical active network


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
=
3~
=
3~
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
18
 Technical requirements of inverter as grid integration of DERs

 DERs integration into Passive Network

 Symmetrical passive network




 Asymmetrical passive network


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
=
3~
=
3~
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
19
 Inverter feeding modes at grid side (Unit Control)



System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Inverter Feeding Modes
at Grid Side
Grid Parallel
Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical
Grid Forming Grid Supporting
ECS Driven Feeding Grid Driven Feeding
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
20
 Inverter feeding modes at grid side (Unit Control)

 Grid forming: f- and V-control with nominal reference values
(grid side driven)

 Grid supporting: P- and Q-control with external reference values
from load dispatcher (grid side driven)

 Grid supporting: P- and V-control with external reference values
from load dispatcher (grid side driven)

 Coupling: Δf/ΔP and ΔV/ΔQ droop (grid side driven)
ΔP/Δf and ΔQ/ΔV droop (grid side driven)

 Grid parallel: P- (and Q-) control with reference values from source
(unit side driven)




System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
21
 Symmetrical grid forming mode inverter



System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Inverter Feeding Modes
at Grid Side
Grid Parallel
Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical
Grid Forming Grid Supporting
ECS Driven Feeding Grid Driven Feeding
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
22
 Symmetrical current control inverter


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

dq
SVM
-
-

L
f
C
f
V
_ref
V
_ref
V
d
V
q
V
dc
I
d_act
I
q_act
Inverter
=
3~
abc
dq
abc
Ve

Local
Grid
Grid
I
q_ref
I
d_ref
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
23
 Symmetrical grid forming mode inverter


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

dq
SVM
-
-
-

L
f
C
f
V
_ref
V
_ref
V
d
V
q
V
dc
PLL
I
d_act
I
q_act
Inverter
=
3~
V
ref
V
act
-
abc
dq
abc
w
act
V
act
w
ref
Local
Grid
Grid
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
24
 Symmetrical grid forming mode inverter with primary control


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Q
act
Primary Control
-
-
Δw
ΔV
K
w
K
V
P
act
P and Q
Measurement
P
ref
-
Q
ref

dq
SVM
-
-
-

L
f
C
f
V
_ref
V
_ref
V
d
V
q
V
dc
PLL
I
d_act
I
q_act
Inverter
=
3~
V
ref
V
act
-
abc
dq
abc
w
act
V
act
w
ref
Local
Grid
Grid
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
25
 Symmetrical grid forming mode inverter with primary control


System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Q
act
Primary Control
-
-
Δw
ΔV
K
w
K
V
P
act
P and Q
Measurement
P
ref
-
Q
ref

dq
SVM
-
-
-

L
f
C
f
V
_ref
V
_ref
V
d
V
q
V
dc
PLL
I
d_act
I
q_act
Inverter
=
3~
V
ref
V
act
-
abc
dq
abc
w
act
V
act
w
ref
Local
Grid
Grid
Proposed control schemas
fulfill the requirement of
decentralized generators
Grid Code !!
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
26
 Asymmetrical grid forming mode inverter



System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
Inverter Feeding Modes
at Grid Side
Grid Parallel
Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical Symmetrical Asymmetrical
Grid Forming Grid Supporting
ECS Driven Feeding Grid Driven Feeding
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
27
 Asymmetrical grid forming mode inverter




System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
SVM

L
f
C
f
V
dc
Inverter
=
3~
w
act
Local
Grid
Grid
Positive sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
1_q
w
ref
V
1_d_ref
w
act
V
1_d
I
1_q
I
1_d V
1_d
Negative sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
2_q
V
2_q_ref
V
2_d_ref
V
2_q
V
2_d
I
2_q
I
2_d V
2_d
Zero sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
0_q
V
0_q_ref
V
0_d_ref
V
0_q
V
0_d
I
0_q
I
0_d V
0_d
[ I
120_dq_act
] [ V
120_dq_act
]
PLL
[ V
120_dq
]
V
γ _ref
V
_ref
V
_ref
γ
120
abc
120
abc
120
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
28
 Asymmetrical grid forming mode inverter with primary control



System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter
SVM

L
f
C
f
V
dc
Inverter
=
3~
w
act
Local
Grid
Grid
Positive sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
1_q
w
ref
V
1_d_ref
w
act
V
1_d
I
1_q
I
1_d V
1_d
Negative sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
2_q
V
2_q_ref
V
2_d_ref
V
2_q
V
2_d
I
2_q
I
2_d V
2_d
Zero sequence
V-Controller I-Controller
-
-
-
-
V
0_q
V
0_q_ref
V
0_d_ref
V
0_q
V
0_d
I
0_q
I
0_d V
0_d
[ I
120_dq_act
] [ V
120_dq_act
]
PLL
[ V
120_dq
]
V
γ _ref
V
_ref
V
_ref
γ
120
abc
120
abc
120
Primary Control
ΔV
1_d
K
V1_d
K
ω
K
V2_d
K
V2_q
K
V0_d
K
V0_q
Δw
ΔV
2_d
ΔV
2_q
ΔV
0_d
ΔV
0_q
Q
1
P
1
Q
2
P
2
Q
0
P
0
P
ref
Q
act
P
act
Q
ref
-
-
abc
120
abc
120
-
-
-
-
-
-
P and Q
Measurement
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
29
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
30
 Developed smart inverter: technical specifications

 Total Power 100.0 kVA
 2 x Module 12.5 kVA
 1 x Module 25.0 kVA
 1 x Module 50.0 kVA

 Max. Input Voltage 800 V (DC)
 Output Voltage 3 x 400 V (AC)
 Max. Efficiency 95 %



Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
31
 50.0 kVA inverter module





Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
32
 AC Connection module



Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
33
 Developed smart inverter
 50 kVA inverter module







 AC Connection module



Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
34
 Verification of proposed control methodology of smart inverter



Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
=
3 ~
L
C
V
dc
25 kVA
L
C
=
V
dc
3 ~
12.5 kVA
Load
 Parallel operation of 2 Asymmetrical
Grid Forming with Primary Control
inverters are examined.

 Inverter Parameters:
 V
dc
= 780 V
 V
ref
= 230 V
 f
ref
= 50 Hz
 V
droop
= 4 %
 f
droop
= 4 %
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
35
 Asymmetrical Grid Forming with Primary Control
 Asymmetrical load; R
A
=20Ω, R
B
=40 Ω, R
C
=60 Ω



 Load Voltages





 Load Currents
Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
36
 Asymmetrical Grid Forming with Primary Control
 Symmetrical load; R
A
= R
B
= R
C
= 16 Ω



 Load Voltages





 Load Currents
Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
37
Agenda
 Status of the Renewable Energy in Germany

 Problems and Strategies for Grid Integration

 System Architecture and Control Methodology of Smart Inverter

 Implementation and Verification of Smart Inverter

 Conclusion

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
38
Conclusion
 Characteristics of the proposed smart inverter control architectures:

 The introduced control architectures enable reliable, fast and
efficient control of future oriented power systems

 Increase the flexibility and adaptability for DERs grid integration
into conventional grids

 Support the conventional control schemas, which are consequently
down sized to the low voltage level

 Give an opportunity to establish an advance control function down
to local level



Long Beach, 21.03.2013
39
Conclusion
 Change the ordinary DERs integration to be a part of the dynamic grid
control and management

 Empower and turn distribution network to be the active control area
with Smart Inverter


Local Area
Intelligent Substation
Prosumer
50 kW
=
=
CHIP
CHIP
=
3~
CHIP
CHIP
CHIP
CHIP
CHIP
CHIP
3~
=
3~
CHIP
SGCC
Long Beach, 21.03.2013
40
Acknowledgement
 This research work is supported by

Long Beach, 21.03.2013
41
Thank You For Your Attention!
Paramet Wirasanti

South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences,
Division Soest
Department of Electrical Engineering
Laboratory of Power Systems and Power Economics

Email: wirasanti@fh-swf.de
6
7
4
~ ~
~
5
~
2
~
1
~
3
~
Power Plant
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~~
Virtual
©