For the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) project we were tasked to find two developing countries and

Canada and compare them to find out which country should get the $100 million to help their country develop. The two countries I pick were Chad and Dominican Republic. I chose these countries because I wanted to expand my knowledge on them and find out what is going on that is making the country develop slowly. Canada is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Canada is 9.98 million square kilometers in total making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada is a Developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world The capital city of Canada is Ottawa. Canada has a high standard education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, and economic freedom. The largest city is Toronto with a population of 5,583,064. The official languages are English and French. The largest ethnic group is European with 76.7%. The currency that is used is the Canadian dollar. Hockey is Canada's most popular sport. Chad officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a country in Central Africa. The country is named after Lake Chad. Lake Chad is the second largest wetland in Africa. Chad is divided into 22 regions. Chad has a population of 12,450,000 people. N'Djamena is the capital and largest city in Chad with a population of 1,092,066. The official languages are French and Arabic. The currency used is Central African CFA franc. In 2005 Chad was named the most corrupt country in the world but are now improving. Soccer is Chad's most popular sport. Electricity is very limited. Chad is a developing country. The Dominican Republic is the second largest Caribbean nation with 48,445 square kilometers. There are an estimated 9,445,281 people living in Dominican Republic. The capital city of Dominican Republic is Santo Domingo with a population 965,040. The official language is Spanish. The currency used is Peso. The electricity

hasn't been productive having power losses due to the old equipment. The most popular sport is baseball. Dominican republic is a developing nation. The Health and Living Standards includes the fertility rate per women, HIV prevalence, infant mortality, life expectancy, and literacy rates. Firstly, the fertility rate was estimated in 2014. Chad having the highest rate compared to the three countries at 4.68 children born per women. Next is Dominican Republic with a rate of 2.36 children born per women. Last is Canada with 1.59 children born per women. Chad has the highest rate which shows that women are less educated therefore having more children. The more educated the women are the less children they would have because they would be busy working and have less time caring for the child. Secondly, the HIV prevalence was surprisingly high in all three countries. Chad has a adult HIV prevalence at 2.7% and the young people with a 0.9% prevalence rate. There are about 100,00 women, 136,000, 34,000 children living with HIV or AIDs. Dominican Republic has a adult prevalence rate at 0.7% and young 0.2%. There are approximately 23,00 men and 22,000 women that live with this disease. I couldn't data for children. In Canada adult prevalence rate is 4.5% with young at 1.4%. There are 310,000 women, 231,000 men and 59,000 children. Canada has the highest rate because it also the most population. The number are really shocking because they have low percentages but there are a big number of people infected. I think people need to be more educated on this subject to avoid HIV from spreading. Thirdly, Infant Mortality is death under the age one year. Chad's has the highest average infant mortality from 2000- 2012 of 96. The highest peak being 102.07 in 2007 and the lowest in 2006 with 91.45. It seems to be decreasing in recent years which means health is improving. Dominican Republic has a average infant mortality of 29.16 from 2000- 2012. The highest number being 35.96 in 2000 and lowest number being 21.3 in 2012. The infant mortality rate seems to be decreasing every year which

also means health is improving. Canada has the lowest average infant mortality rate from 20002012 of 4.9. The highest rate being 5.08 in 2000 and 2008 with the lowest rate being 4.63 in 2007. This insets that Canada has the highest health standard of the three countries. The number is in largest amounts in developing countries. Fourthly, Life Expectancy is from accurate from 2011. Women seem to have a longer life expectancy then men in all three countries. Chad's life expectancy keeps growing as the years progress. The average life expectancy grew dramatically from 46.69- 51.09 from 2000- 2011. Dominican Republic's life expectancy looks like it has been growing but at a slow rate. The average was 70.63 at 2000 to 73.01 at 2011. Canada already has a high life expectancy yet it is still growing. The average life expectancy was 79.24 to 81.07 from 2000- 2011. It fell in 2007 a bit, but went back up again. Growing life expectancy shows that we are improving our health system. Lastly, literacy is the ability to read and write. In developing countries the rates were low compared to developed countries. Chad has a literacy rate of 34.47 in 2010. It has been growing but the number are still low. This tells us that many people don't get the chance to go to school. Dominican Republic has a pretty high literacy rate but it can improve. In 2010 the rate was 89.54. The literacy rate has been growing at a slow rate of only 2.54 in 8 years. It was hard to find the literacy rate for the two developing countries on a yearly basis so I just used the info I could find. This tells us that the records are not always up to date in developing countries. On the other hand Canada has a very high literacy of 99 every year from 2000. I didn't find that surprising because in Canada children have to go to school from the age of 5 to 17. Therefore everyone has to go to school and get a good education which can help us later on in life. In the most part of the "Health and Living Standard", Chad had the worst rates then Dominican Republic and Canada with the best rates.

Labour Force and Economy section includes labour force and occupation, GDP per captia, average yearly income, and expenditures. Firstly, the three countries have similar and different occupations. All three involve agriculture and services. Chad has only those two which tells us there isn't a great variety of jobs for people and that's why some people are poor because they can't find jobs. The highest number is agriculture with 80% and services with 20%. Dominican Republic has agriculture at 14.6%, industry which is 22.3% and lastly services with the remaining 63.1%. There is more job choices but still limited with only three major occupations. Canada has the most choice in terms of occupations. There are 5 major occupations. The first one is agriculture which is 2%, Manufacturing at 13%, construction with 6%, services with the highest rate of 76%, and lastly other occupations with 3%. We can see the least developed country has the least number of job opportunities and the most developed country with the most job opportunities. Secondly, in all three countries there are more men working than women. Chad has a steady 80.2%male population working. Canada and Dominican Republic have percentages that are very slowing decreasing. Women have a lower population working percentage. Chad has a stable percentage of 64.5. For Canada it has been growing very slowly. Dominican Republic is also growing but at a faster rate than Canada. Thirdly, Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (GDP per capita) is the amount of money a country make divided by the population. We can see Canada has the highest GDP per capita then Dominican Republic and lastly Chad. Canada's GDP per capita has been growing each year but had a little drop in 2009 but it went up again. Dominican Republic had a growing GDP per capita with the peak being in 2006 and lowest point being in 2007. Chad's GDP per capita had been growing up until 2004 and then went up and down. There is a very big margin between Canada's GDP and the other countries GDP which means Canada makes more than the other two countries. Fourthly, the

expenditure of GDP were spent in three categories, education, health, and military. Chad's expenditure was spread with health being the most at 4.3%, then education with 2.9% and lastly military with 1.6%. I think Chad should be using more of the GDP to strengthen education and health because those are the two most important categories. Military isn't that important as much as the people living there. Investing in education would make people more knowledgeable and bring the rate of the diseases down. Dominican Republic spends most of it GDP on health at 5.4%, education with 2.2%, and military with 0.6%. What I would suggest for Dominican Republic is to invest more GDP in education has it would give the people of the country more knowledge. The health percentage is good but can go higher. Canada has the most expenditure with a total of 17.6% of GDP invested. Health has the highest percent at 10.9%, then education with 5.4%, and lastly military with 1.3%. Canada is closely allied with the U.S therefore not having to spend much on military and use the more to improve health and education. Lastly, average yearly income per capita is the average amount a person makes. We can see that Canada has the most average income per capita by a very large margin. The average income has been growing for all three countries but not as fast as they should to be keeping up with the development. The average yearly income in Chad is what a full time worker makes in one week in Canada. This is also a reason why these developing countries are poor because the people living there are poor. It is sad seeing these stats but that's just the reality of it. The next section is "Population". This shows how the population pyramid is for the three countries. The population pyramids are correct from 2013. Firstly, Chad is a developing country therefore is has a early expanding population. The birth rates are high along with the death rates. More people are born but die quickly. The life Expectancy is short. Secondly, Dominican Republic is a developing country and has a expanding population. There is a rapid increase in

population. The birth rate is high but the death rate is declining. The life expectancy is a little longer then early expanding. Lastly, Canada is a developed country therefore contracting population pyramid. The birth and death rate are extremely low. There is a higher dependency ratio and a longer life expectancy. It shows that developed countries have a longer life expectancy then developing countries. There are many environmental issues regarding the countries. Firstly, Chad has lack of clean water due to the droughts. The waste disposal is not proper leading to soil and water pollution. There is desertification which means land turns dry and into a desert. It is hot, dry, and there are dusty winds in the northern part of Chad. There are some long periods of droughts which can affect the supply of water and ruin land. There is a Locust plague which are grasshoppers. The grasshoppers destroy crops which can make farmers lose money on what they are making of a low income. Secondly, Dominican Republic has water shortages. Although they are surrounded by water, they have limited amount of fresh drinking water. The soil also erodes into the sea which can affect the coral reefs. There is also deforestation which means clearing trees. Dominican Republic is in the middle of the hurricane belt and has severe storms from June to October. There is also occasional flooding because they are surrounded by water. Dominican Republic can also have periods of drought. Lastly, in Canada there is air pollution and acid rain which can affect lakes and damage forests. CO2 Emissions are impacting the agricultural and forest productivity. The ocean waters become contaminated because of agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities. There are cyclonic storms east of the Rocky Mountains. Lastly, there are a lot of volcanoes in western Canada's coast mountains. Chad had a civil war from December 2005- January 2010. It was between Arab-Muslims and Sub-Saharan-Christians. The war was over leadership and presidency. When one side was in

power, the other side would start a revolutionary war. The war took place in different places like N'Djamena, Mongo, Am Timan. There were about 1,596 deaths during the civil war which lasted 4 years. `Clean Drinking water is hard to find in some places in the world. With 75% of the world being water only 2% is drinkable. Firstly, in Chad, drinkable water has been going away. With lakes and wells drying up because of droughts. People have to travel long distances just to get water. Secondly, Dominican Republic is surrounded by water but is facing water shortages. Most of the water Dominican Republic has is salt water from the ocean. Lastly, Canada has 20% of the worlds fresh water and many people take it for granted. People just waste water for no reason like taking half hour long baths, leaving the tap running. There are countries trying to do everything for water while Canadians don't understand the value. It wasn't a hard decision to choose which developing country to give a $100 million to. Although Dominican Republic has problems, Chad had even more greater problems. In almost all categories Chad has the worst rate. Firstly, I would give them $40 million to improve their health. Making the basic health care available to poor people. Building more hospital. Finding cures for the diseases that they face like HIV. The fertility rate and HIV prevalence would go down along with infant mortality. Helping them in this category would make the life expectancy go up and people would live longer. Secondly, I would give them $35 million for education. Building new schools all over the country would make it more accessible for children to go to school. Going to school will educated children on endless amounts of things. Education would be free so everyone can join. Education people would lower the fertility rate, HIV prevalence, and infant mortality. The literacy rates would go up making more people able to read and write. Thirdly, I would give $20 million for upgrading technology. There is limited amounts of

electricity and only in major parts of the country. This $15 million would help build more power plants so more place can get access to electricity. Water is limited so we would need to find other ways to power the generators like solar and wind power. Setting up solar panels and windmills would be expensive but would be the most productive way. This would raise the standard of living and make life for the people of Chad more easier. Lastly, I would give them $10 million for other things like making new water wells so water is more accessible, making new roads so it will become more easier to travel. This again would make lives easier for the people of Chad. Giving the money to Chad will benefit Canada because it could open up trading doors with them. Not only that but other countries would recognize Canada and would also start trade talk. The $100 million would help Chad in a lot of ways because we would provide the necessities that their corrupt government can't help them with.