MIT OpenCourseWare


2.500 Desalination and Water Purification
Spring 2009

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit:

2.500 Desalination & Water Purification
Spring 2009 Tuesday/Thursday 1:00-2:30 Professor John H. H Lienhard V

Figure from Wilf, M., and M. Balaban. Membrane Desalination and Membrane Filtration. L'Aquila, Italy: European Desalination Society, 2007. Used with permission.

Photo by Amy Smith. Used with permission.

2.500 Desalination and Water Purification

More than 1 billion people lack access to clean drinking water Half the hospital beds in the world are occupied by patients with easily prevented water-borne disease Half the people p in the world do not have sanitation systems as good as those in Ancient Rome. In 2000, unsafe water mortality amounted to 80 million years of lost life (Science, 25 Jan 2008) This situation is expected to get WORSE.

Image from Wikimedia Commons,



com/slideshow/2008/05/05/world/0505-MYANMAR_index.html http://graphics8.JPG Photo source: The New York Myanmar May 2008 …after cyclone Images removed due to copyright restrictions.Yangon. Please see http://www.nytimes. Times 7 May 2008 .nytimes.

com/photos/andrewheavens/100063338/ Please see: http://www.typepad. Andrew Heavens ( removed due to copyright 4 .jpg Sources: postnewsline.

distribution of unserved populations Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. .Europe 2% Latin America and Caribbean 6% Africa 27% Asia 65% Water supply.

6 .100 80 60 % 40 20 0 Africa Asia Latin America & Caribbean Oceania Europe North America House or yard connection for water Connected to sewer Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

7 .

Water stress means that the annual water supply is below 1700 m3 per person. Water scarcity means that the annual water supply is below 1000 m3 per person. "Sustaining Water. p Source: Gardener-Outlaw & Engelman Source: Gardner-Outlaw. May 1997." Population Action International. Tom. and Robert Engelman. Easing Scarcity: A Second Update. (PDF) .

Accessed September 25. UNEP/GRID-Arendal.Image by Philippe Rekacewicz for UNEP/GRID-Arendal." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. 2009. 9 . 2000. "Freshwater Stress.

2008. 10 . UNEP/GRID-Arendal. "Areas of Physical and Economic Water Scarcity. Accessed September 25.UNEP/GRID-Arendal." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Map and Graphics Library. 2009.

Source: infranetlab.Aral Sea – water diverted for agriculture Image from NASA Earth 11 .

World Insolation (kWh/m2-day) 0.9 3.0-2. 12 .9 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.0-5.9 6.9 4.0-3.9 5.0-4.9 2.0-0.0-6.0-1.9 1.

"The Global Demography Project.. Santa Barbara. 1995. et al. 13 . CA: National Center for Geographic Information Analysis. W." TR-95-6. Image is in the public domain.Source: Wikipedia Image from Tobler.

UNEP/GRID-Arendal. Accessed September 25. ." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Map and Graphics Library. "Areas of Physical and Economic Water Scarcity. 2009. 2008.14 UNEP/GRID-Arendal.

v. 25 Jan 2008 .Per capita water consumption (m3/y) Worldwide average Nigeria China Mexico Italy USA World desalting capacity 800 50 300 800 1000 2000 2        Source: Science. 319.

CA 16 .com/photos/peggyarcher/975676140/in/set-72157601398334771/ Cleaning a sidewalk in Long Image removed due to copyright restrictions.laist. Please see:

.Domestic 11% Industrial 10% Domestic 8% Agricultural 30% Industrial 59% Competing water uses (high-income countries) Agricultural 82% Competing water uses (low-and middle-income countries) Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

2002." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Accessed September 25.Image by Philippe Rekacewicz for UNEP/GRID-Arendal. "Global Freshwater Withdrawal. UNEP/GRID-Arendal. . 2009.

"Trends and Forecasts in Water Use. 2009. 19 . UNEP/GRID-Arendal." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. 2002. however. by Sector. Image by Philippe Rekacewicz for UNEP/GRID-Arendal. Accessed September 25.Author’s definition of “waste” is not clear. it is common for municipal water distribution systems to lose 20 to 40% of water by leakage.

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.000 500 15 10 6 1. roots and tubers Unit Head Head Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Equivalent water in cubic meters 4.Product Bovine (cattle) Sheep and goats Meat (bovine fresh) Meat (sheep fresh) Meat (poultry. . fresh) Cereals Citrus fruit Palm oil Pulses.5 1 2 1 Water requirement equivalent of main food production.

Bottled water exp portation… …and and importation 21 Image by Emmanuelle Bournay. "Major Bottled Water Exporters and Importers. 2006. 2009. UNEP/GRID-Arendal. ." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Accessed September 25.

Many countries that consume larg large e amounts of bottled water have excellent t water… tap t 22 Image by Emmanuelle Bournay. 2009. UNEP/GRID-Arendal. ." UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. 2006. Accessed September 25. "Total Bottled Water Consumption.

including agriculture agriculture.500 12 500 km3/y. Accessible annual run run-off off is about 12. /y of which about 54% is acquired for human use. etc. Source: Miller. 2003. Used with permission.) (Precipitation over land) Approximately 23% of renewable water is appropriated for human uses. Courtesy of Sandia National Labs. .(Ground water: lakes.

v.000 Available river flow and recharge h 12. 319.000 • Domestic 500 Source: Science.Water flows (km3/y) Precipitation on land 120.000 groundwater • River runoff and g recharge 50.000 • Withdrawal for human use • Agriculture 3. 25 Jan 2008 World desalting capacity = 13 km3/y .000 • Evaporation on land 70.500 • Industry d 1.

2007. L'Aquila. Balaban. Italy: European Desalination Society.2007 .Figures from Wilf. M.. Membrane Desalination and Membrane Filtration. Used with permission. Source: Sommariva. and M.

wikimedia. odor. color. . http://commons.Water Quality Q y Characteristics Biological Characteristics microorganisms i i Physical Characteristics taste.… Chemical Characteristics natural or manmade Ref: Reynolds & Richards Images from Wikimedia Commons. .org .

CO32+. NH3.OH‐ system) Hardness ( (Ca2+. dissolved gases in ground water) • Temperature • • • • • • pH p Anions & cations (dissolved solids) Alkalinity (HCO3‐. Mg g2+) Dissolved gases (O2.Bi l i l Biological • • • • • • • • • • Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Coliform bacteria (indicate human waste) Helminths Fungi algae Fungi. H2S.CH4…) Priority pollutants (organic and inorganic) 27 Chemical . Physical Total solids (dissolved and suspended) Turbidity Color (apparent and true) Taste & odor (organic compounds in surface water. CO2. N2.

cholera.… • Principal transmission is by human waste • Principal purification technique is chlorination. giardia.… • Bacteria – Salmonella.Microbial contamination is the #1 concern for f water • Protozoans – Amoeba.… • Helminths – Guinea worm. 28 . encephalitis. roundworm. 1998. … • Viruses – Polio. shigella. algae. hepatitis A. typhus. hookworm. especially for bacteria. Ref: Faust and Aly. cryptosporidium. meningitis.

29 Courtesy of The Carter Center.Some water borne diseases can be eradicated… …3. 1986 …<5000 cases in 2008… …80% in Sudan.000 cases of Guinea worm in 1986…. Used with permission.500. .

clay. colloids. g . usually as the result of colloidal material • Color is due to dissolved (true color) or colloidal ( (apparent t color) l ) material…iron. y.… l • Taste/odor …typically treated by aeration (to release dissolved gas from ground water) or activated carbon (to remove organics from surface water) 30 . filtration. .Physical characteristics • Suspended p solids include silt. algae. bacteria…remove by settling. clay. . t i l i manganese. or flocculation • Turbidity interferes with passage of light.

pH. benzene. PAH. SO42‐. 31 . herbicides. iron. PCBs. copper.EPA Primary Standards for ~130 130 chemicals • Toxic metals – Arsenic. mercury. chromium. odor. odor. cadmium. zinc.…very long list • Nitrate or nitrite – fertilizer byproduct • Fluorine – damages teeth and bones at high concentrations • Radionuclides – mainly natural alpha emitters… • Secondary standards for taste. appearance: Cl‐. manganese. halogenated hydrocarbons. 2006.… • Organic compounds – insecticides. petrochemicals. color. lead. foaming agents… Ref: WHO.

1 µm 1 µm 10 µm 100 µm Algae Viruses Reverse osmosis Nano filtration ∆p Ultra filtration Micro filtration Sand filtration Comparison of treatment methods with particle size.0001 µm 0. Na Colloids Organic macromolecules Bacteria Protozoan parasites 0. Organic compounds Dissolved salts Ca.001 µm 0. Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. 32 .01 µm 0. Mg.Source: Twort et al.

Why not drink seawater? • Seawater is usually about 3. Seawater contains about 3x more dissolved salts than human blood. You can’t drink it.9% salinity (~9000 ppm) • Ingesting too much salt leads to excretion of water and deh dehydration. It also tastes bad. ydration. 33 .5% by weight dissolved salts (35000 ppm) • Human blood has the [osmotic] equivalent of about 0.

500 500 0 Maximum S li i TDS Salinity. [ppm or mg/kg] 50 000 50.000 1 500 1. 2007 .000 15 000 15.000 1.Characterization of Water Salinity Minimum S li i TDS Salinity.500 500 34 S Seawater t Brackish water River water (brackish) Pure water After Fritzmann. [ppm or mg/kg] 15 000 15.

. Used with permission. Stewart.(1982) 35 Courtesy of Robert H.

8 45 4.42 ~300 to 3000 Maximum Allowable aesthetics: 200 250 250 2-4 500 10 - free? 1.6 0.74-0.3 965000 35200 Cambridge City Water 79 5 25 nr[1] nr 140 27 nr nr nr 1 320 0.9 3595 3. HCO3Bromide.016 nr 1 110 0.9 13-28 not detected nr 0. NO3 Retail Cost.5-9.05 [1] nr = not reported.46 Massachusetts Water Resources Authority 30 0.6-5.18 Poland Springs Bottled Water 2.11 1.12-0.5 0.5 0. K+ Strontium. ClSulfate. Sr+ Chloride.27 33-57 0.5-6. Mg2+ C l i Calcium.9 nr 21 8 nr 0.88 nr 1.87-5.Substance (amounts in mg/kg) Sodium. BrBoric Acid.0-0. SO42Bicarbonate.6 0. US$/m3 Standard Seawater 10781 1284 412 399 13 19353 2712 126 67 26 1.7-1. Acid B(OH)3 Fluoride. Na+ Magnesium. 36 . FlWater Total dissolved solids Nitrate. C Ca2+ Potassium.

016 nr 1 3.0 5881 Low Salinity Brackish W t Water 90 11. FlSiO2 Nitrate. Sr+ Chloride. B(OH)3 Fluoride.5 nr 191 159 72.5 0. K+ Strontium. Potassium. from M.7 96 6. SO42Bicarbonate.Substance (amounts in mg/kg) Sodium.2 24 nr 647 Massachusetts Water Resources A th it Authority 30 0. NO3 Total dissolved solids Standard Seawater 10781 1284 412 399 13 19353 2712 126 67 26 1. BrBoric Acid.6 nr nr 0.4 17 5.11 110 Brackish compositions are representative.3 0. HCO3Bromide. ClSulfate. Mg2+ Calcium Ca2+ Calcium.3 2 nr 35200 High Salinity Brackish W t Water 1837 130 105 85 nr 2970 479 250 nr nr 1. Na+ Magnesium.9 nr 21 8 nr 0. 2007 37 .8 45 4. Wilf.

Seawater purification
Work Fresh water

Desalination system t Seawater Concentrated brine Ideally, this requires 2.5 to 7 kJ per kg fresh water produced. Practi ticall lly, it t tak kes an ord der of f magnit itud de more energy.

Principal desalination techniques
• Membrane techniques
– – – – – – – – Reverse osmosis (SWRO or BWRO) Electrodialysis (ED) Capacitative deionization (CDI) N Nanofiltration fil i (NF) Multistage flash evaporation (MSF) M l i ff distillation Multieffect di ill i (MED or MEE) Vapor compression distillation Solar thermal distillation (concentrating or not)

• Distillation techniques

• Related methods
– Deionization – Water softening


Installed desalination cap pacity y
S Brine <1% Pure 5% O Waste 6% U R C E Brackish 24% River 9%
V Vapor C Compression i 3% Electrodialysis 5% Unknown <1% Brine <1% Pure 7% Waste 9% Unknown <1% Seawater 7% River 26%

Seawater 55%

Others 2%

Brackish 51% Ref: Wagnick/ GWI 2005

Multi-Effect Distillation 2% Others 2%

Nano Filtration 15% Nano-Filtration Multi-Effect Distillation 1% Vapor Compression 3% Electrodialysis 9% Multi-Stage Flash 1%

Multi-Stage Flash 40%

Park Center for Complex Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Reverse Osmosis 44%


Ref: Wagnick/ GWI 2005

Reverse Osmosis 69% Used with permission. Source: Fritzmann et al. http://www..Courtesy of Elsevier.. Inc. 2007 41 .

MSF Heating Steam from boiler Flash evaporation and heat recovery Chemical injection Seawater feed Brine heater Product water Steam 90.1) Multi Stage Flash .6 C Condensate to boiler O Steam Brine Steam Brine Blowdown 42oC Brine Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. 42 .

Used with permission.Ref: Sommariva. . 2007 Courtesy of Corrado Sommariva.

.sciencedirect. Source: Fritzmann et al. Used with permission..Courtesy of Elsevier. http://www. Inc. 2007 44 .com.

and Alexander (left) . This occurs until sufficient hy ydrostatic pressure develop ps to offset the osmotic pressure Sources: http://encarta. Please also see: Courtesy of Dennis Freeman. water will diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane into a solution. Used with permission.msn.tedankara. to achieve equilibrium Osmosis equilibrium.gif Osmosis.encarta.Image removed due to copyright restrictions Please see: http://library. Martha Gray.k12.

. the direction of osmotic flow can be reversed. Inc.sciencedirect. In this way solvent can be driven through the membrane.Courtesy of Elsevier. http://www.. Used with permission. 2007 46 . If pressure is applied to the solution. Source: Fritzmann et al. purifying

L'Aquila. and M. Used with permission. Balaban. .2007 Figures from Wilf..Source: Sommariva. Italy: European Desalination Society. Membrane Desalination and Membrane Filtration. M. 2007.

M.. L'Aquila. 2007. Italy: European Desalination Society. Used with permission. and M. .First stage has 32 pressure vessels.2007) Figures from Wilf. Balaban. second stage has 14 (Wilf & Balaban . Membrane Desalination and Membrane Filtration.

2007 . Used with permission. and a diluate and concentrate cell form a cell pair Strathmann. ions are removed from a feed solution and concentrated in alternating cells a cation and an anion-exchange membrane.CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS The process principle + Courtesy of Heiner Strathmann.

CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS The electrodialysis stack Courtesy of Heiner Strathmann. Used with permission. an electrodialysis stack is composed of 100 to 400 cell pairs between electrode 50 compartments Strathmann. 2007 .

CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS Water desalination costs cost 10.0 [€] ion-exchange electrodialysis reverse osmosis Process principles of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis + + + + + . Used with permission.1 1 brackish t water 10 sea water 100 - p H2O .+ + + + + + H2O + + +  distillation 1.1 surface water t 0.+ feed water cncentration [g/L] electrodialysis reverse osmosis costs estimated for a required product concentration of < 0.2 g/L (200 ppm) irreversibl ible energy l loss proportional to ion transport (Eirr = zi F Ci U V) irreversible i ibl energy l loss proportional to water transport ( Eirr = p Vwater) Strathmann. .0 0. 2007 Courtesy of Heiner Strathmann.

Solar Distillation Sun radiation Optimally bad? Product Brine Schematic of simple solar still.obvious improvements… …multiple glazing to control IR and convective loss… Sheet-and-tube solar collector. Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Solar radiation 2nd cover 1st cover Absorber plate Tube Bond Insulation Water vapor Feed seawater ~ 1 L/m2-day Reflection . 52 Refs: Ettouney & Rizzuti. 2006 . 2006.. Duffie & Beckman. Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Humidification‐ Dehumidification Desalination (HDH) Air heating. open cycle Preheated seawater Humidifier Warm humid air i Dehumidifier Condensate Dry y air in Solar Collector Brine out Cold seawater in Air out 53 .

See www. Used with permission. Nov. 2007 Courtesy of Franz Trieb and DLR.dlr. th hen mak ke el water from waste heat or electricity …theoretical performance can be ~100X 100X better than solar still Ref: Trieb et ..Concepts from concentrating solar power can be applied to solar distillation…generate lectri ici ity.

environmental impact • Reliability. Fouling from bacteria and other deposits – Degradation of membranes – Corrosion of hardware • Disposal of brine efflux.… di ib i 55 .Major concerns in desalination systems • Cost: hardware. . R li bili distribution. from precipitation of salts (has a controlling influence on design of thermal systems) – Fouling. site development p • Cost: energy consumption • Cost: maintenance – Scaling.

Figures from Wilf. Balaban. Membrane Desalination and Membrane Filtration. L'Aquila..2007 . Source: Sommariva. Italy: European Desalination Society. and M. Used with permission. M. 2007.

63 $0.58 $0.S.25 $1.Prices for consumers in office sp paces occupy pying g 4180 m2 of city space and using 10.A.23 $1.76 $0.000 m3/y Country Germany Denmark Belgium Netherlands France United Kingdom Italy Finland Ireland Sweden Spain U.18 $0.64 $1.69 $0. $/M3 $1.50 $0. Australia South Africa Canada Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.91 $1.54 $1.57 $0.40 57 .47 $0.51 $0.

term project (35%) (35%). class participation (10%)  Listeners must register as listeners 58 .Some notes on 2 2. March 13  Final project presentations on Tuesday May 12  GRADING  Approximately: homework (55%) (55%).  Visit GE Ionics in Watertown on Friday.500 500 this semester  Term project j on purify ying g villag ge well water in Haiti (will be introduced in March)  Visit Koch Membrane Systems in Wilmington on Tuesday March 10 Tuesday.

UNESCO 2003 (skim) Section on Water Quality from Reynolds & Richards. Unit Operations…. UNESCO. 60-71. all on Course Web s site  Michael Specter. W t for Water f People. P l Water W t for f Life Lif . The Last Drop. pp.Readings to accompany this lecture. The New Yorker.1995 EPA Primary y Drinking g Water Standards Peruse the other general articles on water if you are interested… 59 .     23 October 2006.

T. 8. J. .D. i l 1997. 14. S. Richards. 3rd edition. H. 5. “Science and Technology for Sustainable Well‐Being. Twort. 2006.D. Sommariva. Dr. Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination. German Aerospace Center (DLR). UNESCO T. Geneva: World Health Organization.J. 16. Melin.A. Unit Operations and Processes in Environmental nvironmental Engineering ngineering. Al‐Ghamdi. United Nations World Water Development Report. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers/CRC. Water quality results obtained from web sites of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. Saline Water Conversion Corporation: Challenge.” Science.. developments lecture notes. Short Course Notes on Reverse Osmosis Desalination. T. Lecture notes. 216 (2007) 1‐76. Balaban. Nov. Reynolds and P.References 1.P. 18. 9. Brandt. The Guidebook to Membrane Desalination Technology. T.. Gardener‐Outlaw.htm J. 4. 5th ed. 12. Rathnayaka.E. Maps and Graphics Library. European Desalination Society intensive course notes. 1998. 2003.C. C. Italy. 7. A. Richards. L’Aquila. 2007. and the Poland Spring Water Company. Chemistry of Water Treatment. “State‐of‐the‐art reverse osmosis desalination. Achievement. Reynolds T. R. 2nd ed. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). February 2007. Wintgens. Seawater Salinity Graphic from Texas A&M University Physical Oceanographic Course Web site.unesco. 2007. 10. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. Water for Life.tamu.M. http://photobank. 18 19. Desalination. “Review of water resources and desalination technologies. 13. H Strathmann. 60 . 1997 J. Washington DC: P Populati l ion A Action i International.. L’Aquila Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications.D. Easing Scarcity: A Second Update. Sustaining Water. Boston: PWS Publishing Co. Albuquerque: Sandia National Laboratory. http://oceanworld. 319 (25 Jan 2008) 424‐434. 76 M. Miller. the Cambridge City Water Department. Water for People. Wilf. and M. C. Lowenberg. M. Franz Trieb et al. Wilf and M. 15.grida. Institute of Technical Thermodynamics. 17. 6. 2. 1995. 11. D. 2007. IWA Publishing. 2nd ed. Water Supply. Membrane Desalination and Membrane Water Filtration.htm M.” Sandi report SAND‐2003‐0800. Holdren. Aly. 2003. WHO Guidelines for drinking‐water quality. and Future Prospective. Engelman. April 2006. http://maps. Faust and O. Strathmann Electromembrane processes: State‐of‐the‐art processes and recent developments. 3.